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Committee on the Rights of the Child

Sixty-third session

27 May – 14 June 2013

Implementation of the Convention on the Rights of the Child

List of issues to be taken up in connection with the consideration of the combined second, third and fourth periodic reports of Israel (CRC/C/ISR/2-4)

Addendum

Written replies of Israel*

________________

 * In accordance with the information transmitted to States parties regarding the processing of their reports, the present document was not edited.  



Replies to the issues raised in the Committee’s list of issues (CRC/C/ISR/Q/2-4)

Part I

Reply to the issues raised in part I, paragraph 1, of the list of issues

a. Legislation enacted to expressly prohibit discrimination within the jurisdiction of the State party

1. The principle of equality is a fundamental principle in the Israeli legal system as apparent both in legislation and adjudication.
2. The Basic Law: Human Dignity and Liberty protects basic guarantees of personal liberty within the framework of Israel's Jewish and democratic character. The goal of the Basic Law is “to defend Human Dignity and Liberty, in order to establish in a Basic Law the values of the State of Israel as a Jewish and democratic State.”
3. Just as the Israeli legislature crafts and adopts both new laws and administrative measures to ensure that government agencies adhere to the principle of equality and do not engage in any discriminatory act or practice, the country’s independent judiciary serves to interpret, guide, and enforce these measures.
4. This judicial effort is also guided by the Supreme Court, which plays a pivotal role in the promotion of the principle of equality through the development of jurisprudence dealing with contentious and highly charged political and security-related issues.
5. Section 144B of the Penal Law 5737-1977 (the “Penal Law”) provides for a penalty of up to five years' imprisonment for a person who publishes with the intent to incite to racism, and Section 144D of the Penal Law provides for a penalty of up to one year imprisonment for a person who holds such a publication with the intent to publish it. Racism is defined in the Law as “persecution, humiliation, vilification, the display of enmity or violence, or the causing of animosity towards a community or parts of the population, by reason of color, racial origin or national-ethnic origin”.
6. Section 144C of the Law further prohibits publication or dissemination of materials with the intent to incite to racism, even if ineffectual in result. The punishment is up to five years imprisonment.
7. Sections 144D2 and 144D3 of the Penal Law criminalize the publication of a call for acts of violence or terrorism or even praise, support or encouragement for such an act, support or identification with it, where the call is likely to lead to violence.
8. An amendment dated November 2004, inserted a section titled “Hate Offences” – consisting of Section 144F – “Offences motivated by racism or hostility towards the public – under “aggravated circumstances” which set the punishment to be emitted by the Court to be either double the penalty set to certain offences or ten years imprisonment, the lesser of the two. This applies if the offence was performed out of racist motives against a population due to religion, religious group, ethnic origin, sexual orientation or due to them being migrant workers.
9. In addition, Section 133 of the Penal Law prohibits the encouragement of hatred between different sections of the population. It carries a punishment of up to five years imprisonment.
10. In accordance with Section 46(a)(2) of the Second Authority for Television and Radio Law 5750-1990, and Section 6(25) of the Telecommunications Law (Bezeq and Broadcasts) 5742-1982 (the “Telecommunications Law”), the holders of licenses and concessions for cable TV services must not transmit any broadcast which contains racial incitement. They are further bound to take any measure necessary to ensure that no broadcast is liable to incite to discrimination on grounds of religion, race, nationality, gender, ethnic background, lifestyle or origin. The Telecommunications Law further stipulates under Section 6(57) that this obligation also applies to satellite broadcasts.
11. The defamation of any group as such, including national, racial or religious groups, is prohibited by law (Section 4 of the Prohibition of Defamation Law5725-1965).  
12. The Prevention of Terrorism Ordinance 5708-1948, addresses individuals supporting a terrorist organization. Section 4(b) stipulates that a person, either verbally or in writing, publicly praises, favors, or calls for support or assistance to a terrorist organization will be charged with committing an offence. Accordingly, several racist organizations were declared terrorist organizations.
13. The legal position with respect to discrimination in the private sector has changed dramatically due to the enactment of the Prohibition of Discrimination in Products, Services and in Entry into Places of Entertainment and Public Places Law 5761-2000 (the “Prohibition of Discrimination in Products, Services and in Entry into Places of Entertainment and Public Places Law”). The enactment of the Law has substantially limited the possibility of discrimination occurring in the private sector. Section 3 of the Law prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, religion or religious affiliation, nationality, country of origin, gender, sexual orientation, views, political affiliation, personal status or physical disability in the provision of public products or services, and in the permission of entrance to a public place, by an individual who provides such products or services, or operates a public place. Violation of this prohibition is both a civil tort and a criminal offence, and according to Section 5(a) of the Law, the Tort Ordinance applies to such civil torts. Moreover, Section 5(b) allows the court to grant compensation of no more than 50,000 NIS (US$ 13,785), without requiring proof of damage, as a result of a violation of this Law. Section 11 applies the provisions of this law to the State, and has been interpreted broadly as applying to a host of public places, including schools, libraries, pools, stores, and all other places serving the public. The following are two recent examples of court decisions implementing the Law:
14. On November 10, 2011, the Tel-Aviv Magistrate Court accepted a suit filed by a man, claiming he was refused to enter a nightclub in Tel-Aviv due to his skin color. The Court stated that the club violated the Law, since no rational reason regarding the prevention of entrance was given. Moreover, the respondents has failed to prove that their business' policy do not constitute prohibited practice of costumers discrimination on the grounds of race and/or origin, as required by the Law. The Court stated that according to the Law, the club's owners are liable for the violation, since they did not prove they have taken reasonable steps to prevent discriminative behavior at their business. The Court awarded the plaintiff compensation of 17,000 NIS (US$ 4,687) (C.M. 969-03-11 Jacob Horesh v. Tesha Bakikar LTD (10.11.11)).
15. On September 23, 2011, the Hadera Magistrate Court accepted a suit filed by two men, who claimed they were discriminated at the entry to a nightclub due to their dark skin color. The plaintiffs based their argument on the Prohibition of Discrimination in Products, Services and in Entry into Places of Entertainment and Public Places Law and demanded to be compensated by the respondents. The Court stated that the fact that the plaintiffs were prevented from entering the club, while their fair-skinned friend entered with no delay, establishes the presumption set by the Law, according to which they were discriminated by the respondents. The Court further stated that the respondents did not manage to contradict the presumption that they apply discriminative attitude toward the plaintiffs, yet their general entry policy was not questioned within the statement of claims. Therefore, the Court ruled that the plaintiffs are entitled to a relative compensation of NIS 15,000 each (US$ 4,135). (C.C 46945-05-10 Ziv Sayag et. al. v. Key Entrepreneurship Art of Recreation and Leisure LTD et. al (23.9.11)).

b. Legislation, policies and programmes to prevent discrimination, against Arab Israeli, Bedouins, Ethiopians and other minorities

16. The State of Israel constantly invests extensive efforts in promoting equality between the various population and streams (both in the Jewish and Arab populations) and to bridge the gaps between the different populations.

Human Rights Education

17. The Ministry of Education attaches great importance to human rights education and to raising awareness to human rights in general. The Ministry has on its website a special page titled “Pupil's Rights” that presents the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), the Optional Protocol regarding Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict (CRC-OP-AC) and the Optional Protocol on the Rights of the Child on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography (CRC-OP-SC). The CRC Convention is published on the Ministry's website in several languages, in addition to child-friendly versions published in several languages, including Hebrew. In addition the Ministry has on its website other human rights treaties such as the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, the International Convention on Civil and Political Rights and others.
18. In 2011, the Ministry of Education drafted a child-Friendly version of the CRC, which was distributed to every school in the system, as part of an educational commitment to the rights anchored in the Convention by the Ministry of Education. The pupils that took part in this project established, along with UNICEF-Israel, youth groups titled “Rights Trustees”, aimed at informing the public of the rights enclosed in the Convention and aimed at implementing its provisions in wider aspects of their lives.
19. All of the Human Rights Conventions and Protocols Israel is a party to can be found on the web site of the Ministry of Justice in Hebrew, English, and Arabic. Also, the full body of work with the Human Rights Bodies – reports, list of issues, replies, concluding observations etc., can also be found on the web site of the Ministry of Justice.
20. Educational programs concerning human rights issues are routinely conducted throughout the country. Israel has developed special programs such as an annual “Human Rights Day”. Each year, “Human Rights Day” is dedicated to a different aspect of human rights, and a relevant curriculum and teaching material is developed in both Arabic and Hebrew.  
21. An additional program developed by the Ministry of Education is titled “Sachten”, targeting pupils throughout Israel, of all religions, aimed at best notifying the pupils of the rights enshrined in the Convention as part of civil leadership in the community.
22. The Ministry of Education routinely operates Gender Equality programs of 20 to 28 two-hour sessions within the education system (these programs are also conducted to teachers (a 30 to 60 hour programs) and in colleges and universities (112 hour program). In 2011, 988 groups of 28,627 (52.8% of the Arab population) pupils and 1,529 teachers participated in these programs. These sessions also include activities with the pupils' parents.
23. The Gender Equality in Education Department in the Ministry of Education routinely operates workshops and seminars for pupils and staff. The 2010-2011 total annual budget according to the Department stood at 4,140,000 NIS (US$ 1,141,439). Among the activities: seminars 440,000 NIS (US$ 121,312), training days 580,000 NIS (US$ 159,911), different projects 2,070,000 NIS (US$ 570,719), national conference 900,000 NIS (US$ 248,138) etc.
24. The Department also operated a program titled “Prevention of Trafficking in Women and Prostitution” for pupils and teachers, that included development of lessons plans, conducting conferences and workshops etc., with a total budget of 206,000 (US$ 56,796).
25. Since 2005, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, in cooperation with several NGOs and the Office of the United Nations Special Coordinator for the Middle East Peace Process, has sponsored the simulation program “Israel Model United Nations” (IMUN), with the participation of numerous Jerusalem based high-schools from all parts of the city and all segments of society. The project strives to expose participants to the United Nations' activities, raising awareness of the major challenges confronting the global arena, whilst instilling a spirit of tolerance and inter-cultural dialogue. Forming part of the well-established Model United Nations program that operates extensively throughout the world, the program goes some way towards improving the image of the United Nations in Israel.

c. Steps taken to follow up on the Durban Declaration and Programme of Action

26. Israel fully supports the international struggle against racism. The Jewish people have been a victim of racism throughout history. For that reason, Israel, like many other states, regretted that the Durban Conference of 2001 and the subsequent conference of 2009, which were meant to deal with the important subject of elimination of racism were diverted and politicized. Instead of truly discussing the international struggle against racism and xenophobia, those conferences served as a platform to denigrate Israel. The Durban Declaration and Programme of Action themselves were unfortunately full with anti-Semitic undertones, singled out the Palestinian-Israeli conflict and displayed hatred for Israel and Jews. Therefore, Israel and other responsible states have been forced to abstain from any participation in the Conferences or their concluding documents.
27. However, Israel shares many of the important anti-racism principles which were also raised during those conferences and in other international instruments. Indeed, both prior to the international initiative of 2001, and consistently in the years since, Israel makes tremendous efforts to promote the fight against all forms of racism, hate crimes, xenophobia and anti-Semitism around the world.
28. Among its varied activities, Israel signed and ratified the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (CERD) in 1979 and reports regularly to its Committee on the measure it takes to comply with the Convention's provisions. Israel is a leader within the Global Forum for Combating Anti-Semitism, which is scheduled to convene for the Fourth time in Jerusalem on May 2013.
29. In addition, Israel partners with European states an annual Israel-EU seminar on the fight against anti-Semitism and xenophobia, which will meet for the seventh time in 2013. Both Israel and the EU assign great importance to this seminar, which reflects a common struggle against the scourges of anti-Semitism and xenophobia.
30. Israel's Permanent Mission to the United Nations, OSCE and International Organizations in Vienna lends its support as a Partner Country to the work being done by the OSCE Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights on tolerance and non-discrimination and closely cooperates with the Personal Representative to the Chair-in-Office of the OSCE on combating Anti-Semitism, Rabbi Andrew Baker.
31. Israel also raises awareness to the fight against all forms of racism, including anti-Semitism through regular participation in international conferences and lectures and by funding education programs on Holocaust remembrance, with the cooperation of United Nations institutions and “Yad Vashem” institute.

Reply to the issues raised in part I, paragraph 2(a), of the list of issues

32. Children of foreigners born in Israel receive an official document that confirms the birth of the child. This document includes the mother's name but not the father's. A birth certificate is given only to a person that is registered in the population registry (according to the Population Registry Law 5725-1965).

Reply to the issues raised in part I, paragraph 2(b), of the list of issues

33. Palestinian children that were born in the eastern neighborhoods of Jerusalem – Palestinians that are registered in the West Bank, similar to other foreigners, receive an official document that confirms the birth of the child. If both parents are residents of the eastern neighborhoods of Jerusalem, the child will receive residency status according to his/her parents' status. In the case that one of the parents is a permanent resident and the other is not, the child receives his/her status according to his habitual residence and the status of the parent he/she is living with. The decision concerning the child's habitual residence will be determined after receiving the appropriate data from relevant sources including the National Insurance Institution concerning the previous two years.

