Rights of Child Convention/Article 44 – 2nd-4th reports of Israel – Submission to the Cttee on the Rights of the Child (excerpts)


_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Committee on the Rights of the Child

Consideration of the reports submitted by States parties under article 44 of the Convention

Combined second, third and fourth periodic reports of States parties due in 2008

Israel*

[11 June 2010]

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*In accordance with the information transmitted to the States parties regarding the processing of their reports, the present document was not edited.   


I. Introduction

1. This is the second periodic report of the State of Israel, submitted to the United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child in accordance with the requirements of article 44 of the International Convention on the Rights of the Child (hereinafter referred to as the “Convention. This report has been compiled by the Human Rights and Foreign Relations Department of the Ministry of Justice, in cooperation with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and other Israeli Government bodies. Israeli non-governmental organizations (NGOs) were also invited to submit comments prior to the compilation of the present report, both through direct application, and a general invitation to submit remarks, which was posted on the Ministry of Justice website. Their contributions were given substantial consideration.
2. Since the submission of the initial report (CRC/C/8/Add.44), many legislative, administrative and judicial developments relevant to the implementation of the Convention have occurred. A brief summary of the most significant of these changes is set out below. This report provides a comprehensive account of these developments. It also addresses the comments made by the Committee in its concluding observations (CRC/C/15/Add.195) dated 10 October 2002.
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IV. General principles

A. Article -6- The right to life, survival and development

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The right to life, survival and development of children with disabilities

General
158. In 2007, 293,000 disabled or chronically ill children resided in Israel, amounting to 12.8 per cent of the total population of children in the country. Approximately 176,000 children (out of the 293,000) are disabled or suffer from a chronic illness. Of these, 7.7 per cent suffer from disabilities that impinge upon their daily functioning for a period of at least a year.
159. The percentage of children who suffer from at least one disability among the Bedouin population (in the southern Negev area) stands at 9.1 per cent, at 8.3 among the total population of Arab children, and at 7.6 per cent among Jewish children.
160. Between the years 2001–2005 there was a decrease in the percentage of children with disabilities who were either sexually assaulted or were victims of family violence (from 11.2 per cent to 9 per cent).
161. In comparison with western countries, Israel has a relatively high rate of children born at a very low weight. The rate of children born with low birth weights increased from 15.8 per cent (on average) between 1995 and 1998, and 18 per cent in 2005.
162. Approximately 25 per cent of children with disabilities live with two unemployed parents, who in many cases depend on an income support pension. Among the Bedouin population, 50 per cent of the children with disabilities’ fathers are unemployed.

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Education
164. In Israel there are approximately 46,000 pupils in the Special Education System; which includes kindergartens for disabled children, schools for disabled children, and classrooms in regular schools which are allocated to disabled children. Between the years 2002–2005 the rate of disabled pupils and classrooms assigned to disabled children in regular schools grew by 16 per cent. In the same period, the number of kindergartens for disabled children grew by 26 per cent. In 2005, approximately 72,164 children with disabilities were incorporated into the regular education system.
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Data on children and institutions

167. As of 2009, 57,943 children with disabilities were placed in various educational facilities. This number represents 3.2 per cent of the total number of pupils (approximately 1.8 million) in Israel. 9,677 attend special education kindergartens, 27,592 study in special education classrooms within regular schools and 20,674 attend special education schools.
168. There are approximately 75,000 children with disabilities included in the regular educational system. Approximately 56,000 (75 per cent) are Jewish and the remaining 19,000 (25 per cent) are members of Israel’s Arab population. The Special Education Law applies to approximately 133,000 children, 103,000 of which study in regular education institutions (in regular classrooms or in special education classrooms) and 30,000 study in institutions designated for children with disabilities.

Table 1
Number of pupils and classrooms in special education institutions, 2009

Population groups

Classrooms

Pupils

Jewish

5 077

45 145

Arab

1 000

9 416

Druze

161

1 343

Bedouin

215

2 039

Total

6 453

57 943

Source: The Ministry of Education 2009.

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Personal assistance

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181. In addition to the above the Rights of Pupils with Learning Disabilities in Secondary Education Facilities Law 5768-2008 was recently enacted. This law affirms the rights of pupils with learning disabilities to adjustments in the criteria for admission to secondary education facilities (academic technological rabbinical or professional) as well as in the exams and other assignments that they are required to sit and submit throughout school years.
182. Moreover modifications of matriculation exams for children with Learning Disabilities were approved. In 2007 62 912 out of 281 511 pupils (22.3 per cent) requested modifications to their matriculation exams due to learning disabilities. The majority of the applications were approved. Among the Arab population 3 207 of the 46 579 pupils (6.9 per cent) requested that adjustments be made and these requests were approved. Among the Druze population 246 of the 5 689 pupils (4.3 per cent) requested that adjustments be made and their requests were approved.

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B. Article 2 – Non-discrimination and equal opportunity

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Differences between Jewish and Arab children

197. Gaps between the Arab and Jewish population with respect to child development services have considerably decreased in recent years. Eight child development centres which provide health services have been opened in close proximity to Arab populations in addition to the opening of the development institute located at the French Hospital in Nazareth. Recent years have witnessed an increase in the establishment of Child Development Centers in majority Arab areas.
198. Currently there are 34 child development institutes and 65 units that are recognized by the Health Division of the Israeli Ministry of Health. These units primarily serve children who suffer from arrested development difficulties. In majority Arab areas there are six units that serve children with developmental difficulties and one development institute. The services provided at these facilities include access to preventive medical care tracking delays in development diagnostic services and support services (such as psychological and counselling services). This indicates significant progress in medical and therapeutic services for disabled Arab children and Arab children who suffer from arrested development.

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Children’s television programmes

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294. In accordance with the recommendation contained in paragraph 26 of the concluding observations of the Committee on the Rights of the Child, the right to non-discrimination must carry out comprehensive public education campaigns. Hence, the Israeli Broadcasting Authority devotes considerable efforts to encouraging tolerance and equality among children and youth. The Authority emphasizes the importance of impartiality and equivalence between dissimilar races, diverse skin colour, different ethnicities, origins and nationalities. The Broadcasting Authority — television and radio — transmits varied programmes on the subject of religious pluralism, co-existence between the Arab and the Jewish population, children and children with disabilities, children of immigrants, children of foreign workers and so on. These programmes aim to educate children, teach them about the various populations in the society and how to accept diverseness.
295. Attention is paid to fighting racism and communal segregation among youth. Daily news covers social and legal racial discrimination and struggles in order to raise awareness of the issue among adults and children.
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V.  Family environment and alternative care

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Family size

319. As indicated in table No. 3 below, in 2008 the average number of children per family was 2.38, which is similar to the average reported in Israel’s initial report. Large families with four or more children comprise 16.43 per cent of all families, while approximately one-third of all families have only one child. The number of children in families varies greatly according to sub-population: Jewish families have an average of 2.24 children, while Arab families have an average of 2.95 children. Large families with four children or more comprise 12.7 per cent of Jewish families and 30.8 per cent of Arab families. The ultra-orthodox Jewish population is also characterized by large families.
320. New immigrant families that came to Israel during the 1990’s tend to be smaller: In 2005, 50 per cent of these families had one child, compared with 33 per cent of the general population (in 2006). Between 1996 and 2008, the population of Jewish children decreased from 35.84 per cent to 33.11 per cent, while simultaneously, the number of Arab children decreased from 50.8 per cent to 49.63 per cent.

Table 3
Number of children per family, by sub-population (average and percentage)

2001

2008

Number of children

Total population

Number of children

Total population

Average

2.35

Average

2.38

Percentage

Percentage

1 child

34.20

1 child

31.4

2 children

29.90

2 children

32.23

3 children

18.90

3 children

19.95

4 or more children

16.80

4 or more children

16.43

Source: The Central Bureau of Statistics, Statistical Abstract of Israel, 2009.

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321. In Israel, most families (90 per cent) with children are headed by two parents; the remainder (10 per cent) are single-parent families. There are fewer single-parent families in the Arab population (5.5 per cent), and significantly more such families among the new immigrant population (29.56 per cent). Most (57.6 per cent) single parents are divorced, 13.2 per cent of single parents are married but live separately, 18.8 per cent are widowed and 10.4 per cent were never married.
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Social services support

Social welfare departments

350. Social welfare departments assist with the placement of children in day care centres so as to assist working mothers. In some cases, particularly in families that are unable to adequately care for their children, the Social Welfare Departments will refer the children to a centre and finance their care. As of May 2009, 14,000 children were placed in day care centres or family day care by the Social Welfare Department. Six various day care facilities operate within municipalities with an Arab majority, among them are 280 infants and 250 children that were placed in day-care facilities by the Social Welfare Departments.
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The Counseling and Psychological Services Department

352. The Counseling and Psychological Services (“Shefi”) Department is a department within the Ministry of Education responsible for providing counselling and psychological Services, as well as educational counselling for pupils, parents and educators.
353. Resource distribution is as follows: “Shefi” currently allocates a total of 1,302 educational psychologists to kindergartens and schools in every local authority in Israel. 1,023 psychologists are allocated to the Jewish population and 159 are assigned to the Arab population. Among these, 71 are specialized in educational counselling and psychological services, fourteen are allocated to work with the Bedouin population and five are assigned to work with the Druze population.
354. With respect to kindergartens, “Shefi” operates an educational advisory service for kindergartners composed of children aged 3 to 6. The guidance is given by M.A. graduate educational advisors who are trained to deal with infants.
355. With respect to schools, “Shefi” currently allocates approximately 4,300 educational advisors to all official educational institutions (440 of which work with the Arab population, 70 with the Druze population and 37 with the Bedouin population).
356. Shefi plays a major role in the process of assimilation and implementation of the new Directive 5770/1(A) (September 2009) of the Director General of the Ministry of Education, which was concerned with the creation of a safe environment, and treatment against violence in educational institutions. The Directive comprises policy for the prevention of violence and the creation of a safe environment. The scope of the policy includes the advancement of schools’ cultural environments, inter-personal communications, emotional and social studies, environmental studies, the importance of accepting children with disabilities and cooperation with parents. The Directive includes specific rules regarding violent behaviour while presenting a positive model of behavioural norms in accordance with the recommendations of the State Comptroller.
357. Since 2005, “Shefi” annually updates its website regarding the HIV virus and the Ministry of Education’s website (prior to World AIDS Day). The websites includes theoretical and preventive information, surveys, and educational job offers for HIV infected youth.
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E. Articles 20 and 25– Children deprived of a family environment

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Residential facilities

Residential settings and boarding schools

393. In recent years the State has accelerated the development of new residential-care models. For instance, community-based residential settings and group homes have been established in collaboration with Non-Government organizations. The residences located in the child’s home community encourage her/his parents to participate in her/his daily activities and in decisions concerning her/him. In addition, family units are being built for twelve to fourteen member families. Some of the units are part of larger residential settings whereas others function as individual Group Homes scattered throughout the community. Some residential facilities provide a “Day-Care” programme where the children arrive in the morning and return to their family homes mid- afternoon.

