UNITED NATIONS CONCILIATION COMMISSION FOR PALESTINE
COMMITTEE ON JERUSALEM
FREE TERRITORY OF TRIESTE
The following texts are circulated herewith:
(1) Article 21 of the Treaty of Peace with Italy.
(2) Permanent Statute of the Free Territory of Trieste
(3) Instrument for the Provisional Regime of the Free of Trieste
ARTICLE 21 OF THE TREATY OF PEACE WITH ITALY
1. There is hereby constituted the Free Territory of Trieste, consisting of the area lying between the Adriatic Sea and the boundaries defined in Articles 4 and 22 of the present Treaty. The Free Territory of Trieste is recognized by the Allied and Associated Powers and by Italy, which agree that its integrity and independence shall be assured by the Security Council of the United Nations.
2. Italian sovereignty over: the area constituting the Free Territory of Trieste, as above defined, shall be terminated upon the coming into force of the present Treaty.
3: On the termination of Italian sovereignty, the Free Territory of Trieste shall be governed in accordance with an instrument for a provisional regime drafted by the council of Foreign Ministers and approved by the Security Council. This Instrument shall remain in force until such date as the Security Council shall fix for the coming into force of the Permanent Statute which shall have been approved by it. The Free Territory shall thenceforth be governed by the provisions of such Permanent Statute. The texts of the Permanent Statute and of the Instrument for the Provisional Regime are contained in Annexes VI and VII.
4. The Free Territory of Trieste shall not be considered as ceded territory within the meaning of Article 19 and Annex XIV of the present Treaty.
5. Italy and Yugoslavia undertake to give to the Free Territory of Trieste the guarantees set out in Annex IX.
PERMANENT STATUTE OF THE FREE TERRITORY OF TRIESTE
The area of the Free Territory of Trieste shall be the territory within the frontiers described in Articles 4 and 22 of the present Treaty as delimited in accordance with Article 5 of the Treaty.
Article 2 – Integrity and Independence.
The integrity and independence of the Free Territory shall be assured by the Security Council of the United Nations Organization. This responsibility implies that the Council shall:
(a) ensure the observance of the present Statute and in particular the protection of the basic human rights of the inhabitants.
(b) ensure the maintenance of public order and security in the Free Territory,
Article 3 — Demilitarization and Neutrality
1. The Free Territory shall be demilitarized and declared neutral.
2. No armed forces, except upon direction of the Security Council, shall be allowed in the Free Territory.
3. No para-military formations, exercises or activities shall be permitted within the Free Territory.
4. The Government of the Free Territory shall not make or discuss any military arrangements or undertakings with any State.
Article 4 — Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms
The constitution of the Free Territory shall ensure to all persons under the jurisdiction of the Free Territory, without distinction as to ethnic origin, sex, language or religion, the enjoyment of human rights and of the fundamental freedoms, including freedom of religious worship, language, speech and publication, education, assembly and association. Citizens of the Free Territory shall be assured of equality of eligibility for public office.
Article 5 — Civil and Political Rights
No person who has acquired the citizenship of the Free Territory shall be deprived of his civil or political rights except as judicial punishment for the infraction of the penal laws of the Free Territory.
Article 6 — Citizenship
1. Italian citizens who were domiciled on June 10, 1940, in the area comprised within the boundaries of the Free Territory, and their children born after that date, shall become original citizens of the Free Territory with full civil and political rights. Upon becoming citizens of the Free Territory they shall loose their Italian citizenship.
2. The Government of the Free Territory shall, however, provide that the persons referred to in paragraph 1 over the age of eighteen years (or married persons whether under or over that age) whose customary language is Italian shall be entitled to opt for Italian citizenship within six months of the coming into force of the Constitution under conditions to be laid down therein. Any person so opting shall be considered to have re-acquired Italian citizenship. The option of the husband shall not constitute an option on the part of the wife. Option on the part of the father, or if the father is not alive, on the part of the mother, shall, however, automatically include all unmarried children under the age of eighteen years.
3. The Free Territory may require those who take advantage of the option to move to Italy within a year, from the date on which the option was exercised.
4. The conditions for the acquisition of citizenship by persons not qualifying for original citizenship shall be determined by the Constituent Assembly of the Free Territory and embodied in the Constitution. Such conditions shall, however, exclude the acquisition of citizenship by members of the former Italian Fascist Police (O.V.R.A.) who have not been exonerated by the competent authorities, including the Allied Military Authorities who were responsible for the administration of the area.
Article 7 — Official Languages
The official languages of the Free Territory shall be Italian and Slovene. The Constitution shall determine in what circumstances Croat may be used as a third official language.
