Article 41 of the United Nations Charter gives the Security Council the authority to use a variety of measures to enforce its decisions. The Council regularly creates subsidiary organs to support or implement these measures. These organs have included international tribunals which have tried people responsible for serious crimes under international humanitarian law or in cases where the Government has requested the assistance of the Council in investigating and prosecuting cases. Below are short descriptions prepared on the basis of the content of the Repertoire for each of the tribunals, as well as links to the sections covering them in the Repertoire.
By resolution 1757 (2007) of 30 May 2007, the Security Council established the Special Tribunal, with jurisdiction over persons responsible for the attack of 14 February 2005 resulting in the death of former Lebanese Prime Minister Rafiq Hariri and in the death or injury of other persons. The investigation that had already been conducted by the International Independent Investigation Commission was accepted to constitute the core of the Prosecutor’s office for the Tribunal.
International Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Genocide and Other Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law Committed in the Territory of Rwanda and Rwandan Citizens Responsible for Genocide and Other Such Violations Committed in the Territory of Neighbouring States, between 1 January 1994 and 31 December 1994 (ICTR)
By resolution 955 (1994) of 8 November 1994, the Security Council established the ICTR for the prosecution of persons responsible for genocide and other serious violations of international humanitarian law committed in the territory of Rwanda between 1 January 1994 and 31 December 1994. Under the resolution, the international tribunal may also deal with the prosecution of Rwandan citizens responsible for genocide and other such violations of international law committed in the territory of neighbouring States during the same period.
International Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law Committed in the Territory of the Former Yugoslavia since 1991 (ICTY)
By resolution 827 (1993) of 25 May 1993, the Security Council established the ICTY for the sole purpose of prosecuting persons responsible for serious violations of international humanitarian law committed in the territory of the former Yugoslavia during its breakup and subsequent conflicts.
The International Residual Mechanism for Criminal Tribunals was established by the Security Council through the adoption of resolution 1966 (2010) of 22 December 2010, to finish the work begun by ICTY and ICTR. It consists of two branches corresponding to the two tribunals. The ICTR branch was to begin functioning on 1 July 2012, while the ICTY branch would start on 1 July 2013 after the closure of the tribunals.