Adopting Resolution 2182 (2014), Security Council Extends Mandate of African Union Mission in Somalia for One Year, Amends Sanctions Regime
Adopting Resolution 2182 (2014), Security Council Extends Mandate of African Union Mission in Somalia for One Year, Amends Sanctions Regime
The Security Council today authorized the African Union to maintain deployment of the African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM) until 30 November 2015, while also amending several aspects of the sanctions regime against the strife-torn east African nation.
Through resolution 2182 (2014), adopted under the United Nations Charter’s Chapter VII by a vote of 13 in favour, 0 against and 2 abstentions (Jordan, Russian Federation), the Council asked the Secretary-General and the African Union to review the impact of the temporary surge outlined in resolution 2124 (2013) and make recommendations on the next steps in the military campaign by 30 May 2015.
As regards the charcoal ban, in place since 2012, the Council authorized States, for a 12-month period, to inspect vessels in territorial waters and on the high seas which they had “reasonable grounds” to believe were carrying charcoal from Somalia, in violation of that ban, or weapons or military equipment, in violation of the arms embargo. States were authorized to seize and dispose of any prohibited items. Such authorizations applied only with respect to the situation in Somalia, the Council said, deciding to review those measures after six months.
By other provisions, the Council renewed the partial lifting of the arms embargo for the security forces of the Federal Government until 30 October 2015, requesting Somalia to report to the Council by 30 March 2015 and again by 30 September 2015 on the structure of those forces and infrastructure in place to ensure the safe storage, registration, maintenance and distribution of military equipment.
In addition, it renewed the mandate of the Somalia and Eritrea Monitoring Group until 30 November 2015 and requested submission of reports on Somalia and Eritrea sanctions by 30 September 2015. It also renewed the humanitarian exemption until 30 October 2015, requesting the Emergency Relief Coordinator to report to the Council by 1 October 2015 on the delivery of assistance.
Speaking after action, the representative of the United Kingdom welcomed the resolution’s adoption, stressing that the fight against Al-Shabaab was at the heart of the naval operation discussed in the text. Since the ban had been put in place, the illegal charcoal trade had increased, with the Monitoring Group estimating that Al-Shabaab had kept up to one-third of the revenue from the $250 million trade. “Charcoal is giving Al-Shabaab a lifeline,” he said. On 8 October, the President of Somalia had written to the Council, requesting assistance.
“Today we’ve responded to that call for help,” he said, highlighting the need for the Transitional Federal Government to notify the Secretary-General of any State taking part in the naval interdiction, with the Secretary-General then obliged to inform the wider United Nations membership. Today’s adoption showed the Council’s determination to take practical steps in response to the terrorist threat.
Jordan’s representative supported the goals of bringing stability and security to Somalia, and the Transitional Federal Government’s efforts to address the import and export of charcoal and illegal weapons to terrorist groups. Operative paragraph 15 outlined that any State could inspect ships, both in Somali waters and on the high seas — a matter that was subject to legal constraints and considerations. Such actions on the high seas could be used for political aims that went beyond the goal of the resolution.
Further, the scope of authorization in the paragraph went beyond what had been requested by the President of Somalia, which raised questions, as did the insistence on giving open authority to any State, he said. For inspections to be conducted on “reasonable grounds” was not a sufficient guarantee to prevent the abuse of the authorization. It would have been better to use “objective controls”, such as reliable information, rather than leave criteria open to subjectivity. He hoped the limits included in operative paragraph 20 would be included in the Monitoring Group’s report. Resolutions should not be used to manipulate international legal rules.
The representative of the United States strongly supported the resolution, which targeted the most serious causes of instability in Somalia and reflected the Council’s knowledge that the international response must be comprehensive. His Government supported strong language on the commitment to eliminate all funding sources for Al-Shabaab. Charcoal had long been a concern for the Council. By renewing AMISOM’s mandate, the Council would build on the momentum of troop surges it had authorized last year. The Monitoring Group and limited arms embargo suspensions would also help monitor arms flows. Somalia was on the path to a stable future, and it was essential for the Council to remain engaged in its progress.
China had voted in favour of the text, according to its representative, who stressed the need to listen to the views of all sides. In consultations on the resolution, the Council should have given importance to the concerns raised by Arab States on aspects of the text and tried to reach maximum consensus. The text should not be seen as establishing customary international law. Any inspection of vessels required the consent of the flag States’ concerned. The text should be fully implemented, and in doing so, States must adhere to international law, protecting the rights of flag States and other countries concerned.
