Mission of Personal Representative in Jerusalem – SecGen report under A/RES/2254 (ES-V)







12 September 1967





Paragraphs Page



I. Mission of the Personal Representative

A. Delimitation of the inquiry 5 – 9 2

B. Conditions under which the mission was

carried out 10 -12 3

II. Geography and external aspect of the city

A. Geography 13 3

B. Population 14 – 18 4

C. External aspect of Jerusalem 19 – 21 4

III. Structure of the municipal authorities

A. Situation in the Jordanian sector of Jerusalem

before June 1967 22 – 25 5

B. Situation since June 1967 26 – 27 5

C. The administration of the municipality 28 – 32 6

IV. Measures taken by the Israel Government in order to

integrate the parts of the city which were not under

Israel control before June 1967

A. Preliminary remarks 33 – 37 7

B. Israel legislation affecting East Jerusalem 38 – 43 8

C. Physical measures and civilian services 44 – 60 9

D. Budgetary figures for East Jerusalem 61 – 63 11

E. Economic measures 64 – 96 12

F. The Measures concerning the judiciary 97 – 98 18

G. Educational situation 99 – 104 18

H. Press 105 19

V. The situation in Jerusalem as described by Arabs

A. Preliminary remarks 106 – 108 20

B. Arab information on population figures 109 20

C. Arab complaints 110 – 129 21

D. General objections 130 – 133 24

VI. The attitude of the representatives of the various

religious communities 134 – 150 25

VII. The Secretary-Generals remarks 151 – 152 28


           2254 (ES-V) 153 – 155 29










* Also issued under the symbol A/6793.



1. In its resolution 2254 (ES-V) adopted on 14 July 1967 relating to Jerusalem, the General Assembly requested the Secretary-General to report to the Security Council and the General Assembly on the situation and on the implementation of the resolution. In a note dated 14 August 1967, which was circulated to the Security Council (S/8121 and Corr.1) and to the General Assembly (A/6785 and Corr.1), the Secretary-General announced that he had appointed Ambassador Ernesto A. Thalmann of Switzerland as his Personal Representative in Jerusalem for the purpose of obtaining information on the situation as a basis for his report to the Security Council and the General Assembly.

2. The terms of reference for the mission which was entrusted to Ambassador Thalmann were laid down in the Secretary-Generals letter of 12 August 1967, as follows:

"I am glad to know that you are willing to undertake, and that your Government is prepared to make you available for, the special ad hoc assignment as my Personal Representative in Jerusalem for the purpose of obtaining information in order to facilitate my report to the Security Council and the General Assembly. The General Assembly, in paragraph 3 of its resolution 2254 (ES-V) of 14 July 1967 'requests the Secretary-General to report to the Security Council and the General Assembly on the situation and on the implementation of the present resolution' … That part of my report relating to the implementation of the resolution will consist of the written reply to my note about the resolution dated 15 July 1967… which the Government of Israel has promised to address to me. Your concern, therefore, will be exclusively with the gathering of information 'on the situation' in Jerusalem which I may, in turn, use in my report to the Council and the General Assembly.

"I would wish you to gather as much information as you reasonably can within a period of two weeks on the situation in Jerusalem, by which is meant specifically conditions relating to the assumption of control by Israel authorities over the entire city of Jerusalem. Thus, a major part of your attention would be directed to the situation in the Old City of Jerusalem, with specific reference to the status and treatment of Arab residents and their property and the situation of all of the Holy Places in Jerusalem.

"Your function, thus, is to obtain information only and involves no responsibility on your part for any negotiations or for the implementation of the General Assembly resolution.

"At my request, the Government of Israel has given assurance that it will co-operate with your mission and will give you all necessary facilities and information."

3. Ambassador Thalmann's mission constitutes the sole independent source of information of the Secretary-General for the report on the situation in Jerusalem requested of him by the General Assembly and, therefore, part one of this report is based upon the information gathered by Ambassador Thalmann during his visit to Jerusalem.

4. Part two of the report, dealing with the implementation of General Assembly resolution 2254 (ES-V), is based on the information supplied by the Government of Israel.



A. Delimitation of the inquiry

5. In accordance with the terms of reference, the Personal Representative restricted his inquiry to Jerusalem. For the purposes of the investigations, Jerusalem was understood to include both those parts of the city which were under Jordanian control before June 1967 and those under Israel control. It was also understood to include the former no man's land and the rural areas which Israel has included in the municipality of Jerusalem. For exclusively practical reasons particularly brevity, and with no other connotations, the expressions "East Jerusalem" and "West Jerusalem" are used to designate the parts formerly under Jordanian and Israel control, respectively.

6. It would no doubt have been desirable to set current conditions in Jerusalem against their historical background. This was not possible, however, in the short time available.

7. During the Personal Representative's visit to Jerusalem, Arab personalities handed him a number of memoranda, petitions and statements, some of which went beyond the purely factual conditions and consequently beyond his terms of reference. It is nevertheless considered appropriate to reproduce some of these documents as annexes because, taken as a whole, they reflect an attitude which forms a part of the facts that are the subject of the investigations (see annex I).

8. The Israel authorities supplied a substantial amount of documentation, which could not be fully evaluated in this report. Some documents, which are helpful for an understanding of the factual conditions, are also annexed to the report (see annex II).

9. It should be noted that conditions in Jerusalem are in a state of rapid flux. Certain of the observations in this report may therefore have been partially overtaken by events.

B. Conditions under which the mission was carried out

10. The Personal Representative arrived at Tel Aviv on 21 August 1967 and proceeded the same day to Jerusalem. He was able to carry out his investigations in an orderly atmosphere and the Israel authorities offered him various material facilities such as transportation and technical arrangements.

11. The Personal Representative was free to move about and to meet the various personalities whom he wished to see and to talk with them privately when he desired to do so. He met a great number of Israel officials, Arab personalities and representatives of the various religious communities. The most important names are contained in the lists in annex III.

12. Ambassador Thalmann left Jerusalem on 3 September and arrived in New York on the evening of 4 September.


A. Geography

13. As a result of the assumption of control by the Israel authorities over East Jerusalem, the municipal area of West Jerusalem was expanded by over 60 square kilometers to a total exceeding 100 square kilometres. A map prepared at the Personal Representative's request by the Israel municipal authorities and annexed to this report shows the claimed boundaries of the extended municipality and other lines relevant to an understanding of the present situation.

B. Population

14. Since the occupation, a census was carried out in East Jerusalem by the Israel authorities. This shows that the approximate population of the area is 70,000, of whom 28,000 (or 40 per cent) reside in the Old City and

42,000 (or 60 per cent) outside the walls.

15. The distribution of population according to religious denomination is as


Muslims 81.0 per cent
Catholics 8.1 per cent
Orthodox 6.5 per cent
Armenians 2.4 per cent
Others 2.1 per cent

16. The population of West Jerusalem is approximately 200,000, practically all

of whom are Jews.

17. According to the International Committee of the Red Cross, about 7,000 refugees left the Jerusalem area. So far only a few persons have returned.

18. According to the figures of the Jordanian Census of 1 and 3 July of this year, 7,791 persons (including 1,201 householders) left the Jerusalem area. Arab sources consider that these figures are too low and that they represent only about 70 per cent of the real total of the refugees.

C External aspect of Jerusalem

19. During his visit, the Personal Representative was struck by the great activity in the streets of the city.

20. The uniforms were few and the weapons fewer. The military policemen went about their duties in a matter-of-fact way. They appeared to be mostly concerned with directing the traffic, which was quite heavy. The picture of the crowd in the Old City was dominated by the tourists. Arabs and Jews were mingling. To the destruction of the war new destruction had been added. Bulldozers had cleared the walls which separated the firing lines, as well as many houses in the area of the former no man's land. Also in the walled city one could see the debris of levelled houses.

21. There was direct access to the Old City through many newly made roads and through the reopened gates. Outside the walled city the scars of battle were more noticeable. Also a number of shops were closed. Most of the hotels had reopened Before dawn and during the day the muezzin could be heard as well as the church bells.


A. Situation in the Jordanian sector of

Jerusalem before June 1967

22. Every citizen who had reached the age of eighteen and who paid municipal

taxes of at least one Jordanian diner a year was eligible to vote in the municipal elections.

23. Twelve representatives were elected to the Municipal Council on a non-party basis. Candidates had to be Jordanian citizens over the age of twenty-five, literate and have committed no crime. The Government, through the Minister of the Interior, appointed the Mayor from among the twelve Council members. The Council chose the Assistant Mayor from among its members by a simple majority vote; the Assistant Mayor deputized for the Mayor in his absence. The Council appointed from among its members the members of auxiliary committees, which were usually headed by the Mayor. The Council served as an advisory body to the Mayor and usually convened once a week, though a meeting could be called at the request of two-thirds of its members.

24. Elections for Mayor and Council members were held every four years. The Mayor received his salary from the Municipal Council. Members received no remuneration.

25. The current term of office was to have ended on 31 August 1967.

B. Situation since June 1967

26. The Israel authorities stated that they had offered the members of the Municipal Council of the Old City the opportunity to apply for new positions in the framework of the Israel administration, which they refused to do. Several members had left Jerusalem; at present there were only eight in the city.

27. The Municipal Council of the Old City had been superseded by the Municipal Council of West Jerusalem, which is composed of twenty-one members, all Israelis, who were elected on 2 November 1965.

C. The administration of the municipality

28. The Israel authorities further stated that the municipality of West Jerusalem began operations in East Jerusalem the day after the fighting ceased. In the beginning it acted as the agent of the Military Government, but from 29 June municipal processes started to function according to Israel law.

29. The Arab personnel of the Old City was absorbed in the equivalent departments in the Israel municipality, so that at present, for example, all the engineers and staff of the municipality of East Jerusalem were employed in the City Engineer's Department, the Water Supply Department, etc.

30. Practically all municipal employees included in a list comprising some 370 names provided by the Assistant Mayor of East Jerusalem, immediately after the take-over by the Israel authorities, were now employed by the municipality.

31. The question of the pension rights of pensioners in East Jerusalem had not been fully settled. In the meantime the pensioners had received an ex gratia payment on account of the pension for the month of June, pending a decision on the matter.

32. The Israel Authorities stated that they were not interfering with the functioning of the Muslim Waqf which is responsible for al' resources designated for the upkeep of religious and welfare institutions. Moreover it had offered to assist the Waqf authorities to exercise direct control over the property. In addition, immediately after the hostilities, it had granted the Waqf a loan of 25,000 Israel pounds.




A. Preliminary remarks

33. In the numerous conversations which the Personal Representative had with Israel leaders, including the Prime Minister and the Minister for Foreign Affairs it was made clear beyond any doubt that Israel was taking every step to place under its sovereignty those parts of the city which were not controlled by Israel before June 1967. The statutory bases for this had already been created, and the administrative authorities had started to apply Israel laws and regulations in those parts of the city. However, for practical reasons – for example, because the texts of the laws had not been translated into Arabic – but also with the intention that the Arab population should become familiar with the new situation step by step, not all Israel laws and regulations were as yet been enforced; nevertheless, it was the declared objective of the Israel Government to equalize the legal and administrative status of the residents of those parts of the city which were not previously controlled by Israel with that of the Israel citizens as soon as possible.

34. The Personal Representative was repeatedly assured by the Israel side that every attention was being paid to the well-being of the Arab population and that the Arab residents would have the opportunity to bring their standard of living up to the level prevailing in Israel.

35. The Israel authorities stated unequivocally that the process of integration was irreversible and not negotiable.

36. Some information concerning the manner in which Israel is proceeding at the governmental and municipal Level is given in two statements, which are to be found in annex II.

37. It is considered appropriate to discuss below in greater detail the measures taken by Israel in the various fields, placing particular stress on those questions which are especially vital to the life of the population. It is in the nature of the following account that the information is drawn for the most part from Israel sources.

B. Israel legislation affecting East Jerusalem

38. The Personal Representative was supplied by the Israel authorities with the text of certain laws and orders which had been adopted with a view to including Old Jerusalem and certain surrounding areas previously under the control of Jordan within the State of Israel.

39. Under the Law and Administration Ordinance (Amendment No. 11) Law of

27 June 1967 it was provided that the law, jurisdiction and administration of

the State should apply in any area of the State of Israel designated by the

Government by order. Under this provision the Government issued an order dated

28 June 1967 which declared that a territory defined in an annex was an area in which the law, jurisdiction and administration of the State of Israel were in force. The area described in detail in the annex included the Old City, Sur Baher, Sheich Jarakh, the Kalandia airport, Mount Scopus and vicinity and Sha'afat.

40. Similarly under the Municipal Corporations Ordinance (Amendment No. 7) of 27 June 1967, the Minister of Interior was empowered at his discretion to enlarge, by proclamation, the area of a particular municipal corporation by the inclusion of an area designated under the Law and Administration Ordinance as just amended. By an order dated the following day, the Minister declared that the boundaries of the Jerusalem Municipal Corporation would be extended by the inclusion of the area described in the previous paragraph.

41. It was explained that the Jerusalem Municipality had refrained from enforcing the municipal by-laws to the eastern sector immediately after reunification because they had not as yet been translated into Arabic.

42. When the by-laws became available in Arabic the Municipality began to enforce sanitation and public health laws and the ordinance forbidding peddlers to operate without a licence. In order to enforce the by-laws throughout the larger area, thirty-five new inspectors had been hired.

43. The policy of the Municipality was to introduce the by-laws in stages, out

of consideration of the need to familiarize the population with them in a

gradual manner.

C. Physical measures and civilian services

44. The opening of means of access to the Old City and the destruction of barriers started almost immediately after the end of hostilities. By the end of August all former access roads had been reopened.

45. Alongside this activity went on the destruction of former Jordanian military politicos and the removal of mines, principally in the old no-man's land, in the Jerusalem area.

46. The Israel authorities stated that buildings in a slum area outside the Temple Wall had been destroyed; the inhabitants had been provided with alternative housing. Fifty to seventy families, however, had been put in houses left by refugees who had since returned, so they had to find their own accommodation; they were being given key money and their rent would be subsidized for two years through the city welfare agency. Loans for seven years would also be made to fifty-five families in the Old City whose houses had been damaged by shelling, so that they might repair them before the winter. Dilapidated and dangerous houses along the Old City walls had been demolished (these houses had mainly been in no-man's land) and it was planned to build a park round the walls. The land was mostly church property and compensation would be paid. Houses in no-man's land, where there were many mines, had been de-mined and demolished; they had been uninhabited since 1948. These houses were in a dangerous condition and there was a risk of squatters with the existing housing shortage. It had not been possible to do anything about them before, as they were in no-man's land.

