ESTABLISHMENT OF A NUCLEAR-WEAPON-FREE ZONE IN THE REGION OF

THE MIDDLE EAST

Report of the Secretary-General

CONTENTS

Page

I.

INTRODUCTION

2

II.

REPLIES RECEIVED FROM GOVERNMENTS

3

Iraq

Oman

Syrian Arab Republic

3

5

6

____________

* A/45/150 and Corr.1.


I. INTRODUCTION

1. On 15 December 1989, the General Assembly adopted resolution 44/108 entitled "Establishment of a nuclear-weapon-free zone in the region of the Middle East", the operative part of which reads as follows:

"The General Assembly,

"

"1. Urges all parties directly concerned to consider seriously taking the practical and urgent steps required for the implementation of the proposal to establish a nuclear-weapon-free zone in the region of the Middle East in accordance with the relevant resolutions of the General Assembly and, as a means of promoting this objective, invites the countries concerned to adhere to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons;

"2. Calls upon all countries of the region that have not done so, pending the establishment of the zone, to agree to place all, their nuclear activities under International Atomic Energy Agency safeguards;

"3. Takes note of the request made by the General Conference of the International Atomic Energy Agency to its Director General in resolution GC(XXXIII)/RES/506 'to consult with the States concerned in the Middle East area with a view to applying Agency safeguards to all nuclear installations in the area, keeping in mind the relevant recommendations contained in paragraph 75 of the report attached to document GC(XXXIII)/887 and the situation in the area of the Middle East, and to report on the matter to the Board of Governors and to the General Conference at its thirty-fourth regular session';

"4. Invites all countries of the region, pending the establishment of a nuclear-weapon-free zone in the region of the Middle East, to declare their support for establishing such a zone, consistent with paragraph 63 (d) of the Final Document of the Tenth Special Session of the General Assembly, and to deposit those declarations with the Security Council;

"5. Also invites those countries, pending the establishment of the zone, not to develop, produce, test or otherwise acquire nuclear weapons or permit the stationing on their territories, or territories under their control, of nuclear weapons or nuclear explosive devices;

"6. Invites the nuclear-weapon States and all other States to render their assistance in the establishment of the zone and at the same time to refrain from any action that runs counter to both the letter and the spirit of the present resolution;

"7. Extends its thanks to the Secretary-General for his report containing the views of parties concerned regarding the establishment of a nuclear-weapon-free zone in the region of the Middle East;

"8. Takes note of the above-mentioned report;

"9. Requests parties of the region to submit to the Secretary-General their views and suggestions with respect to the measures called for in paragraph 8 of resolution 43/65;

"10. Requests the Secretary-General to submit to the General Assembly at its forty-fifth session a progress report on the implementation of the present resolution;

"11. Decides to include in the provisional agenda of its forty-fifth session the item entitled 'Establishment of a nuclear-weapon-free zone in the region of the Middle East'."

2. Pursuant to paragraph 9 of the resolution, the Secretary-General, in a note verbale dated 16 February 1990, requested parties of the region to submit their views and suggestions with respect to measures called for in paragraph 8 of resolution 43/65. To date, the Secretary-General has received replies from Iraq, Oman and the Syrian Arab Republic, which are reproduced in section II of the present report. Any further replies will be issued as an addendum to the present report.

3. Pursuant to paragraph 10 of the resolution, the Secretary-General submits the present report on the implementation of the resolution.

II.  REPLIES RECEIVED FROM GOVERNMENTS

IRAQ

[Original:  Arabic]

[30 January 1990]

1. The establishment of nuclear-weapon-free zones helps to promote efforts towards nuclear disarmament, besides enhancing the security of the countries concerned and bringing us closer to attaining the predominant objective of achieving and maintaining international peace and security.

2. In accordance with its belief in this principle, Iraq has endorsed and participated in efforts to establish nuclear-weapon-free zones in various geographical regions, including our region of the Middle East, where points of tension give rise to dangers whose consequences are difficult to predict.

3. The establishment of a nuclear-weapon-free zone in the Middle East is neither a far-fetched suggestion nor a complicated puzzle. United Nations resolutions on this subject have affirmed that account must be taken of the circumstances and characteristics of the regions concerned when establishing such zones.

4. In this respect, the circumstances and characteristics of the Middle East region are as follows:

(a) The fundamental reason for the tension in the region is Israel's policy of aggression against the region's States. Israel is also the only party which continues openly to pursue a policy of attacking and destroying nuclear installations designed for peaceful purposes when it alone judges that they pose a supposed danger to its security. The year 1989 saw a substantial escalation of further statements from Israeli officials in a campaign directed against the Iraqi nuclear program, unequivocally demonstrating Israel's continued determination to attack Iraqi nuclear installations. Iraq warned the international community of the dangers inherent in the continuation of this aggressive policy in a statement delivered by the official spokesman of the Iraqi Ministry of Foreign Affairs on 5 April 1989, which was published in International Atomic Energy Agency document INFCIRC/362 of 14 April 1989.

(b) Israel is the only party in the region which possesses nuclear weapons and continues to develop such weapons and their delivery systems.

(c) Israel is the only party in the region which has not acceded to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (if we exclude certain countries which have no nuclear facilities at all). It is also the only party which refuses to place its nuclear facilities under the entire safeguards regime of the International Atomic Energy Agency, despite the unanimous adoption by the Security Council of its resolution 487 (1981), which calls upon Israel to place its nuclear facilities under that régime.