Reply to the issues raised in part I, paragraph 2(c), of the list of issues

34. The International Convention on the Rights of the Child (hereinafter: “CRC” or “the Convention”) is implemented by the Government throughout the State of Israel. According to the Israeli legal system, international conventions, as opposed to customary international law, do not apply directly, but through national legislation. Such is the case with the CRC which is implemented through a wide range of legal instruments, such as basic laws, laws, orders and regulations, municipal bylaws, and court rulings.
35. The applicability of the Convention to the West Bank has been the subject of considerable debate in recent years. In its Periodic Reports, Israel did not refer to the implementation of the Convention in these areas for several reasons, ranging from legal considerations to the practical reality.
36. The relationship between different legal spheres, primarily the Law of Armed Conflict and Human Rights Law remains a subject of serious academic and practical debate. For its part, Israel recognizes that there is a profound connection between human rights and the Law of Armed Conflict, and that there may well be a convergence between these two bodies-of-law in some respects. However, in the current state of international law and state-practice worldwide, it is Israel's view that these two systems-of-law, which are codified in separate instruments, nevertheless remain distinct and apply in different circumstances.  
37. Furthermore, Israel has never made a specific declaration in which it reserved the right to extend the applicability of the Convention with respect to the West Bank. Clearly, in line with basic principles of interpretation of treaty law, and in the absence of such a voluntarily-made declaration, the Convention, which is a territorially bound Convention, does not apply, nor was it intended to apply, to areas outside its national territory.
38. As for family reunification between Israeli citizens with foreign spouses, on July 31, 2003, the Knesset adopted the Citizenship and Entry into Israel Law (Temporary Provision) 5763- 2003 (the “Citizenship Law”) which restricts family reunification of Israeli citizens with Palestinian spouses living in the West Bank or Gaza strip or with spouses living in several enemy states.
39. The Law was initially enacted for a period of one year. In view of the continued security threat it has been renewed at regular intervals. The Law was amended in 2005 and again in 2007 in to order expand the humanitarian exceptions contained in it.
40. The Law's constitutionality has been scrutinized and upheld by the Supreme Court sitting in an extended panel of eleven judges. A number of petitions on the legality of the Law were rejected.
41. On May 14, 2006 the High Court of Justice upheld the Citizenship Law. An expanded panel of 11 justices split six to five in rejecting petitions to overturn the Law. The majority ruled that the law does not harm Israelis' constitutional rights, stating that if the law does to some extent cause such harm, it was proportional (H.C.J. 7052/03 Adalah – the Legal Center for Arab Minority Rights in Israel et. al. v. The Minister of Interior et. al.).
42. On January 11, 2012, the High Court of Justice published its decision to reject a petition against the legality of the Citizenship Law. Six of the extended panel of eleven judges found the law to be constitutional. It is important to note that both the majority and the minority decisions determined that the purpose of the law is to mitigate the security threat posed by terrorist organizations seeking to harm Israeli citizens. The majority judgments also held that, given this purpose, the law is proportional in that it is a rational means to attaining this end and that the security benefits of the law outweigh the negative impact of the restrictions that it places on family unification (H.C.J. 466/07, 544/07, 830/07, 5030/07 MK Zehava Galon et. al. v. The Minister of Interior et. al.).

Reply to the issues raised in part I, paragraph 3, of the list of issues

43. In Israel, every person is entitled to basic health services, resulting from the constitutional right to life and dignity. Basic health services refers to medical services which are required to protect life and health that include emergency medical services provided to every person in Israel including persons whose status  have not yet been approved.
44. Even though the National Health Insurance Law 5754-1994, does not apply to minors without a  permanent status, an arrangement that was set according to that law and Patient's Rights Law 5756-1996 (the “Patient's Rights Law”), to provide an adequate answer to the medical needs of these minors.
45. There are three main alternatives for health services provided for minors without permanent status in Israel:
(a) Through a special arrangement done between the Government and “Meuchedet” Health Fund providing health services for non-residents minors who reside in Israel. These services are partly subsidized by the Government and require self-participation of the minor's guardian.
(b) The clinic in southern Tel Aviv for illegal foreigners and foreign workers, whom do not receive state health insurance. The clinic is funded by the Ministry of Health and provides complete medical services.
(c) Emergency health services provided to every person in Israel according to the Patient's Rights Law. This law stipulates that an adequate basic health services shall be provided to every person in Israel when in situation of danger to life or severe disability, and further prohibits discrimination in providing these services on the basis of religion, race, gender, nationality, country of origin, sexual inclination etc.
46. These alternatives provide the basic rights granted to every person reside in Israel, including non-residence minors, regardless of their residency status. These arrangements reflect the balance between the State duty to provide basic health services for all persons residing in its territory, the State's commitment towards its permanent residents and the limited financial resources available for health purposes.
47. The above mentioned arrangement is not flawless since in exceptional cases, there may be minors that cannot meet its requirements (such as minors who's guardians cannot afford to pay their part of the health payments), but even in these cases these minors are entitled to emergency medical care when needed. However, the arrangement satisfies the State's basic duty towards these minors, and their basic rights for basic health services are met according to reasonable standards.

Reply to the issues raised in part I, paragraph 4, of the list of issues

48. The Ministry of Social Affairs and Social Services is guided by the principals of the CRC convention. There are 826 registered social workers (the Specially Appointed Social Workers) working within the framework of the Youth Law (Care and Supervision) 5720-1960 (the “Youth Law”). In 2012, 70 new Specially Appointed Social Workers had just completed their training.
49. In recent years, in order to promote the gathering of data and its organization, the supervisors of the Specially Appointed Social Workers and the “Haruv” institute have initiated a process of gathering data from the localities that reflect the reports and the work done by the social workers when receiving the cases.  

Table 1
Data on reported minors that are treated by social services

2009

2010

2011

Total number of reports

33,751

35,632

38,737

Physical violence

12,305

12,679

13,763

Sexual violence

5,275

5,157

5,837

Neglect

12,580

13,273

14,455

Reports to the Police

7,315

7382

7,457

Referral to an exemption  committee

1,666

1588

1,753

Emergency injunctions

747

735

745

Number of minors in need of assistance according to the law

8,476

9,521

11,175

Supervision injunctions

3,081

3,422

3,971

Injunctions for a child to be taken out his/her home

5,755

4,844

6,845

Treatment according to the law

13,018

14,445

16,503

Source: Ministry of Social Affairs and Social Services, April 2013

Duty to Report
50. In order to protect minors, there is a legislated duty to report offenses committed against minors. Section 368D of the Penal Law provides that the following offenses committed against minors by a person responsible for the minor, must be reported to a welfare officer or to the Police:
(a) Prostitution and obscenity offense under Sections 199, 201, 202, 203, 203B, 203C, 205A and 214(B1);
(b) An offense of endangering life and health under Section 337;
(c) A sexual offense under Sections 345, 346, 347, 347A, 348 and 351;
(d) An offense of abandonment or neglect under Sections 361 and 362;
(e) An offense of assault or abuse under Sections 368B and 368C;   
(f) An offense of trafficking in persons under Section 377A.
51. The duty to report is imposed on any person who has reasonable grounds to believe that such a crime was committed, on a person in charge of the minor, on a professional (physician, nurse, educator, social worker, social welfare employee, policeman, psychologist, criminologist, a paramedic, a director or staff member of a home or institution in which minors or persons under care live) in the course of his/her professional activity or responsibility. Violation of this duty constitutes an offense punishable by three to six months' imprisonment.
52. Since the enactment of the duty to report, the number of reports has increased immensely. A social and professional change has occurred due to the duty to report, and now professionals have access to thousands of children and are able to provide them with the appropriate treatment.
53. The Exemption Committee – With the duty to report to the Police, the legislator enacted a complimentary statutory system that one can request an exemption from reporting to the Police in order to avoid opening a criminal procedure. This system allows flexibility and avoidance of police involvement in cases were there could be risk to the lives of the children or other people. It also allows rehabilitating the family in cases when the professionals think that that the criminal process could do more harm to the functionality of the family and would be against the child's best interest.
54. In the community, services are provided aiming to assist parents with their children in order to decrease the neglect and abuse cases.
55. The Assistance to Sex Violence Minor Crime Victims' Law 5769-2008 (the Assistance Law) is gradually being implemented. This law adds the right of a child victim of a sexual or violence crime to receive immediate assistance in a crisis center designated by the Minister of Social Affairs and Social Services particularly for this purpose. In these centres, all the relevant functionaries (a physician, juvenile investigator, and Specially Appointed Social Workers , a representative from the juvenile department, the Police, and a prosecutor) are under one roof, working in coordination as a team, which provides a better perspective of the child needs, his/her family's needs and the best interest of the child. Such centres are intended to provide initial treatment in:
Diagnosis and medical care.
Providing for the victim's immediate and essential needs, including food and clothing.
Setting up a meeting with a child investigator, a police investigator, a social worker or any other agent as needed based on the situation at hand.
Referring the victim to the Ministry of Justice's Legal Aid Branch, appropriate medical, health, and/or psychological care, and emergency centres for long-term treatment.
56. The Assistance Law determined that eight Assistance Centres will be established nationwide. Two were built in Jerusalem and in the Sheba hospital in Ramat-Gan. Another two are currently being built in Haifa and Be'er-Sheva and four more are to be built in 2013 in Safed, Nazareth, Netanya and Ashkelon.


Table 2
Data on Sexually Abused Children and Youth in Protection Centres

Jerusalem

Sheba

Years

2010

2011

2010

2011

Total of investigations

418

477

310

312

Sexual assaults

Male:

Female:

184

163

200

217

43

96

89

145

Inside the family

Outside the family

81

266

90

327

39

100

64

179

Physical abuse

71

60

22

45

Source: Ministry of Social Affairs and Social Services, April 2013
57. Specially Appointed Social Workers receive reports about sexual assaults of minors with accordance to the duty to report. From the data received, there was a rise in the amount of reports about sexually assaults of minors, sexual assault within the family and without. In 2009, 5,275 children were reported, in 2010, 5,025 children were reported and 2011, 5,837 children were reported. In response to the increase in the amount of children that were sexually abused and the lack of appropriate treatment services, the state of Israel has taken upon itself to provide available and accessible treatment to children and youth that have been sexually assaulted. The treatment is provided both to the child and to his/her family.
58. In addition, a national inter-ministerial program, headed by Ministry of Social Affairs and Social Services, in cooperation with the At-Risk Children foundations in the National Insurance Institution and the Rashi foundation, organized a project dedicated to the prevention, education and detection of sexually assaulted children. This project is based on 12 regional centres with branches in localities nationwide. The project is accompanied by research and is aimed at providing immediate, accessible and adaptable treatment to the sexually assaulted child until the age of 18. In addition, the project focuses on the development of detection, prevention and training of all the professionals in the community, creating an array of the best treatment that should be provided to all children, inter-ministerial coordination and cooperation of NGOs is geared towards designing an appropriate policy.
59. Between the years 2010-2011 approximately 5,000 children, youth and family members were treated in Assistance Centres and in the community.

Emergency Centres

60. There are 11 emergency centres that operate nationwide for children and their family members that consist of two types of emergency units that co-exist side by side. The Internal unit (in boarding school conditions) and the External Unit (the child resides with his/her family). The centres provide a unique response for children that are victims of abuse or neglect and for their family members. The emergency centres were built with cultural sensitivity to religion, ethnicity and age. The purposes of the internal unit is to remove the children away from the source of danger; to assess the child and parents' situation and their capability of functioning; to provide a treatment plan for the child and parents within the community or in and out of home placement (boarding school or foster care); to make an integrative assessment of the situation with all the social workers on the case.
61. There are eight external units (out of the 11) that operate as consultation units. The external units, after making the assessment, that it is safe for the child to stay in his/her home, treats the “abusive” family. The unit can provide services for 40 families simultaneously. In order to make these centres accessible to families that live in rural areas, branches of these emergency units were opened in the periphery. The goals of the external unit are the following: to provide coping methods for children and parents in high risk situations while the child is still staying in the home and to promote the ability of service providers in the community to interfere in emergency cases of family crisis or child abuse.
62. In 2011, 388 children were treated in the 11 internal units of the emergency shelters.
63. In 2011, 820 children were treated in the eight external (consultation) units of the emergency centres.
64. Emergency foster families- Toddlers and pre-school pupils at risk are transferred to emergency foster families that were designated and prepared for that purpose for immediate protection in emergency situations. The children can stay in these foster families for a period of up to three months. The continuing treatment depends on the age of the child, the situation of the biological family and its capacity to care for the child's needs in the future (provide a permanent home). During 2012, through a pilot program, designated units were established to assess the mobility of the child and his/her biological family. The purpose of the units is to evaluate and recommend the continuation plan of the child in the emergency foster family in order to decrease the period of stay and assist with the decision-making.
65. Emergency boarding schools – There are five emergency boarding schools that are located in the Center, Jerusalem and the South. In 2012, an additional emergency boarding school was added in the eastern neighborhoods of Jerusalem on the basis of the need to give an appropriate response to at risk children in the area. There are plans to increase the budget, the amount of children per boarding school and to place the at risk children according to designated boarding schools (adolescents, treatment characteristics and so forth).