47. The Israel authorities further stated that there were no plans for the construction of buildings in East Jerusalem. There was a ban on all buildings within the Old City walls, except for the reconstruction of several streets in the Jewish Quarter. These would be kept in the same style as before as far as their exteriors were concerned, but would be modernized inside.


48. According to the Israel authorities, the water supply network of East Jerusalem was connected with the Western system one day after the end of hostilities.

49. In the past, East Jerusalem had received its water from sources at Ein Fara, Ein Pohar and Wadi Kelt, which together were capable of supplying 3,000 cubic metres a day, or fifty litres per inhabitant. Because of the water shortage it was necessary to supply water only intermittently. The city was divided into three areas, each of which received water twice a week.

50. During the war, several pumping stations and waterpipes were damaged. The damage was repaired and the water supply resumed. After it became apparent that the water supply was insufficient, three connexions were made with the system in West Jerusalem. During the first weeks the demand doubled, and the need was three times what it had been before the war (9,000 cubic metres a day); two thirds of this amount came from West and one-third from East Jerusalem.

51. It was explained by the Israel authorities that the cost of water in East Jerusalem had been more than twice as high as that in West Jerusalem. With the merger of the systems, the cost was lowered to that prevailing in the west, which would lead to an annual deficit of half a million Israel pounds in the budget of the Water Department (which must cover all expenses through fees). An equalization fund had been established.


52. The Israel authorities stated that the Sanitation Department had begun its work immediately after the war. During the first period it was mainly concerned with removing the rubble accumulated during the fighting. Once this was completed, it concentrated its efforts on the improvement of services, which included the acquisition of sweeping machines, machines to collect garbage, 5,000 garbage cans to be distributed to houses and 150 large garbage receptacles, at a total cost of more than one million Israel pounds.

53. While checking waste-water, thirty malaria sources were found. They were now being eliminated. Efforts were also being made to stop the use of unpurified sewage water for irrigation.

54. Veterinary control had been increased and, within this context, renovation had begun at the municipal abattoir, which had been partially destroyed during the hostilities.

55. The entire Sanitation Department had been transferred to the Old City Municipal Building.

Roads parks and public property

56. According to the Israel authorities, the City Engineering Department had begun work on the beautification of public parks, and the improvement of roads and lighting. The budget for East Jerusalem allots approximately four million Israel pounds for the execution of various works.


57. The Personal Representative was informed that on 7 August 1967 a Welfare Bureau was opened to the public in East Jerusalem. At present the Bureau was primarily occupied with the distribution of aid to past recipient families, and with the investigation of the new cases applying for assistance by means of interviews in the office, home visits by social workers and contact with friends and local leaders who knew of their situations.

58. A programme has been prepared to distribute 3,337 food packages contributed by UNICEF to needy cases in East Jerusalem.

59. UNRWA has an important Field Office and a Ration Distribution Centre in Jerusalem and it takes care of the refugee camp in Kalondia.

60. The Catholic organizations in East Jerusalem are supporting up to 2,000 families a month, at a cost of $3.00 per person on average.

D. Budgetary figures for East Jerusalem

61. According to Israel authorities the municipal budget for-East Jerusalem for the period from July 1967 to April 1968 amounts to approximately 8 million Israel pounds for regular and non-recurrent expenditures and to an additional 8 million pounds for development schemes.

62. The break-down of the budget is as follows:

In Israel pounds

General administration 310,000
Sanitation 1,609,000
Financial administration 395,000
Fire-fighting 263,000
Construction plans 440,000
Property maintenance 1,416,000
Tourism and economic activity 200,000
Municipal Central 418,000
Education 1,258,000
Youth and sport activities 100,000
Cultural activities 100,000
Public health services 188,000
Public welfare 10,000
Water 1,731,675

63. The breakdown- of the development budget is as follows:

Equipment for sanitation services 1,000,000
Public property 4,000,000
Improvement of school buildings 400,000
Water installations and supply 2,500,000

E. Economic measures

General situation

64. The Israeli authorities provided the Personal Representative with a substantial amount of information on the present economic situation in East Jerusalem both in the form of an oral briefing by a high official of the Economic Department of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and of written material. In general, while admitting the existence of serious economic problems of adjustment, they maintained that in many respects the economy of the area was in a prosperous state due to the constant flow of Israel shoppers and sightseers and that the adverse effects of the cessation of tourism should not be unduly protracted.

65. The Personal Representative was told that many of the economic problems were the result not of the reunification of the City but of the dislocation caused by the war, which had been fought within the boundaries of Jerusalem. There was the physical damage to buildings, equipment and, particularly, vehicles, as well as the fact that goods had been taken over by the Israel army for its own use. An instruction had been issued that all private property should be returned immediately, but it was sometimes difficult to locate it. Absentee property was handled by the Custodian of Absentee Property.

66. It was explained that previously Amman, not Jerusalem, had been the economic and financial centre of Jordan. East Jerusalem had had no industry except for tourism and its related small industries; there were in all about 200 small workshops. On the other hand, there were over 1,500 shops and a variety of service establishments.

67. It was reported that from the time that access from Israel to East Jerusalem had become free, the shopkeepers there had been unusually active, selling at the rate of 2 million Israel pounds a day in the first month and at a steady rate of 1 million Israel pounds a day at present. As a result, stocks had run down quickly in many instances and were being replenished in part from Israel sources and in part from supplies in the west bank and in unoccupied Jordan. Service establishments were reported to have greatly increased their activities. The workshops, after an initial period of dislocation, were said to have all reverted to routine and normality and to be going through a process of adjustment to new marketing conditions.

68. In general, the Israel authorities stated that unification had meant that the "underdeveloped" economy of the eastern sector had come into contact with the more developed economy of the western sector. That had caused an economic shock, but would not necessarily be detrimental to the population, which could enjoy a higher standard of living.

69. The Personal Representative was informed that everything was being done not to cut East Jerusalem off from its source of supply on the west bank, in particular in respect of fruit and vegetables and other agricultural supplies. It was true that certain measures had been taken to avoid the overflow of agricultural produce so as not to affect the price and markets for frozen vegetables in Israel; some produce, however, had gone from Jerusalem to other markets in Israel.

70. It was stressed that agricultural produce from the west bank was untaxed on entry into the city. Customs check-points had been set up near Sha'afat and Bethlehem and other imports were in law subject to Israel customs duty; in practice, however, no customs duty was being collected on any product.

71. Under a customs order published on 28 June, wholesalers were liable to pay on goods previously imported the difference between the duties already paid to Jordan and the higher Israel tariff. Stocks had been inventoried, but the Custom Department had not yet sent out any debit notices, which would in any case only be served on wholesalers with stocks of a value exceeding 1,000 dollars.

72. On the other hand, the Israel system of excise duties was being applied not only to East Jerusalem but throughout the Israel-controlled areas and was being collected at the factory. Duties were accordingly payable on tobacco, alcoholic beverages, spirits, petrol and cement.

73. As a result of these measures, retailers had raised the prices of products in stock. The question of the increased cost of living was being studied by a committee; figures had been asked from the Bureau of Statistics. All salaried officials – municipal employees, etc. – had had their salaries increased, though they were not yet receiving the Israel scale, which would bring them a fivefold increase in the higher grades, a twenty-fourfold increase in the lower.

74. It was stated that citizens of East Jerusalem would be required to pay income tax in accordance with the legislation of Israel as from 28 June 1967. From the end of August, deductions for tax payment would be made from the salaries of public servants, whether of the Government or of the municipality.

75. It was explained that the system of municipal taxation in Israel differed in many respects from what was in force in East Jerusalem. It would seem that in general the municipal taxes in West Jerusalem are more varied, and levied at a higher rate where comparable, than those in East Jerusalem, though water charges were less than half. On the other hand, it was maintained that the services previously supplied by the municipality of East Jerusalem could not bear comparison, in scope and efficiency, with the standard attained by local government in Israel.

76. It was stated that no municipal taxes had been paid in East Jerusalem since the unification, except for abattoir fees and market dues, which continued to be collected at the previous rates.

77. Finally, the information provided by the Israel authorities showed that motor vehicle licences in Israel were higher than those previously imposed by Jordan.

78. It was explained that serious obstacles to economic recovery had been caused by monetary problems. The eight banks previously operating on the west bank of the Jordan, with nine branches in East Jerusalem, had had their headquarters and kept their reserves in Amman. The cash actually held by the banks was only enough to cover 6 per cent of the public's deposits, and it had, therefore, been impossible to open them. In East Jerusalem, those deposits amounted to 5.7 million diners, which meant that the bank closure immobilized more than half of the monetary assets in the hands of the public. The closure also prevented businessmen from getting the credit which they needed for the resumption of their affairs. The economic integration of East and West Jerusalem had been accompanied by a rise of prices in East Jerusalem which had brought about at the outset a further diminution of the real value of the liquid assets of the inhabitants.

79. On the other hand, the contraction of liquidating had been offset to a certain extent by such factors as the fact that borrowers did not at any rate for the time being have to repay bank loans, amounting to 3.9 million diners and that purchases in East Jerusalem by Israelis had added considerably to its liquid assets.

80. It was stated that before long five Israel banks had opened branches in East Jerusalem and were granting loans to firms so that they could refloat their activities. Moreover, Israel was involved in negotiations, through the International Monetary Fund, to have Jordan transfer the assets of the closed banks back to them and was working to facilitate their reopening.

81. Arrangements had been made for the citizens of East Jerusalem to convert their holdings of Jordanian currency. They were reported to have so far exchanged 400,000 dinars into Israel pounds; that represented from 10 per cent to 15 per cent of the cash in their hands.

82. It was stated that, on the special question of the rate of exchange of the

diner, the criterion in fixing the rate had been the value of the currency on the free Swiss market (7.50 Israel pounds to the diner). So as to avoid curtailing purchasing power, Israel had subsequently decided to raise the rate of exchange of the dinar.1/ As far as possible that would be done retroactively. Those who had exchanged more than 100 diners – of which a record would be available in the bank – would receive a refund. For smaller amounts, of which no record existed, the differences would be placed at the disposal of the community for social purposes.

1/ The current rate is 8.40 Israel pounds to the dinar.

Information supplied by the Israel Chamber of Commerce

83. At a meeting which was arranged by the President of the Israel Chamber of Commerce and which included several Arab personalities, it was stated that individual Arab businessmen from East Jerusalem were being given all possible assistance by the Jerusalem Chamber of Commerce and other West Jerusalem businessmen to enable them to obtain agencies and distribution rights of Israel industries and to aid them to obtain raw materials for their industries; some of these materials were already on their way to the Jordan port of Aqaba and some still in European or overseas ports, awaiting consignees' instructions. The Chamber of Commerce helped them to obtain Israel import licences, allocations of foreign exchange to pay for their imports, and in matters of procedure.

84. The President of the Israel Chamber further stated that the Arab Chamber of Commerce, Jerusalem, had been contacted in order to assist Arab businessmen in their adjustment to the new conditions, and in the re-establishment of normal business life in Jerusalem. The Committee of the Arab Chamber of Commerce had expressed its gratitude and indicated its willingness to co-operate.


85. As regards the hotel industry, the Personal Representative was informed by the Israel Ministry of Tourism that all except four of the thirty-four hotels (with 3,726 beds) recommended for tourists in East Jerusalem had reopened. (The corresponding figures in West Jerusalem were twenty-three hotels with 2,244 beds). The question of ownership had not been fully established but the hotels were being run by substantially the same personnel. As a result of rising cost room rates had been raised an average of 14 per cent. which still was lower than rates in West Jerusalem.

86. Of the fifty-five tourist agencies in East Jerusalem, forty-seven had already applied for temporary licences and thirty-eight had already received them. Similarly, fifty-nine out of the 192 guides operating in East Jerusalem had already applied for temporary licences.

87. While there had been an influx of Israel visitors, the ordinary tourist trade, which had come to a standstill, was only just beginning again. From an analysis of tourism before the hostilities it was maintained that any possible loss from tourists in transit to other Arab countries was likely to be balanced by the opening up of East Jerusalem to Jewish tourists to Israel, as well as local tourists from Israel.


88. The Personal Representative was informed that there were 300 taxis in the Old City for a population of 70,000 compared with 150 in West Jerusalem for a population of 200,000. Those taxis were mainly operated on long journeys to Beirut, Amman and Petra, from which they were now cut off. The Israel authorities planned to license about forty to fifty general taxis and had offered others the status of tourist taxis (the drivers could not pick up ordinary cab fares, but could act as guides to tourists), but that had been refused. Consequently, the problem had not yet been solved.

89. There were still unsolved problems with bus companies, of which there were some thirty in the Old City, each one owning one to six buses. It appears that the Israel authorities had difficulties coming to terms with those companies and had allowed the Egged Bus Company from West Jerusalem to operate in the Old City. Matters had been further complicated when the East Jerusalem bus companies had gone on strike.

Integration of East Jerusalem workers into the activities of the Histadrut

(Israel Federation of Labour)

90. A branch of the Histadrut has been opened in East Jerusalem. A certain number of Arab workers have already registered, and the Israel authorities expect that the number will increase substantially as more and more East Jerusalem employers approach the Histadrut to safeguard the rights of their workers.

91. The number of Arab workers is estimated at between 12,000 and 14,000.

92. The Personal Representative was told that the policy will be to pay Arabs employed in Israel enterprises salaries equal to those received by their Israel counterparts' As regards Arab enterprises, salaries would be calculated according to the economic solvency of the enterprise. Salaries would be raised gradually so as not to disrupt the Arab economy and to allow it to adjust to the conditions prevailing in Israel.

93. At present over 2,000 workers from East Jerusalem (including some 400 employees of the Municipality) are employed in the Jewish sector of the economy. They are employed in various branches, including construction, industry, hotels and other services.

94. The Personal Representative was informed that the Histadrut plans to establish various welfare and health institutions in East Jerusalem including a loan fund, a community centre for girls and women offering vocational training, a branch of "Working Youth" (a youth movement), and a branch of the "Rapoel" (sports club).

95. In the economic sphere, the Histadrut planned to initiate several enterprises in East Jerusalem which would provide employment for the local workers. The establishment of printing plants and a daily newspaper was under consideration.

96. A special authority for east Jerusalem would be established, whose task would be to initiate new enterprises and strengthen existing ones.

F. Measures concerning the judiciary

97. The High Rabbinical Court (the highest Jewish authority in religious matters) has been moved to East Jerusalem. A municipal court, presided over by an Israel municipal magistrate, deals with infringement of by-laws. It was stated that so far no Arabs had been charged before this court.

98. The Israel authorities stated that with the application of Israel law to East Jerusalem, the appointment of a Kadi (judge in the religious court) would be governed by the procedure provided in the relevant Israel law. However, the Government of Israel has decided to allow the situation prevailing before 5 June 1967 to continue. Muslim courts were functioning and handing down judgements in the same manner as in the past.