Article 8 — Flag and Coat-of-Arms
The Free Territory shall have its own flag and coat-of-arms. The flag shall be the traditional flag of the City of Trieste and the arms shall be its historic coat-of-arms.
Article 9 — Organs of Government
For the government of the Free Territory there shall be a Governor, a Council of Government, a popular Assembly elected by the people of the Free Territory and .a Judiciary, whose respective powers shall be exercised in accordance with the provisions of the present Statute, and of the Constitution of the Free Territory.
Article 10 — Constitution
1. The Constitution of the Free Territory shall be established in accordance with democratic principles and adopted by a Constituent Assembly with a two-thirds majority of the votes cast. The Constitution shall be made to conform to the provisions of the present Statute and shall not enter into force prior to the coming into force of the Statute.
2. If in the opinion of the Governor any provisions of the Constitution proposed by the Constituent Assembly or any subsequent amendments thereto are in contradiction to the Statute he may prevent their entry into force, subject to reference to the Security Council if the Assembly does not accept his views and recommendations.
Article 11 — Appointment of the Governor
1. The Governor shall be appointed by the Security Council after consultation with the Governments of Yugoslavia and Italy. He shall not be a citizen of Yugoslavia or Italy or of the Free Territory. He shall be appointed for five years and may be reappointed. His salary and allowances shall be borne by the United Nations.
2. The Governor may authorize a person selected by him to act for him in the event of his temporary absence or temporary inability to perform his duties.
3. The Security Council, if it considers that the Governor has failed to carry out his duties, may suspend him and, under appropriate safeguards of investigation and hearing, dismiss him from his office. In the event of his suspension or dismissal or in the event of his death or disability the ;Security Council ‘may designate or appoint another person to act as Provisional Governor until the Governor recovers from his disability or a new Governor is appointed.
Article 12 — Legislative Authority
The legislative authority shall be exercised by a popular Assembly consisting of a single chamber elected on the basis of proportional representation, by the citizens of both sexes of the Free Territory. The elections for the Assembly shall be conducted on the basis of universal, equal, direct and secret suffrage.
Article 13 — Council of Government
1. Subject to the responsibilities vested in the Governor under the present Statute, executive authority in the Free Territory shall be exercised by a Council of Government which will be formed by the popular Assembly and will be responsible to the Assembly.
2. The Governor shall have the right to be present at all meetings of the Council of Government. He may express his views on all questions affecting his responsibilities.
3. When matters affecting their responsibilities are discussed by the Council of Government, the Director of Public Security and the Director of the Free Port shall be invited to attend meetings of the Council and to express their views.
Article 14 — Exercise of Judicial Authority
The judicial authority in the Free Territory shall be exercised by tribunals established pursuant to the Constitution and laws of the Free Territory.
Article 15 — Freedom and Independence of Judiciary
The Constitution of the Free Territory shall guarantee the complete freedom and independence of the Judiciary and shall provide for appellate jurisdiction.
Article 16 — Appointment of Judiciary
1. The Governor shall appoint the Judiciary from among candidates proposed by the Council of Government or from among other persons, after consultations with the Council of Government, unless the Constitution provides for a different manner for filling judicial posts; and, subject to safeguards to be established by the Constitution, may remove members of the Judiciary for conduct incompatible with their judicial office.
2. The popular Assembly, by a two-thirds majority of votes cast, may request the Governor to investigate any charge brought against a member of the Judiciary which, if proved, would warrant his suspension or removal.
Article 17 — Responsibility of the Governor to the Security Council
1. The Governor, as the representative of the Security Council, shall be responsible for supervising the observance of the present Statute including the protection of the basic human rights of the inhabitants and for ensuring that public order and security are maintained by the Government of the Free Territory in accordance with the present Statute, the Constitution and laws of the Free Territory.
2. The Governor shall present to the Security Council annual reports concerning the operation of the Statute and the performance of his duties.
Article 18 — Rights of the Assembly
The popular Assembly shall have the right to consider and discuss any matters affecting the interests of the Free Territory.
Article 19 — Enactment of Legislation
1. Legislation may be initiated by members of the popular Assembly and by the Council of Government as well as by the Governor in matters which in his view affect the responsibilities of the Security Council as defined in Article 2 of the present Statute.
2. No law shall enter into force until it shall have been promulgated. The promulgation of laws shall take place in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution of the Free Territory.
3. Before being promulgated legislation enacted by the Assembly shall be presented to the Governor.
4. If the Governor considers that such legislation is in contradiction to the present Statute, he may, within ten days following presentation of such legislation to him, return it to the Assembly with his comments and recommendations. If the Governor does not return the legislation within such ten days or if he advises the Assembly within such period that it calls for no comments or recommendation on his part, the legislation shall be promulgated forthwith.
