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United Nations Peacekeeping Operations


April 1991–October 2003

UN Iraq-Kuwait Observation Mission

UNIKOM is established in April 1991, following the forced withdrawal of Iraqi forces from Kuwait. Its task is to monitor the demilitarized zone (DMZ) along the Iraq-Kuwait border, deter border violations and report any hostile action. In February 1993, UNIKOM's strength and mandate are expanded to include the physical action to prevent violations of the DMZ and of the newly demarcated boundary between Iraq and Kuwait.


June 1991–February 1995

UN Angola Verification Mission II

UNAVEM II is deployed to help the Angolan Government and the União Nacional para la Independencia Total de Angola (UNITA) carry out the peace agreements ending 16 years of civil war. The UN also observes and verifies elections, but UNITA contests the results. After renewed fighting, the mission helps two sides bring about ceasefires and subsequently sign the Lusaka Protocol. UNAVEM II is asked to verify the initial stages of the agreement.


July 1991–April 1995

UN Observer Mission in El Salvador

Established in July 1991, ONUSAL verifies the peace agreements between the Government of El Salvador and the Frente Farabundo Marti para la Liberación Nacional aimed at ending a decade-long civil war. The agreements cover ceasefire, reform and reduction of armed forces, creation of a new police force, reform of judicial and electoral systems, human rights, land tenure, and other economic and social issues. ONUSAL also verifies elections in March and April 1993.


April 1991–Present

UN Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara

In 1988, the Government of Morocco and the Frente Popular para la Liberación de Saguia el-Hamra y de Rio de Oro (POLISARIO) agree on a plan leading to a referendum allowing the people of Western Sahara to decide territory’s political future. MINURSO is set up to monitor the ceasefire, and organize and conduct the referendum. Differences over key elements delay the plan’s full implementation; however, the ceasefire remains in effect and MINURSO continues to monitor its observance.


October 1991–March 1992

UN Advance Mission in Cambodia

An advance mission to a larger operation, UNAMIC paves the way for the UN Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC). UNAMIC assists the Cambodian parties to maintain a ceasefire prior to the deployment of UNTAC, and initiates mine-awareness and mine-clearance programmes. The mission remains deployed until UNTAC becomes operational in March 1992.


February 1992–March 1995

UN Protection Force

UNPROFOR is first set up in Croatia to ensure the demilitarization of certain designated areas. The mandate is then extended to Bosnia and Herzegovina to support the delivery of humanitarian relief, and monitor a "no-fly" zone and the "safe areas". Later, UNPROFOR also deploys to the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM) for preventive monitoring in the border areas. In March 1995, UNPROFOR is restructured as UNCRO (Croatia), UNPROFOR (Bosnia and Herzegovina) and UNPREDEP (FYROM).


March 1992–September 1993

UN Transitional Authority in Cambodia

After years of civil war and foreign intervention,Cambodia’s conflicting factions sign the Paris Agreements in October 1991. The Security Council establishes UNTAC, which disarms and demobilizes armed forces, supervises police, controls administrative structures, promotes human rights, repatriates refugees, conducts elections, and begins the country’s rehabilitation. With its mandate accomplished, UNTAC withdraws after the promulgation of the country’s constitution in 1993.


April 1992–March 1993

UN Operation in Somalia I

In 1991, factional fighting leads to famine and the collapse of the government in Somalia. The Security Council establishes UNOSOM I, which monitors the 1992 ceasefire, coordinates humanitarian assistance and ensures security of relief supplies. When the situation in the country deteriorates, the Council authorizes UN Member States to form the Unified Task Force (UNITAF) to ensure safe delivery of humanitarian assistance.


December 1992–December 1994

UN Operation in Mozambique

The Government of Mozambique and the Resistência Nacional Moçambicana agree in October 1992 to end 14 years of civil war. The Security Council establishes ONUMOZ to monitor the peace agreement; to verify ceasefire, demobilization of forces, police neutrality and elections; and to provide humanitarian assistance, including mine clearance. The new government in Mozambique is installed in December 1994, and ONUMOZ completes its mission.


March 1993–March 1995

UN Operation in Somalia II

UNOSOM II is created to take over from UNITAF. Its mandate is to establish, including through enforcement measures, a secure environment for humanitarian assistance by monitoring ceasefires, seizing unauthorized arms, maintaining security at ports, mine clearance, and assisting refugee repatriation. The mission also works to re-establish the police and state structures.  In 1994-1995, UNOSOM II focuses on promoting dialogue and supporting humanitarian efforts.


June 1993–September 1994

UN Observer Mission Uganda-Rwanda

Fighting between the Armed Forces of the mainly Hutu Government of Rwanda and the Tutsi-led Rwandese Patriotic Front first breaks out in October 1990.  Despite a series of ceasefires, fighting resumes in 1993 across the Rwanda-Uganda border. Following a new ceasefire, the Security Council deploys UNOMUR to Uganda to verify that no military assistance is provided across the international border between the two countries.


