Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination

against Women

 

 

 

    Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 18 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women

  

  

    Third periodic reports of States parties

 

 

   Israel *

 

 

*   The present document is being issued without formal editing.

    For the initial and second periodic reports submitted by the Government of Israel, see CEDAW/C/ISR/1-2, which was considered by the Committee at its seventeenth session.


Contents

 

 

 

Page

    Introduction  

2 

    ARTICLE 1. Definition of Discrimination Against Women  

11 

  1.  The Constitutional Level  

11

 2.   Equal Rights Legislation  

11

 3.   Judicial Development of the Right to Equality  

13 

  4.   The Elimination of Discrimination in the Private Sphere  

13 

    ARTICLE 2. Obligations to Eliminate Discrimination  

14 

  1.  Legal Provisions  

14

  2.   Legal Recourse Available for the Pursuit of Women’s Rights  

14

  3.   Governmental Machineries, Mechanisms and Measures Established to Promote the Status    of Women   

15

   3.1.   Investigative and Study Initiatives by the Government  

15 

    3.2.   Mechanisms Implemented for the Improvement of the Status of Women   

16

     3.2.1.  The Authority for the Advancement of Women in Israel  

16

      3.2.2.   The Knesset Committee for the Advancement of the Status of Women   

17

   3.3   Governmental Performance in the Civil Service  

18 

    3.4   Mechanisms for the Advancement of Women in Specific Government Ministries  

20

   3.5   Measures Taken on the Municipal Level  

20

    ARTICLE 3. The Development and Advancement of Women  

21 

    ARTICLE 4. Acceleration of Equality Between Men and Women  

22 

  1.  Affirmative Action   

22

   1.1.   Expanding Affirmative Action to Public Institutions  

22 

    1.2.   Affirmative Action in the Civil Service  

23

   1.3.   Affirmative Action in Governmental Corporations  

23 

    1.4.   Affirmative Action in Public Corporations  

24

   1.5.   Affirmative Action in Other Areas  

24

 2.   Special Measures Aimed at Protecting Maternity  

25 

    ARTICLE 5. Sex Roles and Stereotyping  

26

 1.  Introduction  

26

 2.   Women and Media in Israel: Ranks and Positions  

26 

  3.  Pornography  

27

  4.  Women and Religion in Israel  

28

   4.1.   “Women of the Wall”  

28

 5.   Violence Against Women  

29

   5.1.   Sexual Violence — Legal Aspects  

29

     5.1.1.  Prevention of Sexual Harassment  

31

     5.1.2    Rape Law  

31

     5.1.3.  Victims of Offences’ Rights Law — 2001  

31 

      5.1.4.  Stalking  

31

      5.1.5.   Minimum Punishments and Protection of Witnesses  

32 

    5.2.   Family Gender-Based Violence — Legal Aspects  

32 

      5.2.1.   Recent Amendments to the Prevention of Violence in the Family Law – 1991  

32

     5.2.2.  Other Legislative Developments  

33

     5.2.3.  The Inter-Ministerial Committee for Treatment of Domestic Violence  

34

   5.3.   Extent of the Phenomenon of Sexual Violence Against Women  

35 

      5.3.1.   The JDC-Brookdale Institute Survey  

35

     5.3.2.  The Sexual Assault Help Centers Data  

35

     5.3.3.  Police Handling of Sex Crimes Against Women  

38 

      5.3.4.   Prosecutorial Policy Regarding Sexual Violence Against Women  

39

      5.3.5.  Sentencing for Sex Crimes  

39

     5.3.6.  Funding of the Help Centers  

39

   5.4.   Extent of the Phenomenon of Domestic Violence  

40 

      5.4.1.   The JDC-Brookdale Institute Survey  

40

     5.4.2.  Police Handling of Domestic Violence  

42

     5.4.3.  Statistical Data on Current Police Practices Regarding the Handling of          Domestic Violence Cases  

46

     5.4.4.  Sentencing for Domestic Violence  

47

     5.4.5.  Centers for the Treatment and Prevention of Domestic Violence   

48

     5.4.6.  “Noam Home”  