5. If the Assembly makes manifest its refusal to withdraw legislation returned to the Assembly by the Governor or to amend it in conformity with his comments or recommendations, the Governor shall, unless he is prepared to withdraw his comments or recommendations, in which case the law shall be promulgated forthwith, immediately report the matter to the Security Council. The Governor shall likewise transmit without delay to the Security Council any communication which the Assembly may wish to make to the Council on the matter.
6. Legislation which forms the subject of a report to the Security Council under the provisions of the preceding paragraph shall only be promulgated by the direction of the Security Council.
Article 20 — Rights of the Governor with respect to Administrative Measures
1. The Governor may require the Council of Government to suspend administrative measures which in his view conflict with his responsibilities as defined in the present Statute (observance of the Statute; maintenance of public order and Security; respect for human rights). Should the Council of Government object, the Governor may suspend these administrative measures and the Governor or the Council of Government may refer the whole question to the Security Council for decision.
2. In matters affecting his responsibilities as defined in the Statute the Governor may propose to the Council of Government the adoption of any administrative measures. Should the Council of Government not accept such proposals the Governor may, without prejudice to Article 22 of the present Statute, refer the matter to the Security Council for decision.
Article 21 — Budget
1. The Council of Government shall be responsible for the preparation of the budget of the Free Territory, including both revenue and expenditure, and for its submission to the popular Assembly.
2. If the Assembly should fail to vote the budget within the proper time limit, the provisions of the budget for the preceding period shall be applied to the new budgetary period until such time as the new budget shall have been voted.
Article 22 — Special Powers of the Governor
1. In order that he may carryout his responsibilities to the Security Council under the present Statute, the Governor may, in cases which in his opinion permit of no delay, threatening the independence or integrity of the Free Territory, public order or respect of human rights, directly order and require the execution of appropriate measures subject to an immediate report thereon being made by him to the Security Council. In such circumstances the Governor may himself assume, if he deems it necessary, control of the security services.
2. The popular Assembly may petition the Security Council concerning any exercise by the Governor of his powers under paragraph 1 of this Article.
Article 23 — Power of Pardon and Reprieve
2. The power of pardon and reprieve shall be vested in the Governor and shall be exercised by him in accordance with provisions to be laid down in the Constitution.
Article 24 — Foreign Relations
1. The Governor shall ensure that the Foreign relations of the Free Territory shall be conducted in conformity with the Statute, Constitution, and laws of the Free Territory. To this end the Governor shall have authority to prevent the entry into force of treaties or agreements affecting foreign relations which, in his judgment, conflict with the Statute, Constitution or laws of the Free Territory.
2. Treaties and agreements, as well as exequaturs and consular commissions, shall be signed jointly by the Governor and a representative of the Council of Government.
3. The Free Territory may be or become a party to international conventions or become a member of international organizations provided the aim of such conventions or organizations is to settle economic, technical, cultural, social or health questions.
4. Economic union or associations of an exclusive character with any State are incompatible with the status of the Free Territory.
5. The Free Territory of Trieste shall recognize the full force of the Treaty of Peace with Italy, and shall give effect to the applicable provisions of that Treaty. The Free Territory shall also recognize the full force of the other agreements or arrangements which have been or will be reached by the Allied and Associated Powers for the restoration of peace.
Article 25 — Independence of the Governor and Staff
In the performance of their duties, the Governor and his staff shall not seek or receive instructions from any Government or from any other authority except the Security Council. They shall refrain from any act which might reflect on their position as international officials responsible only to the Security Council.
Article 26 — Appointment and Removal of Administrative Officials
1. Appointments to public office in the Free Territory shall be made exclusively on the ground of ability, competence and integrity.
2. Administrative officials shall not be removed from office except for incompetence or misconduct and such removal shall be subject to appropriate safeguards of investigation and hearing to be established by law.
Article 27 — Director of Public Security
1. The Council of Government shall submit to the Governor a list of candidates for the post of Director of Public Security. The Governor shall appoint the Director from among the candidates presented to him, or from among other persons, after consultation with the Council of Government. He may also dismiss the Director of Public Security after consultation with the Council of Government.
2. The Director of Public Security shall not be a citizen of Yugoslavia or Italy.
3. The Director of Public Security shall normally be under the immediate authority of the Council of Government from which he will receive instructions on matters within his competence.
4. The Governor shall:
(a) receive regular reports from the Director of Public Security, and consult with him on any matters coming within the competence of the Director.
(b) be informed by the Council of Government of its instructions to the Director of Public Security and may express his opinion thereon.