Children and youth in residential facilities

Table 6
Presents status of placement in boarding schools by social services

Distribution by age

Number of children

(iii) 0–5

(iv) 62 (0.9%)

(v) 6–12

(vi) 2 400 (36.6%)

(vii) 13–18

(viii) 3 899 (59.5%)

(ix) 19 +

(x) 196 (3%)

Distribution by educational population

Children (in %)

(xiii) Arab and Druze

(xiv) 14%

(xv) State

(xvi) 45%

(xvii) State-religious

(xviii) 18.6%

(xix) Orthodox

(xx) 22.4%

Source: Welfare department the pedagogy clerkship – Welfare supervision department 2009.

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VI.  Basic health and welfare

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Mental health services for children and adolescents

443. Services for children whose mental health problems require them to be hospitalized are provided in the in-patient departments of hospitals for the mentally ill. There are a total of thirteen in-patient departments for minors under the age of eighteen located in general and mental hospitals.

Table 11
The number of minors admitted to mental health facilities according to religious-national denominations between the years 2006 and 2008

Religious affiliation

2006

2007

2008 (January–June)

Jewish

861

775

391

Muslim

71

78

44

Christian

11

6

5

Druze

2

6

6

Other

78

72

28

Total

1 023

937

474

Source: The Ministry of Health, 2008.

444. According to the above data there are approximately 1,000 hospitalizations of minors under eighteen per annum, of which 83 per cent–84 per cent are Jewish, 9 per cent–11 per cent are Muslim, Christian and Druze, and 6 per cent–7 per cent are of another affiliation.
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449. In order to promote children’s rights to health care in general, and mental health care in particular, the Mental Health Services of the Ministry of Health, along with other institutions, carried out a nation-wide study: “The prevalence of mental disorders among adolescents in Israel.” The purpose of this research was to identify the relevant areas of need and to recognize groups at high risk for mental disorders, in order to plan appropriate services to cope with the needs The research included 1,000 adolescents (together with their mothers), aged 14 to 17, who were from different population groups. Preliminary analyses revealed that the prevalence of mental disorders among adolescents in Israel is 11.7 per cent, similar to the prevalence in other western countries. No significant differences in prevalence of mental disorders were found between Jewish and Arab adolescents, but it was found that there was higher risk of having a mental disorder for children of divorced parents, dysfunctional families, children who have a learning disability or children who suffer from a chronic disease. The study also provided important data regarding geographic regions that may not have access to treatment. The study will help to facilitate plans for the treatment of mentally ill children and adolescents that most require such treatment.

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B. Articles 6 and 24 – Health and health services

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480. Progress in medical knowledge and technologies and changes in lifestyle and behaviour have resulted in infant mortality rates dropping significantly. Throughout the 1970’s, Israel’s infant mortality rate was 21.9 deaths for every 1,000 live births. By 2007, Israel’s infant mortality rate was 3.9 deaths for every 1,000 live births. However, there remains variance among population sub-groups: 2.9 deaths for every 1,000 live births among Jews, 2.8 among Christians, 6.0 among Druze, and 7.2 among Muslims. According to data from the Ministry of Health, there was an 11 per cent decrease in the infant mortality in the Arab population in 2005 compared to infant mortality in 2004.
481. In 2007, the infant mortality rate of Bedouins decreased to 11.5 deaths for every 1,000 live births and the Government is continuing to open Mother and Child Health clinics in unauthorized villages and Mother and Child Health clinics to better serve the population.

Table 14
Causes of infant death by population group, 2005–2007 (rate per 1,000 live births)

Causes of death

Jews

Others

Congenital malformations

0.8

2.5

Causes of prenatal mortality

1.5

2.4

All other unspecified causes

0.6

1.9

External causes

0

0.2

Infectious diseases

0.1

0.1

Total

3.0

7.2

Source: The Central Bureau of Statistics, Statistical Abstract of Israel, 2009.
482. The Arab infant mortality rate is higher than the infant mortality rate in the Jewish population (7.2 versus 3.0). The higher Arab infant mortality rate is due in large part to a higher rate of deaths from congenital malformations. This is related to the high rate of consanguineous marriages in the Arab population, particularly among the Bedouin population.

Infant mortality rate in Israel

483. In 2007, the overall infant mortality rate in Israel was 4.1 per 1,000 births (compared to 5.5 in 2001). Among the Jewish population the rate was 3.0, and among the Arab population the rate was 7.2. The trend in the rate of infant mortalities per 1,000 live births has been as follows.

Table 17
Infant mortality, 2004–2007

Druze

Christians

Muslims

Jews

Total population

Year

Rates

Absolute

numbers

Rates

Absolute

numbers

Rates

Absolute

numbers

Rates

Absolute

 numbers

Rates

Absolute

numbers

4.3

11

3.3

8

8.8

319

3.1

315

4.6

670

2004

5.9

15

3.2

8

8.1

277

3.1

313

4.4

628

2005

5.0

13

4

7.3

252

3.0

312

4.0

594

2006

6.0

15

2.8

7

7.2

250

3.0

309

4.1

586

2007

Source: The Ministry of Health and the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics, Abstract of Israel 2008.

484. In 2007, there was a 2 per cent decline in infant mortality among the Jewish population and a 22.7 per cent decline among the Arab population, compared to 2003. A large part of the decrease in infant mortality rates is attributed to the decrease in mortality caused by infectious diseases, a decrease in prenatal mortality and a decrease in infant mortality as a result of the contraction of pneumonia. Death from congenital disorders also indicates a downward trend.
485. In 2008 infant mortality rates decreased further to 2.9 infant mortality cases per 1,000 live births among the Jewish population and 6.5 cases among the Arab population (compared to 7.2 cases in 2007). The infant mortality rate among the Arab population is still relatively high despite the continuing decrease in the rate. The difference in the rates between the populations stems from a number of factors, among them the high rate of consanguineous marriage – approximately 35 per cent among the Arab population and approximately 60 per cent among the Bedouin population, a religious prohibition against abortion among the Arab population, even in medically recommended cases, as well as socio-economic differences.
486. According to a report issued by the Ministry of Health, and published in February 2009, the infant mortality rate of Bedouin infants in 2008 was 11.5:1000, representing a decline from the rate in 2005 (15:1000). The high rate is mostly attributed to high rates of congenital anomalies and hereditary illnesses due to the high rate of consanguineous marriages. Another element impacting upon mortality rates is the religious prohibition against abortion among Muslims even in medically recommended cases, as well as the high rate of births among elderly women. It should be noted that the infant mortality rate among Bedouin infants living in unauthorized villages was actually lower than that among Bedouin infants living in established towns. The Government is continuing to open Mather and Child Health Clinics in unauthorized villages and new Clinics are being built to serve the population.
487. Furthermore, the Government has been funding several special projects to improve the health and expand the health-care services provided to Bedouin living in unauthorized villages. One of these programmes is a special long-term intervention programme to decrease infant mortality among the Bedouin. The programme is community-based, and boasts a wide-consortium of participants, including representatives from the Bedouin community leadership and the educational system, along with providers of curative and preventative health care services, the Department of Health in the Community and the Epidemiology Department of the Faculty of Health Sciences at Ben-Gurion University of the Negev.
488. Free genetic testing is also funded by the Government, along with genetic consulting, for any member of a Bedouin tribe in which the prevalence of a serious inherited disease is above 1:1000, and has an available genetic test.
489. The Ministry continues to work intensively to reduce the Israeli Muslim Arab infant mortality rate through a Health education/information project. The central aims are to discourage marriage among close relatives, attempt to encourage pregnant women to make more use of diagnostic procedures during pregnancies, and encourage mothers to make more use of the Mother and Child Care Services available throughout the country.
490. There has also been an important improvement in the growth of Bedouin infants and toddlers over the past two decades, indicating improved nutrition. Moreover, there has been increased compliance with recommendations for supplemental folic acid among Bedouin women in their fertile years, and a decrease in the incidence of open neural tube defects (NTD’s) among Bedouin foetuses and infants. Unfortunately there are still high rates of congenital malformations and inherited diseases among Bedouin infants, due to multiple factors including the tradition of consanguineous marriage (approximately 60 per cent), as well as cultural-religious-social barriers to pre-marital and pre-natal screening for inherited diseases.
491. According to the Central Bureau of Statistics, in the last decade the infant mortality rate has decreased by nearly 40 per cent, from 6.0 per cent to 3.9 per cent per 1,000 live births. The largest decrease was among the Jewish population – a decrease of 38 per cent (from 4.7 per cent to 2.9 per cent per 1,000 live births), and among the Arab population a decrease of 26 per cent (from 8.8 per cent to 6.5 per cent per 1,000 live births).
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Child injury trends in Israel

520. Over the past decade, injury-related mortality rates in children between the ages of 0–17 have decreased by 28 per cent, from 8.1 deaths per 100,000 children in 1995 to 5.8 deaths per 100,000 children in 2005.
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Injury by population groups

522. Between the years 1999 and 2005, injury-related mortality rates decreased in both Arab and Jewish children. In 1999, there were 12.3 and 6.7 injury-related deaths per 100,000 Arab and Jewish children respectively. In 2005, the injury-related mortality rate was 9.3 and 4.4 in Arab and Jewish children respectively (a 34 and 24 per cent decrease respectively). Injury-related mortality among Arab children is still higher when compared to injury-related mortality among Jewish children.
523. A report published by the Israel Medical Association Journal (IMAJ) in 2007, indicated that road accidents constituted the most frequent causes of mortality among children older than one year, and were second in causes of hospitalization. A secondary cause was found to be falls from high altitudes.