The Ministry of Education

66. The Ministry of Education has a very clear policy with regards to the prevention of abuse and neglect of children. This policy is based on the State's laws and is adapted to the distinctive needs of the education system. This policy provides instructions for the educational teams on how to treat such cases in an orderly manner. The initial stage is detecting the pupils that are in potential risk of being abused or have endured some sort of abuse. The next stage is reporting the suspicion to social services or the Police and treating the particular case.
67. The policy emphasizes reporting the incidents and expanding the knowledge of the educators in methods of detection and treating the children professionally once the abuse or neglect is detected. The relevant directives include: information about the Israeli Penal Law, the process of reporting to the Specially Appointed Social Workers, engagement of the school from the detection of abuse or neglect, providing information about the child's treatment and process to the education system, social services and the Police.
68. In order to implement this policy, prior to the beginning of every school year, teachers undergo training sessions about detection of abuse and the proper treatment. The advisors and psychologists are responsible for these training sessions. Educational counselors are obligated to go through a special training regarding sexual abuse in order to obtain a license.
69. In the education system, within the psychological service unit, there is a specially designated unit for sexuality and the prevention of sexual offenses against children and youth. The unit employs advisors and psychologists that specialize in child abuse and they guide their co-workers, the advisors and educational psychologists that treat these issues. The unit works countrywide and serves all of segments of Israeli population.
70. The education system is one of the main sources of reports to the Specially Appointed Social Workers on relevant cases.
71. In Addition to efforts made to detect abuse or neglect of children, many multi-level processes took place in many regions whether operated by the Ministry of Education or with the Ministry's cooperation. The leading programs in these processes were: teaching civil responsibility in high school; an open table program (supervised discussions between parents and children); lectures for teachers and principals; developing material about pupils' rights and the protection of children; protection devices (a program developed in cooperation with the Ministry of Justice and the Public Defender's Office regarding to the rights of a minor in the criminal procedure). The program is in a trial phase and was provided to 400,000 pupils to date and was found to be effective in preventing vandalism and in detecting minors in the midst of a criminal procedure or before that stage); suspension of violent pupils; fair process when conducting an expulsion hearing, disciplinary hearing to principals who were found to be negligent with their pupils; conducting a film festival on the subject of children's rights (around 10,000 pupils from all populations come to the festival every year).

Reply to the issues raised in part I, paragraph 5, of the list of issues

72. A wide range of measures are utilized to enforce the legal prohibition of corporal punishment towards minors within the family, schools or detention facilities. These are the major measures taken:

In the family

Domestic violence offenses towards minors within the family or violence by other people responsible for the minor, are serious crimes that demand unique police involvement, both in enforcement and in protecting the minor and ensuring his/her safety.
The Penal Law includes a duty to report with regards to specific sections that relate to sex offenses and violence towards minors, as elaborated in response to Question #4.
Internal police procedures decree that the Police treatment of violence offenses against minors by people responsible for the minor within the family and in education institutions and treatment facilities. According to the procedure, there is a duty to consult with social worker of the local community (where the minor lives) and there is a duty to report to the social worker in relevant cases. In addition there is a duty for swift treatment and taking special precautions when working with minors in order to avoid additional harm.

In school

73. The educational system is responsible for the minors' security and safety whilst they are in school. If information is received about the possibility of corporal punishment or if a complaint is made, the Police are obligated to open an investigation.
74. There is a sweeping prohibition regarding corporal punishment.
75. The Pupils' Rights Law, 5760 – 2000 (the Pupils' Rights Law) establishes principles regarding pupils rights in order to espouse human dignity and comply with the CRC, while upholding Israel’s education laws. According to this law, a child has a right to education, to participate in matriculation examinations, a right to confidentiality and to realize his or her rights. The Law forbids the following with regard to pupils:
Discrimination on the grounds of ethnicity, socio-economic status or political views.
Disciplinary action in the form of corporal punishment or humiliation.
Punishment for something the parent did or failed to do.
Permanent expulsion of the child without allowing the child or parents to explain, appeal or be informed of the results of an appeal.
76. The Directives of the Director General of the Ministry of Education state that the School Code of Conduct should be based on the Pupil's rights Law and anchors the obligation of the education institution to report any suspicion of corporal punishment of a pupil by a teacher. The Directive indicates the offences that require reporting, describes the necessary procedure needed when the suspicion of abuse of a pupil rises, and the treatment of such cases, including issues such as abuse by the director of the institution, separation between pupil and teacher and suspension of the suspected teacher and accompanying the child and his/her parents.
77. In addition to the prohibition of corporal punishment as mentioned above, the Ministry of Education engaged in several activities aimed at raising awareness to the issue. For example:  
(a) Many school initiatives were taken as a result of the implementing pupils' and children's rights including parent counsel;
(b) “Steps toward a non-violent society” – a seminar was held in 2010 in Tel Aviv University, attended by the Chief Justice of the Youth Courts, principals, teachers, pupils, head of UNICEF Israel, representative of UNICEF from its Head Office in Geneva and prominent members of the Knesset, dealing with issues of children's rights. The pamphlet of the seminar was sent to principals nationwide to promote school procedures against corporal punishment, physical, degrading or inappropriate punishment;
(c) The Convention on the rights of the child was distributed to pupils throughout the education system in four languages: Hebrew, Arabic, English and Russian.

In detention

78. There is no corporal punishment within the Police or the Israel Prisons Service (IPS) neither toward minors nor adults.
79. In Detention facilities and prisons, all forms of corporal punishment are prohibited.
80. Every prisoner or detainee under the care of the IPS has access to the following complaint mechanisms concerning grievances regarding the staff and wardens', including claims of wrongful use of force or corporal punishment:
filing a complaint to the Prison Director.
petitioning the relevant District Court in a prisoner's petition.
filing a complaint to the Warden's Investigation Unit (WIU), through the IPS or directly to the Unit.
filing a complaint to the Prisoners Complaint Ombudsman.

Reply to the issues raised in part I, paragraph 6, of the list of issues

81. The placement of children and youth in out of home placements are based on the following principle: as long as alternatives exist within the community, the possibility of taking a child out of his/her home should be avoided. However, there are cases when it is inevitable to take the child out of his/her home for a short or long period of time and it is the most appropriate possibility to fill his/her needs under the circumstances.
82. A child growing up with his/her biological family promises his/her normal development; therefore efforts are made to develop tools to assist the family with raising their children. In certain cases these efforts are fruitless and taking these children or youth to an out of home placement becomes a necessary alternative for their healthy development and at times even for their safety. For these children, the out of home treatment is intended to insure a framework suitable for their needs and development, for educating them to the life of an independent adult.    
83. The decision to take a child out of his/her home and place him/her in an out-of-home placement is a very grave one. A child will be referred to an out of home placement for reasons that concern him/her or his/her family, that place his/her life at risk and do not permit his/her normal development. The decision is made by a professional committee called “The Committee of Planning, Treatment and Assessment” (hereinafter: the Committee)
84. The Committee formulates a treatment plan for both the child and the parents in order to rehabilitate the parents' function, so the child will be able to return home. The decision is made with the cooperation of the child and his/her parents. The Committee's duty is to determine the appropriate treatment to ensure the safety and wellbeing of the child. In cases where there is no cooperation from the child or the parents, the Committee can decide that a Specially Appointed Social Worker needs to refer the case to the Court for a an order to comply with the suggested treatment plan, according to the procedures in the Youth Law. The Court is requested to give specific or general orders for the compliance of the treatment plan. Decisions can be made on a very broad spectrum from taking the children out of their homes to instructing the parents on different matters. The referral is a part of a request for methods of treatment as provided in the Youth Law. In such cases, the Committee continues to outline the treatment plan and supervises its implementation.
85. The policy of the Ministry of Social Affairs and Social Services on the topic of out of home placements is as follows:
86. When the child cannot grow up with his/her parents and there is no plausible chance that he/she will be able to return home, the first preferable option is adoption, Only if this option is not possible, the Committee will look into other options.

Finding suitable foster parents for young children

87. In the case of placement of siblings when there is no suitable solution in a foster family or in several foster families that live in the same area, there is a preference to place the sibling in a group home. A group home is a framework with different age groups; it can accommodate up to 12 children in a house and is run by a biological family (parents and children) with the assistance of therapeutic personnel and external maintenance. When children are taken out of their home in emergency situations, efforts are made to transfer the child to a family unit known as “Emergency foster family”. The Committee in its decisions expresses the policy of the Ministry of Social Affairs and Social Services and makes every effort to find a suitable family–type care placement for the child.
88. Ministry of Social Affairs and Social Services operate out of home placements for at risk children and youth that are operated by the Ministry and by public and private organizations. In these organizations there are professional teams that operate unique programs, all of which are supervised by the Ministry.
89. The policy of a permanent home for a child emphasizes the need of the child for continuity. The policy is based on the relationship theory, which sees a safe relationship of the child with his/her caregiver as the basis for a normal development and the child's quality of life in the present and in the future. In order to implement this policy, the Ministry of Social Affairs and Social Services are leading a process of adoption of a child by his/her foster parents which raised him/her since he/she was taken out of his/her home (a continuity between the foster care and adoption). There are identical criterions for becoming a foster parent as for adopting a child.
90. “The Accompanying Family Project” – Ministry of Social Affairs and Social Services detected the need to provide with an adequate response to the children “ lacking a family home front” , that are educated in boarding schools of the Ministry of Social Affairs and Social Services. An estimated 10-13% (between 700-1000 children) that can never go home from boarding schools for different reasons: either a home does not exist or the parents place the child in danger. In addition, 30% of the children cannot go home on a regular basis during the holidays (approximately 2,100 children). The professionals created a program in which volunteer families from the community host the children during their holidays. A connection is made between the child and the volunteer family, with time it deepens and will need guidance and family counseling. The family becomes an important role model for the child and provides a positive example for family life. The volunteering families are examined and selected before a child is referred to their home. An effort is made to find a compatible match for the child and family. The selection includes meticulous filters of the family characteristics and the level of enthusiasm and persistence. In addition the volunteering family needs to provide recommendations from the community. The boarding school's staff examines all the family members and conducts house calls.  An organized procedure was created on this issue. Every volunteer family must sign a contract stating that it will provide the child with all his/her needs during his/her stay.
91. The Knesset enacted several laws to compare the situation of foster parents to those of biological parents, in order to encourage foster parents to take children into the house without being harmed financially. Additionally, the rights of adopting parents were compared to the rights of biological parents.
Women's labor's Law 5714 -1954, was amended in 2011, applying to adopting parents and foster parents, rules that already applied to biological parents, for example, regarding maternity leave and the prohibition to dismiss a person who declared he/she was in the process of adoption or becoming  foster parent.
The National Insurance Law (Consolidated Version, 5755-1995, was amended in 2011 and applied to adopting parents and foster parents the right to receive benefits during maternity leave.
In 2011, the Students' Rights Law 5767- 2007 was amended and the implementing rules were amended in 2012, in a way that eased the burden of students who became foster parents or adopted a child.

Reply to the issues raised in part I, paragraph 7, of the list of issues

92. The Ministry of Education works to implement the Integration Chapter of the Special Education Law 5748-1988, when integrating children with disabilities in the regular school institution from the age of three.
93. In the recent years, there has been a substantial increase in the amount of children with disabilities integrated in the regular school systems, amongst others: children with autism, children with physical inabilities and cerebral palsy. The Ministry of Education, in its effort to monitor the education of children with disabilities and to implement the Free Education for Sick Children Law 5761-2001, maintains contact between the sick child and the education system in the community and the hospital (at times for months or even years).
94. Within the integration program, the children with disabilities receive direct support from the teachers and additional support from experts that assist in their integration and with the guidance of the teachers in the regular school system. It is important to state that the integration of children with disabilities is closely monitored by the different education agents, in the schools, in the region and in the localities.
95. The Ministry of Education also funds assistances to children with a complicated disability in the amount of 198 Million NIS (US$ 54.5 Million) annually.