G. Educational situation

99. The Israel Authorities stated that at the end of the 1966/1967 school year there had been twenty-eight public educational institutions in East Jerusalem with 12,500 pupils, and twenty-four private institutions with 8,oco pupils. The structure of education had been very different from that in Israel.

100. It was intended to introduce as soon as possible in East Jerusalem all the educational laws and regulations applicable in Israel to Arab children, using the curriculum and textbooks already available for that purpose. While Arabic would be maintained as the basic language of instruction, Hebrew would be introduced gradually as a subject in grades 4 to 12.

101. Kindergartens, which had not previously existed, would be gradually introduced. Grade 9, which in Israel was part of the secondary school system, in which tuition was charged, would continue for 1967/68 in East Jerusalem to be part of the tuition-free intermediate schools. All the other pupils in grades 10 to 12 would be incorporated in the Graded Tuition System. In that system, the contribution of parents to tuition varied from nil to 1,COO Israel pounds and was determined by their economic status. Since most Arab families had large numbers of children most of them would not have to pay tuition; the Government and the municipality would cover their children's tuition.

102. The Israel authorities further reported that the Jerusalem Municipality was rapidly restoring all damaged school buildings. All previously employed teachers had been invited to continue their work for the next academic year, which was expected to open on time in the second half of September.

103. From information available to the Personal Representative from other sources, it seemed doubtful whether the teachers would be prepared to co-operate with the Israel authorities in reopening the schools. Reports subsequent to the Personal Representative's departure tend to confirm this. 104. It was further stated that private schools would be subject to a "pedagogic control" only.

H. Press

105. It was stated that the two Arab newspapers which were published before June 1967 in East Jerusalem had disappeared.


A. Preliminary remarks

106. It should be noted, first of all, that there is a certain disproportion between the volume of the information which the Personal Representative received from the Israel aide and that of the information from Arab sources. This was due partly to the fact that his investigations were carried out in an area under the control of the Israel Government, but partly also to the fact that his Arab interlocutors, in contrast to the Israelis, were not involved in an action, but simply expressed their reactions. In addition, the Arabs in Jerusalem – again in contrast to the Israelis – at present lack any extensive administrative machinery.

107. Israel Government representatives stated that the Arab personalities whom the Personal Representative met at his own desire were, with few exceptions, members of the National Council of the Palestine Liberation Organization, headed by Mr. Ahmad Shukairy, and that they did not truly represent the Arab population. Naturally, it is impossible to delve into that argument. The Personal Representative noted that the memoranda, statements, resolutions, and other communications handed to him by the Arabs also bore the signatures of a wide range of Arab personalities, including many officials of the previous Jordanian administration and recognized religious leaders.

108. The Personal Representative also remarked that he had met not only Arab personalities who are opposed to the Israel Government but also some who were co-operating with the Israel authorities.

B. Arab information on population figures

109. According to Arab sources, the population of Old Jerusalem prior to 5 June 1967 was about 75,0CO. If the population of the immediately surrounding areas (Sha'fat, Beit Ranima, Ram, Kalendia and Tours) was included, the figure was about 130,COO. Of this hereditary population, many had fled to Jordan as a result of the hostilities, while others were working abroad (in Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Libya, Qatar, Bahrein, Abu Dhabi, etc.). These temporary emigrants alone were said to number about 60,000.

C. Arab complaints

110. The Arab personalities whom the Personal Representative met put forward both orally and in the written communications a number of detailed complaints against the Israel authorities (see annex I). The most important of these are summarized below. A description is also given of certain steps taken by Arab notables to establish an organization representative of Arab interests.

Desecration of Muslim Holy Places and other acts

111. Most of the Arabs interviewed by the Personal Representative stated that the Muslim population was shocked by Israel acts which violated the sanctity of the Muslim shrines. It was regarded as a particular provocation that the Chief Rabbi of the Israel Army, with others of his faith, conducted prayers in the area of the Haram Al-Sharif. (The Israel Government has in the meantime put a stop to the offering of further prayers by members of the Jewish faith in the area of the Holy Mosque.)

112. Statements by Israel official representatives and Jewish personalities concerning Jewish claims and plans in the Temple area had had an alarming effect.

113. The dynamiting and bulldozing of 135 houses in the Maghrabi Quarter (in front of the Wailing Wall) had also aroused strong feelings. This action involved the expulsion of 650 poor and pious Muslims from their homes in the immediate vicinity of the Mosque of Omar and the Aksa Mosque. The houses, which also included two small mosques, belonged partly to the Waqf and partly to Arab individuals.

114. It was charged that the Israel authorities had taken over the so-called Jewish Quarter and evicted 3,000 residents at short notice.

115. It was also pointed out that the Israel authorities had chosen a government school for girls near the Aksa Mosque as the seat of the High Rabbinical Court, without consulting the Waqf.

116. It was repeatedly emphasized that further encroachments by the Israel authorities would lead to serious unrest among the Muslim population and might have grave consequences.

Application of Israel laws

117. The Personal Representative was told that the Israel authorities claimed jurisdiction over the Muslim religious courts and control over the sermons preached from the Aksa Mosque, and that that was rejected as contrary to the precepts of Koranic Law and of Muslim theology.

118. It was also stated that the application of Israel civil law was unacceptable to the Arabs, not only because the laws of Israel would supersede the existing Jordanian laws, but because they were alien to Koranic Laws.

119. Judges and attorneys had therefore refused to co-operate with the Israel judicature.

Arab municipal authorities

120. The dissolution of the elected Municipal Council of East Jerusalem and the taking over of its buildings, furnishings and archives by the Municipal Council of West Jerusalem was described by Arabs as a violation of international law.

121. In a letter of 24 July 1967, the Israel Military Governor for the West Bank was informed that the twenty-four signatories of the letter had "constituted themselves as the Muslim body in charge of Muslim affairs on the West Bank, including Jerusalem".

122. This "Higher Muslim Council", as it is also called,on the same date designated four Arab personalities to carry out the responsibilities of public administration, with express instructions to exercise their jurisdiction on the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, in accordance with the applicable Jordanian law.

123. In communications (of which the Personal Representative received copies) to the President of the Council, the representatives of the following organizations expressed their support for the "Higher Muslim Court":

The Women's Organizations and Institutions on the West Bank
The Union of Doctors
The Union of Dentists
The Union of Pharmacists
The Union of Lawyers
The Union of Engineers
The Union of the Officials and Labourers of the Electricity Board in Jerusalem
The Union of Scaffolding Workers in Jerusalem
The Labourers in Printing Houses
The Workers in the Jerusalem Municipality Councils
The Workers in Exchange Offices
The Union of Workers in Hotels and Cafes
The Union of Workers and Chauffeurs
The Union of Bakers
The Union of Builders
The Union of Tourist Guides
The Union of Tailors
The Union of Shoemakers

124. The Personal Representative was also given a copy of an appeal on the subject by Arab Women on the West Bank.

125. The decisions taken by the "Higher Muslim Council", which has not been recognized by the Israel authorities, are made known to the Arab population through Amman Radio.

Economic situation

126. The Personal Representative was told that the measures already introduced or announced by Israel with respect to taxes, customs duties, licences, absentee properties, and other economic matters, were considered oppressive by the Arab population and that there was a growing feeling of economic strangulation. Even if the present dislocations in economic life should cease in due course, the Arabs feared that they would be permanently at a disadvantage in comparison with the Israelis, who were at a more advanced stage of economic development.

127. On the other hand, the Personal Representative had an opportunity to speak to a few Arab businessmen who considered it to their advantage to co-operate with the Israelis and had already entered into business relations with them. They stated that they were satisfied with the accommodating spirit shown by the Israelis.

Situation in the cultural and educational field

128. Where the schools were concerned, the Personal Representative found a pronounced aversion to the efforts of the Israel authorities to apply their own educational system to Arab schools. He was told that the teachers would refuse to resume their duties under the given conditions. It remains to be seen, in mid-September or late September, when the Arab schools are scheduled to reopen, to what extent the parents will likewise refuse to send their children to school.

129. From the cultural standpoint, the fear was expressed that the Arab way of life, Arab traditions and the Arabic language would suffer permanent damage under the influence of the Israel majority. It was also pointed out in this connexion that from the standpoint of customs and origin the Israel community formed a heterogeneous society which might have an adverse effect on strict Arab morals.

D. General objections

130. The following observations relate in part to considerations of international law, and thus go beyond a presentation of facts. At the same time, however, they reflect an attitude and a state of mind which are vital to the evaluation of the factual conditions.

131. The Personal Representative was told that the Arabs recognized a military occupation regime as such and were ready to co-operate with such a regime in dealing with current questions of administration and public welfare. However, they were opposed to civil incorporation into the Israel State system. They regarded that as a violation of the acknowledged rule of international law which prohibited an occupying Power from changing the legal and administrative structure in the occupied territory and at the same time demanded respect for private property and personal rights and freedoms.

132. It was repeatedly emphasized that the population of East Jerusalem was given no opportunity to state for itself whether it was willing to live in the Israel State community. It was claimed that the right of self-determination, in accordance with the United Nations Charter and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, had therefore been violated.

133. In conclusion, it was pointed out that the Arab population places its trust in the United Nations and relied on the resolutions adopted by the General Assembly.



134. All representatives of the various religious communities whom the Personal Representative met agreed that the Holy Places needed special protection and that their believers should have free access to those places. They felt that the prime prerequisite for this was peace and stable political conditions. Their objective was to be able to perform their spiritual duties in peace without constantly having to fear that international conflicts or State interference could jeopardize their traditional tasks.

135. One detected among the religious dignitaries a feeling of relief that a cease-fire was in effect and that material damage to the Holy Places was relatively minor. It was acknowledged by all, with thankfulness, that the combatant parties obviously had it in mind to spare the Holy Places as much as possible. On the other hand, one detected concern for the future. Would the situation remain as it was, or were further convulsions to be expected? What would be the consequences if the Holy Places were under the sovereignty of a State which identified itself with one religion and which had never concealed the fact that, where Jerusalem was concerned, its political objectives coincided with the religious objectives?

136. One eminent member of the Christian faith expressed this concern as follows: Jerusalem must retain its universal religious character. The well-established rights of the three major religions must be protected in toto. History had shown that whenever a religion tried to assert its hegemony in the politico-religious field serious and sometimes bloody conflicts ensued.

137. Shortly after the cessation of hostilities, reassuring statements were already being made by the Israel side in this connexion.

138 Prime Minister Levi Eshkol, meeting on 7 June with the spiritual leaders of all communities, declared:

"Since our forces have been in control in the entire city and surroundings, quiet has been restored. You may rest assured that no harm of any kind will be allowed to befall the religious Holy Places. I have asked the Minister of Religious Affairs to contact the religious leaders in the Old City in order to ensure orderly contact between them and our forces and enable them to pursue their religious activities unhindered. At my request the Minister of Religious Affairs has issued the following instructions:

(a) The arrangements at the Western Wall shall be determined by the Chief Rabbis of Israel.

(b) The arrangements in places sacred to the Moslems shall be determined by a Council of Moslem religious dignitaries.

(c) The arrangements in places sacred to the Christians shall be determined by a Council of Christian religious dignitaries."

139. Meeting with them again on 27 June) the Prime Minister declared:

"It is my pleasure to inform you that the Holy Places in Jerusalem are now open to all who wish to worship at them – members of all faiths, without discrimination. The Government of Israel has made it a cardinal principle of its policy to preserve the Holy Places, to ensure their religious and universal character, and to guarantee free access. Through regular consultation with you, Heads of the communities, and with those designated by you, at the appropriate levels, for this purpose, we will continue to maintain this policy and to see that it is most faithfully carried out. In these consultations, I hope that you will feel free to put forward your proposals, since the aims I have mentioned are, I am certain, aims that we share in common. Every such proposal will be given full and sympathetic consideration. It is our intention to entrust the internal administration and arrangements of the Holy Places to the religious leaders of the communities to which they respectively belong: the task of carrying out all necessary procedures is in the hands of the Minister of Religious Affairs."

140. The same day, the Knesset passed the "Protection of Holy Places Law" 5727-1967, as follows:


"1. The Holy Places shall be protected from desecration and any other violation and from anything likely to violate the freedom of access of the members of the different religions to the places sacred to them or their feelings with regard to those places.

"2. Whoever desecrates or otherwise violates a Holy Place shall be liable to imprisonment for a term of seven years.

"3. This law shall add to and not derogate from any other law.

"4. The Minister of Religious Affairs is charged with the implementation of this law and he may after consultation with or upon the proposal of representatives of the religions concerned and with the consent of the Minister of Justice make regulations as to any matter relating to such implementation.

5. This law shall come into force on the date of its adoption by the Knesset."

141. These statements and statutory measures were very favourably received. Various religious representatives in fact told the Personal Representative spontaneously that so far the Israel authorities had conformed to the principles which had been laid down and that there was therefore no ground for complaints. They hoped that whatever difficulties still existed or were feared – mostly of a practical and physical nature – would be resolved in a spirit of co-operation.

142. Although the attitude of representatives of other Christian denominations was, rather, one of "wait and see", they also described the present situation as satisfactory.

143. Apart from the Muslims, whose position was discussed earlier in connexion with the attitude of the Arabs generally, it was essentially only the Catholic Church which adopted a systematically divergent attitude. As is well known, the Holy See remains convinced that the only solution which offers a sufficient guarantee for the protection of Jerusalem and of its Holy Places is to place that city and its vicinity under an international regime in the form of a corpus separatum.

144. The Vatican has had talks with the Israel authorities on this and other questions, and the talks are reported to be continuing.

145. Various religious representatives expressed the hope that their links with the outside world, including the Arab countries, would remain open. These links are of particular importance to the religious communities as they relate to contacts with the corresponding religious centres abroad, the influx of pilgrims and the exchange and replacement of clergy, monks, nuns, and so forth.

146. The Personal Representative was assured by the Israel side that a liberal practice would be pursued in this respect. It was stated that, so far as entry from Arab countries was concerned, it was for those countries to issue the relevant permits.

147. Other religious leaders displayed some concern that their privileges, including exemption from taxes, should be respected. These privileges are of particular importance to those religious communities whose income is derived entirely or partially from landed property, houses and shops.

148. With respect to religious schools, which now come under the "pedagogic Supervision'' of the Israel Ministry of Education, the feeling generally expressed. Was that no undue interference with the form of education was to be expected. Schools which have students from Arab countries feared that they might no longer be able to attend.