Sexual behaviour and birth control
Table 19
Live births among minors by age and religion in 2007

Religion

Total

Age

14

15

16

17

Total

20

137

747

2 177

Jews

530

31

105

394

Muslims

2 371

12

102

602

1 655

Christians

23

23

Druze

22

22

No religion stated

134

10

38

86

Source: CBS, Central Bureau of Statistics, 2008.

Table 20
Unmarried girls up to the age of nineteen who requested authorization for pregnancy termination, by religion and number of previous induced abortions, 2006

Religion

All ages

Up to age 19

Absolute numbers

Percentage

Rate per 1,000 for age group

Jews

14 818

2 215

79.5

11.3

Muslims

1 619

92

3.3

1.7

Christians

496

44

1.6

7.4

Druze

204

11

0.4

(2.0)

No religion stated

1 893

355

12.7

32.8

Number of previous induced abortions

0

2 229

80.0

1–2

412

14.8

3+

8

0.3

Source: The Central Bureau of Statistics, 2008. (Data based on estimates).

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Preventive services for young children

Mother and Child Health Services (MCH)

529. In recent decades, the proportion of pregnant women making use of the MCH services as their principal source of prenatal care has declined dramatically – from close to 100 per cent in the mid-1980s to approximately 20 per cent of Jewish women and 50 per cent of Arab women as of 2002. Women opt to receive their prenatal care through State health insurance coverage, namely through their Health Funds or from their private doctors.
530. The MCH services remain essentially the sole source of Mother and Child Health Clinics. In 2006, approximately 145,000 infants received care at over 1,200 clinics that belong to the Ministry of Health, the Israeli Health Funds and two localities (Jerusalem and Tel Aviv). The Ministry of Health operated 44 per cent of the clinics and cared for approximately two-thirds of the infants. The Israeli Health Funds operated 50 per cent of the clinics, including many relatively small clinics in rural areas and cared for 20 per cent of the infants. All of the services operate under the supervision of the Ministry of Health and conform to the service guidelines promulgated by the Ministry.
531. In 2004, the Government of Israel approved an experimental plan for the responsibility of MCH services to be transferred from the Ministry of Health and municipalities to the Israeli Health Funds that are funded by the Government. In 2007, the Prime Minister decided to halt the pilot project and his decision was confirmed by the Government.
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Vaccinations

533. New vaccinations were added to the childhood vaccinations schedule. Two doses of Varicella, an additional two doses of Pertussis and 2+1 Pneumococcal are scheduled in 2009.

Table 22
Children at age two who received inoculations, by population group and type of inoculation for the years 2003, 2005, 2006 (percentages)

Pop. group

DTP 4 doses

Polio IPV

MMR

Hep B

Hep A

Hib

2003

2005

2006

2003

2005

2006

2003

2005

2006

2003

2005

2006

2005

2006

2005

2006

Total

93

93

95

93

95

94

96

94

96

98

96

98

90

84

93

94

Arab

97

98

97

97

98

98

100

96

96

98

Jews

91

91

91

94

95

93

97

96

88

91

Source: The Ministry of Health, Lewis Institute, Tel Hashomer Hospital, 2008, Source: The Central Bureau of Statistics, 2009.

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Preventive programmes for special populations

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Science and technology

538. In the recommendation contained in paragraph 53 of the concluding observations of the Committee on the Rights of the Child it was recommended to increase the budget allocated for education in the Arab population. Accordingly, the Ministry of Science and Technology operates regional Research and Development Centers in Arab localities. Between the years 2003 and 2008, 4,307,984 million NIS (1,164,320$) were conveyed to the Galilee region and another 5,086,680 million NIS (1,374,778$) was transferred to a centre in the “Meshulash” (Triangle) region in the north of Israel. In addition, since 2005, 948,200 NIS (256,270$) have been transmitted to the regional centre for the Bedouins in the Negev.
539. The Ministry of Science and Technology also supports projects that promote Arab student’s academic achievements. During the 2006/7 school year, 500 financial grants were awarded to Arab students. In 2007/8, an addition of 300 scholarships were granted, 50 per cent of which were to Arab students. During the 2008/9 school year, 700 scholarships were granted, 480 of which were to Arab students.
540. The Ministry of Science and Technology also allocated an exceptional budget in 2008/9 in order to establish two new centres for the teaching of science in the “Meshulash” region in the north of Israel. In the Galilee, the budget for the 2008 fiscal year was 1.5 million NIS 405,000$) per centre in addition to a new National Research Center which was opened for the Druze population and which was funded in the amount of 400,000 NIS (108,000$).

Table 24
Financial aid granted by the Ministry of Science and Technology between the years 2001–2008 (by million NIS)

Project

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

Studies in regional research and development centres

0.699

0.317

0.093

0.441

2.548

0.495

1.95

1.258

Operating Arab-population research and development centres

0.67

0.536

0.536

0.536

Support for regional research and development centres

0.536

0.707

0.552

0.505

0.591

0.827

0.548

0.654

Support for Bedouin regional research and development centres

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.15

Supplying for regional research and development centres

0.94

Minorities scholarships

1.415

1.637

0.48

0.4

0.48

0.09

0.33

0.15

Inauguration scholarships

2.52

2.8

Psychometric test scholarships

0.5

Source: The Ministry of Science and Technology, 2008.

The budget for culture, entertainment and sports

541. The Ministry of Culture and Sports and the Ministry of Education provide financial aid to 850 artistic and cultural institutions, including children’s theatres, dance schools and choirs. Moreover, museums are recognized by law as beneficial and qualitative enrichment institutions for children. The State accepted the Holon Children’s Museum as such an establishment. The State encourages the conservation of Arab, Druze and Circassian traditions.
Table 25
The budget for Arab, Druze and Circassia culture 2001–2008

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

Arab culture

7 500

7 175

6 919

6 017

6 703

7 106

10 362

12 453

Druze and Circassian culture

2 026 NIS (547$)

1 919 NIS (518$)

1 874 NIS (506$)

1 653 NIS (446$)

1 593 NIS (430$)

1 638 NIS (442$)

2 075 NIS (560$)

1 866 NIS (504$)

Source: The Ministry of Culture and Sports, 2008.