48

     5.4.7.  Shelters for Battered Women  

49

     5.4.8.  Hotlines  

50

     5.4.9.  Violence Against Women within the Arab Community  

50 

    ARTICLE 6. Suppression of the Exploitation of Women  

52 

  1.  General  

52 

  2.  The Legal Framework   

52

 3.   Evaluation of the Actual Situation  

53

 4.   Involvement of Minors in Prostitution  

56

 5.   Rehabilitation Programs for Women and Girls in Distress  

57 

    ARTICLE 7. Political and Public Life  

58

 1.   Women in Political Life in Israel  

58

 2.   Women’s Representation in the Knesset  

58

   2.1.   Women as Knesset Members  

59

 3.   Women in Government  

60

 4.   Women in Local Authorities  

60

 5.   Women in the Civil Service  

61

   5.1.   Ranks of Women in the Civil Service  

61

   5.2.   Tenders in the Civil Service  

62

 6.   Women in Key Positions within Israel’s Economy and Public Life   

62

 7.   The Judiciary  

62

 8.   Government Corporations  

63

 9.   Women in the Military  

64

   9.1.   The Legal Framework  

64

     9.1.1.  Implementation of the Miller Case within the Air Force and Beyond  

64

   9.2.   Women and Men in the Military — Some Data  

66

     9.2.1.  Women and Men Officers    

66

     9.2.2.  Distribution of Men and Women among Jobs in the Military  

67

      9.2.3.   Women Scientists and Engineers in the I.D.F.  

67

     9.2.4.  Exemptions from the Military  

68

   9.3.   The Chen — Women’s Corps  

69

   9.4.   Sexual Harassment in the Army  

70

 10.   Women in the Police  

71

   10.1.   The Legal Framework  

71

   10.2.   Women in the Police — Field Data  

72

   10.3.   Women in the Border Police  

74

   10.4.   Sexual Harassment within the Police Force  

74

    ARTICLE 8. International Representation and Participation     

76

 1.   Women’s Representation in the Foreign Service  

78 

  2.   Women Representatives and Independent Experts in International Organizations  

78

    ARTICLE 9. Nationality  

79

    ARTICLE 10. Education  

80

 1.   Legal Developments  

80

 2.   Illiteracy Rates and Educational Levels  

80

 3.   High Schools in Israel  

81

   3.1.   General and Technological/Vocational Tracking  

81 

    3.2.  Matriculation Levels   

82

   3.3.   Education Rates, Attendance Rates and Drop-Out Rates  

84 

  4.   Activities and Educational Programs Adopted by the Ministry of Education in order     to Prevent Discrimination  

86

   4.1.   Gender Stereotypes within School Books  

86

   4.2.   Other Instructions and Intervention Programs of the Ministry of Education which       Aim to Prevent Discrimination  