149. Lastly, mention should be made of a special case which was submitted to the Personal Representative by the representative of the Syrian Catholic Church. Since 1948, the church and vicariate of the Syrian Catholic parish had been in no man's land and had remained intact throughout. It was stated that on 30 June and 2 July the buildings had been completely destroyed by the Israelis, without the parish's having been informed. The Vicar General of the Syrian Catholic Patriarchate had lodged a protest concerning this with the Military Governor of Jerusalem and claimed compensation. It was stated, however, that his demands had not yet produced any result.

150. The continuing interdenominational disputes with respect to the possession and custody of the Holy Places were mentioned by the religious representatives on a number of occasions, but the Personal Representative did not believe that they should be dealt with in his report.


151. In conclusion, I would like to express my warm appreciation to Ambassador Thalmann for having gathered this very useful and important information on the situation in Jerusalem, in the brief space of time available to him. The information thus gathered has formed the sole basis for part one of this report.

152. I would also like to express my sincere hanks to the Government of Switzerland for having so readily responded to my request to make Ambassador Thalmann available for this specific ad hoc assignment, thus facilitating my report to the Security Council and the General Assembly.



153.. On 15 July 1967, following the adoption of General Assembly resolution 2254 (ES-V), the Secretary-General addressed the following letter to the Minister for Foreign Affairs of Israel:


"At its 1554th plenary meeting, on 14 July 1967, the General Assembly adopted resolution 2254 (ES-V), a copy of which is attached.

"In operative paragraph 3 of that resolution the Secretary-General is requested to report to the General Assembly and the Security Council on the situation and the implementation of the resolution.

"I should be grateful if you would kindly bring the above-mentioned resolution to the attention of your Government as a matter of urgency.

"Accept, Sir, the assurances of my highest consideration.

"(Signed) U Thant"

154. Subsequent to the despatch of the above letter, the Secretary-General informed the Permanent Representative of Israel that the part of his report relating to the implementation of the resolution of the General Assembly would necessarily consist of the response to be received from the Government of Israel. The Permanent Representative of Israel assured the Secretary-General that a reply from his Government on the question of implementation of the resolution would be forthcoming in time for the Secretary-General to include it in his report. 155 On 11 September 1967, the Secretary-General received from the Minister for Foreign Affairs, transmitted by the Permanent Representative of Israel to the United Nations, the following reply to his letter of 15 July:

"Dear Mr. Secretary-General,

"After the adjournment of the emergency special session of the General Assembly on 21 July, the Government of Israel was consulted by you on the appointment of a personal representative entrusted with the mission of obtaining information for your report to the Security Council and the General Assembly.

"Ambassador Thalmann visited Jerusalem from 21 August to 3 September. The Government of Israel extended to him all the assistance necessary for the discharge of his responsibilities. He had detailed conversations with the Prime Minister and me, and with heads of the religious communities represented in Jerusalem. He also met leading personalitities of all communities and heard the frank expression of their views.

"A salient fact of Jerusalem's life today is the intrinsic necessity of ensuring equal rights and opportunities to all the city's residents by extending to them the same public services and facilities. No international or other interest would be served by the institution of divisions and barriers which would only sharpen tension and generate discrimination. This does not foreclose the final settlement of certain important aspects of the Jerusalem situation which lie at the origin of the international interest in the city. I refer to the need to secure appropriate expression of the special interest of the three great religions in Jerusalem. It is our urgent desire to promote this objective in co-operation with the universal interests concerned. I am confident that in an atmosphere of international tranquillity substantial progress could be made towards this aim, which has hitherto had no concrete fulfilment.

"We are now concentrating on this task. It is our policy to ensure that the Moslem, as well as the Christian and Jewish Holy Places, should be scrupulously respected and revered, and placed under the responsibility of a recognized Moslem authority.

"I should like to assure you that the report based on the information obtained by your Personal Representative will receive our close study and on its publication I shall make a further clarification of our policies.

"Please accept, Mr. Secretary-General, the assurances of my highest consideration.

(Signed) Abba Eban
"Minister for Foreign Affairs"




A. Letter from Sheikh Abd al-Hamid al-Sayeh and thirteen other

personalities received by the Personal Representative on

26 August 1967


On the occasion of your arrival in Jerusalem in the capacity of a personal representative for Mr. U Thant, the Secretary-General of the United Nations, to investigate and inform yourself on the steps the Israeli authorities have taken to implement the two resolutions adopted on the 4th and 17th of June 1967, in the course of the Emergency Session of the General Assembly of the United Nations, calling upon the Israeli authorities to rescind the measures it took to merge and annex Arab Jerusalem, we, the undersigned, both Muslims and Christians, have the honour to direct your attention to the following:

1. The Israeli authorities so far have not taken the slightest steps to indicate that they intend to comply with the resolutions of the General Assembly concerning Jerusalem. On the contrary, they have positively announced that they will not implement the aforesaid resolutions, and have taken more measures to demonstrate clearly their determination to annex Arab Jerusalem, revealing, in their actions, a complete disregard for the resolutions of the United Nations and the wishes of the inhabitants of Arab Jerusalem and their rights to self determination.

2. In support of the above statement, the following measures, though not Comprehensive, may nevertheless demonstrate the trend of their policy:

1. The occupying power dissolved the duly elected Arab Municipality Council in Jerusalem and dismissed the Mayor and other officials.
2. It placed Arab Jerusalem under the administration of the Municipality Council of Israeli Jerusalem which, in turn, confiscated the movable and immovable property of the Arab Council.
3. It subjected Arab Jerusalem to Israeli laws and regulations, and thus abrogated all the Jordanian laws previously applied in the City.
4. It imposed upon the inhabitants of Arab Jerusalem the heavier taxes and municipal rates applicable in Israel, thus causing undue hardship and additional heavy financial burdens.
5. It constructed physical barriers between Jerusalem and the rest of the West Bank, and restricted passage between the two sectors to special permits to be issued by the authorities.
6. It dissolved the Jordanian civil administration in the City, and dismissed most of its officials.
7. It dissolved the Jordanian Courts of Justice in Jerusalem, and
subjected the City and its inhabitants to the province and jurisdiction
of the Israeli Courts.
8. It replaced the Jordanian currency by Israeli currency as the only legal tender in the City, and compelled the inhabitants to change their currency into Israeli tender at rates which were far lower than the official rates and rates prevalent in world markets, thus causing many of the Arab inhabitants to suffer substantial losses.
9. It subjected the inhabitants of Arab Jerusalem to heavier rates of income taxation, and thus burdened them to further material losses to those already sustained in consequence of the war and the occupation.
10. It erected customs barriers around Arab Jerusalem and imposed and collected excise duties on all the goods imported from the West Bank, while allowing free entry of Israeli imports.
11. It imposed customs and duties based on Israeli laws on Arab Jerusalem, and collected such duties even on the goods already in stock which were imported before 5.6.67 and already paid for under Jordanian laws.
12. It refused to recognize Jordanian license permits for vehicles and other trades or professions, thus compelling people to obtain Israeli permits under threat of punishment, and further exerted great economic pressure, especially on travel offices and their agents.
13. It integrated the government schools in Arab Jerusalem into the Israeli Municipality Council's educational system, and replaced the Jordanian curriculum by an Israeli one, and further closed the office of the Director of Education in Arab Jerusalem.
14. It neglected the usage of the Arabic language in most of its measures and dealings, although it is the language of the inhabitants.
15. It placed the property of Arab absentee landlords under custodianship, as a preliminary step to confiscating it, as previously done with Arab property in Israel.
16. It attempted to place the religious courts and Muslim Waqf (property) under the jurisdiction of the Ministry for Religious Affairs in Israel, and apply the laws relating to personal status in Israel to Muslims.
17. It interfered with the personal freedom of citizens in that it exiled and committed to prison a number of Arab citizens who have expressed their views relating to the unacceptability to the Arabs of the annexation of Jerusalem.

Furthermore, the Israeli authorities have taken many arbitrary and provocative measures of which the following list, though not comprehensive, may give an idea:

1. The razing to the ground of the entire Mughrabi Quarter in the Old City comprising 153 houses and involving 650 persons, who were unable even to retrieve furniture because they were not given sufficient warning, and the destruction of two small mosques in that quarter.

2. The expulsion and rendering homeless of the 3,COO inhabitants of Sharif Quarter, on the pretext that Jews had lived in the Quarter in the past, although most of the houses in the area had been inhabited by Arabs throughout and owned by Muslim Waqf.

3. The destruction of many Arab houses and properties outside the walls of the Old City.

4. The occupying Israeli authority has also applied strong economic pressure against the inhabitants of Arab Jerusalem, with a view to reducing their resistance and forcing them to leave.

5. It confiscated a large number of private and public cars, pullman buses, and occupied a number of hotels.

6. It introduced Israeli bus companies into Arab territory to compete with or replace Arab companies.

7. It did not respect the sanctity of Muslim and Christian religious shrines, and thus forced the custodian of the holy places to close some of the churches. Moreover, the Chief Rabbi of the Israeli Army' Brigadier Goren, conducted a prayer together with some followers in the Haram Al-Sharif (Holy Mosque), thus blatantly offending the Muslim's susceptibilities and infringing upon their established rights, while the Minister for Religion in Israel announced that the Muslim Mosque is Jewish property, and that sooner or later they will rebuild their temple there. Finally, the Ministry for Religion announced its intention of expanding the Wailing Wall again thus destroying some of the Muslim buildings surrounding it, and constructing a synagogue there, in contravention of the status quo, and an outright violation of the rights of Muslims and Muslim Waqf.

It is quite clear that all these measures contradict basic principles of international law and international conventions governing the state of war and the treatment of civilians in occupied territories, which preclude the annexation by the occupying power of any territory or its division into administrative units to serve political purposes as long as the state of war still stands, and moreover do not give the occupying power the right to change or modify existing laws and administrations in occupied territories. On the contrary, international law and conventions call upon the occupying power to apply existing laws and administrative structures, and to protect private property, religious beliefs, and personal liberties, and to refrain from imposing new taxes and fees on the inhabitants under occupation.

The Israeli authorities, instead, have replaced the structure of Jordanian Arab administration in the city by a direct Israel administration in all aspects, and caused an exorbitant rise in the standard of living creating difficulties for Arab inhabitants.

Although some of these measures were taken before the two resolutions of the General Assembly of the United Nations in its emergency session, the majority were taken after the resolutions. Thus, the Israeli authorities did not only mean to challenge the United Nations and the Muslim and Christian world, but also to violate the rights of the Arab inhabitants of the city, particularly their right to self-determination, contravening in this the Charter of the United Nations, the Declaration of Human Rights, and the principles of justice and equity.

Naturally, the inhabitants of Arab Jerusalem will not accept this situation or recognize its status, and strongly protest against the annexation of their city by Israel.

In the light of this, we pray that Your Excellency will take the earliest convenient opportunity to meet with the undersigned and others in Arab circles in the city to discover their views regarding the annexation of their city, and we, in turn, are perfectly willing to forward any information or other details that you may wish to obtain.

Please accept our deepest regards.


1. Sheikh Abdal-Hamid al-Sayeh, Chief of the Moslem Supreme Court and Kadi-al-Kudah (Chief Justice)
2. Rubi al-Khahib, Mayor of Jerusalem
3. Bishop Nagib Aub'em, Arab Anglican Bishop in Jordan
4. Sheikh Sa'd al-Dein al-Alami, Mufti of Jerusalem
5. Auton Atallah, Senator and ax-Foreign Minister for Jordan
6. Muhamed Is'ak Darwish, Member of the Higher Arab Committee
7. Yusef Khouri, for the Union of Engineers
8. Anwar Nusseiheb, ex-Jordanian Ambassador in London, Member of Parliament for Jerusalem, and ax-Minister of Defence for Jordan
9. Dr. Nabih Mu'mer, for the Union of Dockers
10. Sheikh Ali al-Taziz, President of the Chamber of Commerce for Arab Jerusalem
11. Taysiv Kan'an, President of the Court of First Instance in Jerusalem
12. Na'im al-Ashaf, Representative for Trade Unions
13. Fouad Abd al-Had), Senator
14. Sa'ed Ala al-Deiu, ax-Jordanian Minister for Economic Affairs

B. Memorandum concerning the measures taken by Israel with respect to

the City of Jerusalem, submitted by Mr. Rauhi El-Khatib on 26
August 1957

The Israel occupation authorities have not complied with the two United Nations resolutions on Jerusalem. Notwithstanding these directives, they have proceeded with and given effect to annexationist measures without heeding world public opinion and against the wishes of the Arab inhabitants, thus violating fundamental and elementary international laws relating to occupied countries. These measures, the ultimate goal of which – territorial expansion – the occupation authorities have not succeeded in concealing, include the following:

(a) Basic measures

1. They have torn down the barriers separating the two sectors of the city, and they have tacitly authorized their army and their people to, harass the civilian population by pillaging houses, shops and vehicles, by seizing hotels, and by restricting the freedom of the population for a long period of time.

2. They have tacitly authorized the desecration of Christian and Muslim Holy Places and have permitted access to them during hours of prayer. We must also protest the complete lack of decorum shown by both men and women in dress and behaviour. This complete lack of respect has grossly offended the religious sensibilities of the faithful of both religions.

3. One hundred and thirty-five houses in the Mughrabi Quarter adjoining the Wailing Wall and adjacent to the two Mosques of Omar and Aksa, which are Muslim Holy Places, have been dynamited and razed by bulldozers. Because of this, 650 Muslim, all of them poor and pious persons living near the Muslim Holy Place, were removed from their homes and driven away, after having been allowed no more than three hours to evacuate their homes, which they had to do while the curfew was in effect. One can easily imagine the consternation of these families, who had to see to the removal of their property and take care of their children and their aged. One part of these buildings, comprising some houses and two small mosques, belongs to the Muslim Waqf. The other part was private property over which the Jews had no rights. They razed these buildings in order to make room for a Jewish religious institution.

4. The occupation authorities also took over some houses in the area known as the Jewish Quarter inside the boundaries of the Old City. They forced the evacuation of 3,000 residents after a one to three day period of grace and during non-curfew hours. Many therefore had to abandon their property when they fled and thus swelled the number of the refugees, many of whom are still completely destitute. We should bear in mind that most of these houses were Arab property.

5. They applied several oppressive measures to the remaining inhabitants of the city, depriving them of their means of subsistence and preventing the arrival of relief supplies from abroad. All this was done to force them to leave the city and thus reduce their number.

6. They proceeded to take a general census of the city and its environs lying within an arbitrary demarcation line which they established to limit the population of the City of Jerusalem. Closed shops and houses were marked with a distinctive sign. Absentee owners were, as a result, liable to summary requisitions.