(d) Israel not only possesses military nuclear capabilities and delivery systems but is also helping other countries to acquire such capabilities and delivery systems. It is involved in active co-operation with the racist South African régime in this regard, as noted in recent international reports, and particularly in those originating in the United States. These provide clear and certain evidence of Israel's dangerous endeavors to assist in the proliferation of nuclear weapons to other regions of the world and to increase tension and instability.

(e) Israel is the only party in the region to be linked by a strategic alliance to a nuclear Power.

5. Given these circumstances and characteristics, we believe that any effort to establish a nuclear-weapon-free zone in the Middle East must be preceded by basic steps on the part of Israel, including the initiation of its nuclear disarmament, its accession to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons and the placing of its nuclear facilities under the entire safeguards régime of the International Atomic Energy Agency.

6. The steps referred to in paragraph 5 constitute an essential preliminary process which could help to reduce tension in the region and permit consideration of the following further steps:

(a) The parties concerned in the region should declare their support for establishing the nuclear-weapon-free zone, immediately desist from any measures which are incompatible with the objective underlying the zone's establishment and deposit their declarations with the Security Council.

(b) The nations of the region should refrain from concluding any treaties or agreements with any other party which would allow them to use existing or stockpiled nuclear weapons, or weapons obtained from a source outside the region, or to threaten to use such weapons.

(c) The nations of the region should declare their commitment not to attack such nuclear facilities – designed for peaceful purposes and subject to international control – as may exist in countries of the region, regardless of whether the attack is carried out with nuclear or conventional weapons or by means of deliberate sabotage operations.

(d) Nuclear Powers outside the region should deposit declarations with the Security Council to the effect that they will not take any measures inconsistent with the establishment of the zone and provide the Secretary-General of the United Nations with a list of the nuclear materials and devices which they have exported to States parties in the Middle East region.

OMAN

[Original:  Arabic]

[23 April 1990]

1. Oman expresses its gratitude to the Secretary-General for his progress report containing the views of various concerned parties in the region with regard to the establishment of a nuclear-weapon-free zone in the region of the Middle East, as

well as for the information to the effect that he has appointed a number of consultant experts to assist him in undertaking a study on effective and verifiable measures that would facilitate the establishment of a nuclear-weapon-free zone in the Middle East, taking into account the circumstances and characteristics of the region, as well as the views and suggestions of parties in the region. It also looks forward to the report to be submitted by the Secretary-General to the General Assembly at its forty-fifth session on the implementation of the General Assembly resolution and, in particular, to the views and recommendations of the consultant experts appointed by him.

2. In this regard, the Government of Oman wishes to draw the Secretary-General's attention to its reply in connection with General Assembly resolution 42/28 of 30 November 1987 on the establishment of a nuclear-weapon-free zone in the region of the Middle East, as included in the report of the Secretary-General (document A/43/484) dated 27 July 1988.

3. In accordance with that reply, Oman believes that the unanimous adoption by the General Assembly of resolution 43/65 of 7 December 1988 reflects the determination of the international community to establish a nuclear-weapon-free zone in the Middle East region and that, in order for this unanimous vote to constitute a genuine and true expression of the views of the international community, all States – and particularly the States concerned – must proceed to take the following steps:

All parties directly concerned should take the practical and urgent steps required for the implementation of the proposal to establish a nuclear-weapon-free zone in the region in accordance with the relevant resolutions of the General Assembly. The countries concerned, meaning those engaged in nuclear programs and activities, should, as a means of promoting this objective, adhere to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons.

Those countries of the region – and particularly those engaged in nuclear programs and activities – which have not yet done so should, pending the establishment of the zone, declare their readiness to place all their nuclear activities and facilities under International Atomic Energy Agency safeguards.

The countries of the region – and particularly those engaged in nuclear programs and activities – should declare their unequivocal support for establishing such a zone, consistent with paragraph 63 (d) of the Final Document of the Tenth Special Session of the General Assembly, and deposit those declarations with the Security Council.

The countries of the region – and particularly those engaged in nuclear programs and activities – should not develop, produce, test or otherwise acquire nuclear weapons or import or permit the stationing on their territories, or territories under their control, of nuclear weapons or nuclear explosive devices.

The nuclear-weapon States and all other States should render their assistance in the establishment of the zone and at the same time refrain from any action that runs counter to both the letter and the spirit of General Assembly resolution 43/65, which was adopted unanimously.

SYRIAN ARAB REPUBLIC

[Original:  Arabic]

[5 June 1990]

The Permanent Representative of the Syrian Arab Republic to the United Nations presents his compliments to the Secretary-General and has the honor to inform him, with reference to the Secretary-General's note No. 90-NWFZME of 16 February 1990, that the position of the Syrian Government with respect to the establishment of a nuclear-weapon-free zone in the region of the Middle East remains as expressed in document A/44/430/Add.1, dated 12 October 1989.

The Permanent Representative of the Syrian Arab Republic to the United Nations takes this opportunity to convey to the Secretary-General the assurances of his highest consideration.

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Document symbol: A/45/388
Document Type: Report
Document Sources: General Assembly
Subject: Agenda Item, Arms control and regional security issues
Publication Date: 20/08/1990