Reply to the issues raised in part I, paragraph 8, of the list of issues

96. The Ministry of Health regards the issue of inequalities in the health care system as one of the most important goals of the Ministry's multiyear plan (the current plan began in 2010).
97. Dealing with these inequalities is of high priority to the Ministry of Health, and this issue is one of the main pillars that will be dealt with in the upcoming years. The Ministry's representatives are also discussing this issue with the representatives of the different health funds in a joint effort to find ways, including through a national action plan.
98. The Ministry operates dozens of intervention plans, promoting the health situation among the Arab population; some of them were highly successful and were even mentioned in professional medical news in Israel and abroad. Note that one third of the Health Advancement Department's budget is dedicated to funding health plans in the Arab population, constituting 20% of the State's population.
99. Hereinafter are several examples of the steps taken by the Ministry of Health in recent years to reduce the inequality between minority populations, including the Arab populations, and the general population:
(a) Canceling the mother and child health care station's fee;
(b) Reduction of the maximum payment rate to chronic elderly patients who receive income supplements;
(c) Providing discount on the purchase of medications to persons over 75 years old;
(d) Reduction of the level of self-participation in purchasing generic medications;
(e) Including dental treatments for children up to the age of 10 in the services included in the basic health basket;
(f) Improving infrastructures in peripheral areas, including additional 1,000 hospital beds and manpower to peripheral hospitals;
(g) Allocation of medical equipment to peripheral areas (among them an MRI machine);
(h) Opening nurses training courses to nurses of the Bedouin population, in order to improve the medical services and overcome language barriers in service provided to the Bedouin population;
(i) Allocation of 13.6 Million NIS (US$ 3.749 Million) in the frame of the five year plan for the Bedouin population in the Negev area, intended for the development of health services and for intervention plans;
(j) Establishment of a medical school in the northern Galilee, and front Emergency Rooms in peripheral localities, both in the north and south of Israel;
(k) Setting norms regarding language accessibility of health services in order to close gaps in language as well as cultural barriers. According to these norms set in a circular of the Ministry of Health' Director General, Arabic is one of the languages in which the health organization are obligated to provide services in.
100. Inequality unfortunately exists in Israel not only between the Arab and Jewish population but among other population and between Israel's central and peripheral areas. The Ministry of Health is operating to decrease this inequality by special programs and activities.
101. The location and size of hospitals are relative to the size of the population. Hospitals are located close to the central Arab population as to the overall population and there is no distinction between the availability to hospitals between the Arab population and the rest of the country's residents. In the south, the Soroka medical center serves the Bedouin population. In addition, hospitals in Hadera, Kfar Saba, Nahariya, Sefad, Poria, Afula, Hadassah, and others are very close and serve the heavily populated Arab areas.
102. There are many Arab-Israelis employed in the health care system, including doctors, nurses, and paramedics, who serve mainly in the north and central parts of the country.

Reply to the issues raised in part I, paragraph 9, of the list of issues, including:

a. Delays of, and interference with, medical personnel and patients at Israeli checkpoints;

b. Shortages of basic medical supplies, including essential medicines; and

The Golan Heights

103. Every citizen and permanent residents of Israel has medical insurance given by the Government. Health Maintenance organizations (HMO's) have opened several medical clinics in all populated areas in the Golan Heights (including private surgical centres). There are no delays in evacuating to hospitals and there are no barricades or checkpoints in the area that could cause any delays.

The “Occupied Palestinian Territory”

104. Please see the response to Question #2 above.

c. Procedures for, and delays in, permission for the transfer of patients from the Gaza Strip to medical facilities in Israel, elsewhere in the Occupied Palestinian Territory or abroad.

The Golan Heights

105. Residents of the Golan receive the same medical treatment as all other citizens of Israel. Every citizen of Israel has medical insurance given by the Government. Health Maintenance organizations (HMO's) have opened several medical clinics in all populated areas in the Golan Heights (including private surgical centres). There are no delays in evacuating to hospitals and there are no barricades or checkpoints in the area that could cause any delays.

The “Occupied Palestinian Territory”

106. Please see the response to Question #2 above.

Reply to the issues raised in part I, paragraph 10, of the list of issues

107. All Israeli children living within authorized localities enjoy access to safe and sufficient drinking water, adequate sanitation and hygiene facilities. One potentially problematic area is the unauthorized Bedouin localities in the South.  
108. The Bedouins living in existing Bedouin towns enjoy the same services provided to all Israeli citizens, some of which are specially adapted to their needs. Unfortunately, many Bedouins choose to live outside permanent towns, in living conditions which are considered as inadequate by the Ministry of Health. Thus, additional funds were allotted towards the development of their health services and the Government is doing all it can to provide sufficient health care to Bedouins who live in unauthorized villages.
109. Approximately 60,000 Bedouin live in unauthorized villages in the Negev. These unauthorized villages pose difficulties in supplying the residents with necessary services, especially water. While the Government does not question its duty to supply its inhabitants with services such as water, it is practically impossible to supply such services to sporadic places which disregard the national construction and planning programs.
110. Nevertheless, pending the completion of the establishment of the 11 additional permanent Bedouin towns and the regulation of water supply systems, the Ministerial Committee for the Arab, Druze and Circassian Populations' Affairs has decided to build “Water Centres” in several centres in the Negev. The establishment of the Water Centres stems from the Government's understanding of the needs and current realities faced by the Bedouin population, and governmental efforts to improve their living conditions. The planning of the centres takes into account the amount of water necessary for the size of population expected in 2020, and the establishment of the centres involves great costs.
111. These Water Centres are located in the most populated areas of the Bedouin Diaspora, compatible with Government's plans for the establishment of permanent towns.
112. An additional method relied upon to provide water is through direct water connections being made to the main water pipeline, which are granted to a minimum of ten families. Due to the problematic nature of these connections, which require the transfer of water to unauthorized villages, this method is less frequently employed than was done previously. The connection to the main pipeline is approved by the Water Committee, which evaluates requests for connections to pipelines, and conducts negotiations in cases where disputes arise between residents of the Diaspora concerning the ownership of such connections.
113. According to 'Mekorot' – the Israel National Water Corporation – there are numerous pirated connections to pipelines, which are made without the authorization of the Water Committee.
114. There are currently 16 service points which provide services to the Bedouin population who live outside the permanent towns. Each service point is equipped with water systems built according to the customary standards, and with temporary sewage system operated by the Abu-Basma Regional Council (as of 2012 by an appointed committee (appointed by the Minister of Internal Affairs after dissolving the Regional Council)), without causing harm to the environment
115. In regard to the quality of water in the unauthorized villages – the water are received from the national water system, thus are of a quality which is according to the relevant regulation requirements, are safe to drink and are provided by a large number of consumer connections.

Administration for Sewage Infrastructures – Bedouin Population

116. As mentioned above, in the permanent Bedouin towns there are regulated water and sewage systems that are built according to the same criteria in the Jewish population. In addition, all the new Bedouin towns that are in the process of planning and development and those under statutory approval procedures are planned with water and sewage systems with the same quality level and criteria as in the Jewish population.
117. In addition, in each of the 16 service points which provide services to the Bedouin population who live outside the permanent towns, there is a temporary sewage system operated by the Abu-Basma Regional Council (as of 2012 by an appointed committee), without causing harm to the environment.

Reply to the issues raised in part I, paragraph 11, of the list of issues

118. In regard to the eastern neighborhoods of Jerusalem – in order to facilitate proper planning procedures, illegal construction is not tolerated.  Illegal construction harms the local population, given the fact that it does not take into consideration planning policies that will ensure a reasonable quality of life, and public needs.
119. All demolitions are conducted in accordance with due process guarantees and following a fair hearing, which is subject to judicial review and the right to appeal, and all demolitions are decided upon without distinction on the basis of race or ethnic origin. Those affected by a demolition order are entitled by law to appeal to the Supreme Court.
120. The residents of the illegal structures are not compensated for the demolition, since no such requirement regarding illegal construction exists according to the law unless it is proven post factum, that the demolished structure was not illegal. This legislation conforms with the principle that an illegal act cannot lead to a remedy.

The “Occupied Palestinian Territory”

121. Please see the response to Question #2 above.

Reply to the issues raised in part I, paragraph 12, of the list of issues

122. The At Risk Children National Program has substantially expanded the resources in developing the services in the community.
123. The combat against poverty – amongst other things provides three weeks of activities for the children from morning until the afternoon which included breakfast and lunch. The State and the “Rashi” foundation fund these activities.  
124. In July 2011, a large-scale protest for “Social Justice” began and involved hundreds of thousands of protesters from a variety of socio-economic and religious backgrounds, demanding to reduce the high cost of living in Israel. The movement originally began as a demand for affordable housing protest when a group of individuals placed tents on the Rothschild Boulevard in the center of Tel Aviv in order to express their housing distress. The protests expanded during the month of August raising other social issues relating to health, education, taxes and to the general economic structure in Israel.
125. In response to these events, on August 8, 2011, the Prime Minister established the “Trajtenberg Committee”, headed by Prof. Manuel Trajtenberg, Chair of the Planning and Budget Committee of the Council for Higher Education in Israel and former chair of the National Economic Council, to examine ways to implement social change in Israel and recommend practical solutions to the Government (the, Committee).
126. On October 9, 2011, the Government approved the final recommendations of the Committee. The Committee's final report recommended a list of economic measures which will be implemented over the period of the next five years.
127. The Committee dealt with four main issues related directly to the protest: housing, cost of living and the competitive market, social services and tax burden distribution. The implementation of the Committee's recommendations is under consideration and deliberation on a constant basis.   

a. The gap between Jewish and Arab Israeli children

128. The National Insurance Institute of Israel acts to combat poverty among all populations within the State of Israel equally and without any regard to religion, race or nationality. It should be mentioned that, due to the social structure, the Arab Israeli population enjoys largely from the benefits mentioned below.      

b. The greater levels of poverty among large families and single-parent families

129. According to the Law of the Plan for Curing the Israeli Economy (Legislative Amendments to Attain the Budgetary and Economic Policy Goals), 2009 and 2010 there was a  gradual rise in  budget for the second, third and fourth child in a manner that will add 100 NIS (US$ 27.5) nominally to the child welfare.
130. In 2012 there was an expansion of the negative income tax that gave priority to mothers of children (especially single mothers), in a way that they receive 1.5 more than the rest of the population, in a nationwide distribution. The influence of this expansion has not been assessed as some of the payments have not yet reached the families (they are paid retroactively for the prior year). In addition, a national stipend was distributed nationwide to mothers of infants up to two years old. This stipend has an indirect impact on single mothers.

c. The high levels of poverty and food aid dependency in the Occupied Palestinian Territory

