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United Nations Peacekeeping Operations


May 1988–March 1990

UN Good Offices Mission in Afghanistan and Pakistan

The Soviet Union intervenes in Afghanistan in 1979. After an inconclusive and prolonged Security Council debate, the efforts by the Secretary-General and his Personal Representative aimed at stopping the hostilities result in the 1988 Geneva Accords, committing Afghanistan and Pakistan to mutual non-interference and the voluntary return of refugees, and calling for the Soviet Union’s withdrawal. The Security Council sets up UNGOMAP to monitor the agreement’s implementation.


August 1988–February 1991

UN Iran-Iraq Military Observer Group

After almost eight years of war and following intensive diplomatic efforts led by the UN Secretary-General, Iran and Iraq agree to a ceasefire and direct talks. UNIIMOG monitors the implementation of the ceasefire. UN observers conclude their mission in 1991, after confirming the withdrawal of both sides’ forces to the internationally recognized boundaries.


January 1989–June 1991

UN Angola Verification Mission I

Negotiations lead to an agreement on the phased withdrawal of Cuban troops from Angola, to be verified by UN military observers, as one of the key steps towards implementing the UN plan for Namibia’s independence. Completing the mission, UN observers report the withdrawal of the last Cuban troops from Angola in May 1991.


April 1989–March 1990

Transition Assistance Group

In 1978, the Security Council adopts a plan for Namibia’s transition to independence. Further negotiations, spanning almost 10 years, are needed to overcome resistance to the plan. UNTAG deploys in 1989, with a broad mandate including in the areas of human rights, the organization and conduct of elections, military arrangements, civil administration, law and order, repatriation and resettlement of refugees and displaced persons, and the rehabilitation of infrastructure. UNTAG completes its mandate when Namibia joins the UN in April 1990.


November 1989–January 1992

UN Observer Group in Central America

As part of the Central American peace process, the Security Council establishes ONUCA in 1989 to verify compliance by the five Central American Governments with their security commitments. Subsequently, under the Esquipulas II Agreements, ONUCA also assists in monitoring the ceasefire and separation of forces between the opposing parties in Nicaragua, and in demobilizing the Nicaraguan resistance.