The Russian Federation’s representative said he had abstained during the vote. His Government would have been ready to support the resolution if some provisions had not been based on statements in the last report by the Monitoring Group that were not supported by facts. Experts should be guided by verified facts and not make conclusions based on “assumptions and rash accusations”. The way in which work on the draft had been conducted, especially in the final stages when the authors had made a point to disregard other members’ views, did not reflect well on the British delegation. More attention should have been paid to issues raised by Arab countries and the Gulf Cooperation Council.
The representative of Argentina supported the draft, agreeing on the need to reaffirm AMISOM’s mandate and the ban on charcoal imports and exports, having taken into account the President’s request for assistance. At the same time, the measure authorized was of an exceptional nature, based on the exclusive jurisdiction of a flag State over its ships on the high seas. She underlined that the authorization given had been limited to that situation; it did not extend to any other circumstance. It would not affect the rights or responsibilities of States under international law, including the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, with respect to any other situation. Nor did it provide a constitutional basis for international customary law. Authorization was limited to one year. It should normally be superseded with another type of cooperation with Somalia.
Lastly, Somalia’s representative strongly welcomed the resolution’s adoption, especially the renewal of AMISOM’s mandate and appreciated how the Council had always taken up Somali issues. “We are glad we can see at least a glimmer of light at the end of the tunnel,” he said, welcoming the maritime interdiction of charcoal from Somalia. Illegal charcoal exports provided an illegal lifeline to Al-Shabaab, he said, which was holding back his country’s transition to peace and stability. Today’s text would help the Transitional Federal Government ensure that Al-Shabaab’s days were numbered.
Noting that Somalia would ensure the resolution was implemented in a responsible manner, he said no State would be allowed to conduct interdictions without Somalia’s consent and that it would work to ensure that no legitimate commerce was disrupted through the manipulation of the resolution.
The meeting began at 10:05 a.m. and ended at 10:35 a.m.
The full text of resolution 2182 (2014) reads as follows:
“The Security Council,
“Recalling all its previous resolutions and statements of its President on the situation in Somalia and Eritrea, in particular resolutions 733 (1992), 1844 (2008), 1907 (2009), 2036 (2012), 2023 (2011), 2093 (2013), 2111 (2013), 2124 (2013), 2125 (2013), and 2142 (2014),
“Taking note of the final reports of the Somalia and Eritrea Monitoring Group (the SEMG) and their conclusions on the situations in both Somalia and Eritrea,
“Reaffirming its respect for the sovereignty, territorial integrity, political independence and unity of Somalia, Djibouti and Eritrea respectively,
“Condemning flows of weapons and ammunition supplies to and through Somalia in violation of the arms embargo on Somalia and to Eritrea in violation of the arms embargo on Eritrea, as a serious threat to peace and stability in the region,
“Welcoming the recent high level event on Somalia, chaired by the Secretary-General, and looking forward to all participants following up on their commitments,
“Highlighting in particular the FGS’s commitment to establish interim regional administrations by the end of 2014 which is an essential step under the ‘Vision 2016’ programme, and emphasizing the importance of this being an inclusive and consultative process,
“Underlining the importance of full and effective participation in the peace and reconciliation process across Somali society, including women, youth and minority groups,
“Welcoming the establishment of the Independent Constitutional Review and Implementation Commission, and emphasizing the importance of establishing the Boundaries and Federation Commission within the upcoming parliamentary session,
“Welcoming the FGS’ commitment to a credible electoral process in 2016, emphasizing the need for legislation to establish the National Independent Electoral Commission as soon as possible, underlining the importance of all partners supporting a Somali-led process, and looking forward in particular to the upcoming United Nations electoral assessment mission,
“Underlining the importance of capacity-building of the Somali Security Forces, and in this regard reaffirming the importance of re-establishing training, equipping and retention in the Security Forces of the Federal Republic of Somalia, which is vital for the long-term stability and security of Somalia, expressing its support for the ongoing European Union Training Mission and other capacity-building programmes, and emphasizing the importance of increased coordinated, timely and sustained support from the international community,
“Underlining the need for greater effort in improving the institutional transparency and accountability of public financial management in Somalia, welcoming the establishment of a Financial Governance Committee, encouraging the FGS to use the Financial Governance Committee effectively, and underlining the need for increased mutual transparency and accountability between the FGS and the donor community,
“Welcoming the intention of the Secretary-General and World Bank to develop an initiative aimed at promoting economic development in the Horn of Africa, and looking forward to the results of the initiative,