86

 5.   Sex Education and Education on Family Life  

87

 6.   The State Religious Education  

88

 7.  Teachers  

88

   7.1.   Teaching as a Feminine Profession  

88

   7.2.   Teachers’ Salaries  

89

   7.3.   Administrative Positions  

91

   7.4.   Teachers Training Colleges  

92

 8.   Physical Education and Sports  

92

 9.   Higher Education  

95

   9.1.   Women as Students  

95

   9.2.   Minorities in Higher Education  

98

   9.3.   Women on the Academic Staff  

99

     9.3.1.  General Data  

99

     9.3.2.  Arab-Israeli Women in the Academic Staff  

102 

  10.   Science and Technology Education for Women  

102

 11.   The Girl-Child  

103

   11.1.   The Adolescents and the Different Societal Systems  

103 

      11.1.1.  The Family  

104

      11.1.2.  The School Environment    

104

     11.1.3.  The Peer Group  

105

   11.2.   Health Risk Behaviors and Leisure Activities  

105

     11.2.1.  Nutrition, Eating Habits and Physical Activity  

105 

      11.2.2.  Smoking     

106

     11.2.3.  Alcohol Use  

106

     11.2.4.  Drug Use    

106

     11.2.5.  Sexual Behavior Among High School Students  

106 

    11.3.  Physical and Mental Health    

107 

      11.3.1.   General Feeling and Body Image  

107

     11.3.2.  Physical and Psychological Symptoms  

108

     11.3.3.  Consumption of Medications  

108

   11.4.   Injuries, Violence and Suicide  

108

     11.4.1.  Injuries  

108

     11.4.2.  Violence  

109

     11.4.3.  Suicide  

109

    ARTICLE 11. Employment  

110

 1.   Protection from Discrimination within the Workplace  

110 

  2.   Women’s Health and Employment  

112

 3.   Pregnancy and Maternity Leave  

113

 4.  Parenthood  

114

 5.   Affirmative Action  

115

 6.   Social Security Benefits    

115

 7.   Employment of Women — Data and Analysis  

116

   7.1.   Women in the Labour Market  

116

     7.1.1.  Women’s Participation in the Workforce    

116 

    7.2.  Work Patterns     

119

   7.3.   Unemployment  

122

   7.4.   The Careers of Women: Levels and Salaries  

123

     7.4.1.  Women’s Occupational Distribution and Gender Segregation   

123

     7.4.2.  The Glass Ceiling Phenomenon    

126

     7.4.3.  Salary and Earning Gaps  

127

 8.  Time Use  

130

 9.   Vocational and Professional Training for Women  

132 

  10.  Child-care  

133

  11.   Enforcement of Employment Legislation  

134

   11.1.   The Department of Supervision of Labor Laws of the Ministry of Labor and Welfare  

134

   11.2.   The Department of Labor Law Enforcement  

135

 12.   Women’s Employment among the Arab Population in Israel  

135 

    ARTICLE 12. Equality in Access to Health Care  

137 

  1.  Introduction  

137

  2.  Equality in Health Care   

138

 3.   Special Health Services for Women  

139

   3.1.   Pre/Post-Natal Services: Delivery Rooms and Maternity Wards  

139

    3.2.   Geriatric Services   

139

 4.   Family Planning among Israeli Women  

141

   4.1.   Legal Abortions  

141

   4.2.   Abortion Rates  

141

 5.   Fertility Rates, Treatments, and Services  

144

   5.1.   Birth Rates and Fertility Rates  

144

   5.2.   Fertility Treatments and Services  

146

 6.   Life Expectancy  

147

 7.   Mortality Rates and Causes of Death  

147

   7.1.   Infant Mortality Rates  

147

   7.2.   Maternal Mortality Rates  

148

    7.3.   Causes of Death  

149

   7.4.   Breast Cancer and Mammograms  

149

 8.   Hospitalization  

149

    8.1.   General  

149

   8.2.   Mental Health and Psychiatric Hospitalization  

150 

  9.   Risk Behaviors as Health Factors  

150

    9.1.   Smoking  

150

    9.2.   Eating Disorders  

151

   9.3.   Violence as a Health Factor  

151

 10.  AIDS   

153

 11.   Women in Health Care  

153

   11.1.   Women in Medical Schools  

153

   11.2.   Women as Medical Personnel  

154

   11.3.   Senior Positions for Women in the Health System  

154 

  12.  Arab Women’s Health   

155

   12.1.   The Relationship with the Doctor Providing Treatment, Access to Services and         Health Awareness  

155

   12.2.   Mammograms in the Arab Sector  

156

   12.3.   Other Health Data  

157

    ARTICLE 13. Social and Economic Benefits  

158

 1.   Social Benefits and the Welfare State in Israel  

158 

    1.1.  Social Benefits   

158

     1.1.1.  Maternity Insurance    

159

     1.1.2.  Old Age and Survivors’ (Widows’) Benefits  

160 

      1.1.3.  Disability Insurance    

160

     1.1.4.  Unemployment Benefits  

160

     1.1.5.  Children’s Allowances  

160

     1.1.6.  Alimony Payments  

160

   1.2.   Poverty of Women  

161

     1.2.1.  Single-Parent Families  

161

     1.2.2.  Poverty among the Elderly  

163

    ARTICLE 14. Rural Women  

164

 1.   Bedouin Women  

164

   1.1.   Education  

164

   1.2.   Employment and Welfare  

166

   1.3.   Health  

167

     1.3.1.  Infant Mortality  

167

     1.3.2.  Other Health Indicators  

167

     1.3.3.  Ritual Female Genital Operations (Female Circumcision)  

168

  2.  Immigrant Women from Ethiopia  

168

   2.1.   Preface  

168

   2.2.   Education  

168

   2.3.   Health Awareness  

169

     2.3.1.  Ritual Female Genital Operations (Female Circumcision)  

170

    2.4.  The Family Unit   

170

   2.5.   Employment  

171

     2.5.1.  Professional Job Training  

171

     2.5.2.  Finding Employment  

172

     2.5.3.  The Effect of the Marital Status on Employment  

172 

      2.5.4.   Professional Ambitions among Ethiopian Youth  

172

 3.   Women with Disabilities  

173

   3.1.   General and Legal Framework  

173

   3.2.   General Economic and Personal Situation  

174

   3.3.   Special Health Concerns of Women with Disabilities  

176 

    3.4.  Employment  

176

    ARTICLE 15. Equality before the Law and in Civil Matters  

178 

    ARTICLE 16. Equality in Marriage and Family Life  

179 

  1.  Introduction  

179

  2.   The Family in Israel: Some Demographic Data  

179

   2.1.   Marriages  

180

   2.2.   Divorces  

181

 3.   Minimum Marital Age  

183

 4.   Same-Sex Couples  

184

 5.   Parents and Children  

185

   5.1.   Child Support  

185

 6.   New Reproductive Technology and Surrogacy  

185

 7.   Personal Status of Arab Women  

186

 


 

 

 Full report: