27 September 1984
Agenda item 67
STRENGTHENING OF SECURITY
AND CO-OPERATION IN THE
Letter dated 21 September 1984 from the Permanent Representative of
Malta to the United Nations addressed to the Secretary-General
On the instructions of my Government, and in accordance with paragraph 21 of the Declaration, I wish to enclose for information the text of the Final Declaration adopted by the Mediterranean members of the Non-Aligned Movement on 11 September 1984, at the close of a meeting held at ministerial level in Valletta, Malta, on 10 and 11 September 1984.
I should be grateful if the text could be reproduced as a document of the General Assembly, under agenda item 67, and of the Security Council.
1. In accordance with the decision taken by the Heads of State or Government of the Non-Aligned Countries meeting in New Delhi in March 1983, and on the invitation of the Government of Malta, the Ministers for Foreign Affairs of the Mediterranean members of the Non-Aligned Movement met in Valletta, Malta, on 10 and 11 September "to concert views, and devise initiatives for co-operation and strengthening security in the Mediterranean region".
2. The Ministers reaffirmed the major importance of the policy of non-alignment as a global factor in international relations. They emphasized the independent, non-bloc and constructive role of the non-aligned movement in international affairs. They maintained that the policy of non-alignment continues to contribute to efforts to promote peace, disarmament, the relaxation of international tensions, the just and peaceful solution of international problems, economic development and co-operation. In this context the Ministers also stressed the basic principles and objectives of the policy of non-alignment, in particular the principles of self-determination, non-interference and non-intervention in the internal affairs of States, the respect for the sovereignty, territorial integrity and political independence of States, the acceleration of the process of self-determination of peoples under colonial and alien domination, peaceful coexistence and the non-use of force, and the need to keep away from power blocs and groupings aligned against one another, the existence of which threatens international and regional peace and security. The Ministers expressed their conviction that such a policy in its entirety is of vital necessity in view of the existing situation in the Mediterranean.
3. The Ministers recalled the creative role that leaders from Mediterranean countries had played in the formation and development of the Non-Aligned Movement. They recognized that the choice and pursuit of the policy of non-alignment in a region that witnessed rigid alignments by a number of States and the tension and confrontation that this entailed was a bold and far-reaching one directly contributing towards enhancing regional security and the affirmation of the sovereign rights of the people of the region to choose their own political, economic and social systems free from all forms of foreign domination or interference. They underlined their firm commitment to persevere in their chosen policies in spite of the difficulties and obstructions which lay in the way.
4. The Ministers noted that the holding in Valletta of the first ever ministerial meeting of non-aligned Mediterranean members is a step of major political significance aimed at strengthening the efforts of the Mediterranean non-aligned countries to transform the Mediterranean into a region of peace, security and co-operation, in conformity with the decisions of the Non-Aligned Movement and the relevant resolutions of the United Nations General Assembly, in particular resolution 38/189 of 20 December 1983.
5. In reviewing the situation in the Mediterranean the Ministers noted with disquiet and concern the growing manifestation of bloc confrontation, the continuous escalation of great Power military presence, the policy of deployment of armaments and weapons of mass destruction, including nuclear-missiles, and the installation of military bases and facilities by countries outside the region that threaten the security of non-aligned Mediterranean countries, and the persistence of focal points of tension and aggression in the region, in particular the aggressive Israeli policy. The Ministers considered that these factors were dangerously transforming the Mediterranean region into a critical area of tension with serious negative implications on international peace and security; they were seriously impeding the process of regional co-operation, they were threatening the exercise of sovereignty and independence by the States of the region, and they were gravely jeopardizing the process of the peaceful settlement of regional, problems.
6. The Ministers recalled that the Middle East problem remained a major threat to regional and international peace and security, due to the persistent Israeli policy of aggression, expansion and occupation. They reaffirmed that the question of Palestine is at the core of the Middle East problem, without the solution of which there can be no just and lasting peace in the region. The Ministers condemned in particular the continuing deprivation of the Arab people of Palestine of their national and inalienable rights, the persistence of the Israeli occupation of Palestinian and other Arab territories, the policy of settlements, the annexation of Jerusalem and the Golan Heights, and the occupation of southern Lebanon by Israeli forces, the inhuman and illegal Israeli practices in Palestine and other occupied Arab territories and the imposition of Israeli legislation on these territories, and the threat to the national security of Syria.
7. The Ministers condemned the continued Israeli occupation of the south of Lebanon and the measures and practices of the Israeli occupation authorities designed to force the population of the south out of the region and to impose their control over the region's resources as a prelude to the annexation of the south.
(a) The Ministers expressed their full support for the Lebanese Government and the struggle of the Lebanese people against occupation and for national reconciliation and the restoration of security and stability in Lebanon;
(b) The Conference highly appreciated the cancellation of the Agreement of 17 May 1983 imposed by the United States of America and Israel on Lebanon and condemned all similar agreements conducive to partial or separate solutions to the Middle East crisis and the Palestine question;
(c) The Conference noted with deep concern that since the signing of the Camp David Accords, Israel had intensified its expansionist and aggressive policy against the Arab nation;
(d) The ministers decided to intensify efforts to bring about the withdrawal of Israeli forces, as the continued Israeli occupation is the main factor obstructing national reconciliation in Lebanon.
8. The Ministers condemned the strategic alliance between Israel and the United States of America and reaffirmed that the alliance strengthened the aggressive role of Israel, which threatens the stability of the countries of the Middle East and the Mediterranean and global peace and security, and encourages Israel to pursue its policy of racism, occupation, annexation and aggression.
9. The Ministers stressed that a just and lasting peace in the Middle East and the solution of the Palestinian question cannot be achieved without the total and unconditional Israeli withdrawal from all Palestinian and other Arab territories occupied since 6 June 1967, and the full exercise of the inalienable rights of the Palestinian people under the leadership of the Palestine Liberation Organization, their sole legitimate representative, including the right of return, self-determination without external interference and the right to national independence and sovereignty, including the right to establish an independent Palestinian State in its homeland, Palestine. To this end they endorsed the Geneva Declaration and the Program of Action adopted at the International Conference on the Question of Palestine held in Geneva from 29 August to 7 September 1983, including the call for the convening of an international peace conference on the Middle East, in conformity with resolution 38/58 C of 13 December 1983 of the United Nations General Assembly, with the participation of the Palestine Liberation Organization as the sole legitimate representative of the Palestinian people on a footing of equality with other parties. As non-aligned States in the region, they renewed their commitment to strive persistently towards a comprehensive, just and peaceful resolution of the Middle East problem on the basis of the decisions and princip1es of the United Nations and the declarations and communiqués of the Non-Aligned Movement.
10. The Ministers reiterated their deep concern at the continuing military occupation in Cyprus and condemned all acts that challenged in any form whatsoever the unity of the Republic of Cyprus. The Ministers reaffirmed the support for the independence, sovereignty, territorial integrity, unity and non-aligned status of the Republic and non-interference in its internal affairs. They called for the withdrawal of all foreign military forces from the Republic of Cyprus. This would contribute to a just and peaceful solution to the question of Cyprus, on the basis of the immediate implementation of the relevant United Nations General Assembly and Security Council resolutions and decisions, and non-aligned declarations and communiqués on the subject. They pledged their full support to the efforts of the United Nations Secretary-General in the solution of the problem and urged him to continue and intensify his current efforts.
11. The Ministers affirmed that the presence of foreign fleets, military bases and facilities to be used for aggression against non-aligned members had serious consequences on the security interests of the Mediterranean members of the Non-Aligned Movement. The Ministers reiterated the important need for non-aligned Mediterranean countries not to be parties to, or take any action that would facilitate great Power confrontation and rivalry or strengthen existing military alliances and interlocking arrangements arising therefrom, particularly through participation in military arrangements or through the provision of military bases and facilities for great Power presence conceived in the context of great Power conflicts. They noted that the process of reversing these negative trends and eliminating the causes, factors and instruments of tension and confrontation in the region call for positive and concerted action by all States in the region.
Non-use of force
12. The Ministers reaffirmed the determination of their countries to seek viable and lasting solutions to outstanding problems among them without resort to force or the threat of force. In further fulfillment of this principle in the region the Ministers called upon the non-Mediterranean and other Mediterranean European State to adhere strictly to the principle of non-use or threat of force and urged them not to use their armaments, forces, bases and military facilities against non-aligned Mediterranean members.
13. The Ministers also considered that the freedom of the high seas in a closed sea like the Mediterranean should be exercised scrupulously and exclusively for the purposes of peace, and that naval deployment, particularly by States outside the region, that directly or indirectly threatened the interests of non-aligned Mediterranean members should be excluded.
(a) The Ministers expressed profound concern at the many provocations by the United States of America that violate the sovereignty of the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya and its territorial integrity and that constitute a threat to international security and peace and a factor hampering the efforts of the non-aligned countries to strengthen peace and co-operation in the Mediterranean region. They expressed their support for the Jamahiriya's efforts to resist the various pressures arising from these provocations.
Security in the Mediterranean
14. The Ministers stressed the relationship between security in the Mediterranean region and international security in general and security in Europe in particular. They emphasized in this context the importance of an effective role of all non-aligned Mediterranean members in the deliberations on security in the Mediterranean. They recalled in this connection that, through the Mediterranean Chapter of the Final Act of Helsinki, the countries participating in the Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe (CSCE) have undertaken to maintain and amplify the dialogue initiated with the non-participating Mediterranean States wit the purpose of contributing to peace, reducing armed forces in the Mediterranean region, strengthening security, lessening tension and widening the scope of co-operation. The Ministers also recalled that the CSCE participating States concluded their review meeting in Madrid by expressing their will to take measures designed to increase Mediterranean regional confidence and security, and stressed their conviction that, for the process begun at the Stockholm Conference on Confidence and Security building Measures and Disarmament in Europe to unfold effectively, adequate measures for the Mediterranean region must be agreed to, through a dialogue on the basis of equality.
15. The Ministers reaffirmed the commitment of their countries to support and strengthen the role of the United Nations for promoting peace, security and co-operation in the Mediterranean region. The Ministers welcomed the unanimous adoption of General Assembly resolution 38/189, which recognizes:
"(a) That the security of the Mediterranean is closely linked with international peace and security;
"(b) That further efforts are necessary for the reduction of tension and of armaments and for the creation of conditions of security and fruitful co-operation in all fields for all countries and peoples of the Mediterranean on the basis of the principles of sovereignty, independence, territorial integrity, security, non-intervention and non-interference, non-violation of international borders, non-use or threat of use of force, the inadmissibility of the acquisition of territory by force, peaceful settlement of disputes and respect for sovereignty over natural resources;
"(c) The need for just and viable solutions of existing problems and crisis in the area, on the basis of the provisions of the Charter and of relevant resolutions of the United Nations, the withdrawal of foreign forces of occupation and the right of peoples under colonial or foreign domination to self-determination and independence".
16. The Ministers emphasized the dangers inherent in the proliferation of nuclear weapons to international peace and security in general and to the Mediterranean region in particular. They stressed that the Israeli nuclear capabilities and the persistent Israeli refusal to adhere to the Non-Proliferation Treaty and to submit its nuclear installations to international control represent a real threat to the security in the region and the obstacle to the establishment of a nuclear-free zone in the Middle East. In this connection, the ministers declare their full support for the establishment of a nuclear-free zone in the Middle East as a concrete measure designed to lessen tension and contribute to security in the Mediterranean region in conformity with the relevant General Assembly resolutions and resolution S-10/2 in particular. The Ministers called upon the United Nations General Assembly and the Secretary-General to invest the necessary efforts and undertake concrete steps to create conditions for the establishment of a nuclear-free zone in the Middle East.
17. The Ministers reaffirmed the support expressed by the Seventh Non-Aligned summit for Malta's assumption of a status of neutrality strictly founded on the principles of non-alignment, as an effective contribution to peace and stability in the region. They considered that Malta's status of neutrality opened up encouraging prospects for further action and undertakings at the bilateral, subregional and regional levels aimed at consolidating and amplifying the process of understanding and reduction of tension in the Mediterranean, thereby creating the conditions for the reversal of the massive military build-up by outside forces in the region.
18. The Ministers expressed profound concern at the persistent international economic crisis, which adversely affects the development process of the Mediterranean non-aligned countries due to its structural nature and the deep disequilibrium that characterizes the prevailing foundations of the world economic system. The Ministers reaffirmed the commitment of their countries to the principle of collective self-reliance among developing countries and to the continuous promotion of the South/South co-operation. In that context the Ministers pointed to the need for further strengthening and enlarging of bilatera1 and multilateral economic co-operation among Mediterranean countries not only in the economic sphere but also in the area of communications, transport, tourism, enhancement and protection of the environment, as a wider part of mutual co-operation among non-aligned and other developing countries.
19. The Ministers reviewed programs of co-operation between non-aligned Mediterranean countries and the European Economic Community. They considered that this co-operation had not yet developed sufficiently to respond to the needs of non-aligned Mediterranean members. They stressed the need for this co-operation to take due account of the legitimate concern of the Non-Aligned Mediterranean members, especially in the sectors of human resources, trade and economic development.
20. The Ministers agreed to take steps to maintain the co-ordination and consultation necessary to ensure the full implementation of the principles contained in the declaration adopted in Valletta. With a view to further implementing the mandate entrusted to them by the Seventh Conference of Heads of State or Government of Non-Aligned Countries meeting in New Delhi, the Ministers decided to meet again in early 1986 and also decided to recommend to the next summit of the non-aligned countries that ministerial meetings of Mediterranean non-aligned members should take place periodically.
(a) The Ministers resolved to take all positive steps to maintain and strengthen the process that they had launched. In particular they agreed to intensify their co-ordination in all United Nations forums and other relevant organizations, in the Non-Aligned Movement and elsewhere. They agreed in particular that their delegations at the United Nations in New York should work closely together at the forthcoming session of the United Nations General Assembly to take the necessary steps aimed at the implementation of the Valletta Declaration.
21. In conclusion, the Ministers decided to entrust Malta, as host country, to inform the Chairman and members of the Non-Aligned Movement and the Secretary-General of the United Nations of the results of the Valletta meeting.
Note by the delegation of Egypt:
Egypt had officially rejected the additional subparagraphs to paragraph 7 of the Valletta Declaration, which were submitted during the last session. The Egyptian delegation made its views clearly known at the session, and objected to the additional above-mentioned subparagraphs, for procedural and substantive reasons.