“Recalling the total ban on the export and import of charcoal from Somalia, irrespective of whether such charcoal originated in Somalia, as set out in resolution 2036 (2012),
“Expressing concern at the continuing violations and abuses of human rights, including extrajudicial killings, violence against women, children and journalists, arbitrary detention and pervasive sexual violence in Somalia, including in camps for internally displaced persons, underscoring the need to end impunity, promote and protect human rights, hold accountable those who commit such crimes, welcoming the efforts by the Federal Government of Somalia (FGS) to address violations and abuses of human rights including by implementing the two action plans signed on children and armed conflict and by developing a National Action Plan to combat sexual violence and encouraging the FGS to establish its National Human Rights Commission and to take concrete measures to implement fully the post transition human rights roadmap of August 2013,
“Recalling the arms embargo on Somalia, and in particular the need for all supplies of weapons and military equipment destined for the Security Forces of the Federal Government of Somalia to be notified to the Committee established pursuant to resolution 751 (1992) and 1907 (2009) (“the Committee”), and further recalling that improved arms and ammunition management in Somalia is a fundamental component of greater peace and stability for the region,
“Stressing that any decision to continue or end the partial suspension of the arms embargo on the Federal Government of Somalia will be taken in the light of the thoroughness of the Federal Government of Somalia’s implementation of its requirements as set out in this and other relevant Security Council resolutions,
“Stressing the need for all Member States to respect and implement, in accordance with relevant Security Council resolutions, their obligations with respect to preventing unauthorized deliveries of weapons and military equipment to Somalia and to prevent the direct or indirect import of charcoal from Somalia in violation of the relevant Security Council resolutions,
“Recalling that international law, as reflected in the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982, sets out the legal framework applicable to activities in the ocean,
“Taking note of the Somalia and Eritrea Monitoring Group’s continued assessment that the illegal charcoal trade continues to generate significant funding for Al-Shabaab, reiterating that charcoal exports from Somalia are a significant revenue source for Al-Shabaab and also exacerbate the humanitarian crisis, and deploring the continued violation of the ban,
“Expressing concern that destination countries for Somali charcoal have not yet taken sufficient steps to prevent the importation of charcoal from Somalia,
“Taking note of the President of the Federal Republic of Somalia’s 8 October letter to the Security Council requesting Member States to provide military assistance to prevent the export of charcoal from Somalia and to prevent the import of weapons into Somalia in violation of the arms embargo,
“Encouraging the FGS, in consultation with all levels of Government in Somalia, to mitigate properly against the petroleum sector in Somalia becoming a source of increased tension in Somalia, including through respecting the provisions of the constitution, and stressing the need to resolve issues of resource management and ownership as part of ongoing discussions around federalism,
“Welcoming the meetings between representatives of the Government of Eritrea and the SEMG in Paris and Cairo and by telephone conference from New York, encouraging further cooperation, and underlining its expectation that this cooperation will deepen during the SEMG’s mandate, including through regular visits to Eritrea by the SEMG,
“Stressing its demand that Eritrea make available information pertaining to Djiboutian combatants missing in action since the clashes of June 2008 so that those concerned may ascertain the presence and conditions of the Djiboutian prisoners of war,
“Underlining the importance of full cooperation between the SEMG and the Government of Eritrea,
“Expressing its gratitude to the African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM) for its work in bringing greater peace and stability to Somalia,
“Welcoming AMISOM’s recent joint operations with the Somali National Army (SNA), and paying tribute to the extraordinary bravery and sacrifices made by both AMISOM and SNA personnel in the fight against Al Shabaab,
“Recognizing the importance of effective coordination among the United Nations Support Office to AMISOM (UNSOA), AMISOM, troop contributing countries, and donors in order for UNSOA to effectively plan, budget, and provide authorized logistics for AMISOM operations, and underscoring the necessity of enablers and force multipliers to address key limiting factors to AMISOM operations such as timely maintenance of key equipment, maintenance of logistical supply lines, and availability of water,
“Recalling and welcoming AMISOM’s efforts to assist in the provision of training to the SNA, and underlining the importance of the Federal Government of Somalia taking on increased responsibility and ownership of the security sector, which is an essential part of AMISOM’s eventual exit strategy,