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The Bedouin population

Environmental factors that affect health

Medical care and infrastructure

547. The medical facilities in the vicinity of Bedouin villages are fully equipped, Mother and Child Health Clinics are computerized, air conditioned and maintained in good condition.
548. The Ministry of Health operates special health services and Health Clinics for the Bedouin population in the Negev. The service includes an ambulance, run by the Bedouin population that resides in the Negev. The purpose of this service is to ensure an open gateway between the nearest hospital and the Bedouin community. This enables professional workers from nearby residencies to evaluate the living arrangements of patient’s subsequent to their release from hospital. Such personnel can view the patient’s sanitary living conditions prior to their release and provide recommendations accordingly. The cost of a visit to the Health Clinic is identical throughout the State.
549. There are 42,400 Bedouin Israeli children under the age of 6 (53 per cent) who live in Bedouin towns, whereas 47 per cent of Bedouin children live in unauthorized villages. In 2007, the Ministry of Health operated 27 Family Health Centers providing services to the Bedouin population in the Negev, in addition to 51 clinics operated by the various Health Funds.
550. There are 18 Mother and Child Health Clinics located in Bedouin villages. In addition six Mother and Child Health Clinics have been established within the illegal clusters. There are 32 Medical Clinics run by the various Health Funds located in Bedouin communities; nine of which provide services to the unauthorized Bedouin villages.
551. According to a large-scale study conducted by the Myers-JDC-Brookdale Institute during 2003–2005 in association with the Ben-Gurion University, the “Shatil” organization and the Council for Unauthorized Villages in the Negev, approximately 9 per cent of all Bedouin children in the Negev suffer from functional disabilities or chronic illnesses that require ongoing medical treatment and/or monitoring. This percentage is slightly higher than among the general Arab and Jewish populations in Israel (8.3 per cent and 7.6 per cent respectively).
552. For most types of disabilities, the proportion of children in the Bedouin population who suffer from the disability is higher than that among the Jewish population. The number of children in need of continual medical and paramedical treatment is higher in the Bedouin population than in the general Arab and Jewish populations (4.9 per cent, 2.8 per cent, and 2.1 per cent respectively). Furthermore, the percentage of sensory disability among Bedouin and Arab children is twice as great as that found among the Jewish population (2.0 per cent 2.2 per cent and 0.8 per cent respectively).
553. In March 2009, the Israeli NGO, Physicians for Human Rights, published a report regarding the absence of paediatricians in the unauthorized Bedouin villages. Since most of the Bedouin villages are unrecognized by the State, health services are not available to the inhabitants. Although eleven villages were recognized by the State in 1999, it was claimed that they were not yet receiving the services they are entitled to by law. Twelve clinics and eight Mother and Child Health stations are located in unauthorized villages, yet their working hours are limited. However, no paediatrician, gynaecologist or pharmacy was found within a reasonable radius of the area. According to the PHR report, based on data provided by Soroka Hospital, when compared to Jewish children, more Bedouin children approach emergency rooms, are admitted to the hospital and intensive care units, and die from disease. Consequently, many inhabitants turn to private health services or the Health Care clinics available in the large cities.
554. Some of the major improvements in the past decade in the field include improved immunization coverage of Bedouin infants in the Negev. Thus, there has been a significant decrease in vaccine-preventable infectious diseases; with the 2006 figures indicating that 90 per cent–95 per cent of Bedouin children have completed all necessary vaccinations by age three – a sizeable improvement compared to a rate of 27 per cent in 1981. Two mobile immunization teams managed by the Ministry of Health also provide home immunizations to infants in unauthorized Bedouin communities, whose families do not bring the infants to one of the Mother and Child Health Clinics for treatment. A computerized tracking system allows the Ministry of Health to identify infants who are behind on their immunization schedule and to send one of the mobile immunization teams to immunize them.
555. There has also been an important improvement in the growth of Bedouin infants and toddlers over the past two decades, indicating improved nutrition. Moreover, there has been increased compliance with recommendations for supplemental folic acid among Bedouin women in their fertile years, and a decrease in the incidence of open neural tube defects (NTD’s) among Bedouin foetuses and infants. Unfortunately there are still high rates of congenital malformations and inherited diseases among Bedouin infants, due to multiple factors including the tradition of first-cousin marriages, as well as cultural-religious-social barriers to pre-marital and pre-natal screening for inherited diseases.
556. In 2007, the infant mortality rate among Bedouins decreased to 11.5 deaths for every 1,000 live births. The Government is continuing to open Mother and Child Health clinics in unauthorized villages and MCH centres to better serve the population.
557. Furthermore, the Government has been funding several special projects to improve the health and expand the health-care services provided to Bedouins living in unauthorized villages. One of these programmes is a special long-term intervention programme aimed at decreasing infant mortality among Bedouins. The programme is community-based and boasts a wide-consortium of participants, including representatives from the Bedouin community leadership and the educational system, along with providers of curative and preventative health care services, the Department of Health in the Community and the Department of Epidemiology in the Faculty of Health Sciences at Ben-Gurion University of the Negev.
558. The Government funds genetic testing and counselling for members of tribes which have a prevalence of serious inherited diseases. The diseases included in the funding scatter among the population in a 1:1000 relation.
559. There has been a sustainable decline in the incidence of infectious disease among Bedouin infants over the past decades. There is, however, generally a higher rate of infectious disease among Bedouin infants than among Jewish infants of the same age. Bedouin infants and children have lower rates of Pertussis, Tuberculosis and HIV infection. Furthermore, due to high immunization coverage among Bedouin infants, indicating improved access and utilization of preventive health care services, there have been no cases of measles since 1994 and no cases of poliomyelitis, diphtheria, congenital rubella, neonatal tetanus or tetanus in Bedouin children in the Negev since 1990. During the period 2000–2003, no cases of mumps were reported. Additionally only one to two cases of Homophiles influenza disease was reported in 2000–2002, and none in 2003.
560. Specialty physician services are provided to the Bedouin community in the Negev, including: Paediatrics, General Internal Medicine, Neurology, Family Medicine, Dermatology, Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Ear, Nose and Throat, Ophthalmology, Orthopaedics, Gastroenterology, Cardiology, Surgery and Trauma, Paediatric Surgery and Paediatric Pulmonary Medicine. In addition, every resident has equal access to all the specialty clinics at the Soroka University Medical Center, with no discrimination made between Bedouin or Jewish patients.
561. The Government, as well as the main HMO serving the Bedouin population, has made substantial efforts to train and recruit Bedouin physicians and nurses. The Government provided all the funding required for three classes of Bedouin students to complete their training as registered nurses, including funding their transportation to nursing school, a meal allowance during their studies, and special remedial lessons to assist those who needed it. The Government has similarly provided special funding to hire Arab physicians and nurses.
562. A course for qualified Bedouin nurses opened in 1994. It should be noted that students who participate in the course are committed to serving their first three years of practice after graduation wherever the Ministry of Health decides their services are needed. This will guarantee that the trained nurses serve the target population: the Bedouins. In addition, the first female Bedouin physician in Israel, Rania al-Oqbi, recently completed her degree. She was part of the special “Cultivating Medicine in the Desert” programme, which is aimed at incorporating more Bedouin into the health services. Currently, six Bedouin women are studying medicine; 35 Bedouin women have completed degrees in various health professions; and 45 additional women are studying health sciences.
563. Seventy per cent of Bedouins live in planned, urban towns, with municipal infrastructure, including running water in every home (with the water in question meeting the Israeli standards for drinking water quality). The percentage of bacterially contaminated drinking water samples followed previous downward trends reaching 0.25 per cent in 2007 (7.6 per cent in 1990 and 1.9 in 2001).
564. Nearly 62,000 Bedouin live in illegal clusters throughout the Negev; these villages cause difficulties in terms of supplying the residents with necessary services, especially the provision of water. While the Government does not question its duty to supply its inhabitants with services such as water, it is practically impossible to supply it to sporadic destinations which disregard the national construction and planning programmes.
565. Nevertheless, until the completion of the establishment of permanent Bedouin towns and the regulation of water supply systems, the Ministerial Committee for the Arab Population has decided to build “Water Centers”.
566. Following this decision, instructions were given concerning the planning of water supply systems to several “Water Centers”. The Water Centers are part of the Government’s understanding of the needs and current realities of the Bedouin population and its efforts to improve their living conditions. The planning of the centres takes into account an amount of water suitable for the magnitude of the population expected in 2020, and the establishment of the centres is very costly.
567. These systems will enable the supply of water to a significantly larger portion of the Bedouin population, than the portion receiving a water supply today through individual connections. There are currently 5 Water Centers, which are located in the most populated areas of the Bedouin Diaspora, compatible with the Government’s plans for the establishment of permanent towns.
568. An additional method employed, is through direct water connections to the main water pipeline, granted to a minimum of ten families. Due to the problematic nature of these connections, which require the transfer of water to unauthorized villages, this method is less frequently used than in the past. The Water Committee, which evaluates requests for connections to pipelines, approves the connection to such a pipeline, as well as negotiates agreements in cases of disputes between residents of the Diaspora over ownership of such connections.
569. In addition, according to “Mekorot,” the Israel National Water Corporation, numerous pirated connections to pipelines are being made without the authorization of the Water Committee.

/…

C. Article 26 – Social security

Case law

579. On 7 January 2009 the Supreme Court handed down its ruling in a petition submitted by the Association of Defense for Children International (DCI) (Israel) against the National Insurance Institute (NII). The DCI requested the translation of the NII forms into Arabic, which would enable the population living in the eastern neighbourhoods of Jerusalem to submit forms to the NII in Arabic, and for the NII to send letters and notices to the population of the eastern neighbourhoods of Jerusalem in Arabic.
580. The purpose of this petition was to enable the population residing in the eastern neighbourhoods of Jerusalem access to the social rights granted by the NII, as the majority of the population does not know Hebrew. The petition was submitted in 2001, at which point the NII committed to translate all of its forms. However, this commitment was not fulfilled, and in May of 2007, the Court issued a conditional order against the NII. In July 2008, the Court criticized the NII and ordered the NII to present, within 90 days, a concrete plan of action, together with a detailed schedule, regarding the translation of its forms. On 1 December 2008, a time schedule in which to translate the forms was presented to the Court. Furthermore, the NII confirmed that they would accept forms submitted in Arabic. Thus, the Court issued an order according to which the NII was required to complete the translation of the forms into Arabic, and to accept forms which were submitted to it in Arabic. However, the Court held that the demand that the NII send letters and notices in Arabic to the population of the eastern neighbourhoods of Jerusalem should not be granted, as translators were available in the offices of the NII should clarification be sought. (HCJ 2203/01 The Association of Defense for Children International (DCI) v. The National Insurance Institute (07.01.2009)).
/…

D. Article 27, paragraphs 1-3 – Standard of living

/…

Poverty

/…
594. As of June 2008, the rate of poverty among large families (households with at least four children) increased to 58.1 per cent, in comparison with 56.5 per cent in 2007, and 60 per cent in 2006. A similar reduction also occurred among Arab families who comprise a significant proportion of the families with four children or more – 51.4 per cent in 2007, in comparison with 54 per cent in 2006. However, gaps remain in the incidence of poverty among the Jewish and the Arab populations.
595. In 2007, 24.8 per cent of families with children lived under the poverty line, a decline in comparison with the rate of 25.5 per cent in 2006. As of June 2008 the rate had declined to 24.7 per cent.

/…

The right to adequate housing

596. The 2006 survey of household expenditure indicated that 69.5 per cent of the heads of households owned their place of residence, while approximately one-quarter of them rented their place of residence.
597. There has been a consistent improvement in housing conditions over time, with the percentage of three or more people per room declining steadily. Arab households are more crowded than Jewish ones. In 2007, approximately 6.1 per cent of Arab households lived with over three persons per room, compared to 0.4 per cent of Jewish households. This is in part due to differences in family size.