Article 28 — Police Force
1. In order to preserve public order and security in accordance with the Statute, the Constitution and the laws of the Free Territory, the Government of the Free Territory shall be empowered to maintain a police force and security services.
2. Members of the police force and security services shall be recruited by the Director of Public Security and shall be subject to dismissal by him.
Article 29 — Local Government
The Constitution of the Free Territory shall provide for the establishment on the basis of proportional representation of organs of local government on democratic principles, including universal, equal, direct and secret suffrage.
Article 30 — Monetary System
The Free Territory shall have its own monetary system.
Article 31 — Railways
Without prejudice to its proprietary rights over the railways within its boundaries and its control of the railway administration, the Free Territory may negotiate with Yugoslavia and Italy agreements for the purpose of ensuring the efficient and economical operation of its railways. Such agreements would determine where responsibility lies for the operation of the railways in the direction of Yugoslavia or Italy respectively and also for the operation of the railway terminal of Trieste and of that part of the line which is common to all. In the latter case such operation may be effected by a special commission comprised of representatives of the Free Territory, Yugoslavia and Italy under the chairmanship of the representative of the Free Territory.
Article 32 — Commercial Aviation
1. Commercial aircraft registered in the territory of any one of the United Nations which grants on its territory the same rights to commercial aircraft registered in the Free Territory, shall be granted international aviation rights, including the right to land for refueling and repairs, to fly over the Free Territory without landing and to use for traffic purposes such airports as may be designated by the competent authorities of the Free Territory.
2. These rights shall not be subject to any restrictions other than those imposed on a basis of non-discrimination by the laws and regulations in force in the Free Territory and in the countries concerned or resulting from the special character of the Free Territory as neutral and demilitarized.
Article 33 — Registration of Vessels.
1. The Free, Territory is entitled to open registers for the registration of ships and vessels owned by the Government of the Free Territory or by persons or organizations domiciled within the Free Territory.
2. The Free Territory shall open special maritime registers for Czechoslovak and Swiss ships and vessels upon request of these Governments, as well as for Hungarian and Austrian ships and vessels upon the request of these Governments after the conclusion of the Treaty of Peace with Hungary and the treaty for the reestablishment of the independence of Austria respectively. Ships and vessels entered in these registers shall fly the flags of their respective countries.
3. In giving effect to the foregoing provision, and subject to any international convention which may be entered into concerning these questions, with the participation of the Government of the Free Territory, the latter shall be entitled to impose such conditions governing the registration, retention and removal from the registers as shall prevent any abuses arising from the facilities thus granted. In particular as regards ships and vessels registered under paragraph 1 above, registration shall be limited to ships and vessels controlled from the Free Territory and regularly serving the needs or the interests of the Free Territory. In the case of ships and vessels registered under paragraph 2 above, registration shall be limited to ships and vessels based in the Port of Trieste and regularly and permanently serving the needs of their respective countries through the Port of Trieste.
Article 34 — Free Port
A free port shall be established in the Free Territory and shall be administered on the basis of the provisions of an international instrument drawn up by the Council of Foreign Ministers, approved by the Security Council, and annexed to the present Treaty (Annex VIII). The Government of the Free Territory shall enact all necessary legislation and take all necessary steps to give effect to the provisions of such instrument.
Article 35 — Freedom of Transit
Freedom of transit shall, in accordance with customary international agreements, be assured by the Free Territory and the States whose territories are traversed to goods transported by railroad between the Free Port and the States which it serves, without any discrimination and without customs duties or charges other than those levied for services rendered.
Article 36 — Interpretation of Statute
Except where another procedure is specifically provided under any Article of the present Statute, any dispute relating to the interpretation or execution of the Statute, not resolved by direct negotiations, shall, unless the parties mutually agree upon another means of settlement, be referred at the request of either party to the dispute to a Commission composed of one representative of each party and a third member selected by mutual agreement of the two parties from nationals of a third country. Should the two parties fall to agree within a period of one month, upon the appointment of the third member, the Secretary-General of the United Nations may be requested by either party to make the appointment. The decision of the majority of the members of the Commission shall be the decision of the Commission, and shall be accepted by the parties as definitive and binding.
Article 37 — Amendment of Statute
This Statute shall constitute the permanent Statute of the Free Territory, subject to any amendment which may hereafter be made by the Security Council. Petitions for the amendment of the Statute may be presented to the Security Council by the popular Assembly upon a vote taken by a two-thirds majority of the votes cast.
Article 38 — Coming into Forge of the Statute
The present Statute shall come into force an a date which shall be determined by the Security Council of the United Nations Organisation.