131. Please see the response to Question #2 above.

Reply to the issues raised in part I, paragraph 13, of the list of issues

132. The Ministry of Education outlined a policy to close the gaps in the education system of the Arabic speaking population. This policy is reflected in new initiatives and in the expansion of successful existing programs. The results of this policy can be seen in the improvement of the achievements of the Arab population (which includes the Arab, Druze, Bedouin, and Circassian populations) in different indexes over the past two years and in a certain reduction of the gaps between the Arab and Jewish populations according to these indexes.
133. During the 2011/12 school year the number of pupils from the different populations (not including pre-schools ) was as follows: around 300,100 Arab pupils ( 19.2% of the pupils), around 83,500 Bedouin pupils (5.3% of the pupils), around 33,300 Druze pupils (2.1% of the pupils)  and 1,148,556 Jewish pupils ( 73.4%of the pupils).
134. Changes and improvements in the Arab educational systems can be seen in the following:
(a) Improvement of the learning infrastructure in the education system of the Arab population, affirmative actions implemented when needed. This improvement can be seen in the expansion of the construction for the purpose of reducing the shortage of school classes, reducing the amount of children in each class and upgrading the infrastructure to face the technology of 21st century;
(b) Reducing the shortage of classes – between the years 2007-2011, 5 Billon NIS (US$ 137 Million) were invested in building 7,930 new classes for all population. 3,025 of those classes were built for the Arab population (39% of all classes, when the Arab population is 26% of the pupils in this age group), 1.8 Billion NIS (US$ 49.6 Million) were allocated for this purpose. As a result of this affirmative action, 533 additional classes were built, this reducing the existing shortage;
(c) Reducing the number of children in the classes – as a part of the program to reduce the number of children in elementary school and junior high schools, the allocation of the budget was based on preference a socio-economic decile ranking of the school, the target being a class of 32 pupils at most. In the past three years, 475 Million NIS (US$ 130.9 Million) was allocated for this program. In the elementary schools, 66% of the 700 classes that have been reduced to a 32 children class are within the Arab population, whilst the Arab pupils are 27% of this age group. In junior high schools, 52% of the classes that have been reduced to a 32 children class are within the Arab population, whilst the Arab pupils are 29% of the total age group;
(d) Upgrading the infrastructure – since the 2010/11 school year, the Ministry of Education has been operating a novel program for adapting the education system to the 21st century, which includes technology. The pupils are taught skills that will allow then to best function in the 21st century. The program is implemented in the north and south regions, where there is a large representation of the Arab population. In the north region all the Bedouin elementary schools were computerized and an additional 200 elementary schools were computerized in the Arab population compared to the 160 Jewish schools. In the 2011/12 school year, 420 Million NIS (US$ 115.7 Million) were allocated towards this purpose;
(e) A new program in the pre-school in the Arab populations called “The foundation towards reading and writing as a native tongue in pre-school” that was approved in 2009 is now implemented throughout the Arab education system. As a complementary measure, training sessions and seminars for pre-school teachers to strengthen their knowledge of the language and enable them to acquire the knowledge to develop thinking processes from early age. In elementary schools, the program “Arabic language education: language, literature and culture” was approved in 2009 and is considered one of the most advanced language skills programs. For high schools, a new program was developed and authorized in the 2011/12 school year and the outline of an additional new program in grammar and writing skills, that meets the international standards, was authorized;
(f) The accomplishments of the Arab population has improved increasingly both in the international examination and the matriculation exams. The percentage of Arab pupils that are entitled to a matriculation certificate in the Arab population has increased by 6% and the results of the Pirls exams (progress in international reading literacy study) for the 4th grade have improved by 58 points in the Arabic test and in the TIMSS (Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study) exam for 8th graders by 57 in maths and 59 points in science. In order to achieve these results, the Education Ministry has allocated many additional hours for the cause (3,500 additional hours in maths, 1,700 additional hours in science and so forth);
(g) 50 centres for career guidance in Arab high schools to assist children in choosing their career path. In Addition, 50 centres for psychometric exams were opened for the Arabic population;
(h) Long school days (37 weekly hours) are operated in 1,239 pre-schools, of which 426 (34%) are from the Arab population and 659 elementary schools of which 213 (32%) are from the Arab population. Hot meals are provided in 1,248 of the pre-schools, of which 418 (34%) from the Arab population and in 388 schools of which 97 from the Arab population (25%). All in all 27,500 children enjoy a long school day, of which 117,000 children are from the Arab population (23% of the population). 65,000 children of the Arab population enjoy the hot meal program (13% of the population);
(i) Technological education- according to Government Resolution no. 4193, dated from January 2012 and according to the Trajtenberg Report, a program was implemented to increase the amount of female pupils from the Arab population in the technological education of the Ministry of Education and in the professional schools administered by the Ministry of Industry, Trade and Labor. In the 2012/13 school year, 400 pupils will embark on this program. In the following years 700 additional female pupils will be added, compared to the 2011/12 school year. In the next five years, 150 million NIS (US$ 41.3 Million) will be invested in the program;
(j) According to the Government Resolution no.3708, dated September 2011 – the program to promote the economic growth and development of the Bedouin population. The Ministry of Education will expand the extent of technological programs, open continuation programs for 13th and 14th grades  for technicians and practical engineers; will upgrade technological laboratories; will open technological course of study that fit the needs of the economy and expand projects and courses of study that integrate the pupils in the industry. 19 million NIS (US$ 5.2 Million) was allocated for the cause in the current five year plan, of which 14 million NIS (US$ 3.85 Million) as an additional budget;
(k) The “Ofek Hadash” (New Horizon) reform (an educational and professional reform program in the elementary schools and junior high schools operating since 2008. This reform is a systematic one that is aimed to change the existing education system and impacts many different aspects. The reform expanded the teachers' working hours to 36 weekly hours. Tutorial sessions are given to small groups up to five children and their content is determined by the school, according to the guidelines of the Ministry of Education. The reform determined four specific goals: strengthening the position of the teachers and raising their salaries, providing equal opportunities to all pupils and improving the pupil's achievements, improvement of school climate, and expanding the authority of the principal. This reform has been implemented in 346 schools (172,600 pupils) in the Arab population, 113 schools (57,000 pupils) in the Bedouin population and 53 schools (20,500 pupils) in the Druze population. Additionally the reform was implemented in 1,147 pre-schools (30,600 children) in the Arab population, 440 pre-schools (12,000 children) in the Bedouin population and 166 pre-schools (4,600 pupils) in the Druze population. The reform is implemented in 67% of the elementary and junior high schools in the Arab population, and 76% in the Druze population, compared to the coverage of 72% of the elementary and junior high schools in the Jewish population (not including the orthodox schools) and 56% of all the schools in the Jewish population (including the ultra-orthodox schools). The reform is implemented in 64% of the pre-schools in the Arab population, and 52% in the Druze population, compared to the coverage of 84% of the pre-schools in the Jewish population (not including the ultra-orthodox schools) and 64 of all the pre-schools in the Jewish population monitored by the Ministry of Education (including the ultra-orthodox schools);
(l) The “Oz Betmura” (courage for change) reform (the reform's purpose is to promote the educational system's achievements and to strengthen the position of the teacher in high schools, was implemented in the first year in 27% of the high school in the Arab population, 32% of the high school in the Bedouin population and 55% of the high schools in the Druze population. Compared to the coverage of 33% of the high schools in the Jewish population (not including the ultra-orthodox schools) and 23% of the high schools in the Jewish population (including the ultra-orthodox) schools). This reform is aimed to improve the teacher's position and the achievements of the education system;
(m) The Government decision to adopt the Trajtenberg report and to subsidize extra curriculum at the end of the school day for the ages 3-9 in pre-schools and elementary schools that are budgeted by the Ministry of Education in a program named “Tsila”. This program is the creation of afternoon care centres in elementary schools and pre-schools, where the children will stay from the end of their school hours and until 16:00 on weekdays. The centres will provide extracurricular and social education in small groups, and will also address emotional, social or behavioural difficulties. To date the “Tsila” program can be found in 81 municipalities. This program will decrease the gap between the socio-economic levels and save the parents approximately 1,500 NIS monthly (US$ 413.5);
(n) Strengthening the core subjects with additional hours “Ofek Hadash” (New Horizon) – 220,000 additional individual hours for slow learners; Oz Betmura (courage for change) reform – 175,000 additional individual hours for slow learners; division of classes  into small groups (20 children) for maths and language)
(o) The expansion of compulsory education until the age of 18. Since 2009, the expansion of compulsory education from 16 to 18 was gradually implemented with a preference to localities with high dropout levels. The program includes additional positions in the internal unit of Attendance Supervisors who regularly visit schools in order to prevent children from dropping-out of school, operated by the Ministry of Education psychologists and additional resources. A total of 90 localities have joined the program, 49 localities are of the Arab population.

Special Programs for the Bedouin Population

135. In the framework of Government Resolution no.3708 dated September 2011, a specific five-year plan (2011-2016) was implemented to improve the achievements and reduce the gaps in the Bedouin population in the South of Israel in the total budget of 124 million NIS (US$ 34.18) for the current five-year plan, of which 95 million NIS (US$ 26.1) are considered an additional amount.

Immigrant Children

136. The Absorption Department for Immigrant Children in the Ministry of Education operates special programs for the successful integration of immigrant pupils from different countries. Teaching Hebrew as a second language, closing the gap in the different subjects, establishing the feeling of belonging to the country and allowing each pupil to reach his/her full potential.
137. A program of the Absorption Department named “Ogen” aimed to prevent dropout of immigrant children from schools. The purpose of the program to decrease the dropout rates of immigrant pupils in junior high school. The rationale: the difficulties in integration of the immigrant pupils and the hidden dropout rate that could be caused by the combination of puberty and immigration. The program is implemented in 130 junior high schools. The program was evaluated by the National Department of Estimation and Evaluation of Education.
138. Multi-cultural educational mediators that speak Russian, French, Spanish and Amharic are responsible for the connection between the immigrant children, their family and the school. In addition, they mediate between the cultural of the country of origin and the cultural in the Israel.
139. Social workers, who promote the situation of detached youth from Russian and Ethiopian origin, attempt to reinstate them in the regular education system.

Teaching the Importance of Gender Equality

140. In the recent years the gender discourse has received the appropriate attention from the education system. Gender studies and equality between the genders will create the requested difference in the pupils and this in return could impact their personal, social and national spheres. The Unit for Gender Equality works with all office units, from the perspective that gender equality relates to all topics of education. There is a special emphasis given to the Arab, Druze, Circassian and Bedouin population and many resources are allocated for this purpose to these populations.

Reply to the issues raised in part I, paragraph 14, of the list of issues

141. The Golan Heights – the Ministry of Education attends to the five Druze villages in the Golan, and funds are allocated to these villages according to the national guidelines of all the Israeli schools. In addition, these municipalities receive an additional funding from the five-year budget allocated to the Druze population, including the villages in the Golan. All the new reforms – Ofek Hadash (New Horizon), Oz Betmura (Courage for change) and others as elaborated above are implemented in the villages as in the rest of the country. Additionally all of the programs that are operated by the Ministry of Education regarding pre-schools, at risk children and youth are implemented in these villages, similar to other northern villages. The educational and allocation of budgets for pupils in the Golan are identical to other pupils in the region.  

The “Occupied Palestinian Territory”

142. Please see the response to Question #2 above.  

Reply to the issues raised in part I, paragraph 15, of the list of issues

143. Please see the response to Question #2 above.

Reply to the issues raised in part I, paragraph 16, of the list of issues, in particular regarding:

(a) Whether the State party continues to hold criminal proceedings against children in military courts and hold children in administrative detention and, if so, how many, of what ages and on what charges;
(b) The types of interrogation techniques used with children;
(c) Measures taken to prevent incommunicado detention and solitary confinement of children; and
(d) The transfer of children from the Occupied Palestinian Territory to Israel, in contravention of the Fourth Geneva Convention.
144. Please see the response to Question #2 above.

Reply to the issues raised in part I, paragraph 17, of the list of issues

145. Please see the response to Question #2 above.

Reply to the issues raised in part I, paragraph 18, of the list of issues

146. Please see the response to Question #2 above.

Reply to the issues raised in part I, paragraph 19, of the list of issues, inter alia, on:

(a) The clearance of all anti-personal mines in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, southern Lebanon and the Occupied Syrian Golan.
147. Israel is party to Protocol II of the Convention on Conventional Weapons (CCW) as amended in 1996 (hereinafter: Amended Protocol II). Amended Protocol II regulates the use and deployment of anti-personal mines, thus acknowledges their use as a lawful and necessary weapon while striking the balance envisaged by the CCW between military and humanitarian considerations. The use of anti-personal mines by Israel is solely for security reasons, in order to protect the borders of the country from enemy penetration both of armed forces and terrorist organizations – a need that is recently underscored due to the changing security reality in the region.
148. As a State Party to the CCW and Amended Protocol II, Israel has undertaken concrete measures aimed at reducing the potential adverse consequences that may be associated with the use of anti-personnel (AP) landmines. Israel fully implements the provisions of the Protocol with regards to minefields in Israel and the West Bank, including those regulating, monitoring, marking, protecting by fencing and recording. Additionally, the IDF is working to distribute accessible information to the public regarding the locations of AP mines and the risks that exist in this regard, especially in tourist areas and during vacation time.
149. In addition, in 1994 Israel unilaterally declared a moratorium on any export, sales or transfers of all types of anti-personnel mines. The Moratorium was declared in recognition of the grave humanitarian consequences associated with anti-personnel mines and the need, in this respect, for self-imposed state restraint. Since its initiation, the moratorium has been extended for additional three-year periods, most recently in July 2011 (in force until July 2014).
150. Furthermore, the Israeli Parliament enacted in March 2011 the Minefield Clearance Law 5771 – 2001 that sets out a statutory framework for the clearance of minefields not essential to Israel's national security, and established the Israeli National Mine Action Authority (INMAA). INMAA is tasked with the formulation and implementation of multi-year and annual national mine actions plans, and with determining national demining specifications, while taking into consideration, inter alia, the international Mine Action Standards endorsed by the United Nations inter-agency Coordination Group. Over the past year INMAA has formulated directives for its activities, recruited skilled personnel, issued tenders for companies that execute and supervise the mine clearance operations, took measures to enhance public awareness of safety and security, and has engaged in a few pilot projects. INMAA is consistently enhancing its involvement and important work. During 2012, INMAA began clearing the mine fields near the village Neot HaKikcar situated south of the Dead Sea and in the Sapir Area in the Arava near the border with Jordan. In the future, INMAA plans to clear additional mine fields.
(b) The prevention and criminalization of the recruitment of minors, or their use in hostilities.
151. Please see the response to Question #2 above.
(c) The outcome of the investigations and prosecutions as a result of the Operation “Cast Lead” in Gaza in December 2008 and January 2009, including in relation to the allegations of child rights violations in the report of the United Nations fact-finding mission on the Gaza conflict (A/HRC/12/48).
152. Please see the response to Question #2 above.
(d) The prohibition of the sale of arms when the final destination is a country where children are known to be or may potentially be recruited or used in hostilities.
153. The Israeli Defence Export Control Law 5766-2007 established an export control system, led by the Ministry of Defence, in consultation with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Under Israeli legislation, any military (and dual use) export requires licensing. The Ministry of Defense, in consultation with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, examines requests for permits for “defense export” that are applied by the exporters. The process of granting such licenses includes a thorough examination of the end-use and end-user. In this framework, several considerations are examined according to the requirements of the Law. These considerations include information about children's rights regarding enrolment in the army and the use of children in armed conflict as well as consideration of the human rights situation in the recipient state. Amongst other, different human rights reports are examined, United Nations Security Council resolutions and the internal situation in the destination state.