August 1993–June 2009

UN Observer Mission in Georgia

Following an attempt by Abkhazia to secede from Georgia, fighting erupts in 1992 as Georgian Government troops try to secure rail and communications links. UNOMIG is set up to verify the 1993 agreement, but the deployment is suspended when the ceasefire breaks down. In 1994, following the signing of the ceasefire and separation of forces agreement, UNOMIG's mandate is expanded. The mission also observes the operations of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) peacekeeping force. [The mission in Georgia came to an end in June 2009 due to a lack of consensus among Security Council members on mandate extension.]


September 1993–September 1997

UN Observer Mission in Liberia

Civil war breaks out in Liberia in 1990. The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) dispatches a peacekeeping force (ECOMOG) and mediates a series of agreements. UNOMIL is established to work with ECOMOG, monitor compliance with the ceasefire, arms embargo and demobilization, as well as investigate human rights violations. Despite setbacks and intermittent fighting, the parties agree to the ECOWAS time-table in 1997. UNOMIL observes elections, in consultation with ECOWAS and the Organization of African Unity.


September 1993–June 1996

UN Mission in Haiti

In September 1991, the first democratically elected Haitian President is overthrown. Following an agreement to restore the constitutional government, UNMIH is created to help modernize the army and set up a new police force. The coup leaders, however, prevent UNMIH’s deployment, and the mission advance team withdraws. In 1994, a multinational force, authorized by the Security Council, restores the legitimate government in Haiti. UNMIH eventually takes over to sustain a secure environment, help set up a new police force, and create conditions for free and fair elections.


October 1993–March 1996

UN Assistance Mission for Rwanda

UNAMIR is established to help implement an agreement between the Rwandan Government and the Tutsi-led Rwandese Patriotic Front, by monitoring the ceasefire and ensuring security during the transition period. The genocidal campaign against Tutsis starts in April 1994. With its mandate reduced, UNAMIR works to end hostilities. As the situation deteriorates further, the Security Council enlarges UNAMIR to protect relief operations to the degree possible. After a new government is installed, UNAMIR supports reconciliation efforts and humanitarian assistance.


May 1994–June 1994

UN Aouzou Strip Observer Group

Ownership of the Aouzou Strip – an area between Chad and Libya – is contested by the two countries beginning in 1973. In September 1990, they refer this territorial dispute to the UN’s International Court of Justice. In accordance with Court’s decision, Libya withdraws from the Strip in April and May 1994. The Security Council deploys UNASOG to monitor the withdrawal. The Group concludes after both sides declare the withdrawal complete.


December 1994–May 2000

UN Mission of Observers in Tajikistan

Tajikistan is destabilized by a civil war. From 1992, the UN pursues good offices between the government and the United Tajik Opposition. The Commonwealth of Independent States deploys a peacekeeping force. UNMOT is established to monitor a ceasefire and maintain liaison with the CIS force. Parties sign a general peace agreement in June 1997 and UNMOT is expanded to help monitor its implementation.


February 1995–June 1997

UN Angola Verification Mission III

UNAVEM III is set up to help the government and UNITA in restoring peace and achieving national reconciliation on the basis of the Peace Accords and the Lusaka Protocol, including by monitoring the ceasefire and disarmament, and supporting humanitarian activities and mine clearance. Despite the comprehensive timetable, the parties do not complete all tasks before the mission’s mandate ends. UNAVEM III is succeeded by a follow-on UN mission, MONUA.


March 1995–January 1996

UN Confidence Restoration Operation in Croatia

UNCRO helps implement the ceasefire agreement in Croatia and monitors demilitarization in the Prevlaka peninsula. After Croatia reintegrates by force its territories in Western Slavonia and Krajina, the UN mission withdraws from those areas. However, following agreement between the Government of Croatia and the Croatian Serb leaders providing for the peaceful integration of Eastern Slavonia into Croatia, the Security Council establishes a new peacekeeping operation in the area, UNTAES, and the mandate of UNCRO is terminated.


March 1995–February 1999

UN Preventive Deployment Force

UNPREDEP replaces UNPROFOR in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. The force monitors and reports on developments in areas along the borders with the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and Albania which could undermine the country’s stability, and promotes inter-ethnic dialogue within the country. The Security Council terminates mission mandate in February 1999.


December 1995–December 2002

UN Mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina

Set up in 1995, UNMIBH exercises a wide range of functions related to law enforcement and police reform in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The mission also coordinates other UN activities in the country relating to humanitarian relief and refugees, demining, human rights, elections, and rehabilitation of infrastructure and economic reconstruction. Following the completion of its mandate, UNMIBH withdraws in December 2002.


January 1996–January 1998

UN Transitional Administration for Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Sirmium

The Basic Agreement of November 1995 provides for the peaceful integration of the region into Croatia and requests the UN to set up an administration to govern the region during the transition and to authorize an international force to maintain law and order. UNTAES supervises demilitarization, monitors the voluntary return of refugees, conducts and certifies the April 1997 elections, and undertakes other activities relevant to the Basic Agreement.


February 1996–December 2002

UN Mission of Observers in Prevlaka

UNMOP, established by the Security Council in February 1996, takes over from another UN peacekeeping mission, UNCRO, the task of monitoring the demilitarization of the Prevlaka peninsula, a strategic area disputed by Croatia and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Following the completion of its mandate, UNMOP withdraws in December 2002.