(b) Measures taken against the Municipality of Jerusalem

1. The Israel Parliament adopted a decision authorizing the occupation authorities to annex to the State of Israel whatever they deemed necessary without regard to international law or to the will of the inhabitants. Accordingly, their Minister of the Interior ordered the annexation of Arab Jerusalem and several neighbouring villages to the Jewish sector of the city and the placing of the entire area under the administration of the Jewish Municipal Council.

2. Consequently, their authorities dissolved the Arab Municipal Council and dismissed the Mayor and the members of the Council after having seized their files and their movable and immovable property.

3. The Jewish municipal authorities later dismissed some officials of the Arab Municipality and transferred others to the Office of the Mayor of the Jewish sector.

4. The unified Jewish Municipality continues to carry out Israel administrative measures, which are wholly at variance with the Jordanian administrative policies which the residents are supposed to continue to follow under the most recent resolutions of the United Nations and under international law.

5. The Jewish Municipality demolished many Arab buildings both inside and outside the walls of the Old City and it is continually taking similar measures in order to erase the last trace of the demarcation lines between the two sectors and to create a fait accompli while at the same time weakening the Office of the Arab Mayor as a separate authority in order ultimately to do away with it entirely.

(c) Measures taken against the Arab administration

1. The Jordanian postal and telegraph, income tax, health and customs services, police system, cadastral survey and other city offices have been abolished. This administrative structure has been placed under the authority of the administrative centres of the other sector.

2. Officials have been subjected to pressure to sign work applications bearing the seal of the State of Israel. Most of them have refused to sign them or to co-operate, although previously during the military regime they had done their work out of a spirit of solidarity with their colleagues in the so-called "occupied" areas.

3. All the Jordanian laws in force in the Arab sector of the city have been repealed and replaced by Israel measures and laws, in violation of international law, which stipulates that the laws in force in occupied territories must be respected.

4. The occupation authorities have erected barriers between Jerusalem and the other Arab villages on the West Bank and have obstructed the free movement of its inhabitants by instituting a system of passes issued by the occupying forces.

5. They have set up customs posts on the boundaries of the City of Jerusalem for the purpose of taxing merchandise originating in the occupied Arab areas, while merchandise of Israel origin is left tax-free, in order to compel the Arabs to buy Israel products.

6. They have asked owners of private vehicles to renew their licences and have required them to turn in their Jordanian "plates" for Israel plates and to insure themselves with Israel insurance companies, claiming that they do not recognize the validity of prior insurance and permits.

7. They have disregarded the Arabic language and, consequently, all their correspondence and documents have been drawn up in Hebrew.

8. Courts of justice have been suspended and made subordinate to the Israel courts. The judges have been asked to serve outside Jerusalem; they have refused, and continue to refuse, to do so, in order not to collaborate.

9. Government schools in the Arab sector of Jerusalem are now under the jurisdiction of the Jewish Municipality, which has forced them to adopt the Israel curriculum. The occupation authorities have requested some of the Arab teaching staff to transfer to the municipality and some to the Ministry of Education. Following the refusal of the teachers to co-operate, seals were affixed to the educational offices of the Jordanian Government.

(d) Matters relating to the Holy Places

1. Following repeated desecration of the Christian Holy Places, the Custodian of the Holy Places ordered the closing of some churches under his authority in the Arab sector and refused to open them to visitors. These Holy Places include the Church of Gethsemane, or Church of the Nations, the Church of Bethany, and the Church of the Prison of Christ on the Via Dolorosa.

2. The failure of the occupation authorities to prevent desecrations of the Holy Places has led to the burglary of one of the largest and holiest churches in the world. The priceless, diamond-studded crown of the Statue of the Virgin, Our Lady of Sorrows, on Calvary itself was stolen some ten days ago.

3. Armenian and Latin priests have been victims of aggression or offences committed by Jews, including, in some cases, Jewish religious officials, as well as by Israel soldiers or police.

4. The Chief Rabbi of the Israel Army, Brigadier Goren, with his escort and other Jews, on 15 August 1967 mounted to the Dome of the Rock with liturgical vestments and prayer-books. They conducted a prayer lasting two hours within the confines of the Mosque of Omar, thus infringing the inviolability of a Holy Place venerated by all Islam. Far from stopping at this provocation, they made known their intention of repeating such religious acts. At an official meeting held in Jerusalem on 12 August 1967, the Israel Minister for Religion stated that the occupation authorities considered the Mosque of Omar and its outlying buildings as their property either by past acquisition or by recent conquest. He also expressly proclaimed that those authorities were determined sooner or later to rebuild their temple on the Dome of the Rock itself. That statement shows how far their aggressive intentions against the Muslim Holy Places in Jerusalem extend, and no Muslim, or any honest man, could ever accept that statement.

5. The occupation authorities are constantly drawing up plans for the expansion and erection of religious buildings near "Borg"; one of the most recent statements, reported in the Jerusalem Post of 8 August 1967, tells us that the occupying forces will continue to demolish other buildings belonging either to the Muslim Waqf or to Arab owners.

6. They have occupied a government school for girls which was built on Waqf land in the Mughrabi Quarter near the Aksa Mosque with a view to transforming it into a supreme religious tribunal without having asked the permission of, or even informed, the Muslim Waqf. They have even planted Jewish and religious emblems on them.

7. They have claimed jurisdiction over the Muslim religious courts and control over the sermons preached from the Aksa Mosque; those claims were rejected by the Muslim judiciary of the City of Jerusalem as contrary to the precepts of Koranic Law and the commands of Muslim theology. The situation is still very tense between the occupation authorities and the Muslim Committee concerning this very important religious issue.

(e) Economic matters

1. The local banks were closed, their assets confiscated and their work suspended.

2. On the other hand, five of the main stores in the Arab sector were confiscated and turned into branches of Israeli banks.

3. The Israel authorities abolished transactions in Jordanian currency and forced the inhabitants of the Arab sector to change their money into Israel currency at a rate much below that recognized in the free world markets and even further below the official rate, thus causing the Arab inhabitants and other residents heavy losses.

4. The occupying forces destroyed a large plastics factory inside the Walls, where 200 manual and clerical workers were employed. The goods produced there were marketed in Jerusalem, in other towns on the West Bank and in some neighbouring Arab countries. The buildings were demolished and the machinery was pillaged before the owners had time to remove it. By this action, the occupation authorities deprived the inhabitants of one of the major projects on the West Bank.

5. The tax authorities began to notify the inhabitants officially that motor vehicles and telephones would be subject to taxation in accordance with Israel law. They would also collect income tax. Practical measures were taken to impose customs duties on all merchandise in Arab shops and warehouses, although the owners had already paid Jordanian duties.

6. The occupying forces seized the Pullman buses belonging to a Jerusalem tourist company and to date have not returned them. Thus, the employees of the company are denied the earnings they could have derived from tourism in Jerusalem.

7. The authorities recently declared that the law concerning absentee property would be applied, and they appointed a custodian for "absentee" property. This notoriously severe law gives the Israel Government the right to confiscate the movable and immovable property of Arabs who are absent from the country and to use it as they see fit. The property in question includes enormous tracts of land and buildings, shares in companies, movable property and a variety of merchandise, the whole amounting to millions of Jordanian diners. This law is applied only to the Arab sector of Jerusalem, which is considered by the occupation authorities to form an integral part of the State of Israel. It would not have been applied if this sector of Jerusalem had been considered an "occupied area" of the West Bank of the River Jordan.

8. In the Arab sector of Jerusalem there are a number of holy and historic places. A large number of tourist companies and Arab guides are established there. There are many hotels, souvenir shops and motor vehicles catering to the tourist trade. There was a very close link between all these businesses and Jerusalem Airport, which thus represented the main source of income for the inhabitants of the Arab sector of Jerusalem. With the annexation of this sector to Israel, however, tourist agencies and companies are landing their aircraft at Lod Airport, and Israel tourist companies transport companies, guides, hotels and souvenir shops are monopolizing the tourist trade. Only a small minority in the Arab sector is allowed to engage in these activities concurrently with their people. If this situation continues any longer, it will cause many persons employed in the tourist trade to close down their businesses and leave the country. This is the opinion of all those who still remain. The purpose of Israel's policy of annexation will then have been achieved.

Social affairs

1. The annexation of Jerusalem to Israel separates those Arabs who remained inside the city limits from their brethren living on the West Bank and from those in the other Arab countries.

2. This annexation creates complicated situations for the inhabitants of Jerusalem and for those who work there. For instance, many city officials, workers and tradesmen reside outside Jerusalem, either in the Bethlehem or Jericho area or in the Ramallah and Bireh area. As in every large town in the kingdom and throughout the world, these persons come into town in the morning and leave in the evening. The separation of the city where they work from the areas where they reside causes them inconveniences, the least of which is the tremendous waste of time at the frontier posts or the trouble of having to set up homes inside the city, as a result of which they incur additional expenses and have to abandon their properties or sell them at ridiculous prices, not to mention the many case where the members of a family are separated.

3. Until 5 June 1967, the population of Jerusalem was about 75,000, and if the population of the surrounding areas – Sha'fat, Beit Hanina, Ram, Kalandia and Tour – is included the figure was about 130,000. All these people were natives of the country, and many of these inhabitants had relatives who had temporarily taken refuge in Jordan, having fled at the time of the last incidents; similarly, many of them have members of their families working for a fixed period in Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Libya, Qatar, Bahrain or Abu Zabi, or in other Arab countries. With what they earn, these emigrants help their relatives in the annexed country, thus ensuring their subsistence. They even managed, with the help of their savings, to purchase land or housing in anticipation of their return to the country. In the meantime, they were receiving the rentals for these properties. Some had invested their whole fortune in various companies in the country to provide for their old age. These emigrants alone number more than 60,ooo. They have rights in the city, like all the other present citizens; yet the annexation of Jerusalem to Israel will prevent them from returning and enjoying their property and will also deprive their relatives here of the help they were providing. This situation will inevitably force some persons to leave the country to seek a livelihood elsewhere, and this alone will further reduce the number of emigrants included in the population figure by 190,000. This number probably exceeds the figure for the Jewish inhabitants of the other sector – with this difference, that the Arabs are natives of the country, while the Jews are mostly recent immigrants.

4. The Jews are beginning to unveil their projects for the construction of great buildings in the town and its surroundings to increase the number of the Jewish inhabitants to 500,000. The Arabs are afraid that these projects may be carried out at the expense of their properties and of their possessions by confiscation or under pressure. Likewise they fear that Jews may become the majority of inhabitants of Jerusalem, thus appropriating the city, of which the Arabs would retain only memories.

5. The occupation authorities have infringed the individual liberty of the Arabs of the city by arresting certain members of the national committees who proclaimed their opposition to the annexation of the Arab sector of Jerusalem to the Jewish sector. They have also imprisoned other members of these committees for the same reason.

The inhabitants of the Arab sector of Jerusalem and those of the West Bank resolutely proclaim their opposition to all the measures which the Israel occupation authorities have taken and which those authorities regard as constituting a fait accompli not subject to appeal or reversal, namely, the unification of the two sectors of the City of Jerusalem. They proclaim to the whole world that this annexation, even camouflaged under the cloak of administrative measures, was carried out against their will and against their wishes.

In no event shall we submit to it or accept it.

Abdel Mughni El Natshe Faek Barakat Nihad Abu Gharbieh

Khader Abu Swai Ali E1 Taziz Dr. Rashi E1 Nashashibi

Members of the Municipal Council

Rauhi El-Khatib Dr. Ibrahim Tleel

Mayor Deputy Mayor

C. Message dated 24 July 1967 addressed to the Military Governor

for the West Bank by Mr. Anwar El-Khatib and twenty-three other

Jerusalem 24.7.67

H.E. The Military Governor for the West Bank,

Whereas it is in the nature of an occupation by any country or any territory belonging to any other country that this occupation does not endow the occupying country with proprietor's rights over the occupied territory, nor does it endow it with sovereignty over such territory, but enjoins it to foster the interest of the occupied territory and to respect its laws and to protect the lives of the citizens as well as their rights and property, ensuring at the same time the freedom of conscience and worship, we therefore hereby declare that the orders issued by the legislative and executive authorities in Israel annexing Arab Jerusalem and its environs are null and void for the following reasons:

(a) Because Arab Jerusalem is an integral part of Jordan and because Israel is precluded by virtue of section 4 of clause 2 of the United Nations Charter from taking any action against the physical safety and political independence of Jordan territory and has therefore no right to annex any part of Jordan territory to Israel.

(b) Because the Assembly of the United Nations has resolved that the annexation is unlawful, such resolutions having been taken by the said Assembly in the course of its Emergency Session on 17.6.1967 and 21.7.1967 respectively.

(c) Because the Israeli Knesset has no authority that can enable it to annex territory belonging to another State.

(d) That while we declare that the inhabitants of Arab Jerusalem and its environs had already exercised their right of self-determination together with the inhabitants of the West Bank in full freedom when they had opted for Union with the East Bank thus constituting the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, in accordance with the unanimous resolution of the Jordan Parliament dated 24.4.1950.

And that in placing on record that the annexation of Arab Jerusalem is illegal and unilaterally imposed by the occupying power contrary to the wishes of the inhabitants of the city who oppose the annexation and who uphold the integrity of Jordanian territory.

We, at the same time, place on record that the Israeli occupying authorities had interfered illegally and in a manner which is contrary to Islamic Law in Muslim religious matters of which the following are some examples:

(a) The supervision by the Ministry for Religions in Israel over the Friday Sermon which is usually delivered in the Aksa Mosque in Jerusalem and the deletion from the sermon of much of its contents including chapters from the Holy Quran.

(b) Allowing Israeli visitors, men and women, to enter the Aksa Mosque while unsuitably dressed and in a manner which is inconsistent with religious belief and Arab and Islamic traditions.

(c) The destruction of two Muslim Mosques in the Maghrabi Quarter in Jerusalem in addition to the destruction of the whole quarter which is entirely owned by charitable Muslim Waqf property.

(d) Violation of the sanctity of the Ibrahimi Mosque in Hebron and its closure thus preventing Muslims from visiting it throughout the week, with the exception of a few hours on Friday, while at the same time allowing Israelis to visit it throughout the week and perform within it certain ceremonies which are not allowed by Muslim Religious Law.

(e) The interference by the Ministry for Religious Affairs in Israel in matters pertaining to Muslim Waqfs.

(f) The appropriation of Waqf Land known as Al-Nather and situated on the Tour Road in Jerusalem without the knowledge of the Waqf Department and against the interests of the Waqf administration.

(g) The attempt by the Israeli Ministry for religious affairs to interfere in the Muslim Religious Courts including the Supreme Religious Court in Jerusalem.