Reply to the issues raised in part I, paragraph 20, of the list of issues

154. Since June 2012, the Ministry of Interior began implementing the Prevention of Infiltration (Offences and Jurisdiction) (Amendment 3 and Temporary Order) 5772-2012 (the “Anti-Infiltration Law)” in regard to foreigners crossing the borders into Israel illegally, following the entry into force of the Law.  
155. Concerning the unaccompanied minors, the procedure for treating them is elaborated in the response to Question #22.
156. The Anti- Infiltration Law applies to minors that are accompanied by parents or guardians. They are brought before the passport control supervisor who determines whether their case falls into the exceptions permitted by law, which gives the supervisor the authority to order the release of the minors. Amongst the considerations are the age of the minor and whether he/she is accompanied or not. In the detention facilities, social services, children's medicine and schools are available to the minor detainees; the treatment is done with sensitivity and the outmost consideration.
157. There is no automatic detention for a period of minimum three years. The temporary order's validity is for a period of three years and the Anti- Infiltration Law provides a maximum limit of three years for a person to be held in the detention facility. According to the Anti- Infiltration Law, a deportation order may be issued against a foreigner that entered illegally. The law determines supervision mechanisms regarding the continuation of holding in custody according to specified causes for release. Each case is examined by the passport control supervisor and by the Detention Review Tribunal who is permitted to release the foreigner from custody.

Reply to the issues raised in part I, paragraph 21, of the list of issues

158. A wide range of education services that are provided to children in detention, including classes operated by the Ministry of Education that are available in the different prisons nationwide. For example, in the Juvenile Ofek Prison there are 10 classes for minors who are Israeli residents that create a continuity of the minor's education in the community and allow the detained minor to take the matriculation certificate.
159. All the teachers in the prison school have the proper qualifications and certification from the Ministry of Education. The classes are supervised by the Ministry of Education and the Unit for the Promotion of Youth, regardless of the nature of crimes the child has committed.
160. The health-care services provided to children prisoners or detainees in the IPS are equivalent to the health care given in the community.
161. In the IPS facilities, the following regular medical check-ups are conducted as needed:
Conducting a non-intrusive medical examination, providing first aid assistance and preventive medical services.
Conducting an initial psychiatric evaluation as necessary according to the relevant treatment professionals.
Referrals to specialists or tests in the IPS medical clinic.
Referrals to specialists or test outside the IPS medical clinic.
162. In the IPS facilities, medical clinics operate on a regular basis.  All the clinics have medics; most of them also have a permanent physician. In clinics that do not have permanent physicians, the regular medical examinations will be conducted by physicians from nearby medical facilities and in cases of emergency the medics will conduct the examinations.

Reply to the issues raised in part I, paragraph 22, of the list of issues

163. The treatment of unaccompanied foreign minors is provided according to a procedure formed following extensive work performed by a committee including representatives from the Ministries of Interior, Justice, Foreign Affairs, Social Affairs and Social Services, Education, the Prime-Minister's Office, Israel Defense Force, and the Immigration Administration. The procedure was last updated in July, 2011, towards determining the treatment methods, custody, guardianship alternatives, removal of such minors and the coordination between the relevant authorities, while acknowledging the minors' best interests as a main principle.
164. According to the procedure, a minor who is less than 12 years of age shall not be held in detention, but placed in facilities operated by the Ministry of Social Affairs and Social Services, where a teacher and a social worker is employed, and provides social services, health services and translation services, and in which separation of genders will be maintained. According to the updated procedure, these rules will apply to minors who are between 12 and 14 years of age. In addition, the new procedure stipulates that minors aged 12-14 years old shall be placed in an educational facility operated by the Ministry of Education, unless he/she is in need of other special treatment framework of the Ministry of Social Affairs and Social Services, or is placed with a guardian or guardianship in the community. Moreover, the facility will employ a social worker and provide social services, health services and translation services. The facility will also afford the minors the opportunity for appropriate studies and leisure activities by providing education services, classrooms and education equipment. There will also be a separation in the facility between the genders.
165. With regard to minors over the age of 14, they should be placed in a separate detention center that was adapted to house minors and to address their special needs.
166. Minors until the age of 16 shall not be kept in detention more than the necessary time it takes to perform the requisite medical examinations and locating appropriate educational or treatment framework according to the minor's needs.
167. Minors over the age of 16 shall not be kept in detention more than the necessary time it takes to perform the requisite medical examinations and locating appropriate guardianship or, in exceptional cases and for reasons to be duly noted, finding an alternative guardianship in the community or a treatment framework according to the minor's needs.
168. According to the updated procedure, along with the issuing of the custody order, the passport control supervisor shall notify the Legal Aid Branch in the Ministry of Justice regarding the order issuance and inform the minor of his/her right to be legally assisted by the Legal Aid Branch.
169. In addition, a social worker is designated to meet each minor over the age of 14, within 24 hours of the beginning of his/her detention, and to give an expert opinion regarding the possibility available, to: release the minor to an educational facility under the responsibility of the Ministry of Education, or to a treatment facility under the responsibility of the Ministry of Social Affairs and Social Services. In addition, the social worker shall give his/her opinion regarding the possibility of release and transfer to a legal guardian which will be appointed by a Family Matters Court, and shall be responsible for fulfillment of the minor's needs including housing, clothing, health insurance and food. The social worker may also recommend the continuation of the detention until the removal of the minor from Israel.
170. The social worker will inform the minor concerning his/her right to update his/her state consulate concerning his/her custody in Israel as well as his/her wish to transfer such a notice to the consulate and to be visited by a representative from his/her state consulate.
171. The procedure further stipulates, that when Refugee Status Determination Committee recommend the Minister of Interior that the minor should be recognized as a temporary asylum seeker, he/she shall not be removed from Israel and the minor's official consulate will not be informed concerning his/her presence in Israel, the Minister's decision and the completion of handling his/her case.
172. A notice regarding removal of a minor shall be given to the minor at least seven days prior to the removal. In addition, such notice shall be given to the guardian or manager of the institution in which the minor is staying at least seven days in advance and with a reasonable amount of time prior to the notice to the minor.
173. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs shall make reasonable efforts to examine the possibility of locating the minor's parents or other relatives, see to it that someone will wait for him/her at the destination airport, and/or in the facility he/she will be transferred to. If the Ministry of Foreign Affairs is in the opinion that the circumstances in the minor's country of origin may endanger his/her wellbeing, it will notify the Population and Immigration Authority for an additional examination of the minor's removal.
174. As a rule, an unaccompanied minor shall not be expelled to his/her country of origin or other countries, if there is an apprehension of danger to his/her life and liberty or danger of torture.
175. In addition, on February 13, 2007 the Ministry of Justice decided to grant legal assistance to all unaccompanied foreign minors and to those claiming to be minors, in proceedings before the Detention Review Tribunal and in appeals proceedings. From 2009 until December 2012 the Legal Aid Branch has assisted 890 unaccompanied minors, 103 of them were girls.
176. On March 17, 2010, the Prime Minister Office's Director General ordered the establishment of “Matan” Facility (Youth Support Facility) for the absorption of foreign unaccompanied minors.
177. It is important to emphasize that although the facility formally defined as a “prison”, it does not operate as a regular prison facility, but was adapted to the needs of minors staying in it and provides their special needs in accordance with their age, status and background. The definition of a prison is intended to provide the IPS officers with the legal right to operate within the facility.

Alternatives Outside the “Matan” facility

178. There are several educational alternatives for foreign unaccompanied minors outside the facility. Yet, due to the minors' early age and the fact that they are unaccompanied, it is necessary to examine each of the minor's individual circumstances in order to decide whether these alternatives provide an adequate protection and fulfills their best interest.
179. Minors at the ages of 14 to 16 may be referred to special frameworks of the Ministry of Education, which allocated 150 spots for foreign unaccompanied minors in boarding schools and in the “Nitzana” youth village, especially established for this population.
180. Minors at the ages of 16 to 18 are placed in frameworks under the responsibility of the Ministry of Social Affairs and Social Services, or under the responsibility of a guardian who was examined by the facility's social worker and approved by a Guardianship Tribunal in accordance with the Unaccompanied Minors Procedure. However, the guardian approval is complex. In addition, the Ministry of Social Affairs and Social Services allocated 30 additional spots in the boarding school of Kfar Yasif.
181. Female minors are separated from the male minors and placed in a separate section at the Givon detention facility. The section is open during the day and locked only at nights. In addition, the girls are provided with clothes, health services, social worker's supervision and Hebrew lessons twice a week. As in Matan facility, external alternative frameworks for the girls are frequently being examined. As of July 2011 there were four female minors in the Givon facility.  

Part II

Reply to the issues raised in part II of the list of issues

a. New bills, laws, or military orders, and their respective regulations

182. Amendments to the Legal Capacity and Guardianship Law 5722-1962 (the “Legal Capacity and Guardianship Law”) take into consideration the importance of the minor being in touch with both his/her parents and in order to enable the parents of the minor, even if they live apart, to be involved and updated concerning the minor, not related to the type of relationship the parents have amongst them. Amendment no. 14 (2010) and Amendment no. 16 (2012), determine that information regarding the minor will be sent to two registered addresses of the minor or to an additional address given by one of the parents.
Amendment no. 17 of the Legal Capacity and Guardianship Law (2012) added the right of the grandparents to file a request to be in contact  with their grandchildren and authorized the court to instruct on the matter if it finds that it is the best interest of the child. In addition, the amendment authorizes the court to maintain a contact of the child with the grandparents that are the parents of a deceased parent if it is in the child best interest.
Amendments no. 18 and 20 of the Youth Law (Treatment and Supervision), extended the protection provided by law to publications that might be harmful to minors.

b. New institutions (and their mandates) or institutional reforms

183. No relevant Data is available at this time.  

c. Recently introduced policies, programmes and action plans and their scope and financing

The different programs that have been recently introduced are the following:

(a) According to Government Resolution no. 4088 (12.1.2012) to adopt the recommendations of the report by the Trajtenberg Committee (as described in the response to Question #13) to subsidize extra curriculum for the age group 3-9 in pre-schools and  elementary schools. The program will be implemented gradually. The schools that have children from low income families will be fully funded;
(b) Measures to raise the social economic level through reducing the amount of children in the class to 32 pupils. Budget allocated 470 Million NIS (US$ 129 Million);
(c) A program to improve the achievements in the core subjects (total sum of 43,000 hours of additional schooling hours – annual funding of 310 Million NIS (US$ 85.4 Million);
(d) Differential funding in the amount of 732 Million NIS (US$ 201.8 Million) was allocated for additional tutorial sessions, according to socio-economic decile ranking;
(e) Support of junior high schools in the periphery according to a socio-economic decile ranking,, with the funding of above 200 Million NIS (US$ 55,1 Million);
(f) Incentives to teachers in the peripheral areas in the amount of approximately 220 Million NIS (US$ 60.6 Million);
(g) Self-management of schools according to the new model received funding of 76 Million NIS (US$ 20.5 Million);
(h) The reform in free education from ages 3-4, 1.3 Billion NIS (US$ 358 Million) for the construction of additional pre-schools and 1 Billion NIS (US$ 275 Million) toward subsidizing the parents' fees;
(i) Pupils' annual trip is subsidized in the sum of 270 Million NIS (US$ 74.4 Million). Additionally scholarships in the total sum of 55 Million NIS (US$ 15.1 Million) will be given to pupils according to a socio-economic decile ranking;
(j) Additional funding will be allocated to youth organizations in the sum of 20 Million NIS (US$ 5.5 Million), a total of 85 Million NIS (US$ 23.4 Million) toward this cause. The emphasis will be on youth in the periphery and the aims of the plan amongst others are establishing a foundation for the participation of Bedouin children and youth in youth organizations (currently none exist; 10 new branches will open and 600 children and youth will become members) and limiting the membership fees;
(k) The library service program received funding in the amount of 100 Million NIS (US$ 27.5 Million) and an additional 20 Million NIS (US$ 5.5 Million) to implement the program in every school;
(l) The computerization program is implemented in elementary schools and junior high schools in Jerusalem, the North and South regions. Around 1,400 schools are in the program, the funds were allocated to decrease the gap between the socio-economic levels. The budget of this program was 300 Million NIS (US$ 82.7 Million) for adding 400 schools in the program and 420 Million NIS (US$ 115.7 Million) for implementing the program in 1,000 additional schools;
(m) “Ofek Hadash” (New Horizon) will continue to operate in pre-schools, and elementary schools, in the future junior high schools will join the program;
(n) Strengthening the technological education, 400 Million NIS (US$ 110 Million) were allocated for this purpose.

d. Recent ratifications of human rights instruments

184. Israel is pleased to report that in September 2012, the Israeli Government ratified the Convention on the rights of persons with disabilities.
185. Israel signed the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (the, Convention) on March 30, 2007, and since then has been conducting extensive work in order to ratify this important Convention, which included among others, examination of relevant legislation, required legislation amendments and more.
186. The ratification procedure was led by the Commission for Equal Rights of Persons with Disabilities in the Ministry of Justice, with the participation of other relevant Government Ministries, such as the Ministries of Social Affairs and Social Services, Foreign Affairs, Finance and others.
187. This ratification is an important step in enhancing the protection provided to human rights in Israel.