“Expressing concern at the reports of sexual violence and exploitation allegedly perpetrated by some AMISOM troops, reminding AMISOM of the United Nations Human Rights and Due Diligence policy, underscoring in this context the importance of the United Nations Zero Tolerance Policy on Sexual Exploitation and Abuse in the context of peacekeeping, welcoming the African Union’s deployment of a team to conduct a full investigation into these allegations, and underlining the importance of holding to account those responsible for such abuses,
“Welcoming the support of the international community to peace and stability in Somalia, in particular the European Union for its substantial contribution in supporting AMISOM, and emphasizing the importance of new contributors sharing the financial burden of supporting AMISOM,
Somalia and Eritrea Monitoring Group
“Taking note of the letter dated 7 February 2014 from the Somalia and Eritrea Monitoring Group recommending an exemption to the arms embargo to improve reporting on security operations for commercial shipping,
“Determining that the situation in Somalia, Eritrea’s influence in Somalia, as well as the dispute between Djibouti and Eritrea, continue to constitute a threat to international peace and security in the region,
“Acting under Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations,
“1. Reaffirms the arms embargo on Somalia, imposed by paragraph 5 of resolution 733 (1992) and further elaborated upon in paragraphs 1 and 2 of resolution 1425 (2002) and modified by paragraphs 33 to 38 of resolution 2093 (2013) and paragraphs 4 to 17 of resolution 2111 (2013), paragraph 14 of resolution 2125 (2013), and paragraph 2 of resolution 2142 (2013) (hereafter referred to as “the arms embargo on Somalia”);
“2. Notes with concern that some deliveries of weapons and military equipment have not been notified to the Committee in accordance with the relevant Security Council resolutions, underlines the fundamental importance of timely and detailed notifications to the Committee as set out in paragraphs 3 to 7 of resolution 2142, notes with concern reports of diversion of arms and ammunition, and encourages supplying Member States to assist the FGS in improving its notifications to the Committee;
“3. Decides to renew the provisions set out in paragraph 2 of resolution 2142 (2014) until 30 October 2015, and in that context reiterates that the arms embargo on Somalia shall not apply to deliveries of weapons, ammunition or military equipment or the provision of advice, assistance or training, intended solely for the development of the Security Forces of the Federal Government of Somalia, to provide security for the Somali people, except in relation to deliveries of the items set out in the annex of resolution 2111 (2013);
“4. Welcomes the steps taken by the Federal Government of Somalia to establish effective mechanisms in managing its weapons and military equipment, including the Arms and Ammunition Steering Committee, and notes with regret that these structures are not functioning with the required level of efficiency nor at all levels of government;
“5. Expresses its disappointment that a weapons marking and registration process has not yet commenced, despite the Security Council’s appeal in its Presidential Statement of 22 May 2014 and urges the FGS to implement this process without further delay;
“6. Requests the SNA and AMISOM to document and register all military equipment captured as part of offensive operations or in the course of carrying out their mandates, including recording the type and serial number of the weapon and/or ammunition, photographing all items and relevant markings and facilitating inspection by the SEMG of all military items before their redistribution or destruction;
“7. Reiterates its request to the FGS, with the support of international partners to establish a joint verification team which would conduct routine inspections of government security forces’ stockpiles, inventory records and the supply chain of weapons, and requests that any such group provide its findings to the Committee, for the purposes of mitigating the diversion of arms and ammunition to entities outside of the security services of the FGS;
“8. Reiterates that weapons or military equipment sold or supplied solely for the development of the Security Forces of the Federal Government of Somalia may not be resold to, transferred to, or made available for use by, any individual or entity not in the service of the Security Forces of the Federal Government of Somalia;
“9. Urges the FGS to implement fully all its requirements as set out in this and other relevant Security Council resolutions, and requests the FGS to report to the Security Council by 30 March 2015, and then by 30 September 2015 on:
(a) The current structure of the Security Forces of the Federal Government of Somalia;
(b) The infrastructure in place to ensure the safe storage, registration, maintenance and distribution of military equipment by the Security Forces of the Federal Government of Somalia;
(c) The procedures and codes of conduct in place for the registration, distribution, use and storage of weapons by the Security Forces of the Federal Government of Somalia, and on training needs in this regard;
“10. Takes note of the SEMG’s recommendation that weapons on board vessels engaged in commercial activity in Somali ports are granted an exemption to the arms embargo, expresses its willingness to take such a proposal forward, in close consultation with the FGS, and requests the FGS and SEMG to work together and formulate a proposal which should be communicated to the Security Council by 27 February 2015;
Maritime interdiction of charcoal and arms