The Bedouin population

598. There are more than 170,000 Bedouins living in the Negev desert area. Most of those live in urban and suburban towns, which have been legally planned and constructed. All existing towns have approved plans and include infrastructure such as schools, clinics, running water, electricity, etc.
599. There are several existing Bedouin towns in the Negev: Laqiya, Hura, Kseife, Arara, Tel-Sheva and Segev Shalom, in addition to the city of Rahat. Although the seven existing towns can effectively provide a proper solution to the Bedouin population’s needs, subject to their expansion, the Government decided that a further nine new towns should be established for Bedouins. The first additional town to be constructed is “Tarabin,” situated in the Bney-Shimon District Council area and designated for the members of the Tarabin El-Sana tribe. The first stage of this town’s development has been finalized, with most of the lots having been distributed and hundreds of residents already populating the town. Each of the families received developed land for construction and an agricultural piece of property. The new town was planned jointly with its inhabitants, as a modern town offering educational services, underground infrastructure, and health services. The town extends over a territory of 1,132 dunams, designated to be home to approximately 3,500 people by 2020.
600. Additional towns that are in the process of planning and development include: Abu Krinat — located on 7,320 dunams, which is intended to accommodate around 15,000 people by 2020; and currently (in its first stage of construction) consists of 1,300 lots and an industrial centre. Bir Hadaj — an agricultural town located in an area of 6,550 dunams, and which is designated to accommodate approximately 12,500 people by 2020. Kasar a-sir- located in an area of 5,000 dunams and which is intended to accommodate approximately 8,000 people by 2020. The other towns to be established are Makchul-Marit — for which a detailed plan of 2 neighbourhoods was approved in September 2005, and a detailed plan for a third neighborhood is currently being prepared and which is intended to cover an area of 6,300 dunams, and to accommodate approximately 12,000 people by 2020; Um Betin — for which a master plan was approved in March 2005, and which is located on 6,700 dunams, and is designated to accommodate approximately 8,000 people by 2020; Moleda — for which a master plan was approved in March 2005, and which is located on 11,000 dunams; and Darijat. The names of these towns were chosen by the Bedouin population. In addition, the Government is in the process of expanding thousands of units in the existing towns.
601. As such there are nine new towns planned. Of those Tarabin is currently populated and 100 new houses have been built; Abu Krinat and Bir Hadaj are under construction; and Kasar A-Sir, Marit (Makhol), Darjat, Um Batin, Mulada and El Seid are all in the planning stages. A further three towns — Ovdat, Abu Tlul, and El-Foraa — are in the process of receiving statutory approval: A regional council has been established for five of the new towns. It is called “Abu Basma,” and was officially founded on 3 February 2004.
602. Moreover, in two different resolutions adopted in April and September of 2003, the Government formulated a comprehensive plan for the advancement of the Bedouin population, including investments of 1.1 Billion NIS ($0.29 Billion) in the improvement of infrastructure, and the establishment of public institutions over the next six years.
603. Following lessons learned from past planning committees, the planning authorities carried out this task while in constant consultation with Bedouin representatives, who provided input as to their vision of every towns’ desired character depending on such characteristics as whether the town was to be built for an agrarian or an urban population and whether the town was planned for a group who requires a strict separation to be maintained between the various tribes who will populate it.
604. On 15 July 2007, the Government adopted a resolution concerning the establishment of a new Authority in the Ministry of Construction and Housing, intended to deal entirely with development in the Bedouin Population, including the expansion of towns, and the provision of housing solutions for all Bedouins.
605. Despite the establishment of a number of permanent towns for the Bedouins, approximately 70,000 Bedouins still choose to live in illegal clusters of buildings throughout the Negev, and ignore the planning procedure of Israel’s planning authorities. This illegal building is carried out without any plans, as required by the Planning and Building Law, and with no pre-approval from the planning authorities. In addition, it causes many difficulties in terms of the provision of services to residents.
606. The Government encourages the movement of those living in unauthorized villages to permanent towns by providing unique financial benefits to all the residents of the Bedouin Diaspora who seek to move to permanent towns, regardless of their economic condition or of any entitlement test. These benefits include, inter alia, provision of land plots for free or at a very low cost, and compensation for the demolition of illegal structures.
607. 4An Advisory Committee for the Policy regarding unauthorized villages was established on 28 October 2007 by Government Resolution No. 2491.
608. The Committee’s task, as set forth by the Government in the aforementioned Resolution, is to present recommendations regarding a comprehensive, feasible and broad-spectrum plan which will establish the policy for regulating unauthorized villages in the Negev, including establishing rules for compensation, mechanisms for the allotment of land, civil enforcement, a timetable for the plan’s execution, and proposed legislative Amendments, where needed.
609. The Committee submitted its final recommendations to the Government, which began to enforce them through Government Resolution No. 4411 dated 18 January 2009.
610. On 18 January 2009, the Government confirmed resolution No. 4411 after a full examination of the committee’s report. The government accepted the committee’s recommendations as a basis for arranging the housing situation of the Bedouins in the Negev, and appointed a professional cadre comprised of representatives of Government Ministries, the Israel Land Administration, and the Attorney General. The cadre is intended to submit a detailed and implement-able outline for the fulfilment of the Government Resolution.
611. In addition, in 2007, the proper authorities began the planning procedures for the Beer-Sheva Metropolis district plan (No. 23/14/4). The plan seeks to regulate the planning of the entire Negev area, with consideration being afforded to the needs of the population, any relevant restrictions, environmental concerns etc. Several objections have been submitted to the Courts regarding the abovementioned plan, none of which have yet been ruled upon by the Court.
612. Currently, the implementation team is in the final stages of completing the detailed governmental plan for the regulation of unauthorized villages in the Negev. The Plan is based on the recommendations of the Goldberg Committee for the Regularization of the Bedouin Housing Situation in the Negev (the: “the Goldberg Committee”) and on intensive work that was conducted in the past year and included consultations with representatives of various segments of the Bedouin community and the consideration of remarks made by civilian organizations with respect to the Committee’s report.
613. Note, that in its current work, the team attempted to formulate an extensive regulatory shift in the law with respect to land ownership and the development of physical and social infrastructures. To that end, the necessary systems (both legal and implementing) for the establishment of new localities, for the development of existing localities and for the settlement of law suits, are now being created.

VII. Education, recreation and cultural activities

/…

622. The Sub-Committee’s recommendations regarding equality in education are as follows: The Sub-Committee discussed the inequality in the education of children, problems in education, problems stemming from gaps in the provision of education to Arab children and poor children, paying special attention to the issue of violence against children and among youth, the importance of early childhood education and the rights of children in the education system. The Sub-Committee noted that placing all pupils in educational institutions is not nearly enough; hence the Government, through its municipal authorities, must assure that every institution provides qualitative education, allocated equally to all children living in Israel.
623. According to the Sub-Committee, qualitative education is based on four measures: accessibility (physical and economic), availability (of educational resources), correlation (between the education and its aims) and compatibility (pupils and community needs).The Sub-Committee recommended that the Minister of Education formulate a policy of ‘Reverse Discrimination’. This policy would give precedence to pupils as individuals and as members of minority groups. The intention of the policy was to rectify a continual state of deprivation, inequality and deficiency in pupil’s rights.
624. The Sub-Committee recommended various actions which should be taken so as to eliminate discrimination among pupils. The absence of an equal measure of educational opportunity for children is perhaps the major problem; the Sub-Committee emphasized the importance of striving for the best interest of the child, respect for children’s views, and the right of the child to develop to the maximum extent possible, preferably as part of a heterogenic group of children. Such a heterogenic group of children is a feature of equality that facilitates and promotes non-discrimination.
625. In the recommendation contained in paragraph 53 of the concluding observations of the Committee on the Rights of the Child it was recommended to strengthen its affirmative action programmes in the Arab population. Whereat, the Sub-Committee recommended reinforcing and furthering the involvement of the Arab population in the educational system by determining a quote of impartial and proper representation of the Arab population within the Ministry of Education.

Education in Arab localities

626. The Ministry of Education is constantly investing great efforts in the promotion of education in Arab localities, in order to bridge the gaps which currently exist between the Jewish and the Arab populations. During the 2009/2010 school year, the Ministry took additional measures in pursuit of this purpose:
Operating new programmes for the Arab kindergarten and elementary school population, in order to improve the children’s fluency in their native tongue.
In order to promote pupil’s achievements in international and national subjects, the Ministry of Education added three school hours per day to every elementary school located in Arab localities and eight hours to every seventh grade classroom (a total sum of 37 million school hours). Moreover, the Ministry of Education allocated an additional 195 days and 5,236 school hours for lessons in Arabic, mathematics and science.
The programme “Ofek Hadash” (New Horizon) has been gradually implemented in all Israeli schools since 2008, and is currently implemented fully in 216 of the 390 (55 per cent) Arab elementary and junior high schools. In addition, 210,000 supplementary school hours are allocated to the Arab educational system in the course of this programme.
During the 2007/8 school year, nine schools in the north and 31 in the south were included in the “New Horizon” reform, followed by six schools in the north and seventeen in the south in the 2008/9 school year. This reform is intended to provide pupils with poor performance levels an opportunity to improve their performance and to fulfil their potential.
Approximately 140,000 Arab and Bedouin pupils benefit from the “Karev Program” for Educational Involvement, a joint initiative of the Ministry of Education and the “Karev Foundation.” This foundation aims towards achieving an educational-social change within Israeli society by means of enrichment activities and reinforcement of the education system.
The State financed warm meals for approximately 122,000 pupils who study for extended hours (see: Government resolution No. 2342 of 1 August 2004).
400 new teachers were added to the Arab Educational System.
A five year plan for the promotion of the education of the Arab population added hundreds of thousands of school hours to schools including kindergartens, amongst which 25,000 hours are dedicated to studies for matriculation exams only. Professionals were trained and placed at 200 schools, along with 150 educational advisors, and learning centres for psychometric tests (the equivalent of the scholastic aptitude test (SAT)) were established for 500 pupils.
Case law
627. On 20 August 2007 the Be’er-Sheva District Court residing as an Administrative Court, held that the taking of tests in order to determine the placement of first-graders in special schools (such as art schools, etc.) for the school year 2007–2008, contravened the directives of the Ministry of Education. The Ministry Director General’s specific Directives prohibit the affording of unequal opportunities to children of the same age group. Furthermore, since the petition to disqualify the tests in question was received in close proximity to the beginning of the school year, accepting the petition would result in harm to the children who took the tests and passed. Therefore, the Court stressed the prohibition against taking these tests. However, the Court determined that until the Ministry of Education determined guidelines clarifying the criterion for first-graders to qualify for special schools, the results of the testing, namely those who passed and had been accepted, would remain unchanged. Annulling the results would cause greater harm to the children who were already accepted to the schools in question for the 2007–2008 school-year, and the petitioner’s son would have to study in a regular school near his place of residence. (Ad. P. 327/07 Gordon Michal et. al. v. The Municipality of Ashkelon et. al. (20.08.2007)).