Part III

Reply to the issues raised in part III, paragraph 1, of the list of issues

188. In the past three years, many new programs have been implemented to close the gaps between different populations and to decrease the number of dropouts from the education system. The following information explains the allocation of the budget.

Reply to the issues raised in part III, paragraph 2, of the list of issues

a. Children separated from their parents

189. The data is not available at this time.

b. Children placed in institutions

190. During the 2011-2012 school year, the children staying in boarding school were divided as follows: 7,257 pupils stayed in boarding schools of the Child and Youth services; 2,981 pupils were placed according to the Youth Law; 2,469 pupils were placed for rehabilitation purposes; 2,782 pupils were placed for treatment purposes; 744 pupils were placed for hospitalization purposes; 705 pupils were placed in day school of the Child and Youth Services.
191. The Child and Youth service has work connections with 315 out of home placements. 140 of the out of home placement are boarding schools that work solely with children that are treated by social services. In these boarding schools there are two main age groups: 27% are between the ages of 6-12, 61% are between the ages of 13-18. The supervision of these children according to the standard method, that enables to receive local and national profiles of the pupils. The pupils' profiles are determined by certain characteristics and other problems. The common characteristics for a high degree of danger: abuse by the parents or a suspicion of abuse, lack of visitation at the parents' home or rare visitations, a suicide attempt, committing sexual assault, victims of sexual assault. Pupils with obvious characteristics: problems in the family 57.9%, depression and anxiety 47.5%, lack of social skills 35.4%.   
192. The Child and Youth Services, along with the boarding schools developed new models to work with at risk children for the purpose of protection and to strengthen the connection between parent and child and treat the emotional, behavioral difficulties of the pupils.

c. Children placed with foster families

193. The data is not available at this time.

d. Children adopted domestically or through inter-country adoptions

194. The data is not available at this time.

Reply to the issues raised in part III, paragraph 3, of the list of issues

a. Children living with their families:

Table 4
Recipients of a Disabled Child Allowance, as of December 2012, Disaggregated by Age, Gender and District of Residence

Place of Residence

Age

Gender

Total

District of Residence

Jerusalem

Safed

Kinneret

Yizrael

Akko

Golan

Haifa

Hadera

Ha'Sharon

Petah Tiqwa

Ramla

Rehovot

Tel Aviv

Ashqelon

Be'er Sheva

Judea and Samaria

Total

33,308

4,926

502

510

1,960

2,623

133

1,934

1,589

1,604

2,458

1,396

1,966

4,313

2,122

3,580

1,692

Living with Parents

Total

33,133

4,906

499

508

1,945

2,611

131

1,918

1,579

1,594

2,454

1,391

1,962

4,295

2,108

3,544

1,688

Younger than 3 years old

Total

2,463

412

50

30

135

185

Less than 10

122

123

104

158

95

111

340

153

274

166

Male

1,393

219

25

18

83

106

Less than 10

68

67

58

73

62

70

208

100

140

92

Female

1,070

193

25

12

52

79

Less than 10

54

56

46

85

33

41

132

53

134

74

3-5

Total

5,651

827

93

74

262

364

18

311

303

295

446

250

360

770

341

647

290

Male

3,737

520

60

51

171

226

11

220

209

210

303

177

255

532

228

389

175

Female

1,914

307

33

23

91

138

Less than 10

91

94

85

143

73

105

238

113

258

115

6-9

Total

8,657

1,245

122

112

418

614

31

520

369

424

678

378

573

1,205

562

927

479

Male

5,810

802

79

65

278

397

18

360

233

296

475

267

417

858

375

571

319

Female

2,847

443

43

47

140

217

13

160

136

128

203

111

156

347

187

356

160

10-13

Total

8,503

1,216

117

147

564

737

35

478

394

425

665

341

475

1,036

564

890

419

Male

5,478

736

77

95

353

423

24

315

241

274

462

233

334

715

370

555

271

Female

3,025

480

40

52

211

314

11

163

153

151

203

108

141

321

194

335

148

14-17

Total

7,859

1,206

117

145

566

711

42

487

390

346

507

327

443

944

488

806

334

Male

4,860

749

70

91

340

412

28

316

217

217

322

213

272

621

303

464

225

Female

2,999

457

47

54

226

299

14

171

173

129

185

114

171

323

185

342

109

Not Living with Parents

175

20

Less than 10

Less than 10

15

12

Less than 10

16

10

10

Less than 10

Less than 10

Less than 10

18

14

36

Less than 10

Source: National Insurance Institution, April, 2013

Table 5
Recipients of a Disabled Child Allowance, as of December 2011, Disaggregated by Age, Gender and District of Residence

Place of Residence

Age

Gender

Total

District of Residence

Jerusalem

Safed

Kinneret

Yizrael

Akko

Golan

Haifa

Hadera

Ha'Sharon

Petah Tiqwa

Ramla

Rehovot

Tel Aviv

Ashqelon

Be'er Sheva

Judea and Samaria

Total

30,396

4,531

432

451

1,843

2,420

135

1,800

1,448

1,426

2,192

1,281

1,773

3,924

1,946

3,269

1,525

Living with Parents

Total

30,216

4,504

428

449

1,826

2,409

133

1,785

1,437

1,417

2,186

1,278

1,769

3,903

1,935

3,235

1,522

Younger than 3 years old

Total

1,093

203

13

10

65

93

Less than 10

53

64

42

57

35

48

131

62

128

84

Male

580

103

Less than 10

Less than 10

44

49

Less than 10

25

33

16

21

24

25

83

36

58

45

Female

513

100

Less than 10

Less than 10

21

44

.

28

31

26

36

11

23

48

26

70

39

3-5

Total

4,324

655

68

51

185

282

15

247

220

212

322

190

263

597

270

522

225

Male

2,759

387

45

34

116

174

11

172

145

150

209

123

183

390

183

302

135

Female

1,565

268

23

17

69

108

Less than 10

75

75

62

113

67

80

207

87

220

90

6-9

Total

7,827

1,117

105

97

388

550

27

455

343

377

618

345

525

1,112

493

847

428

Male

5,233

716

66

52

255

358

15

318

220

262

428

240

379

796

327

518

283

Female

2,594

401

39

45

133

192

12

137

123

115

190

105

146

316

166

329

145

10-13

Total

7,985

1,142

103

125

530

672

32

458

369

399

632

323

436

997

537

829

401

Male

5,147

692

66

81

333

377

25

306

228

256

444

219

309

689

348

519

255

Female

2,838

450

37

44

197

295

Less than 10

152

141

143

188

104

127

308

189

310

146

14-17

Total

8,987

1,387

139

166

658

812

54

572

441

387

557

385

497

1,066

573

909

384

Male

5,565

861

82

103

397

475

33

375

249

239

347

242

320

695

359

533

255

Female

3,422

526

57

63

261

337

21

197

192

148

210

143

177

371

214

376

129

Not Living with Parents

180

27

Less than 10

Less than 10

17

11

Less than 10

15

11

Less than 10

Less than 10

Less than 10

Less than 10

21

11

34

Less than 10

Source: National Insurance Institution, April, 2013

Table 6
Recipients of a Disabled Child Allowance, as of December 2010, Disaggregated by Age, Gender and District of Residence*

Age

Gender

Total

District of Residence

Jerusalem

Safed

Kinneret

Yizrael

Akko

Golan

Haifa

Hadera

Ha'Sharon

Petah Tiqwa

Ramla

Rehovot

Tel Aviv

Ashqelon

Be'er Sheva

Judea and Samaria

Total

28,016

4,169

384

404

1,775

2,290

127

1,560

1,328

1,324

1,943

1,203

1,624

3,621

1,896

3,029

1,339

Total

28,016

4,169

384

404

1,775

2,290

127

1,560

1,328

1,324

1,943

1,203

1,624

3,621

1,896

3,029

1,339

Younger than 3 years old

Total

264

53

Less than 10

Less than 10

12

25

Less than 10

12

16

10

13

Less than 10

Less than 10

30

13

29

25

Male

144

27

Less than 10

Less than 10

Less than 10

12

Less than 10

Less than 10

Less than 10

Less than 10

Less than 10

Less than 10

Less than 10

18

Less than 10

14

14

Female

120

26

Less than 10

Less than 10

Less than 10

13

.

Less than 10

Less than 10

Less than 10

Less than 10

Less than 10

Less than 10

12

Less than 10

15

11

3-5

Total

2,994

477

43

33

149

208

Less than 10

133

157

151

189

128

178

408

188

378

165

Male

1,776

268

28

19

92

120

Less than 10

80

93

106

110

73

119

243

123

201

94

Female

1,218

209

15

14

57

88

Less than 10

53

64

45

79

55

59

165

65

177

71

6-9

Total

7,063

1,024

91

86

342

501

25

394

309

339

551

306

465

1,017

470

772

371

Male

4,654

650

57

48

221

320

14

264

190

228

384

211

345

716

305

458

243

Female

2,409

374

34

38

121

181

11

130

119

111

167

95

120

301

165

314

128

10-13

Total

7,555

1,089

97

105

522

631

32

390

339

375

580

331

407

958

520

804

375

Male

4,843

655

61

68

331

349

24

263

212

232

401

215

292

664

335

511

230

Female

2,712

434

36

37

191

282

Less than 10

127

127

143

179

116

115

294

185

293

145

14-17

Total

10,140

1,526

148

176

750

925

60

631

507

449

610

430

566

1,208

705

1,046

403

Male

6,329

939

90

111

464

549

35

408

301

283

394

268

359

794

444

622

268

Female

3,811

587

58

65

286

376

25

223

206

166

216

162

207

414

261

424

135

Source: National Insurance Institution, April, 2013
* For 2010, the data is not disaggregated according towhether or not the minor is residing with his/her parents

b. In institutions

195. The data is not available at this time.

c. Attending regular schools

Children with disabilities in the regular education system, in special education classes:
2011: 32,718 pupils
2012: 33, 854 pupils, 3.5% increase from the previous year.
2013: 36, 848 pupils, 8.8% increase from the previous year.

d. Attending special schools

Children with disabilities in the special education system, in special education classes:
2011: 32,889 pupils
2012: 34, 928 pupils, 5.8% increase from the previous year.
2013: 35,295 pupils, 1.1% increase from the previous year.

Conclusions

196. In 2013, an increase in referrals to special education can be indicated and yet the eligibility criterions for special education have changed:
197. In 2012, children with disabilities were more often referred to the segregated special education institutions; whilst in 2013 children with disabilities were referred to the special education classes within the integrated regular school system.
198. This trend indicates that more classes in regular schools have opened for children with complex disabilities which allow the children to stay close to their home and known social surroundings.
199. This trend is fully supported both by the parents and the municipalities that want to see the children study in regular schools.

The Integration Program

200. In the Integration Program, 113,321 children receive services. From the data, two main trends:
(a) An increase in the number of children with disabilities (for instance autistic children) that are integrated in the regular education system;
(b) A decrease in the overall number of children, this decline is related to the increasing professionalism of the treating staff. In the past, pupils with difficulties were also admitted into the integration program and not only children with disabilities. Nowadays children with learning difficulties receive additional assistance in the framework of the new reform Ofek Hadash (New horizon). Accordingly all the resources of the integration program are allocated to children with disabilities. At the same time, there is an increase in the amount of children with complicated disabilities (such as autism, mental disabilities, hearing impairment, vision impairment and others) that are placed in the integration program. By these actions, the Ministry of Education is strengthening the trend of integrating children with complicated disabilities into the regular education system.