July 1996–July 1997

UN Support Mission in Haiti

UNSMIH is created to take over from UNMIH in further assisting the government in the professionalization of the police, and maintenance of a secure and stable environment conducive to the police reform process. It also coordinates activities of the UN system in promoting institution-building, national reconciliation and economic rehabilitation.


January 1997–May 1997

UN Verification Mission in Guatemala

In December 1996, the Government of Guatemala and the Unidad Revolucionaria Nacional Guatemalteca (URNG) sign a peace agreement ending 36 years of conflict. In January 1997, the Security Council attaches a military component to MINUGUA – a human rights verification mission established by the General Assembly in 1994. After verifying the ceasefire agreement, the separation of forces and the demobilization of URNG combatants, the military component is withdrawn.


July 1997–February 1999

UN Observer Mission in Angola

In July 1997, after UNAVEM III completes its mandate, a new UN mission in Angola, MONUA, takes over to assist the Angolan parties in consolidating peace and national reconciliation, enhancing confidence-building and creating an environment conducive to long-term stability, democratic development, and the rehabilitation of the country. MONUA withdraws in February 1999. In October 1999, the Security Council establishes a political office, UNOA, to liaise with the authorities in the country.


August 1997–November 1997

UN Transition Mission in Haiti

A follow-on mission to UNSMIH, UNTMIH is set up with a mandate limited to a single four-month period ending on 30 November 1997, in order to assist the Government of Haiti by supporting and contributing to the professionalization of the Haitian National Police. The tasks include Training specialized police units in crowd control and the rapid reaction capability.


December 1997–March 2000

UN Civilian Police Mission in Haiti

MIPONUH is set up with a special emphasis on the assistance to and training of the Haitian specialized police units. Other tasks include mentoring police performance, guiding police officers in day-to-day duties, and maintaining close coordination with the international technical advisers to the national police.


January 1998–October 1998

UN Civilian Police Support Group

After the withdrawal of UNTAES, the Security Council deploys a group of UN police observers to continue monitoring the performance of the Croatian police in the Danube region, particularly with respect to the return of displaced persons, for a single nine-month period ending on 15 October 1998. The Group concludes its mission in October 1998, with the transition of its responsibilities to the police monitoring programme of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe.


April 1998–February 2000

UN Mission in the Central African Republic

In 1996, the Central African Republic is shaken by mutinies in the army. In January 1997, after four African Presidents mediate a truce, the parties sign the Bangui Agreements and an inter-African force (MISAB) deploys to monitor their implementation. MINURCA takes over from MISAB in April 1998 to assist in maintaining security and stability, monitor the final disposition of weapons retrieved in the disarmament exercise, and provide advice on the restructuring of national police and on national election plans.


July 1998–October 1999

UN Observer Mission in Sierra Leone

In May 1997, unrest in Sierra Leone culminates in a military coup that overthrows the democratically elected government. The intervention by the Economic Community of West African States and its peacekeeping force restores the government in March 1998. UNOMSIL is set up to monitor the military and security situation, as well as the disarmament and demobilization of former combatants. UNOMSIL withdraws when a larger UN peacekeeping operation, UNAMSIL, is deployed.


June 1999–Present

UN Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo

In June 1999, the Security Council authorizes a NATO-led security presence (KFOR) in Kosovo and a UN peacekeeping operation, UNMIK, to exercise administrative and executive authority in the province; maintain law and order; coordinate humanitarian relief; support the reconstruction of infrastructure; promote human rights; and assure the safe return of refugees and displaced persons. The mission is also to promote the establishment of substantial autonomy and self-government, and facilitate a political process to determine Kosovo's future status.


October 1999–December 2005

UN Mission in Sierra Leone

With the mandate of UNOMSIL completed, UNAMSIL is set up by the Security Council to cooperate with the government and other parties in implementing the Lome Peace Agreement and to assist in the disarmament, demobilization and reintegration process. UNAMSIL completes its mandate in December 2005; it is succeeded by a follow-on mission, UNIOSIL, established to further help consolidate peace in the country.


October 1999–May 2002

UN Transitional Administration in East Timor

In August 1999, the people of East Timor choose to separate from Indonesia in a poll organized by the UN. In response, anti-independence forces unleash a campaign of terror. The Security Council authorizes an international force (INTERFET) to restore order. In October, the Council sets up UNTAET to administer the Territory, and exercise legislative and executive authority during the transition period. UNTAET completes its mandate in May 2002, when East Timor becomes an independent nation.


November 1999–present

UN Organization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

In mid-1999, an agreement for the cessation of hostilities in the Democratic Republic of the Congo is reached. MONUC is set up to maintain liaison with the parties to the agreement. The mission is expanded in 2000 to monitor the implementation of the ceasefire, help implement the peace agreement, and verify the disengagement and redeployment of parties’ forces. In 2006, MONUC helps conduct the first democratic elections in the DRC in 40 years. The mission remains on the ground to fulfill other aspects of its mandate.