Education in Bedouin localities in the south

628. The Bedouin population in the Negev consists of eight local authorities: Abu-Basma, Hura, Lakia, Kseifa, Arara, Rahat, Segev Shalom and Tel-Sheva. In 2009, there were 72,460 pupils in the education institutions of the Bedouin population in the Negev, in comparison with 45,117 pupils in 2001. Since 2001 there has been an increase of approximately 70 per cent in the number of educational institutions established in Bedouin localities in the Negev. During that time there was a decrease of 4 per cent in the number of Jewish educational institutions established.

Table 31
Number of pupils and education institutions in the southern Bedouin population, 2009

Local authority

Kinder-gardens

Pupils

Elementary schools

Pupils

High schools

Pupils

Special education schools

Pupils

Total institutions per authority

Total pupils per authority

Abu-Basma

132

3 854

26

14 432

4

837

162

19 114

Hura

45

1 337

5

2 557

3

1 977

1

92

54

5 963

Lakia

33

910

4

2 339

2

1 642

39

4 891

Kssaife

35

1 004

5

3 230

2

2 464

1

65

43

6 763

Arara

39

1 131

6

2 798

2

1 865

1

58

48

5 852

Rahat

102

2 898

16

10 920

4

4 455

1

126

123

18 399

Segev Shalom

29

715

4

2 488

2

2 083

35

5 286

Tel-Sheva

49

1 343

4

3 075

3

1 775

56

6 193

Total

464

13 192

70

41 830

22

17 097

4

341

560

72 460

Source: Ministry of Education, the Southern Educational locality, 2009.
Table 32
Number of educational institutions in the southern district between the years 2000–2009

Population

Education phase

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

Jewish

Kindergarten

1 130

1 148
(+18)

1 128
(-20)

1 132
(+4)

1 114
(-18)

1 094
(-20)

1 084
(-10)

1 093
(+9)

1 129
(+36)

1 130
(+1)

Elementary school

274

277
(+3)

271
(-6)

271
(0)

269
(-2)

267
(-2)

261
(-6)

260
(-1)

260
(0)

263
(+3)

High school

113

122
(+9)

122
(0)

95
(-27)

100
(+5)

94
(-6)

93
(-1)

97
(+4)

95
(-2)

99

(+4)

Total

1 517

1 547
(+30)

1 521
(-26)

1 498
(-23)

1 483
(-15)

1 455
(-28)

1 438
(-17)

1 450
(+12)

1 484
(+34)

1 492
(+8)

Arab

Kindergarten

198

263
(+65)

317
(+54)

365
(+48)

398
(+33)

413
(+15)

445
(+32)

461
(+16)

452
(-9)

459

(+7)

Elementary school

51

53
(+2)

55
(+2)

55
(0)

56
(+1)

66
(+10)

70
(+4)

73
(+3)

76
(+3)

79

(+3)

High school

13

15
(+2)

18
(+3)

20
(+2)

21
(+1)

20
(-1)

20
(0)

22
(+2)

22
(0)

23

(+1)

Total

262

331
(+69)

390
(+59)

440
(50+)

475
(+35)

499
(+24)

535
(+36)

556
(+21)

550
(-6)

561
(+11)

Source: The Ministry of Education Southern region, 2009.

629. In 2000, the Southern Department in the Ministry of Education began to implement a five-year plan for promoting the education system in the Bedouin population. The plan includes bridging gaps between the Bedouin population and the Jewish population. The purpose of the plan is to achieve better results in school, improve school environments and prevent violence. The plan also trains educators; extends teaching hours, improves learning techniques, improves the quality of construction, and provides missing technological equipment.
Table 33
The plan for promoting the education in Bedouin localities in the south – activities and budget (NIS) during 2007–2009

Subject

Activity

2007 budget

2008 budget

2009 budget

Total budget

Promoting pupils’ achievements

Supervising pupils’ achievements

1 038 000

151 204

1 189 204

Reinforcing core studying subjects

4 300 300

3 086 500

3 770 000

11 156 500

Developing teleprocessing skills

840 000

840 000

Training educators

Educators’ professional development

540 000

400 000

570 000

1 510 000

Localities accompanists

90 720

90 720

In-service trainings

450 000

189 000

254 700

893 700

Training and qualifying educational advisors

1 400 000

1 400 000

Supplying

Reading books for 1th–2th grades

821 100

821 100

Upgrading science labs and technology

856 000

759 500

1 615 500

Total sum

10 245 100

4 586 204

4 685 420

19 516 724

Source: The Ministry of Education Southern region, 2009.

630. In recent years, the Ministry of Education carried out various activities for children of all ages. These activities included the promotion of Arabic, Hebrew, English, mathematics and sciences learning skills as well as computerizing the school learning environment.
631. In addition to the expended five-year plan, the Ministry of Education is involved in a serious effort in order to prevent Bedouin children from dropping out of school. The Ministry of Education operates several educational treatment centres for youth at risk or minors outside the education framework. These services locate potential dropouts, conduct workshops for parents, and insist on the use of teaching methods that accord with the pupils’ needs. The drop-out rate in the Bedouin population in the Negev has decreased from 9.4 per cent in 2004 to 6.7 per cent in 2008.

/…

Special education frameworks

635. Four special education schools and 25 kindergartens currently serve the Bedouin population in the South, as well as three Regional Support Centers. In 2008, two additional regional support centres were opened, as well as ten classes in primary schools. In addition, all primary and intermediate schools received additional reinforcement teaching hours.
636. In the North – a new school for severe intellectual disabilities was established, as well as six special education kindergartens. In addition, four classes in secondary schools were added, as well as 3,000 hours of integration.
Table 34
Dropout rates in the southern Bedouin population between the years 2003–2008 (percentages)

School year

National

South District

The Bedouin population in the South

Bedouin boys

Bedouin girls

2003–2004

4.3

4.5

9.4

9.4

9.4

2004–2005

3.6

3.8

8.3

9.3

7.2

2005–2006

4.4

4.8

8.4

9.6

7.0

2006–2007

3.6

3.6

6.7

7.5

5.9

2007–2008

3.1

2.8

6.7

8.3

5.1

Source: The Ministry of Education Southern region, 2009.
Table 35
The budget for establishing classrooms between the years 2002–2007

Year

Total classrooms

Classrooms in the Bedouin population in the South

Rate of Bedouin pupils
out of the total pupils

2002

3 265

182 (5.6%)

2.79%

2003

455

6 (1.3%)

2.98%

2004

778

110 (14.1%)

3.1%

2005

1 283

35 (2.7%)

3.27%

2006

1 312

119 (9.1%)

3.41%

2007

1 573

183 (11.6%)

3.57%

Total

8 666

635 (7.3%)

Source: The Ministry of Education Southern region, 2009.

Elementary and secondary education

637. Since the submission of Israel’s initial report, there has been a slight decrease in attendance rates in the Arab population, from 78.9 per cent to 77.6 per cent. There has also been a decrease in attendance rates among the Jewish population, from 94.5 per cent to 85.6 per cent.

Table 36
Attendance rates of pupils aged 14–17 at high schools under the surveillance of the
Ministry of Education by population (percentages)

Year

Jewish population

Arab population

2001/2–2002/3

85.0

76.1

2002/3–2003/4

84.8

76.0

2003/4–2004/5

85.2

75.8

2004/5–2005/6

85.4

76.7

2005/6–2006/7

85.6

77.6

2006/7–2007/8

85.6

77.6

Source: The Central Bureau of Statistics, Statistical Abstract of Israel, 2003–2008.

/…

Special education

Regional support centres

657. The Special Education Law is implemented in the same manner with respect to every Israeli child between the ages of 3 and 21. There are 68 regional support centres in the educational system, 53 dispersed throughout Jewish localities, eight scattered in Arab localities, four in Bedouin localities and three in Druze localities. However, every centre provides services to all populations living within its region. The centres are responsible for supporting children with disabilities in both official and unofficial institutes. The centres are also used as sources of information.

Table 37
Average number of students per class, by population

Year

Total

Average students per class

Jewish population

Arab population

2001/2

26

26

29

2002/3

26

26

29

2003/4

27

26

30

2004/5

27

26

30

2005/6

27

26

30

2006/7

27

26

30

2007/8

27

26

30

Source: The Central Bureau of Statistics, Statistical Abstract of Israel, 2002–2008.

658. The accelerated development in the number of classes has not matched the increase in the number of pupils; consequently, the average number of pupils per class has risen slightly, from 26 in 2001–2003, to 27 since 2003. Although the average number of pupils is higher in Arab localities, the average number of pupils (29–30) per class in Arab localities has remained stable during the past decade.