Reply to the issues raised in part III, paragraph 4, of the list of issues

a. The enrolment and completion rates in pre-primary, primary and secondary schools

Table 7
Enrolment rates in Pre-schools

Age

Year

2011

2012

2013

3

67.8

67.8

77.6

4

82.7

83.0

88.1

5

92.6

92.9

91.6

Total

81.2

80.6

85.7

Source: The Ministry of Education, April, 2013

201. National summary of the primary findings:
(a) In 2011- 2012, the enrollment rate in pre-schools for children aged 3-5 has been stable;
(b) A prominent trend was seen in the substantial increase of the pre-school enrollment rate for 3-4 year olds in 2013.
(i) The most significant increase is the enrollment of three years olds from 67.8% in 2012 to 77.6% in 2013.
(ii) A milder increase is seen in the enrollment of four year olds, from 83% in 2012 to 88.1% in 2013.
The increase in enrollment percentages reflects a national resolution, on which the Government of Israel decided following the Trajtenberg Committee, implementing its main recommendation to immediately apply the Compulsory Education Law 5709-1949 to children in the age group of 3-4.
(c) The enrollment rate of 5 year olds declined in 2013 by 1%, a decrease which may indicate an increase in home schooling, but not of a change of policy, as the education institutions have always been open to five year olds and intend to stay open in the future.
Table 8
The enrollment rates of children between the ages 3-5 according to nationality, gender

2013

2012

2011

Gender

Nationality

Age

Enrollment rate

Children in pre-school

Children according to Registry

Enrollment rate

Children in pre-school

Children according to Registry

Enrollment rate

Children in pre-school

Children according to Registry

97.52

1140

1169

98.34

1247

1268

97.19

1141

1174

Girls

Druze

3

97.19

1247

1283

97.67

1381

1414

96.83

1192

1231

Boys

80.95

47855

59120

69.87

43638

62453

70.41

38496

54674

Girls

Jewish

79.32

49386

62262

68.32

44639

65340

68.62

39471

57525

Boys

67.9

12112

17839

60.93

11444

18781

60.11

10320

17168

Girls

Arab

67.69

12426

18356

60.82

11985

19706

60.99

11069

18149

Boys

74.07

40

54

65.52

38

58

81.13

43

53

Girls

Other

59.09

26

44

59.26

32

54

63.16

24

38

Boys

77.58

124232

160127

67.67

114404

169074

67.83

101756

150012

Total

98.11

1244

1268

98.13

1153

1175

98.2

1199

1221

Girls

Druze

4

97.88

1385

1415

98.54

1213

1231

97.59

1295

1327

Boys

91.76

57491

62653

87.8

48276

54983

87.6

47149

53825

Girls

Jewish

90.87

59549

65535

87.05

50344

57835

86.9

49460

56913

Boys

77.09

14491

18798

67.46

11615

17217

67.05

11664

17397

Girls

Arab

76.8

15152

19729

68.29

12435

18209

68.06

12393

18208

Boys

74.14

43

58

79.25

42

53

79.55

35

44

Girls

Other

75.47

40

53

71.05

27

38

82.35

42

51

Boys

88.13

149395

169509

82.99

125105

150741

82.72

123237

148986

Total

97.36

1143

1174

98.36

1200

1220

98.17

1284

1308

Girls

Druze

5

97.63

1195

1224

98.11

1301

1326

98.28

1311

1334

Boys

93.62

51409

54915

94.56

51078

54014

94.35

52990

56164

Girls

Jewish

92.79

53533

57692

93.92

53547

57011

94.1

55837

59340

Boys

85.86

14611

17018

87.77

15207

17326

87.37

16081

18406

Girls

Arab

86.42

15579

18027

88.5

16075

18164

87.52

17088

19524

Boys

81.13

43

53

84.09

37

44

82.61

57

69

Girls

Other

76.32

29

38

84.31

43

51

90.57

48

53

Boys

91.61

137542

150141

92.85

138488

149156

92.64

144696

156198

Total

85.7

411169

479777

80.6

377997

468971

81.22

369689

455196

Grand Total

Source: The Ministry of Education, April, 2013

202. Key Findings:
(a) The percentages of enrollment according to gender are stable in the Jewish, Arab and Druze population;
(b) In the Druze education, the enrollment rate is particularly high in all three age groups over the examined years, stands at 97%-99%;
(c) In 2011-2012, the Jewish and Arab education enrollment rate of three year olds was stable; in 2013 a substantial increase was marked;
(i) Within the Jewish education there is an increase of approximately 10%.
(ii) Within the Arab education there is an increase of approximately 8%.
The difference between the enrollment rates of the Jewish and Arab population changes at the age of four.
(d) In 2011-2012, the Jewish and Arab education enrollment rate of three year olds was stable; in 2013 an increase was marked;
(i) Within the Jewish education there is an increase of approximately 4%.
(ii) Within the Arab education there is an increase of approximately 10%.
Extensive efforts are made to change the system, including investment of resources in building pre-schools. This process will take time; the differences in the implementation of the Trajtenberg Committee recommendations indicate difficulties in the construction of appropriate pre-schools required to accommodate three and four year olds.
(e) At age five, the enrollment rate is steady for all the nationalities;
(i) In the Arab education the enrollment rate is 86%-88%.
(ii) In the Jewish education the enrollment rate is 93%-94%.
(iii) In the Druze education the enrollment rate is 97%-98%.
(f) People without nationality are displayed as “other”, and this normally refers to children of parents from the former Soviet Union whose parents have not decided what nationality to give them. As these children amount to approximately 100 children per year, the focus will be on three main national groups. The Bedouin population is included under the Arab nationality.

Table 9
Enrollment Rates to Elementary Schools for Children between the ages 6-12, According to Nationality and Gender

2013

2012

2011

Gender

Nationality

Age

Enrollment Rate (%)

Pupils

Pre – school

Registry

Enrollment Rate (%)

Pupils

Pre –  school

Registry

Enrollment Rate (%)

Pupils

Pre – School

Registry

99

1,151

53

1,221

98

1,256

46

1,322

98

1,110

40

1,169

Girls

Druze

6

98

1,226

76

1,327

98

1,235

83

1,342

98

1,190

64

1,275

Boys

93

42,052

6,284

51,811

94

43,983

7,227

54,405

94

40,547

6,123

49,531

Girls

Jewish

93

42,746

8,122

54,846

93

44,188

9,375

57,313

94

40,437

8,065

51,866

Boys

90

15,340

362

17,483

90

16,315

522

18,736

89

15,390

384

17,719

Girls

Arab

91

15,890

685

18,308

90

17,034

916

19,870

90

16,267

694

18,888

Boys

69

2,542

309

4,157

67

2,469

353

4,186

70

2,227

299

3,620

Girls

Other

69

2,452

499

4,251

70

2,580

525

4,450

71

2,235

481

3,835

Boys

91

123,399

16,390

153,404

92

129,060

19,047

161,624

92

119,403

16,150

147,903

Total

99

1,304

0

1,322

99

1,160

0

1,169

99

1,382

0

1,402

Girls

Druze

7

99

1,326

0

1,342

99

1,267

0

1,275

97

1,383

0

1,427

Boys

94

51,062

2

54,480

95

47,072

0

49,693

95

50,829

2

53,722

Girls

Jewish

94

53,747

9

57,407

94

48,967

1

51,962

94

53,217

1

56,693

Boys

91

17,132

2

18,749

91

16,112

0

17,739

91

18,505

0

20,443

Girls

Arab

92

18,336

3

19,883

92

17,373

0

18,932

92

19,502

0

21,269

Boys

68

2,979

1

4,373

69

2,630

2

3,832

71

2,985

0

4,215

Girls

Other

70

3,235

2

4,592

70

2,846

0

4,079

71

3,065

0

4,339

Boys

92

149,121

19

162,148

92

137,427

3

148,681

92

150,868

3

163,510

Total

99

1,159

0

1,169

99

1,388

0

1,402

99

1,212

0

1,228

Girls

Druze

8

99

1,267

0

1,275

98

1,402

0

1,427

98

1,264

0

1,289

Boys

94

46,867

0

49,762

95

51,074

0

53,850

94

44,569

0

47,288

Girls

Jewish

94

48,947

0

52,016

94

53,660

0

56,815

94

46,611

0

49,518

Boys

92

16,251

0

17,753

92

18,730

0

20,468

91

17,252

0

18,993

Girls

Arab

92

17,508

0

18,947

93

19,722

0

21,298

92

18,153

0

19,799

Boys

69

2,697

0

3,920

69

3,022

0

4,371

73

2,716

0

3,724

Girls

Other

70

2,918

0

4,195

69

3,108

0

4,475

70

2,673

0

3,793

Boys

92

137,614

0

149,037

93

152,106

0

164,106

92

134,450

0

145,632

Total

99

1,388

0

1,402

99

1,214

0

1,228

99

1,250

0

1,264

Girls

Druze

9

98

1,401

0

1,427

99

1,270

0

1,289

98

1,374

0

1,395

Boys

94

50,825

0

53,925

95

44,821

0

47,423

94

43,300

0

45,866

Girls

Jewish

94

53,441

0

56,874

94

46,864

0

49,609

94

45,252

0

48,084

Boys

92

18,822

0

20,483

92

17,409

0

19,016

91

16,829

0

18,498

Girls

Arab

93

19,818

0

21,303

93

18,345

0

19,832

93

18,207

0

19,624

Boys

69

3,049

0

4,441

71

2,692

0

3,798

70

2,498

0

3,584

Girls

Other

68

3,130

0

4,581

69

2,687

0

3,921

70

2,707

0

3,848

Boys

92

151,874

0

164,436

93

135,302

0

146,116

92

131,417

0

142,163

Total

99

1,216

0

1,228

99

1,249

0

1,264

99

1,326

0

1,340

Girls

Druze

10

99

1,271

0

1,289

99

1,376

0

1,395

99

1,471

0

1,482

Boys

94

44,583

0

47,478

95

43,493

0

45,955

94

47,022

0

49,880

Girls

Jewish

94

46,636

0

49,658

94

45,516

0

48,182

94

49,561

0

52,749

Boys

92

17,486

0

19,030

91

16,940

0

18,515

91

18,025

0

19,891

Girls

Arab

93

18,415

0

19,838

93

18,355

0

19,649

92

19,326

0

20,898

Boys

71

2,732

0

3,874

68

2,513

0

3,692

69

2,664

0

3,887

Girls

Other

68

2,717

0

3,992

69

2,743

0

3,966

67

2,732

0

4,104

Boys

92

135,056

0

146,387

93

132,185

0

142,618

92

142,127

0

154,231

Total

99

1,249

0

1,264

99

1,328

0

1,341

99

1,153

0

1,167

Girls

Druze

11

99

1,377

0

1,395

99

1,470

0

1,482

99

1,323

0

1,340

Boys

94

43,316

0

45,997

95

47,254

0

49,981

95

42,669

0

45,131

Girls

Jewish

94

45,360

0

48,226

94

49,804

0

52,843

94

44,703

0

47,508

Boys

92

16,963

0

18,526

91

18,097

0

19,908

91

16,031

0

17,647

Girls

Arab

93

18,358

0

19,653

93

19,446

0

20,924

92

17,117

0

18,594

Boys

67

2,538

0

3,772

67

2,665

0

3,975

66

2,249

0

3,417

Girls

Other

68

2,763

0

4,054

65

2,744

0

4,226

67

2,489

0

3,732

Boys

92

131,924

0

142,887

92

142,808

0

154,680

92

127,734

0

138,536

Total

98

1,319

0

1,341

98

1,149

0

1,167

98

1,186

0

1,211

Girls

Druze

12

99

1,463

0

1,482

99

1,324

0

1,340

98

1,269

0

1,290

Boys

94

46,906

0

50,040

95

42,789

0

45,209

94

42,411

0

44,974

Girls

Jewish

94

49,462

0

52,896

94

44,828

0

47,596

94

44,267

0

47,250

Boys

90

17,995

0

19,921

90

15,957

0

17,666

90

15,740

0

17,542

Girls

Arab

92

19,275

0

20,934

91

17,011

0

18,623

92

17,053

0

18,553

Boys

66

2,673

0

4,053

65

2,268

0

3,504

67

2,387

0

3,570

Girls

Other

63

2,742

0

4,334

64

2,449

0

3,811

65

2,462

0

3,802

Boys

92

141,835

0

155,001

92

127,775

0

138,916

92

126,775

0

138,192

Total

Source: The Ministry of Education, April, 2013

Table 10
Enrollment Rates for Children between the Ages 13-17 According to Nationality and Gender

2013

2012

2011

Gender

Nationality

Age

Enrolment Rate (%)

Pupils

Registry

Enrollment Rate (%)

Pupils

Registry

Enrollment Rate (%)

Pupils

Registry

98

1,147

1,168

97

1,177

1,211

97

1,279

1,319

Girls

Druze

13

98

1,316

1,339

98

1,264

1,290

98

1,354

1,382

Boys

94

42,530

45,264

94

42,444

45,065

94

44,499

47,384

Girls

Jewish

94

44,885

47,677

94

44,560

47,364

94

47,072

50,047

Boys

90

15,880

17,673

90

15,742

17,556

89

15,911

17,856

Girls

Arab

91

16,976

18,628

91

16,952

18,576

91

17,009

18,671

Boys

64

2,278

3,565

65

2,380

3,650

65

2,595

3,971

Girls

Other

63

2,399

3,827

63

2,453

3,904

63

2,622

4,142

Boys

92

127,411

139,141

92

126,972

138,616

91

132,341

144,772

Total

96

1,166

1,210

95

1,255

1,320

95

1,219

1,278

Girls

Druze

14

95

1,228

1,291

94

1,300

1,382

94

1,251

1,331

Boys

93

41,975

45,215

93

44,332

47,574

93

39,731

42,571

Girls

Jewish

92

43,904

47,523

93

46,560

50,236

93

41,586