INSTRUMENT FOR THE PROVISIONAL REGIME OF THE FREE TERRITORY OF TRIESTE
The Governor shall assume office in the Free Territory at the earliest possible moment after the coming into force of the present Treaty. Pending assumption of office by the Governor, the Free Territory shall continue to be administered by the Allied military commands within their respective zones.
On assuming office in the Free Territory of Trieste the Governor shall be empowered to select from among persons domiciled in the Free Territory and after consultation with the Governments of Yugoslavia and Italy a Provisional Council of Government. The Governor shall have the right to make changes in the composition of the Provisional Council of Government whenever he deems it necessary. The Governor and the provisional Council of Government shall exercise their functions in the manner laid down in the provisions of the Permanent Statute as and when these provisions prove to be applicable and in so far as they are not superseded by the present Instrument. Likewise all other provisions of the permanent Statute shall be applicable during the period of the provisional Regime as and when these Provisions prove to be applicable and in so far as they are not superseded by the present Instrument. The Governor’s actions will be guided mainly by the needs of the population and its well being.
The seat of the Government will be established in Trieste. The Governor will address his reports directly to the Chairman of the Security Council and will, through that channel, supply the Security Council with all necessary information on the administration of the Free Territory.
The first concern of the Governor shall be to ensure the maintenance of public order and security. He shall appoint on a provisional basis a Director of Public Security, who will reorganize and administer the police force and security services.
(a) From the coming into force of the present Treaty, troops stationed in the Free Territory shall not exceed 5,000 men for the United Kingdom, 5,000 men for the United States of America and 5,000 men for Yugoslavia.
(b) These troops shall be placed at the disposal of the Governor for a period of 90 days after his assumption of office in the Free Territory. As from the end of that period, they will cease to be at the disposal of the Governor and will be withdrawn from the Territory within a further period of 45 days, unless the Governor advises the Security Council that, in the interests of the Territory, some or all of them should not, in his view, be withdrawn. In the latter event, the troops required by the Governor shall remain until not later than 45 days after the Governor has advised the Security Council that the security services can maintain internal order in the Territory without the assistance of foreign troops.
(c) The withdrawal prescribed in paragraph (b) shall be carried out so as to maintain, in so far as possible, the ratio prescribed in paragraph (a) between the troops of the three Powers concerned.
The Governor shall have the right at any time to call upon the Commanders of such contingents for support and such support shall be given promptly. The Governor shall, whenever possible, consult with the Commanders concerned before issuing his instructions but shall not interfere with the military handling of the forces in the discharge of his instructions. Each Commander has the right to report to his Government the instructions which he has received from the Governor, informing the Governor of .the contented of such reports. The Government concerned shall have the right to refuse the participation of its forces in the operation in question, informing the Security Council accordingly.
The necessary arrangements relating to the stationing, administration and supply of the military contingents made available by the United Kingdom, the United States of America, and Yugoslavia shall be settled by agreement between the Governor and the Commanders of those contingents.
The Governor, in consultation with the Provisional Council of Government, shall be responsible for organizing the elections of Members of the Constituent Assembly in accordance with the conditions provided for in the Statute for elections to the popular Assembly.
The elections shall be held not later than four months after the Governor’s assumption of office. In case this is technically impossible the Governor shall report to the Security Council.
The Governor will, in consultation with the Provisional Council of Government, prepare the provisional budget and the provisional export and import programmes and will satisfy himself that appropriate arrangements are made by the Provisional Council of Government for the administration of the finances of the Free Territory.
Existing laws and regulations shall remain valid unless and until revoked or suspended by the Governor. The Governor shall have the right to amend existing laws and regulations and to introduce new laws and regulations in agreement with the majority of the Provisional Council of Government. Such amended and new laws and regulations, as well as the acts of the Governor in regard to the revocation or suspension of laws and regulations, shall be valid unless and until they are amended, revoked or superseded by acts of the popular Assembly or the Council of Government within their respective spheres after the entry into force of the Constitution.
Pending the establishment of a separate currency regime for the Free Territory the Italian lira shall continue to be the legal tender within the Free Territory. The Italian Government shall supply the foreign exchange and currency needs of the Free Territory under conditions no less favourable than those applying in Italy.
Italy and the Free Territory shall enter into an agreement to give effect to the above, provisions as well as to provide for any settlement .between the two Governments which may be required.
Download Document Files: AAC25ComJerW4.pdf AAC25ComJerW4f.pdf
Document Type: French text, Treaty, Working document
Document Sources: United Nations Conciliation Commission for Palestine (UNCCP)
Subject: Jerusalem, Legal issues, Palestine question
Publication Date: 05/03/1949