Table 38
Level of education among teachers, by education systems (percentages)

Education framework

Jewish education system

Arab education system

Elementary schools

University degree

56.7

52.9

Senior

19.4

19.9

Certified

4.2

4.7

Uncertified

4.0

3.9

Secondary schools

University degree

46.7

62.6

Senior

8.7

4.7

Certified

3.7

3.6

Uncertified

2.5

3.0

Source: The Central Bureau of Statistics Statistical Abstract of Israel 2008.

659. During the 2008–09 school years, 73.0 per cent of the elementary school teachers and 84.4 per cent of the secondary school teachers in the Hebrew education system were university graduates, compared to 77.4 per cent and 86.4 per cent, respectively, of their colleagues in the Arab education system.
Work force in the education system
660.  In 2007/8, 83 per cent of all of the teachers in the Arab education system had an academic degree, compared with 86 per cent of their Jewish colleagues. Breaking these figures down, 73 per cent of elementary school teachers and 87 per cent of secondary school teachers (including intermediate schools) in the Arab education system had an academic degree, compared with 70.5 per cent and 86 per cent, respectively, of the elementary and secondary school teachers (including intermediate schools) in the Jewish education system.
Training for educators
661. There are 61 colleges in Israel for training educators, not including Universities. There are twelve State colleges, thirteen Religious State colleges; eight Arab designated colleges and 28 ultra-orthodox designated colleges. The eligibility requirements for educator’s training in the field of special education are the same for all population groups. The minimum requirement needed to enter a special education course is a matriculation certificate and a psychometric score.
Boarding schools 
662. There are approximately 600 boarding schools in Israel. There are 280 educational boarding schools supervised by the Ministry of Education, 60 State boarding schools, 120 Religious-State boarding schools and 100 ultra-orthodox boarding schools. There are 40,000 teenagers between the ages of twelve and eighteen who reside in educational boarding schools, a third are girls and two-thirds are boys. A little more than half (22,000) are financed by the Ministry of Education. There are approximately 150 Bedouin teenagers in educational boarding schools, in addition to the 50 youth that arrived over the course of the last year from Sudan and were placed in those schools.
Health services for pupils
663. The Ministry of Health and the State Association for Public Health, with the cooperation of the Ministry of Education, provide health services for pupils. These services are consistent with Section 21A of the National Health Insurance Law and Directive 5768/1 (September 2007) of the Director General of the Ministry of Education. The health services include routine checks, vaccinations, preventive treatments, guidance and supervision by physicians and nurses.

Table 39
The distribution of health services for pupils

Population

Allotted days/manpower

% of pupils of the population group

Jewish

57%

56.8%

Arab

22.07%

19.7%

Ultra-orthodox

13.4%

15.66%

Bedouin

4.88%

5.49%

Druze

2.58%

2.31%

Source: The Ministry of Education, the pedagogy – Health supervision department, 2009.

Education for infancy

664. The Compulsory Education Law applies to children from the age of three years old. The Law is implemented in accordance with the State’s budget. In 2009, the rate of children aged 3 to 4 who studied in kindergartens which are Stated-financed was 49 per cent (39 per cent in the Jewish population, 80 per cent in the Arab and Bedouin population, and 62 per cent in the Druze population).
Table 40
Rate of participation of children aged 3 to 6 in institutions of the Ministry in 2009

Age

Jewish

Arab-Bedouin

Druze

Total

3

66%

56%

95%

64%

4

87%

64%

97%

81%

5

94%

86%

97%

92%

6

13%

2%

3%

10%

Source: The Ministry of Education, the pedagogy – elementary education department 2009.
Table 41
Distribution of pupils by classrooms and populations, 2009

Population group

Elementary school (pupils)

Elementary school (classrooms)

Junior high school (pupils)

Junior high school (classrooms)

High school (pupils)

High school (classrooms)

Jewish

577 747

23 032

264 597

10 205

253 661

10 077

Arab

160 306

5 541

72 597

2 459

55 272

1 956

Druze

18 132

688

8 450

297

7 203

265

Bedouin

47 942

1 694

18 678

624

11 592

417

Circassian

142

8

Total

804 127

30 995

364 464

13 593

327 728

12 715

Source: The Ministry of Education the pedagogy – elementary education department 2009.

Prevention of dropout

665. During the 2008–2009 school year, the rate of high school pupils who dropped out of school (9th–12th grades) was 4.3 per cent (19,333 out of a total of 444,843 pupils). The total dropout rate of pupils between the first and twelfth grades was 2 per cent (28,947 out of a total of 1,454,777 pupils).The Ministry of Education operates an internal unit of officers who regularly visit schools in order to prevent children from dropping-out of school. The Ministry of Education has a special department aimed at maintaining school attendance and preventing children from dropping out of school. This department works in accordance with the Compulsory Education Law (Section 4) and as part of the policy of the Ministry of Education. Currently, there are 498 attendance officers, of which 369 operate in Jewish localities (including 37 within the Ultra-Orthodox population), 96 in Arab localities, seventeen in Bedouin localities and sixteen in the Druze localities.

Table 42
Dropout rates between 7th–12th grades in school year 2008–2009

Population group

Total pupils

Number of dropouts

In %

Jewish

515 414

16 039

3.1

Arab

122 201

5 738

4.7

Bedouin

28 209

2 110

7.5

Druze

15 238

434

2.8

Circassian

134

2

1.5

Total

681 196

24 323

3.6

Source: The Central Bureau of Statistics, 2009.
/…

667.    The percentage of Jewish pupils aged 17 who were eligible for a matriculation certificate decreased from 55.6 per cent in 2001 to 54.9 per cent in 2006. The percentage of Arab pupils aged 17 who were eligible for a matriculation certificate decreased from 52.2 per cent in 2001 to 46.3 per cent in 2006.

668. The matriculation rate of girls is significantly higher than that of boys: 61 per cent of girls in the Jewish population and 55.3 per cent of girls in the Arab population received a matriculation certificate, compared to only 49.5 per cent and 36.5 per cent of the boys, respectively according to 2009 Statistic Abstract Report of Israel, 2009 (issued by the Central Bureau of Statistics).
669. According to data collected in 2007, and based on a division of the towns in Israel into ten socio-economic clusters: 9.2 per cent of 12th grade pupils in clusters 1-2 (towns with the lowest socio-economic status) were eligible for a matriculation certificate; compared to 74.6 per cent of those in clusters 9–10 (towns with the highest socio-economic status) in Jewish localities. 43.8 per cent of 12th grade pupils in clusters 1–2 were eligible for a matriculation certificate compared to 52.5 per cent in clusters 7–8 (the highest status) in Arab localities.

/…

Social integration

The Arab education system

682. In 2006, there were approximately 656,000 Arab children up to the age of seventeen (specifically 570,000 Muslims, 46,000 Druze and 39,000 Christians) constituting 27.7 per cent of all of the children in the State of Israel. In 2006, children in the Arab population represented 28 per cent of all elementary school children and 23.3 per cent of all secondary school children.

The structure of the education system

Early childhood education

683. In 2007, 68 per cent of Arab children aged 2 to 5 attended early childhood education frameworks, compared to 84.4 per cent of Jewish children of similar ages. The difference in attendance rates is evident in all age groups (see table below). While nearly 55 per cent of Jewish children age two attended preschools, only 12 per cent of Arab children aged 2 do so. There is a decrease in this gap as the children get older, and at age five, the attendance rate is nearly the same in both Jewish and Arab localities.

The education system in Bedouin localities

684. As aforementioned, in concluding observation No. 53 of the Committee on the Rights of the Child it was recommended to increase the budget allocated for education in the Arab population. According to the multi-year plan, a special budget was allocated towards establishing additional educational facilities in Bedouin localities in both the North and the South. As part of the Ministry of Education’s plan to advance the educational framework in Bedouin localities, funding was allocated towards establishing and upgrading science and computer laboratories. Educational counsels providing assistance to school principals in preparing the school’s work plan and funding allocated reinforcement hours for pupils in need at all levels of education, in order to reduce academic gaps, including raising the rate of entitlement to matriculation certificates.
685. In addition, a programme for training Bedouin teachers and assisting them in the first stages of their employment was initiated in order to reinforce the teachers’ status and to improve their pupils’ achievements. To date, 165 teachers have participated in the programme. An additional training programme for the improvement of the teaching staff in secondary education was also initiated in cooperation with the Ben-Gurion University.

The Bedouin population in the south

686. Since 2004, three High Schools have been established in unauthorized villages in the Negev – Abu-Krinat, Al-Huashlla and Bir-Hadge. The schools contributed greatly to the significant reduction in dropout rates, especially among Bedouin girls, whose parents previously prohibited them from attending school, due to the distance of the school from the village and religious and cultural barriers. Construction of new High School classes in Kasar-a-Sar is in final stages.
The ‘Daroma’ (South) Program
687. In 2004, the Ministry of Education commenced a programme to improve educational achievements among exceptional pupils in the 10th–12th grades. The “Daroma” program now operates in five Bedouin High-Schools (approximately 300 pupils). The purpose of the programme is to advance these pupils in Mathematics and English, develop their learning skills and prepare them for the psychometric test required for enrolment in higher education institutions. The pupils participate in courses in academic institutions such as the Ben-Gurion University. The programme also focuses on self-empowerment and activities within the community and for its benefit. A similar programme commenced in 2009, in the Abu-Basma municipality and in Tel-Sheva in the South. A comparable programme entitled “Heznek Atidim,” is also operated in the North.
688. An extra-curriculum activities programme is also operated in the Bedouin localities in the Negev, in conjunction with the Ministry for the Development of the Negev and the Galilee, and the Israel Association of Community Centers. The programme provides scholarships for extra-curricular activities for children in the 4th to 6th grades in the Negev.