In view of all the above we request the following:

1. To refrain from infringing upon the safety and political independence of territory belonging to the State of Jordan and to respect the Charter of the United Nations and the principles of Public International Law and the two revolutions of the United Nations Assembly which were adopted during its recent session and which declared as illegal the act of annexation and which called upon Israel to annul the annexation of Arab Jerusalem and its environs to Israel.

2. To desist from interfering with Muslim religious matters including matters of personal status and the system of Muslim Religious Justice and matter pertaining to religious guidance, and to respect the sanctity of the religious ceremonies and Holy Places and not to interfere with Muslim Waqf

3. To respect Arab Judicial religious or administrative and municipal institutions in Arab Jerusalem and to allow the same to undertake all their responsibilities which they have performed before the occupation.

And whereas the principles of Islamic Jurisdiction are clear and enjoin Muslims to undertake all their religious responsibilities in Person in circumstances such as those existing now, and whereas the principle of Muslin Jurisprudence precludes non-Muslims from taking charge of Muslim religious matters, and whereas we, the representative Muslim citizens in the West Bank including Jerusalem have met on this day in the Hall of the Muslim Court of Appeal in Jerusalem, and after discussing the problems relating to Muslim matters in every way in the light of Muslim jurisprudence, we have resolved as follows:

1. The signatories hereunder have constituted themselves as the Muslim Body in charge of Muslim affairs on the West Bank including Jerusalem. Until such time as the occupation lapses.

2. The said body has decided as follows:

(a) Empowering His Emminence Sheikh Abd Al-Hamid Sayeh with the authority enabling him to undertake responsibilities of Chief Justice in the West Bank as defined in the Laws of Jordan.

(b) Empowering the Muslim Court of Appeal in Jerusalem to undertake all the responsibilities of the Council of Islamic Waqfs, the Council empowered to repair Al-Aksa Mosque and the Holy Dome of the Rock as defined in the Laws of Jordan, as well as all the responsibilities and powers vested in the Director-General of Muslim Waqfs.

(c) Empowering Sheikh Hilmi El-Muhtaseb to assume the responsibilities of Director of Muslim Law in addition to his present office as member of Islamic Court of Appeal.

(d) The appointment of H.E. the Mufti of Jerusalem, Sheikh Sa'ad El-Din El-Alami as an additional member of the Muslim Court of Appeal in addition to the present office.

(e) The appointment of H.E. The Muslim Religious Judge of Jerusalem, Sheikh Sa'd Sabri to the membership of the Waqf and Islamic Affairs Council aforesaid and to the Council for the repair of the Mosques as aforesaid.

(f) The above persons shall exercise their jurisdiction and responsibilities in accordance with the Jordan Law applicable on the West Bank including Arab Jerusalem until the occupation lapses.

Signed by:

Anwar El-Khatib Rauhi El-Khatib

Governor of Jerusalem Mayor of Jerusalem

Abd El-Hamid Sayeh Hilmi Al Muhtaseb

President of the Supreme Member of the Supreme

Religious Court Religious Court

Sa'd Sabri Sa'd Ed-Deen El-Alami

Religious Judge in Jerusalem Mufti of Jerusalem

Lawyer Kamal Dajani Lawyer Ibrajim Baker

Aref El-Aref Foud Abd Hadi

Director of the Jerusalem Lawyer and Senator


Abd Rahim El-Sharif Lawyer Hafez Tablob

Lawyer and Senator

Lawyer Sa'd Ala' Eddin Lawyer Omar Wa'ri

Lawyer Abd El-Muhsen Abu Mizer Ishaq Darwish

Ishaw Duzdar Hasan Tahtub

Director of Jerusalem Waqf

Dr. Daoud Husseini Dr. Subhi Ghosheh

Lawyer Anwer Zaki Nusseibeh Ali Tazziz

President of the Chamber of Commerce

Faek Barakat Nihad Abu Gharbieh

D. Resolutions adopted by the Higher Waqf Council and

the Committee for Muslim Affairs on 14 August 1967

The Higher Waqf Council and Committee for Muslim Affairs read in its meeting held on 9 August 1967 the report published by the Jerusalem Post in its issue of 8 August 1967 under the heading "The need to clear 82 metres in the area of Al-Baraq Wall'' and discussed the evolution of the question of the Wailing Wall in its different phases and adopted the following conclusions.

1. The Jews have right of access to the Holy Place called the Wailing Wall, which is the Western Wall to the Holy Mosque, and the Muslims have preserved the Wall throughout the centuries and saw to it that no damage ever occurred.

2. The Jews enjoyed full freedom in using their rights of access to this Wall to conduct prayers and supplications until the 1948 war.

3. The Jews' rights in the Wailing Wall have been established by status quo and tradition.

4. In 1927 during the British Mandate Government, the Jews tried to go beyond their rights, and a bloody incident ensued between them and the Arabs. An official paper (The Western of Wailing Wall) was published by H.M. Mandatory Government in Palestine in 1931, following the resolution adopted by the League of Nations on 14 January 1930 and this paper announced the formation of a judicial Commission to consist of three non-British members. This International Commission, after investigations, gave the following ruling:

(a) The Western Wall is exclusive Muslim property, and Muslims exercise right in rem over the Wall since it is part of the area of the Holy Mosque which is muslim Waqf. Muslims also have right of property over the rasif facing the Wall and over the Maghrabi Quarter in the vicinity of the Wall since they are charitable Muslim Waqf.

(b) The Jews have right of access to the Wall where they can conduct prayers and supplications subject to the following rules.

(c) The door at the northern end of the Wall should be kept closed at certain hours which have to be decided upon and become binding, seeing to it that the Muslims' right of passage on the rasif in the customary way is respected and preserved.

(d) It is prohibited for any person to use the area in front of the Wall or the area adjoining for speeches or political demonstrations of any type.

(e) Since the Wall is an historical site, the Administration in Palestine should undertake its reconstruction and preservation after consultation with the Higher Muslim Council and the Rabbinical Council.

(f) Failing any action by the Muslim authorities to reconstruct the rasif, the Administration in Palestine should then take the necessary steps to reconstruct it.

(g) The wooden door leading from the rasif to the corner in the northern end of the Wall should remain closed on Saturdays and on Jewish Feast days … etc.

Reference: Palestine Laws 1933, Volume 4, Page 3397 and following – Arab Edition.

5. When the Israeli Authorities occupied Arab Jerusalem with other Arab territories after the June war, they contravened all local and international law or conventions. In the Wailing Wall area they destroyed two Muslim Mosques and a whole quarter, the Maghribi Quarter, rendering its population homeless, although the quarter is a charitable Muslim Waqf, in order to expand.

6. It is established in international laws, and conventions that it is not allowed to infringe upon other peoples' rights in an attempt to expand one's own through the exercise of acclaim to expand. Therefore the above-mentioned actions contravene all laws and conventions.

7. The Israeli Authorities went further in the publication of a story in the Jerusalem Post under the heading ''The need to clear 82 metres in the Area of the Al-Baraq Wall" which contained the following:

It is possible to settle the dispute which arose over the issue of decent behaviour in the area facing the Wall, and specially as regards the separation of women from men in the Area, if the plan drawn up in the Ministry for Religious Affairs to clear 82 metres is executed.
A Committee for Education attached to the Knesset toured the Jewish Holy Places yesterday, and was informed by Chief Rabbi Torin, an official in the Ministry of Religion, that the concerned area is concealed by a number of buildings adjoining the Wall, and that it is possible to destroy these buildings and thus clear 48 metres for those who wish to pray whilst the rest of the area will remain open to the general public.
Chief Rabbi Torin also said that it has been proved that the northern part of the Wall also existed but was concealed by a number of buildings constructed over the centuries, and that the excavations carried out by the Jordanian Authorities showed that the Eastern part of the Wall existed in its entire length, and it is thought that the site for the Southern part also exists, and thus the Walls surrounding the Temple should extend for 480 metres.

In view of all this.

The Higher Council for Muslim Waqf in the Western Bank, in its mentioned capacity and in its capacity as a Muslim Committee responsible with the Director of the Office of Muslim-Waqf, has convened and discussed the dangerous situation referred to by the aforementioned paper, and has decided to put the following on record:

1. The Muslim Committees in the occupied territories on the West Bank do not deny the Jews their traditional rights in the Western Wall.

2. The Muslim bodies, though, point out that the actions referred to in the Jerusalem Post, if accurate, imply the destruction of the honorary corner adjoining the Blessed Aksa Mosque, which is a Holy Muslim Shrine, together wit other buildings, the destruction of the Tankizi School, the site of the Old Religious Court, where a Mosque stands, the destruction of the Institute for Muslim Studies and the Secretariat of the General Islamic Conference, all are religious and historical Muslim sites and charitable Muslim Waqf.

The above-mentioned Muslim bodies hope that the Authorities will take into consideration the consequences of such actions and its repercussions Muslim and international communities, and the damage which such actions cause to the Aksa Mosque, and that it will further take into consideration that it is not permissible to infringe upon the rights of Muslims or to violate the sanctity of their Holy Shrines, and that such actions would contravene all international laws and conventions.

We hope that the Israeli Authorities will reassure the Muslim Community that-it does not contemplate hurting Muslims' susceptibilities concerning their Shrines, Waqf and charitable institutions, and further that the story published in the Jerusalem Post is not accurate and has no support from the Ministry of Religious Affairs or any other Official body.

We have asked the Director of the Office of Muslim Waqf to inform the Military Governor of this meeting and the resolutions adopted in it.


Said Sabri: Member of the Waqf Council and Judge of the Muslim Religious Court in Jerusalem
Hilmi Al Muhtaseb: Member of the Waqf Council and Member of the Supreme Muslim Religious Court
Abdel Hamid El Sayeh: President of the Waqf Council and President of the Supreme Muslim Religious Court
Hassan Tahboub: Director of the Muslim Waqf in Jerusalem.
Sa'd El-Din Alami: Member of the Waqf Council and Mufty of Jerusalem

E. Document dated 22 August 1967 submitted by

Sheikh Abd Al-Hamid Al Sayeh and twenty-
eight other personalities

In the Name of God the Merciful the Compassionate

Ruling by the Muslim Jurists

In view of the publication of an article in the Jerusalem Post on 8 August 1967 under the heading: "The need to clear 82 meters adjoining the (Baraq Wall)" which stated that the Ministry for Religious Affairs in Israel had drawn up a plan to clear that area, and that the Committee for Education in the Knesset has toured the Holy Places and was informed by Chief Rabbi Torin, an official in the Ministry for Religion, that the area concerned was hidden by the buildings adjoining the Wall, and that the southern end of the Wall had existed before but was covered by buildings erected over time etc….

And in view of the prayer conducted by the Chief Rabbi of the Israeli Army, Brigadier Goren with some followers in the area of the Al-Aksa Mosque on 15 August 1967, and his statement that he intends to conduct other prayers in the area, and to build a synagogue there, on the pretext that it is some distance from the Al-Aksa Mosque, and Holy Dome of the Rock, and further his statement that the aforementioned area is part of Mount Mora, as alleged in Haaretz in its publication on 16 August 1967.

And in view of the statement by the Minister for Religion in a conference held by Jewish Rabbis for Jewish communities outside Israel in support of Jerusalem, which was held in the Hall of "The Suleiman Temple" in Jerusalem, and which was attended by the world Mizrahi party, representing Jewish communities in Britain, Canada, France and America, and in which the speakers included Dr. Samwel Yorsky, the Chief Rabbi of New York, and its Zionist leader, the Minister for Religion, and Dr. Mitchin, the Chief Rabbi in Britain.

And in view that the aforesaid statement of the Minister contained the following:

"The Liberation of Jerusalem has placed all the Christian Holy Places' and an important part of the Muslim Holy Places, under the province of Israel, and has returned to the Jewish their Holy Places. But Israel has other Holy Places in East Jordan, and the Holy Mosque in Jerusalem, though Holy to other religions (referring to Islam) is a Jewish shrine, but we are not thinking at the present of building our temple there, though we will do all we can about it, and we will build all the Jewish Synagogues in the Old City and enlarge the area of Al-Baraw Wall as soon as possible.
"As to the Holy Ibrahimi Mosque, the Cave is a Jewish shrine which we have bought, in the same way we have bought the Holy Rock in the days of David and the Yabusins, and our rights in the Cave and the Rock are rights of Conquest and acquisition."

And in view of what was reported in a talk with the Minister for Religion in the 18 August 1967 edition of Haaretz that the Cave of Makfila and the Beraq Wall are Jewish by right of conquest and acquisition.

And in view of the far-reaching consequences of the above statements and actions for Jerusalem and the Holiest Muslim Shrines.

We, the Muslim Jurists, Ulama, and Mufties in Jerusalem and the rest of the West Bank in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan announce and declare the following rulings:

1. That the Al-Aksa Mosque and the blessed Ibrahimi Mosque are Muslim Mosques which are Holy to Islam.

2. That the Aksa Mosque is the first place towards which the Muslims turn their faces in prayer, and the third Holiest Mosque in Islam the pilgrimage to which is imperative on all Muslims according to the Hadith of the prophet, may God's blessings and peace be upon him as reported by the Imam Bakhari and others. (The pilgrimage of Muslims should be directed to three Mosques only, this my Mosque (the Prophet's Mosque) and Al-Aksa and Al-Haram Mosques.)

And that the blessed Al-Aksa Mosque was the terminal point of the Prophet's Holy journey, may God's blessing and peace be upon him, and the starting point Of his Holy passage, and that it is imperative on all Muslims throughout the world to safeguard the sanctity of Jerusalem and the blessed Mosque with the same care they safeguard the sanctity of Mecca and its Mosque and protect it from aggression, so that the two terminal points of the Prophet's Holy passage are cared for and cherished, and seem to that easy access to those Mosques is guaranteed to all Muslims throughout the world.

God the most high has ordained; (Mighty is He who transported His Servant at night from El-Haram Mosque to El-Aksa Mosque which We have blessed, as We have blessed the area surrounding it) – from Surat Al-Isra.

3. That the Aksa Mosque referred to includes all the Mosque, which is the Mosque, the surrounding walls, and the doors, which today includes Al-Aksa Mosque, the Holy Dome of the Rock, and the adjoining area.

And that any violation of the sanctity of the area contained within the walls of the Holy Mosque is a violation of the sanctity of the Holy Mosque itself.

And that the jurists and historians have ruled that this area concerned extends 700 pies in length and 455 pies in breadth, whilst others maintained that the area was larger, because of the controversy over the principle of measurement used and the exact measure of a pie.

And that during the Mandatory period it was established after detailed study that the aforesaid area was 140 dunums and 900 metres.

