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United Nations Peacekeeping Operations


July 2000 – July 2008

UN Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea

In June 2000, after two years of fighting in border dispute, Ethiopia and Eritrea sign cessation of hostilities agreement following proximity talks led by Algeria and Organization of African Unity. In July, Security Council sets up UNMEE to maintain liaison with parties and establish mechanism for verifying ceasefire. In September, Council authorizes deployment of military personnel to monitor cessation of hostilities, redeployment of troops and temporary security zone; and to assist in ensuring observance of security commitments by parties. The mandate of the mission is terminated by the Council in July 2008 in response to crippling restrictions imposed by Eritrea on UNMEE.


May 2002 – May 2005

United Nations Mission of Support in East Timor

East Timor became an independent country on 20 May 2002 , marking the end of a three-year process towards independence under the guidance of the United Nations. On that day, the Security Council established the United Nations Mission of Support in East Timor (UNMISET) to provide assistance to East Timor (which after independence had changed its name to Timor-Leste), until all operational responsibilities were fully devolved to the local authorities. UNMISET successfully completed its mandate on 20 May 2005.


September 2003–present

UN Mission in Liberia

Civil war in Liberia claims some 150,000 mostly civilian lives and leads to a complete breakdown of law and order. UNMIL is established by the Security Council to support the implementation of the ceasefire agreement and the peace process; protect civilians; safeguard UN staff and facilities; support humanitarian and human rights activities; as well as assist in national security reform, including national police training and formation of a new, restructured military.


April 2004–present

UN Operation in Côte d'Ivoire

Civil conflict erupts in September 2002. Diplomatic efforts lead to a series of peace accords. The Security Council establishes a political mission (MINUCI) with a mandate to facilitate the implementation of the January 2003 peace agreement. UNOCI is established to take over from MINUCI to implement a larger mandate which includes support for the comprehensive peace process; disarmament, demobilization and reintegration of former combatants; humanitarian assistance; and assistance in the field of human rights and law and order.


June 2004–present

UN Stabilization Mission in Haiti

In February 2004, an armed conflict breaks out again in Haiti. The Security Council authorizes the immediate deployment of the Multinational Interim Force (MIF) to stabilize the situation on the ground.  MINUSTAH is established to take over from MIF in June 2004 to support the continuation of a peaceful and constitutional political process, and the maintenance of a secure and stable environment in the country.


June 2004–December 2006

UN Operation in Burundi

International and regional efforts to end civil strife in Burundi result in the signing of the Arusha peace agreement. ONUB is established by the Security Council to support the implementation of the accords and assist the process leading to lasting peace and national reconciliation in the country. ONUB completes its mandate in December 2006 and is succeeded by a follow-on peacebuilding mission – the UN Integrated Office in Burundi.


March 2005–present

UN Mission in the Sudan

Civil conflict in the Sudan intermittently endures since country’s independence in 1956. The latest attempt to end the strife results in a peace agreement, signed by the government and the Sudan People's Liberation Movement/Army, in January 2005. The Security Council establishes UNMIS to support the implementation of the agreement, and to perform a number of certain other functions relating to humanitarian assistance, and to the protection and promotion of human rights.


August 2006–present

UN Integrated Mission in Timor-Leste

A political, humanitarian and security crisis erupts in Timor-Leste in mid-2006. UNMIT is set up to assist the government in consolidating stability, enhancing democratic governance and facilitating political dialogue; help conduct national elections; promote human rights; provide support to local police; and assist in the security sector reform. The mission also coordinates international assistance in the country’s post-conflict rehabilitation and capacity-building. UNMIT takes over from a UN political mission in Timor-Leste, UNOTIL.  


July 2007–present

AU/UN Hybrid Operation in Darfur

Fighting breaks out in Darfur in 2003 between the armed forces of the Government of Sudan, its allied militia, and armed rebel groups, claiming some 200,000 civilian lives and at least 2 million displaced people. After difficult and prolonged negotiations, UNAMID is established to support the effective implementation of the peace agreement, as well as to protect civilians and mission personnel. UNAMID takes over on 31 December 2007 from AMIS, a regional peacekeeping operation deployed to Darfur by the African Union in June 2004.


September 2007–present

UN Mission in the Central African Republic and Chad

Armed groups in eastern Chad, the north-eastern Central African Republic and western Sudan threaten security and humanitarian operations in those areas, and the stability of the wider region. The Security Council establishes MINURCAT to help set up national police units trained in humanitarian issues, contribute to a secure environment, assist in relocating refugee camps, and promote human rights. The Council also authorizes the European Union to deploy a military operation to the area to provide security, facilitate humanitarian assistance and support UN operations.