Higher education

689. In 2008, the Ministry of Education announced its intention to grant Bedouin students studying engineering, technology and science with tuition grants and scholarships in the amount of 5,000 NIS each, for the upcoming academic year. The scholarships were intended to further encourage Bedouin students to enrol in and complete higher education.
690. In accordance with Government resolutions No. 412 and No. 413 dated August 2006, the Authority for the Advancement of the Status of Women grants scholarships for female Bedouin students in the north, as well as for Druze and Circassian female students. In 2007/8, 75 scholarships were granted. The Authority recently published an announcement calling upon Bedouin, Druze and Circassian women to submit applications for the upcoming year.

The status of the Arabic language and culture

691. See Chapter VI (C) — article 26 of the Convention — Social security and HCJ 2203/01 The Association of Defense for Children International (DCI) v The National Insurance Institute (07.01.2009), above.
692. In 2006, a proposal for the establishment of an Academy of the Arabic language was submitted to the Knesset. In the first meeting held by the Knesset Education, Culture and Sports Committee on the matter, it was acknowledged that in order to give proper expression to Arabic as a formal language of the State of Israel, an Academy of the Arabic language was necessary. It was also thought that other academic institutions in Israel would benefit from the establishment of this Academy, and the new institution would improve Arabic education and the teaching of Arabic in Israel.
693. The High Institute for the Arabic Language Law 5767–2007, was the basis for the establishment of the Arabic Language Academy in December 2007. The Arabic Language Academy’s functions include the publishing reports of its activities, relations with the Hebrew Language Academy and advising the Ministry of Education and the Institute of Higher Learning regarding Arabic Language issues. The Arabic Language Academy is also in charge of researching Arabic and its cultural and historic resources, promoting the study of terminology, grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation and transcription. The Academy also addresses the current linguistic computerized reality. According to the Law, the Institution’s activities are State-funded.

/…

The role of the media in the promotion of children in an educational life

Television

/…

705. Private Cable television companies also air channels for children, which air programmes for children, such as scientific, cultural and educational programmes produced by assorted countries. Furthermore, the Open University in Israel broadcasts educational programmes on the radio and television. The Second Authority for the Television and Radio, in cooperation with the Ministry of Education, makes an effort to expand children’s learning skills. To this end, particular learning materials are prepared for elementary schools, and teachers are trained as to how to promote over-achievement among pupils. Documentaries are filmed at high-schools and summer camps for gifted pupils. Israeli television and radio programmes are broadcast in five languages: Hebrew, Arabic, English, Russian and Amharic.

/…

VIII.   Special protection measures

A. Articles 37, 39 and 40 – Children in the juvenile justice system

/…

Youth Probation Services data

777. In 2008, out of 33,965 offences committed by youth, the Youth Probation Services treated 20,472 adolescents. Presently there are 210 Youth Probation Officers. The Youth Probation Services treat an average of 4,700 children from minority populations annually.
Table 48
Youth referred to the Probation Service in 2008

Gender

Number of youngsters directed

In per cent

Males

19 991

87.9

Females

2 481

12.1

Total

20 472

100

Age

12–14

4 326

21.1

15–16

8 059

39.4

17–18

8 087

39.5

Total

20 472

100

Population

Jewish

15 765

77.1

Arabs

4 707

22.9

Total

20 472

100

Source: The Courts Administration System, 2008.

/…

B. Articles 32–36 – Children in situations of exploitation, including physical and psychological recovery and reintegration into society

/…

Data on working minors
830. Table 52 (below) reveals that 6.9 per cent of minors aged 15 to 17 are employed (7.6 per cent of these minors are boys and 6.1 per cent of these minors are girls). The percentage of Jewish boys who are employed is greater than that of Arab boys. However, in the Arab population, particularly rural communities, minors engage in work which is usually not reported, such as agriculture and housework. Given this fact, and the high rates of illiteracy in the Arab population, it is possible that more youth work in Arab localities than is reported. This may be particularly true regarding girls.
Table 52
Population aged 15–17 by work, studies, gender and population group 2001–2007

2001

2006

2007

Arabs

Jews

Total

Arabs

Jews

Total

Arabs

Jews

Total

Grand total

Thousands

77.9

258.4

336.3

85.2

254.4

346.3

89.7

255.8

350.6

Percentage

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

Work

3.2

9

7.6

3.5

8

7

2.5

8.3

6.9

Thereof: Study

1.2

7.6

6.1

6.9

5.3

7.2

5.5

Do not study

2.2

1.4

1.6

3.3

1.1

1.7

2.2

1.1

1.4

Do not work

96.8

91

92.4

96.5

92

93

97.5

91.7

93.1

Thereof: Study

82.1

85.6

84.8

82.6

86.2

85.2

85.1

86.3

85.9

Do not study

14.7

5.4

7.6

13.8

5.8

7.8

12.4

5.5

7.2

Men

Thousands

38.9

134

172.9

43.7

130.8

177.7

45.8

130.9

179.4

Percentage

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

Work

5.6

9.4

8.6

6.6

8.8

8.3

4.3

8.6

7.6

Thereof: Study

7.8

6.4

7.6

5.8

7.7

5.8

Do not study

4.1

1.6

2.1

6.2

1.3

2.5

3.9

0.9

1.8

Do not work

94.4

90.6

91.4

93.6

91.1

91.7

95.7

91.4

92.4

Thereof: Study

77.7

84.9

83.3

79.9

85.2

83.9

82.9

85.9

85

Do not study

16.4

5.6

8.1

13.7

6

7.8

12.8

5.5

7.4

Women

Thousands

38.9

124.4

163.3

41.5

123.7

168.6

43.9

124.8

171.2

Percentage

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

Work

8.4

6.7

7.1

5.5

8

6.1

Thereof : Study

7.2

5.8

6.2

4.7

6.8

5.1

Do not study

0.3

1.2

0.9

1

0.8

1.2

1

Do not work

99

91.6

93.3

99.5

92.8

94.4

99.4

92

93.9

Thereof : Study

86.2

86.4

86.4

85.5

87.1

86.7

87.3

86.6

86.8

Do not study

12.8

5.1

7

14.0

5.7

7.8

12.1

5.4

7.1

Source: The Central Bureau of Statistics, 2002, 2007, 2008, 2009.
/…

C. Article 34 – Sexual exploitation and sexual abuse

/…

The Ministry of Education’s treatment of sexual abuse

854. The Unit for the Prevention of Child and Youth Abuse (“the Unit”) in “Shefi,” which is the Counseling and Psychological Services within the Ministry of Education, has dealt with the issue of sexual abuse since 1989. Assistance is granted through development, prevention, and treatment programmes and the training of professionals. The Unit includes 32 advisors and seven psychological coordinators, four of which are assigned to the Arab population. During 2008, the Unit dealt with approximately 750 cases of sexual abuse which took place in schools.
/…
National Program in Support of Children and Youth at Risk
885. This programme implements the recommendations of the Schmidt Committee, a Prime Minister Committee for Children and Youth at Risk. The Committee was established on 16 November 2003 by the Israeli Government (chaired by Professor Hillel Schmidt, head of the Hebrew University Social Work Department) in order to examine the condition of Israeli children and youth in distress and at risk. The Committee has published its recommendations in 2006, which included a series of measures aimed at improvements, including: a budget increase; affirmative action for the Arab population, the Ultra-Orthodox population and new immigrants. The programme was initiated in 2008 in 56 municipalities and a budget of over 100 million NIS (27,000,000$) for the next five years, was allocated. According to Government Resolution No. 1007, dated 16 November 2003, Israel’s former Prime Minister and former Minister of Social Affairs and Social Services, appointed a public Committee for the examination of the conditions of children and youth at risk or in distress. On 12 September 2006, following a report submitted by the committee in March 2006, the Government accepted Resolution No. 477 for the gradual implementation of a plan recommended by the Committee. In 2007, the implementation of the plan began in the local authorities of several towns in Israel with a special annual budget of 200 million NIS (54,000,000$).
/…

Drug abuse

Israel Anti-Drug Authority (IADA)

/…
907. In order to create a database that examines drug abuse among children, the IADA conducts surveys and research. The latest national survey was conducted in 2005. The survey examined ordinary pupils and detached youth between the ages of twelve and eighteen. This survey revealed that approximately 10 per cent of ordinary pupils and 20 per cent of detached youth consumed some kind of illegal drug during that year. Approximately 20 per cent of ordinary pupils and 58 per cent of detached youth smoked tobacco during that year, and approximately 50 per cent of ordinary pupils and 60 per cent of detached youth reported drinking alcohol. In 2004, surveys focusing on the Arab, Druze and Bedouin populations revealed that approximately 12 per cent of Arab ordinary pupils and 14 per cent of the Arab detached youth had used an illegal psychoactive drug in the course of that year. Approximately 10 per cent of Druze standard pupils and 6 per cent of Druze detached youth had used an illegal psychoactive drug in the course of that year. Approximately 22 per cent of Bedouin youth had used at least one kind of illegal drug throughout that year. In 2007, a survey of former Soviet Union immigrant youth between the ages of twelve and eighteen was conducted. The survey revealed that approximately 35 per cent of the immigrant youth had used illegal drugs and 84 per cent consumed alcohol in the course of that year. Such data facilitates the estimation of the effort needed to reduce the rates of drug abuse among minors, as well as assist in developing a unique aid plan for each population group.
/…
909. The programmes developed by the IADA are intended for all ages – from infancy to maturity. Such programmes are guiding and instructing teachers and pupils on how to abstain from dangerous chemical usage (common among youth). Other programmes aimed towards the Jewish and the Arab populations are based on psycho-educational models, advanced technology and interactive workshops. The psycho- educational model of counselling, views the counsellor as an instructor. It allows the counsellor to consider aspects of therapy similar to instructional situations, therefore creating the opportunity for using an established, empirical research methodology.
/…

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