References: Ibn Al-Fakih in 903 AD, Ibn Abd Rabboh Al-Andalusi in his book: Al-Ukd Al-Farid 913 AD, Al-Makdasi in 985 AD, and the Map of the Holy Mosque published in 1944 by the Survey Department, the British Mandate Government.

4. That the Jews have rights in the Wailing Wall established by the status quo and tradition, both during Muslim-Turkish rule and Christian Mandate Government, and that they had fully and freely utilized these rights until the Arab-Jewish war in 1948.

And that the Jews wished to expand these rights in 1929, causing bitter conflict with the Muslims and Arabs, leading to violence and revolution in 1929, and that, as a result of that bloody incident an official paper "The Western or Wailing Wall "was published in Palestine in 1931 by Britain following the resolution adopted by the League of Nations on 14 January 1930, and that this paper announced the appointment of an International Commission to consist of three non-British jurists, and that the Commission after the hearings from leading Muslim and Jewish lawyers, concluded the following ruling:

(a) That the Western Wall is exclusively Muslim property on which Muslims exercise right in rem, since it is contained within the area of the Holy Mosque which is Muslim Waqf, and that Muslims have rights of property over Al-Rasif, which stands before the Wall and before the area known as Moghrabi Quarter adjoining the Wall, since it is, according to Muslim jurisdiction, a Waqf property dedicated to charily.

(b) That the Jews have right of access to the Western Wall to conduct prayers and supplications subject to the following rules.

(c) To keep the door on the tip of the Southern Wall closed on certain hours but to respect the right of access and passage to Muslims on Al-Rasif as customary.

(d) To refrain from using the area before the Wall or its surroundings for speeches or political demonstrations of any kind.

Reference: Palestine Laws 1933, Fourth Volume, page 3397 and following in the Arabic translation editions.

And that this ruling has settled that Arab-Jewish dispute concerning this Holy Place, and has become an international document which has universal application, and under no circumstances should this dispute be allowed to arise again, in the same way that judicial ruling should settle any other dispute.

Thus the expansion in the area of the Wailing Wall is a violation of the right of Muslims in the Moghrabi quarter which is a Muslim Charity Waqf, and the intended expansion, reported in the Jerusalem Post, will imply the destruction of the adjoining corner to the Holy Mosque, and includes a Mosque amongst other houses and buildings, and the destruction of the Tankizi School, on the site of the old Muslim Jurisdiction Court, on which a Mosque, the Institute of Muslim Studies, and the office of the Muslim Conference stand, all of which belong to Muslim Charity Waqfs, and are historical sites which should not be tampered with or touched, and that the aforesaid intention violates Muslim rights and is in ~ contravention to international laws.

5. That the rights of property over the Holy Rock and the Makfila Cave in the Holy Ibrahimi Mosque, established by old traditions and rulings after the passage of fourteen centuries during which the Muslims exercised these rights, are undisputed and that to dispute them is not permissible by any religious convention or rule, or any local or international law, and that to dispute these rights will subject personal and international rights to grave dangers, especially since the Muslims, on entry into this country after the Roman rule, have never Violated the sanctity of the Temple or its relics but acted as custodians for Jews and offered them refuge from the aggression which they suffered throughout to non-Muslim world and that, finally, the site of the Temple has not been established categorically in any religious text, and is controversial issue amongst historians and archaeologists

In view of all this, and following the juridical rulings and historical facts, we declare the following:

Any violation of any part of the area of the Holy Mosque is a violation of the sanctity and holiness of the Mosque itself.

2. That the Ibrahimi Mosque in Hebron, is a Muslim Mosque in its entirety, and that any violation of any part of the shrine is a violation of its sanctity.

3. That the area surrounding the Status of the Wailing Wall, which is the Western Wall to the Holy Mosque, has been settled in the International Ruling mentioned above, and published by the International Commission in 1931, as Muslim property, and this ruling is categoric and binding.

4. That to change the status quo in the Holy Mosque and the Ibrahimi Mosque, or to expand the area of the Wailing Wall is a blatant violation of the sanctity of the Muslim shrines, and constitutes a naked aggression which will have far-reaching consequences not only within the Muslim community in Jerusalem, but throughout the Muslim world and the international community.

5. That the Muslims offer free access to Jews and non-Jews to the Muslim holy places, subject to the condition that this access is treated with the behaviour and decency imperative in respecting the sanctity of these Holy shrines.

Signed by: Jerusalem, 22 August 1967

1. Abd Al-Hamid Al Sayeh Chief Jurist in the Western Bank and President of the Court of Appeal

2. Said Abd Allah Sabri Chief Judge of Jerusalem and Member of the Muslim Institute

3. Suleiman Al Ja'bari Religious Instructor in the Ministry of Education

4. Mustafa Tahbub Chief Judge of Hebron

5. Wasef Abdo Chief Judge of Jennin

6. Sufian Al-Khalidi Chief Judge of Tulkarem

7. Abd Al-Hai Arafah Mufti of Hebron

8. Rashad Al-Hilwani Tamimi Member of Muslim Institute and Teacher at the Ibrahimi Mosque

9. Yasin Sadeq Al-Pakri Imam and Teacher at the Al-Aksa Mosque

10. Abd El-Kader Abdeen Teacher at the Aksa Mosque

11. Ahmad El-Khatib Roving Preacher for the Ramallah area

12. Yunis Abu Rab Preacher for Jennin

13. Fath Allah Salmudi Preacher and Imam of Silwad Mosque

14. Saleh El-Silwadi From the Ulama

15. Rateb Al Duwick Chief Clerk in the Court of Bethlehem

16. Hilmi Muhtaseb Member of the Court of Appeal

17. Said Eddin Alami Mufti of Jerusalem

18. Mohd. As'ad Imam Husseini Chief Judge in Ramallah

19. Jum'ma Al-Silwadi Chief Judge in Nablus

20. Rajab Bayood Tammimi Chief Judge in Bethlehem

21. Mohd. Said Al-Jamal Assistant Chief Judge in Jericho

22. Tawfiq Jarrar Mufti of Jennin

23. Jamil El-Khatib Preacher and Imam of the Aksa Mosque

24. Mohd. Khalil El-Takruri Imam and Teacher at the Aksa Mosque

25. Akramah Sabri Teacher at the Muslim Institute

26. Yousef El-Silwadi Chief Preacher in Ramallah Area

27. Mohd. Khalawi Jolani Chief Preacher in Bethlehem

28. Abd El-Sam'eh Hasan Rifa'ei Imam and Preacher in Mosque of Bethlehem

29. Mahmoud Al-Habeeh From the Ulama




A. Survey of Activities Undertaken by Government Ministries to Implement the Reunification of Jerusalem

This survey summarizes the activities undertaken by the Government Ministries in charge of services and economics after the reunification of Jerusalem. These activities were primarily concerned with the renewal and establishment of vital services to the civilian population and the return to normal of economic and commercial conditions.

During this period preparations were also made for the expansion of government services, such as preparations for opening the schools for the new academic year beginning September 1, arragements for introducing student medical services and opening of social welfare offices under the auspices of the Ministry for Social Welfare and the Jerusalem Municipality.

I. Activities of Service Ministries and the Jerusalem Municipality

1. Ministry of Health

a. Activation of Services

All health services functioning before June 5 have been reinstituted with the former medical, administrative and maintenance staffs remaining at their posts under the supervision and professional direction of the Ministry of Health.

Because organisation and level of services are of a lower standard than those in Israel, the Israeli supervisory staff is working with the local employees to improve gradually the quality of services.

b. Institutions Operating

1. Government hospital with a 104 bed capacity.

2. Health Bureau which sponsors a general clinic offering basic medical services to the population without charge.

In addition to its role as a professional and administrative authority, the Bureau is also concerned with general questions of public health, prevention of malaria, enforcement of work safety ordinances and registration of births and deaths.

3. A blood bank serving the city hospitals and, at present, the hospitals of the West Bank.

4. A central laboratory which provides services for the hospitals of the region (ramallah, Jericho, Bethlehem and Hebron).

5. A Tuberculosis Prevention Centre serving the city and the West Bank.

6. The Ministry assists the Mother and Child Welfare Stations by supplying midwives to some of the stations and granting other forms of aid according to need.

c. Health services functioning with the help of the Ministry of Health :

Jerusalem has six philanthropic-public hospitals with a 383 bed capcity. Attached to these hospitals are clinics offering ambulatory and consultative services. The Ministry of Health provides these institutions with laboratory and blood bank services, vaccines, etc.

d. The licensing of medical personnel is in process, on the basis of a list compiled by the Health Bureau.

e. Standard innoculation given to the Israeli population will be extended automatically to East Jerusalem residents.

f. The Minister of Health appointed a Commission to study East Jerusalem health services and submit a comprehensive health programme including recommendations on organisation and activities of health services and delineation of areas of responsibility of the various service bodies involved.

g. The Hospital Authority is at present examining the question of hospital facilities available in United Jerusalem, including those of East Jerusalem and Mt. Scopus.

2. Ministry of Posts

a. Mail and Telegraph Service.

On July 5, 1967 the first East Jerusalem Post Office branch was inaugurated across from Herod's Gate. All branch workers are former employees of the Jordanian Postal Services. The branch is open 7 days a week and offers a complete range of postal services. These include telegram delevery to all of East Jerusalem, with the exceptions of Shufat and Beit Hanina where branches are to be openend shortly.

b. Telephone

After the East Jerusalem telephone system was repaired, the lines were connected to the national network on July 31, 1967. All services, including international connections, are now available in East Jerusalem. Some lines are still undergoing repairs, but the Ministry of Posts hopes to have the entire network completed within 4 weeks.

3. Ministry for Religious Affairs

a. Activities of the Department for Moslem and Druze Affairs.

This Department is in contact with the various Moslem institutions in East Jerusalem, including the Shari's Court of Appeals, the Shari'a Kadi, the School for the training of Religious leaders and the administrators of the Moslem religious sites.

The Ministry for Regligious Affairs has allotted the sums requested by the Moslem leaders to pay the June salaries of their employees.

The Minister for Religious Affairs has met with the Moslem Kadi to discuss various problems concerned with the Shari'a Courts. Arrangements have been made to continue with the repair work at the al-Aksa Mosque.

In response to the request of the Kadis, and in consultation with them, an agreement concerning visits to the Moslem Holy Places has been reached.

b. Activities of the Department of Christian Affairs.

Immediately after the cessation of fighting, contact with Church leaders residing in East Jerusalem was resumed. It should be pointed out that most of the Jerusalem Patriarchs and Bishops remained in communication with the Ministry for Religious Affairs over issues including the unification of Jerusalem during their visits to Church institutions in Israel,

The Ministry assisted the Church leaders with such problems as war damages, exemption from taxation, travel permits and documents for travel abroad.

In consultation with Christian leaders, arrangements were made concerning access to the Christian Holy Places.

The Ministry for Religious Affairs, in cooperation with the Police and the Ministry of Labour, cleared the approach to the Western Wall. Necessary improvements of paths leading to the Wall have been made, as well as plans for the paving of existing and constructing of new approaches.

4. Ministry of Education and Culture

a. Children and Schools

Establishing of compulsory kindergartens –

The Jordanian Compulsory Education law does not include kindergarten attendance for children above the age of five. To remedy this, the Ministry of Education and Culture has prepared a programme for the gradual introduction of compulsory kindergarten education and the establishment of such kindergartens. At the commencement of the 1967 academic year, parents will be informed of the opening of kindergartens attached to government elementary schools as is done in the Arab schools in Israel.

During the coming academic year, the Ministry of Education will retain the educational structure prevailing in East Jerusalem before the War. Accordingly, Junior High School comprises the 7th, 8th and 9th years of schooling. the Ministry will administer examinations for passing into the 10th grade as was done under the Jordanian regime, and will set graduated school fees for the 10th, 11th and 12th years.

The Ministry of Education has made arrangements to retain the teaching and administrative staff formerly employed by the Jordanian Government. Nine former officials of the Regional Education Office of Jordan are assisting with the necessary preparations for the opening of the academic year.

b. Department of Antiquities and Museums

Immediately after the War, the Department of Antiquities and Museums was entrusted with the responsibility for the Rockefeller Museum and its collection. The Department immediately began examination of the exhibits and has taken the necessary steps to safeguard the building and collections. Though the building and some of its exhibits were damaged during the war, the museum was reopened to the public on July 11; 1967. The Dead Sea Scrolls which were removed to safety before the fighting were found. A number of former Jordanian employees have resumed their work at the Museum.

Archeological work in East Jerusalem has been renewed; and, Kathleen Kenyon, the British archeologist, has resumed with her 4 excavations in East Jerusalem.

5. Ministry of Police

The activities of the Ministry of Police may be divided into two major periods:

– end of hostilities until reunification (June 29, 1967);

– from reunification onward.

During the first stage, the police was primarily occupied with assisting the military forces in protecting the historical and holy sites, preventing looting, directing traffic, supervising traffic between the two sectors of the city, etc.

With the transfer of Jerusalem from military to civilian responsibility, the police were given the task of controling traffic to the Holy Places To date 36 local policemen and officers have been hired out of a total of 100 planned to be added to the Israeli Police Force. Former regional

police personnel are now working with the Israeli force. Thirty policemen will be placed at the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, the Mosques of Omar and al-Aksa and the Western Wall.

6. Ministry of Justice

The Ministry has taken over the existing Land Register Books in order to allow continuation of land transactions.

According to regulations promulgated by the Minister of Justice, East Jerusalem lawyers may continue to practice without the need of additional examinations.

7. Ministry for Social Welfare

The Ministry for Social Welfare conducted a study of welfare institutions in East Jerusalem to facilitate continuation of their food distribution activities. In coordination with the Juvenile Court and the Police, arrangements were made for probation Officers to continue their work with children under their care.

In coordination and cooperation with the Jerusalem Municipality, the Ministry is basing its activities upon the following:

Continuation of welfare payments at their previous standard, to persons deemed needy by the Jordanian Government;

Registration of new welfare cases since the War;

Opening of a Welfare Bureau in the Old City;

Employment of 5 former Jordanian welfare workers who previously served in East Jerusalem.

The Regional Bureau of the Ministry of Social Welfare and the Municipal Social Department are drawing up a programme for the gradual improvement of welfare services to the level in West Jerusalem.

8. Ministry of Labour

a. Surveys of the various areas within the Ministry's sphere of responsibility are being carried out. These cover cooperative enterprises, vocational education institutions, industrial plants, trades, services and labour relations. With completion of the surveys in the near future, a comprehensive programme of activity will be formulated.

b. Legal aspects concerning the labour situation are being studied – – for example, corporations which were registered under Jordan as cooperative societies, or labour contracts which were registered as collective agreements.

