Library Juvenile justice

“Environment and Urbanization , Developing citizenship among urban youth in conflict with the law” (UN-HABITAT) 2008

This paper summarizes the outcome of an international conference on addressing the issue of urban youth in conflict with the law in Africa. It discusses the most effective responses to youth crime and violence which centre on prevention and inclusion (especially of youth in government) rather than exclusion, punishment and incarceration. It also highlights the key role for local governments in developing effective local responses that draw in and support all key local actors (parents, schools, police, and businesses).
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The Criminal Justice Assessment Toolkit is a standardized and cross-referenced set of tools designed to enable United Nations agencies, government officials engaged in criminal justice reform, as well as other organizations and individuals to conduct comprehensive assessments of criminal justice systems; to identify areas of technical assistance; to assist agencies in the design of interventions that integrate United Nations standards and norms on crime prevention and criminal justice; and to assist in training on these issues. The Criminal Justice Assessment Toolkit is a practical guide intended for use by those charged with the assessment of criminal justice systems and the implementation of criminal justice reform.
Full article is available in English /Spanish.
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The year 2005 marks ten years since the General Assembly adopted the World Programme of Action for Youth in 1995. This report, an official report to the General Assembly, called for a renewed commitment to the goals of the World Programme of Action, since over 200 million youth were living in poverty, 130 million youth were illiterate, 88 million were unemployed and 10 million young people were living with HIV/AIDS.
In the World Youth Report 2005, it is argued that too often, youth policy is driven by negative stereotypes of young people, including delinquency, drug abuse and violence. What seems to be forgotten is that young people are a positive force for development, peace, and democracy.
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Delinquent and criminal behavior among young people, as they negotiate the transition from childhood to adulthood in an increasingly complex and confusing world, is the issue that this chapter first examines. Some basic assumptions relating to delinquent behavior are presented, followed by a description of the various factors underlying or contributing to this phenomenon. Some regional variations are highlighted. Effective approaches and measures for preventing juvenile delinquency are detailed, with particular attention given to the development of educational, professional development and community programmes, improvements in family relations and parenting skills, and the value of restorative justice for both perpetrators and victims. The chapter concludes with a summary and recommendations for future action.
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This review explores the intersection between youth and violent conflict, with a view to enhancing policy and offering programming guidance.To this aim, the review
• identifies key issues, questions and dilemmas related to youth and violent conflict;
• explores how the issue of youth and violent conflict is currently addressed in key policy frameworks;
• offers an overview of current programmes put in place by UNDP and other key international actors.
The review presents a collection of varied examples, as an illustration of different approaches and areas of activity. It only considers responses put in place by international governmental actors, leaving aside governments and non-governmental organizations.
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This document is intended as a guide for parliamentarians and governmental authorities involved in drafting or reviewing juvenile justice laws or juvenile justice chapters or sections in general laws, as well as for non-governmental organisations (NGOs), United Nations entities and other national and international partners providing assistance in the process. It sets principles, standards and norms that States need to consider when amending or drafting legislation and illustrates those issues with some examples of good practice and research. These examples are intended to give the reader ideas for possible legislative change, rather than being provisions that can be simply adopted into new legislation in other States.

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This note provides the guiding principles and framework for United Nations approach to transitional justice processes and mechanisms. It outlines key components of transitional justice, and ways to further strengthen these activities. The note is informed by the Guidance Note of the Secretary-General on United Nations Approach to Rule of Law Assistance. For the United Nations, transitional justice is the full range of processes and mechanisms associated with a society’s attempt to come to terms with a legacy of large-scale past abuses, in order to ensure accountability, serve justice and achieve reconciliation. Transitional justice processes and mechanisms are a critical component of the United Nations framework for strengthening the rule of law.

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In Central and Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CEE/CIS), juvenile offending became a serious problem during the first years of transition to the market economy. Although it has generally decreased since, responses to juvenile justice remain an area of concern. The UNICEF Regional Office for CEE/CIS has developed a concept of Critical Mass (CM), whereby a group of countries that has developed experience and/or momentum in a particular field is encouraged to work with a common set of objectives and priorities; strengthen its approaches; actively document and share its experience and lessons learned, drawing upon expertise as well as networks; and use evaluation as a tool for course correction, for the benefit of all countries in the region.

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The main objective of the present publication is to provide a conceptual framework for the design of juvenile justice reform programmes and a general approach for evaluating the impact of those programmes on children and their rights and on crime and public safety. This involves, initially, identifying the general criteria upon which to base such evaluations. The evaluations should make it possible to identify good practices that can be replicated at the national, regional or international level. The criteria must reflect the dual roles of juvenile justice reforms: to protect children and their rights and to protect society by preventing crime and repeat offending.

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The ultimate objective of this compilation of examples is to demonstrate how programming based in a child rights and human rights approach, together with the commitment to comply with the CRC on the part of communities and states, worked to produce positive changes on behalf of children while having favourable repercussions on the larger society.

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This Report, which was commissioned by the UNICEF Regional Office for South Asia to chart progress being made by countries against their obligations under the CRC, proposes some concrete steps that can be taken to promote a more child-centred, restorative system of justice for children. It is hoped that this report will mobilize all those concerned with justice in the region to prevent practices that are wasteful, harmful and an affront to child rights.

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This compendium presents a comprehensive account of available instrument and mechanisms related to Juvenile Justice.

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Diversion from judicial proceedings and alternatives to detention are essential focus areas for those working on reforming justice systems to ensure the protection of the rights of children in conflict with the law in conformity with the Convention on the Rights of the Child. This toolkit provides clear, user-friendly guidance and practical tools for UNICEF Child Protection Specialists and others working in this important field.

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This handbook is one of a series of practical tools developed by UNODC to support countries in the implementation of the rule of law and the development of criminal justice reform. It can be used in a variety of contexts, including as part of UNODC technical assistance and capacity building projects. It introduces the reader to restorative justice programmes and processes. A companion Handbook of Basic Principles and Promising Practices on Alternatives to Imprisonment is also available from UNODC.

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United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Administration of Juvenile Justice are broad fundamental perspectives refer to comprehensive social policy in general and aim at promoting juvenile welfare to the greatest possible extent, which will minimize the necessity of intervention by the juvenile justice system, and in turn, will reduce the harm that may be caused by any intervention.

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