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United Nations Peacekeeping Operations


July 1960–June 1964

UN Operation in the Congo

The newly independent Congo is threatened by mutinous armed forces, a Belgian military intervention and increasing disorder. The Government requests UN military assistance and the Security Council establishes ONUC. The province of Katanga secedes and ONUC faces the task of maintaining the country’s territorial integrity and political independence, preventing civil war and securing the removal of foreign military elements. ONUC is withdrawn after Katanga’s reintegration.


October 1962–April 1963

UN Security Force in West New Guinea (West Irian)

The dispute between Indonesia and the Netherlands unfolds over West Irian. An agreement is reached for the UN Temporary Executive Authority (UNTEA) to assume administrative responsibility for the territory, pending transfer to Indonesia. UNTEA/UNSF is established by the General Assembly. UNTEA is assisted by UNSF, which monitors the ceasefire and helps ensure law and order during the transition.


July 1963–September 1964

UN Yemen Observation Mission

Egypt and Saudi Arabia support opposing forces in Yemen’s civil war, threatening a wider conflict. An initiative by the Secretary-General leads to a disengagement agreement. The Security Council establishes UNYOM to observe the agreement’s implementation. The mission is withdrawn after completing its mandate.


March 1964–present

UN Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus

The Security Council sets up UNFICYP in 1964 to prevent further fighting between the Greek Cypriot and Turkish Cypriot communities, and to contribute to the maintenance of law and order and a return to normal conditions. The Turkish military intervention on the heels of the 1974 coup by members of the Greek Cypriot National Guard leaves the island divided. UNFICYP remains to supervise ceasefire lines, maintain the buffer zone and undertake humanitarian activities. The Secretary-General continues his good offices aimed at reaching a peaceful settlement.


May 1965–October 1966

Mission of the Representative of the Secretary-General in the Dominican Republic

Following the collapse of the Government and the outbreak of civil war in the Dominican Republic in April 1965, the Organization of American States dispatches the Inter-American Peace Force (IAPF). At the request of the Security Council, the Secretary-General sends his Special Representative to the area, who is assisted by UN military observers, to report on the situation. Agreement is reached on the new Government and the IAPF is withdrawn, followed by DOMREP.


September 1965–March 1966

UN India-Pakistan Observation Mission

After fighting between India and Pakistan, the Security Council establishes UNIPOM to consolidate a ceasefire along the international border between the two countries and to supervise the withdrawal of forces. At the same time, UNMOGIP performs the same functions along the ceasefire line in the State of Jammu and Kashmir.