The Ministry will make special budgetary allotments for implementation of its services in eastern Jerusalem.

d. Services offered to the public:

1. A Labour Bureau was openend which operates according to the 1959 Labour Services Law and handles registration of job-seekers. centralization of requests for labour and notification of suitable job-seekers and provision of relief work.

2. Establishing contact with employers (governmental and public bodies during the first stage) to bring to their attention the responsibilities of employers toward their workers and the work-safety regulations (work accidents, building activities, overtime-work hours, etc). The distribution of such information has already started, though communication problems related to the difference between the spoken and written language have arisen.

3. Investigations of work accidents and safety-inspection visits have begun.

4. The Ministry's Public Works Department is executing the following:

Building for the Ministry for Religious Affairs near the Western Wall;

Repairing of the Church at David's Tower;

Repairing of war damage to the Rockefeller Museum;

Completing of government hospital (at Sheih Jarra);

Repairing of war damage to Old City Walls near Damascus Gate;

Constructing of Post Office;

When possible the Department responds to request from various government ministries (Toursim, Prime Minister's Office, etc.) and at present is negotiating with UNRWA concerning work on their buldings.

9. Ministry of the Interior

On June 26, 1967 a census was taken by the Ministry of the Interior, in cooperation with the Central Bureau of Statistics.

The Ministry has opened a Bureau for registration of citizens and offering necessary services, principally distribution of identity cards.

10. Ministry of Transport

a. After a survey, the Ministry of Transport issued new automobile and drivers licenses (private and commercial vehicles) to East Jerusalem residents. With the exchange of licenses, third person liability insurance was also arranged. The Ministry is preparing qualifications regulations for public transportation.

b. Licenses for operation of buses in East Jerusalem have been issued. Permits are valid for a three-month period, until vehicles are inspected and the traffic schedule organised.

c. The Ministry has made the necessary arrangements for testing all vehicles in the city.

d. The Ministry is conducting a survey of all automobile owners in East Jerusalem. When the survey is completed; the Ministry will decide upon issuance of licenses to East Jerusalem residents, according to the criteria applied in West Jerusalem.

e. The Ministry has permitted the operation of two car rental agencies and, in coordination with the Ministry of Tourism, of touring cars.

f. The Minister of Transport appointed a Commission to study transportation problems resulting from the reunification of the city. The Commission's recommendations will be implemented by the Ministry of Transport, in cooperation with the Ministry of Finance and the Jerusalem Municipality.

11. The Jerusalem Municipality

With the decision to reunite Jerusalem, the Municipality extended all its services to East Jerusalem, though, in reality, vital services were provided immediately after the War.

a. Municipal Services

The Supply of water, the most important municipal service, was resumed with the connection of the water networks of both parts of the city shortly after the War ended. The water allotment of East Jerusalem was increased and a plan for further expansion of the water supply is being executed. The Jerusalem Municipality accepted responsibility for the maintenance of its water sources though these lay outside the municipal area. The Municipality also improved and repaired the water supply system in the villages within her jurisdiction (Shufat and Sur Bahar).

Sanitation and Public Health services were considerably expanded and the Municipality ordered new mechanized equipment and trash containers. The Public Health Department conducted anti malaria examinations and improved municipal health installations.

The Central Bus Station has been repaired and the fire-fighting services reorganised.

The Municipality is devising a plan for those areas which were previously "no-man's-land". As the first step, it has torn down several structures and cleared roads for passage between the 2 parts of the city.

b. Reorganisation of Administration in the United City

1. Municipal departments have been merged and their employees have joined the unified departments. The Departments of Public Health and Sanitation and Municipal Supervision have moved to the East Jerusalem Municipality building.

2. Former employees whose jobs were eliminated by the department mergers were places in a "pool" and efforts are being made to find them other employment.

3. Absorption of workers in government services transferred to the municipality has begun (education, welfare, public health).

4. Labour procedures and registration rules have been set.

II. Activities of Government Ministries concerned with Economic Conditions

1. Ministry of Finance

The Ministries of Finance and Commerce and Industry are working toward the resumption of normal economic activity as rapidly as possible. The Foreign Currency Department has instituted the procedures necessary to handle the requests of East Jerusalem residents. Sections of the Foreign Currency Act are being translated into Arabic, particularly those dealing with tourism in order to facilitate resumption of tourist activities in Jerusalem. The Income Tax and Import Tax Departments have also take all necessary action to permit normal functioning within their spheres of responsibility.

2. Ministry of Commerce and Industry

The Ministry of Commerce and Industry is conducting a survey of trade in East Jerusalem. The Ministry is in contact with the Jerusalem Chamber of Commerce which has a membership of 1, 500. Ministry controllers have visited factories and workshops and have advised their owners on such subjects as acquisition of raw materials, import licenses, etc. Food wholesalers are being informed that they must hold permits from the Ministry in order to continue their trade,

3. Ministry of Tourism

The Ministry surveyed and registered all persons connected with tourism in Jerusalem. Representatives of the Ministry met separately with all those involved in the tourist industry in order to gather information and clarify existing problems.

a. Hotels

A general survey of hotels was conducted, including establishing the number of rooms and level of services offered. Once hotels were classified according to the system prevailing in Israel, they were permitted to accept tourists. Hotel owners met with Ministry officials and decided upon price levels, which were then published in Israel and abroad, The Ministry of Tourism is processing requests for loans for hotel renovations. ,Negotiations on the Inter-continental Hotel have been concluded and management will pass to the company within a few days.

b. Publications

A new map of Old Jerusalem and a pamphlet on Christian and Moslem Holy Places have been published, as has a booklet on the Jewish Holy Places. A revised pamphlet on Jerusalem is in the final stage of execution and a new publication on Christian pilgrimage is being prepared.

c. Travel Agencies

Temporary permits have been issued to travel agencies which will gradually be exchanged for permanent licenses once the agencies fulfill the Israeli requirements.

d. Tourist Guides

East Jerusalem guides will be able to escort tourists on the basis of a temporary permit. To receive the permanent license, a guide is required to undergo instruction according to existing regulations.

e. Stores

Registration of East Jerusalem stores is in process.

f. Tours

Tours which include all the historical and holy places of the three religions have been organized.

August 25, 1967

B. Activities Report of the Joint Municipality in East Jerusalem – July 1967

Municipal services have been in full operation since 29 June. In fact, they began to function right at the beginning of June, when the municipality was acting as the agent of the Military Government. In providing the services, the following principles were observed:

a. Union of the two parts of the city.

b. Equalisation of services.

c. A standard of services compatible with the needs of the capital of Israel.

The municipality did not co-afire itself to the services which it is required by law and custom to supply. It also dealt with such other matters as care of refugees, repairing war damage, tackling economic and employment problems, transportation, and the safeguarding of the Holy Places.

I. Plans, Surveys and Coordination

1. A provisional programme of activities and a draft budget has been drawn up. After the financial committee had reviewed the draft budget, it was submitted to the Ministry of Finance and the Ministry of the Interior and by the end of the month items of its several sections – an ordinary, extraordinary and a development budget – were generally approved.

2 A Population and Housing Census was carried out to gather the data necessary for planning municipal operations and drawing up the tax assessment schedule and the overall system of taxation.

3. A Business Census is being planned for the purposes of statutory commercial taxes and licensing processes.

4. Meetings were held with institutions interested in statistical material, and Jordanian statistical sources, dispersed as a result of the War, were located.

5. Meetings were also held with organs interested in physical and mapping data and again Jordanian sources of information were located and made available.

6. A survey of municipal lands and buildings was conducted and an inventory drawn up. The former municipality's assets and liabilities, were checked, contracts and the system of taxation were examined.

7. A water supply scheme, to be operated until 1969, was prepared.

8. The Falk Project for Economic Research was asked to prepare a medium-term economic, social and cultural development plan, and a "brains trust" was assembled to help the planners in their work.

9. A commission of sculptors and painters, architects and graphic artists was set up to draft directives for "street furnishings" in the Old City such as street signs and lighting.

10. A survey of school premises was conducted with a view to opening the new school year in September.

11. A transport survey was carried out and road building priorities were determined in the light of transport problems arising out of the unification of the City.

12. The municipality was represented in planning teams formed to restore the Jewish quarter of the Old City.

II. Administrative Reorganisation

1. The unification of Departments and the redistribution of workers were completed. The Sanitation and Street Cleaning Department and the Municipal Inspection Department were shifted to the Old City municipal offices.

2. Workers were integrated into Departments; those awaiting integration have been placed in a "pool" and efforts are being made to find suitable employment for them.

3. Integration was begun of Old City civil servants in municipal departments such as education, social welfare, and public health.

4. Work and registration procedures were laid down.

III. Municipal Services

1. Street Cleaning and Sanitation – Garbage disposal was partly rationalised and mechanised. Over 150 people were taken on in this department. New mechanical equipment, garbage containers and dust-bins were ordered. The Sanitation Department of West Jerusalem carried out anti-malarial tests and found many anopheles-infested drains. The abattoir is being overhauled and the garbage dump has been transferred to an empty site east of Anatot.

2. Maintenance of Public Property – Damaged street lamps were repaired and part of war-damaged roads; public parks were put in shape again and repairs of the central bus terminal were started. The fire brigade was reorganised and a temporary station set up at the airport.

3. Town Planning – The demolition of buildings in the former no-man's land was completed. Bubble was cleared away, and dividing barriers were taken down in the Jaffa, Mamilla, St George, Hebron and Bethlehem roads, and Pope's – Mount Zion-Gate Road, and in a temporary track next to Suleiman Road, all of which are now open to traffic. Traffic regulations have been laid down and entry of vehicles into the Old City is barred.

4. Stores and Supplies – The municipal stores were transferred to suitable buildings in the eastern part of the City.

5. Municipal Inspection – Inspection of compliance with municipal by-laws began. At first, municipal inspectors were posted at the entrances to the El Aqsa mosque and the Church of the Holy Sepulchre to ensure that visitors behave with due respect, but the Police are now in charge.

6. Miscellaneous – Hebrew names were given to twenty-two streets in the Old City. The by-laws of West Jerusalem were translated into Arabic.

7. Tourism – The Citadel is being cleared so that it may be opened to the public A Tourist Information Office run by the municipality and the Ministry of Tourism jointly has been opened at Jaffa a Gate. The Cave of Zedekiah is under preparation for tourists! visits. Plans for a "son et lumiere" spectacle are under way. The municipality has attended discussions between the Ministry of Tourism and the agencies and parties concerned to deal with the problems of the tourist industry.

8. Water – The networks of the two parts of the city were joined and the amount of water supplied to East Jerusalem was greatly increased. Expansion of the system in East Jerusalem is proceeding according to an approved development programme; consumers were registered and meters are being installed. Besides current maintenance of the sources outside the city Ein Farrah, Ein Fuar, Ein Kelt and Solomon's Pools – the supplies to the villages of Shaafat and Tsur Baher, which are under municipal jurisdiction, were repaired and improved.

IV. National Services

1. Education and Culture – The necessary arrangements were made in coordination with the Ministry of Education and Culture for the commencement of the school year on 1 September. Buildings were prepared, furniture was examined and textbooks were ordered. Meetings were held with the administrative staff and school inspectors, and the public libraries were checked.

2. Youth and Sports – A basketball match has already taken place between teams from l East and West Jerusalem.

3. Social Welfare – The Social Welfare Department are to begin operations shortly: funds and instructions are awaited from the Ministry of Social Welfare.

4. Public Health – Preparations were made for school health services to be extended once the new school year begins. Ten nurses and two doctors will be required. It is also proposed to open at least two Mother-and-Child Clinics in East Jerusalem, and ore in Silwan.

V. Public Relations

Meetings between corresponding professional and social organizations in East and West Jerusalem were arranged, and meetings and tours in the villages incorporated within the municipal bounds were hold. Contact was maintained with ecclesiastical and other organizations principally to assist them in repairing war damage that may have been caused to their buildings. The mayor and his officers made the acquaintance of the new Arab employees of the municipality at a special meeting.

Steps were taken to obtain loan funds for commercial enterprises suffering from a shortage of working capital. Workers referred to the municipality by the Labour Exchange were employed on relief allocations.




Israel officials and other personalities

Mr. Levi Eshkol, Prime Minister of Israel
Dr. Y. Herzog, Director of the Prime Minister's Office
Mr. Abba Eban, Minister for Foreign Affairs
Rabbi Warhaftig, Minister for Religious Affairs
Mr. A. Levavi, Director-General, Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Mr. A. Lourie, Acting Director-General, Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Mr. Y. Tekoah, Deputy Director-General, Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Mr. Teddy Kollek, Mayor of Jerusalem
Mr. J. Gadish, Director of the Arab Department at the Ministry of Education
Mr. D. de Shalit, Ministry of Tourism
Mr. I. Zuriel, Ministry of Tourism
Ambassador A. Chelouche, Director of the Economic Department at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Mr. Menashe Eliachar, President of the Chamber of Commerce
Dr. Carpas, Acting Director of Hadassa Hospital
Mr. Raphael Levi, Assistant District Officer

Arab personalities

Abd Al-Hamid Al Sayeh, President of the Sharia Court of Appeal
Hilmi Al-Muhtaseb, Member of the Sharia Court of Appeal
Sa'ad El-Din Alami, Mufti of Jerusalem
Mr. Anwar Zaki Nusseibeh, Lawyer, Member of Parliament for Jerusalem, ex-Minister of Defence, and former Jordanian Ambassador to London
Mr. Anton Attallah, Senator and former Minister for Foreign Affairs
Mr. Rauhi al-Khatib, Mayor of East Jerusalem
Dr. George Farah, Director of Augusta Victoria Hospital
Mr. Ayoub Musallam, ex-Minister, ex-Mayor of Bethelem
Mr. Hassan Abdul Fattah Darwish, ex-Member of Jordanian Parliament
Mr. Jalil Harb, Cinema and hotel owner

Religious authorities

Rabbi Y. Untermann, Chief Rabbi of Israel
Patriarch Benedictus of the Greek Orthodox Church
Patriarch Gori of the Latin Church
Patriarch Deridian of the Armenian Church
Monsignor Sepinski, Apostolic Delegate
Archimandrite Antony, Head of the Russian Orthodox Mission in Jerusalem
Archbishop McInnes of the Church of England
Abbot Rudloff (Benedictine), Dormition Monastery
Bishop A. Yossef of the Abyssinian Church
Bishop Bazileus of the Coptic Church
Bishop Qubaim (Arab) of the Anglican Church
Bishop Elias Ziade of the Maronite Church
Monsignor Naoum, Syrian Catholic Church
Father Joseph Alliot (Franciscan), First Assistant to the Custodian of the Holy Land


Share This Story, Choose Your Platform!

Go to Top