EVI Indicators

Methodology

Data Sources

Rationale & Definition

Share of population living in drylands

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  1. Drylands are particularly vulnerable to climate change and other shocks (desertification, land degradation, drought, wildfires, heat stress). Dryland expansion is expected to continue due to global warming, threatening to aggravate poverty as well as food and water insecurity in affected areas
  2. Defined as the percentage of population that lives in drylands, defined by long term averages of the ratio of precipitation to potential evapotranspiration (known as aridity index)
  1. Calculated by dividing the number of people living in arid, semi-arid and dry subhumid lands (i.e., areas with an aridity index between 0.05 and 0.65) by the total population of the country
  1. Calculated by the CDP Secretariat based on climate data obtained from University of East Anglia Climatic Research Unit and spatial population data obtained from Center for International Earth Science Information Network at Columbia University
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Instability of agricultural production

Victims of disasters

Instability of exports of goods and services

Share of population in low elevated coastal zones

Share of agriculture, forestry and fishing in GDP

Merchandise export concentration

Remoteness and landlockedness

Share of population living in drylands

Methodology

Data Sources

Rationale & Definition

Remoteness and landlockedness

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  1. Remoteness and landlockedness inhibit trade and growth by increasing transportation costs and limiting the possibilities for economic diversification
  2. Defined as a trade-weighted average of a country's distance from world markets
  1. Calculated as the weighted average distance from the nearest trading partners with a cumulative share in world trade of 50 per cent, with market shares as weights and adjusted for landlockedness
  1. Calculated by the CDP Secretariat based on data on bilateral distances between the capitals or major cities in the world, obtained from the Centre d'Etudes Prospectives et d'Informations Internationales (CEPII) and world market shares based on exports and imports of goods and services reported annually by the United Nations Statistics Division in its National Accounts Main Aggregates database
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Instability of agricultural production

Victims of natural disasters

Instability of exports of goods and services

Share of population in low elevated coastal zones

Share of agriculture, forestry and fishing in GDP

Merchandise export concentration

Remoteness and landlockedness

Share of population living in drylands

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Methodology

Data Sources

Rationale & Definition

Merchandise export concentration

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  1. Provides information on the exposure to trade shocks resulting from a concentrated export structure
  2. Measures the product concentration of a country's exports
  1. Expressed as a Herfindahl-Hirschman index, that is the square root of the sum of the squared shares of each commodity (at the three-digit SITC product category) in total exports and normalized so that it can vary between 0 and 1 (in case only one good is exported)
  1. Reported regularly by the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) in its UNCTADstat database
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Instability of agricultural production

Victims of disasters

Instability of exports of goods and services

Share of population in low elevated coastal zones

Share of agriculture, forestry and fishing in GDP

Merchandise export concentration

Remoteness and landlockedness

Share of population living in drylands

Methodology

Data Sources

Rationale & Definition

Share of agriculture, forestry
& fishing in GDP

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  1. Provides information on countries' exposure to shocks caused by their economic structure. Agriculture, hunting, forestry and fishing are particularly subject to natural and economic shocks
  2. Defined as the percentage share of the agriculture, hunting, forestry and fishing sectors (categories A+B in ISIC Rev. 3.1) in the gross value added of a country
  1. Calculated by dividing the value added of agriculture, hunting, forestry and fishing by the total gross value added of all sectors of the economy
  1. Reported annually by the United Nations Statistics Division in its National Accounts Main Aggregates Database
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Instability of agricultural production

Victims of disasters

Instability of exports of goods and services

Share of population in low elevated coastal zones

Share of agriculture, forestry and fishing in GDP

Merchandise export concentration

Remoteness and landlockedness

Share of population living in drylands

Methodology

Data Sources

Rationale & Definition

Share of population in
low elevated coastal zones

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  1. Provides information on countries' vulnerability to coastal impacts (including sea level rise and storm surges) associated with climate change
  2. Measures the share of the population in a country that lives in low elevated coastal zones, defined as areas contiguous to the coast below a certain elevation threshold (currently 5 metres)
  1. Calculated by dividing the number of people living in areas contiguous to the coast with an elevation of less than five metres by the total population of the country
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Instability of agricultural production

Victims of disasters

Instability of exports of goods and services

Share of population in low elevated coastal zones

Share of agriculture, forestry and fishing in GDP

Merchandise export concentration

Remoteness and landlockedness

Share of population living in drylands

Methodology

Data Sources

Rationale & Definition

Instability of exports of goods and services

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  1. Highly variable export earnings cause fluctuations in production, employment and the availability of foreign exchange, with negative consequences for sustainable economic growth and development
  2. Defined as the standard deviation of the difference between the value of annual export earnings and its 20-year trend
  1. Calculated by estimating the trend of export earnings by a mixed-trend linear regression and using the standard deviation of the differences between trend and actual values, weighted with the latest three‐year trade dependency (the ratio of exports plus imports to GDP), as measure of instability
  1. Calculated by the CDP secretariat based on data reported annually by the United Nations Statistics Division in its National Accounts Main Aggregates Database
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Instability of agricultural production

Victims of disasters

Instability of exports of goods and services

Share of population in low elevated coastal zones

Share of agriculture, forestry and fishing in GDP

Merchandise export concentration

Remoteness and landlockedness

Share of population living in drylands

Methodology

Data Sources

Rationale & Definition

Victims of disasters

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  1. Provides information on a country’s vulnerability to natural shocks, in particular the human impact of disasters associated with these shocks
  2. Measures the share of population who are victims of disasters, defined as people killed are affected (i.e. requiring immediate food, water, shelter sanitation or medical assistance)
  1. Calculated by dividing the annual number of victims by the total population of the country over a period of 20 years and then taking the simple average
  1. Calculated by the CDP secretariat on the basis of data on the total population from UNPD in its World Population Prospects database, and data on people killed and on people affected from the Emergency Disasters Database (EM-DAT) of the WHO Collaborating Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters (CRED)
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Instability of agricultural production

Victims of disasters

Instability of exports of goods and services

Share of population in low elevated coastal zones

Share of agriculture, forestry and fishing in GDP

Merchandise export concentration

Remoteness and landlockedness

Share of population living in drylands

Methodology

Data Sources

Rationale & Definition

Instability of agricultural production

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  1. Highly variable agricultural production is indicative of high vulnerability to natural shocks and often reflects the impacts of natural shocks, including droughts and disturbances in rainfall patterns
  2. Defined as the standard deviation of the difference between agricultural production and its 20-year trend
  1. Calculated by estimating the trend of agricultural production by a mixed-trend linear regression and using the standard deviation of the differences between trend and actual values as a measure of instability
  1. Calculated by the CDP secretariat based on data reported annually by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) in its FAOSTAT database
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Instability of agricultural production

Victims of disasters

Instability of exports of goods and services

Share of population in low elevated coastal zones

Share of agriculture, forestry and fishing in GDP

Merchandise export concentration

Remoteness and landlockedness

Share of population living in drylands

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