“11. Reaffirms the ban on the import and export of Somali charcoal, as set out in paragraph 22 of resolution 2036 (2012) (“the charcoal ban”), and reiterates that the Somali authorities shall take the necessary measures to prevent the export of charcoal from Somalia and reiterates its requests in paragraph 18 of resolution 2111 (2013),that AMISOM support and assist the Somali authorities in doing so, as part of AMISOM’s implementation of its mandate set out in paragraph 1 of resolution 2093,
“12. Condemns the ongoing export of charcoal from Somalia, in violation of the total ban on the export of charcoal from Somalia reaffirmed above;
“13. Urges all Member States, including those contributing AMISOM police and troop contingents, to respect and implement their obligations to prevent the direct or indirect import of charcoal from Somalia, whether or not such charcoal originated in Somalia, as set out in paragraph 22 of resolution 2036 (2002), and affirms this includes taking the necessary measures to prevent the use of their flag vessels for such importing;
“14. Condemns the flow of weapons and military equipment to Al Shabaab and other armed groups which are not part of the security forces of the Federal Government of Somalia, and expresses serious concern at the destabilizing impact of such weapons;
“15. Authorizes for a period of 12 months from the date of this resolution Member States, acting nationally or through voluntary multinational naval partnerships, such as ‘Combined Maritime Forces’, in cooperation with the FGS and which the FGS has notified to the Secretary-General and which the Secretary-General has subsequently notified to all Member States, in order to ensure strict implementation of the arms embargo on Somalia and the charcoal ban, to inspect, without undue delay, in Somali territorial waters and on the high seas off the coast of Somalia extending to and including the Arabian sea and Persian Gulf, vessels bound to or from Somalia which they have reasonable grounds to believe are:
(i) Carrying charcoal from Somalia in violation of the charcoal ban;
(ii) carrying weapons or military equipment to Somalia, directly or indirectly, in violation of the arms embargo on Somalia;
(iii) carrying weapons or military equipment to individuals or entities designated by the Committee established pursuant to resolution 751 (1992) and 1907 (2009);
“16. Calls upon all Flag States of such vessels to cooperate with such inspections, requests Member States to make good-faith efforts to first seek the consent of the vessel’s Flag State prior to any inspections pursuant to paragraph 15, authorizes Member States conducting inspections pursuant to paragraph 15 to use all necessary measures commensurate with the circumstances to carry out such inspections and in full compliance with international humanitarian law and international human rights law, as may be applicable, and urges Member States conducting such inspections to do so without causing undue delay to or undue interference with the exercise of the right of innocent passage or freedom of navigation;
“17. Authorizes Member States to seize and dispose of (such as through destruction, rendering inoperable or unusable, storage, or transferring to a State other than the originating or destination States for disposal) any items identified in inspections pursuant to paragraph 15, the delivery, import or export of which is prohibited by the arms embargo on Somalia or the charcoal ban, authorizes Member States to collect evidence directly related to the carriage of such items in the course of such inspections, and decides that charcoal seized in accordance with this paragraph may be disposed of through resale which shall be monitored by the SEMG;
“18. Emphasizes the importance of all Member States, including Somalia, taking the necessary measures to ensure that no claim shall lie at the instance of Somalia, or of any person or entity in Somalia, or of persons or entities designated for measures set out in resolutions 1844 (2008), 2002 (2011), or 2093 (2013), or any person claiming through or for the benefit of any such person or entity, in connection with any contract or other transaction where its performance was prevented by reason of the measures imposed by this resolution or previous resolutions;
“19. Requests Member States to dispose of any charcoal, weapons or military equipment seized pursuant to paragraph 17, in an environmentally responsible manner, taking into account the United Nations Environment Programme’s 4 September 2013 letter to the Chair of the Committee, and the Committee’s 7 May 2014 “Implementation Assistance Notice”, calls upon all Member States in the region to cooperate in the disposal of such charcoal, weapons or military equipment, affirms that the authorization provided for in paragraph 15 includes the authority to divert vessels and their crews, to a suitable port to facilitate such disposal, with the consent of the port State, affirms that the authorization in paragraph 15 includes the authority to use all necessary measures to seize items pursuant to paragraph 17 in the course of inspections and decides that any Member State cooperating in the disposal of items identified in inspections pursuant to paragraph 15, the delivery, import or export of which is prohibited by the arms embargo on Somalia or the charcoal ban, shall provide a written report to the Committee no later than 30 days after such items enter its territory on the steps taken to dispose or destroy them;
“20. Decides that any Member State that undertakes an inspection pursuant to paragraph 15, shall promptly notify the Committee and submit a report on the inspection containing all relevant details, including an explanation of the grounds for and the results of the inspection and where possible including the flag of the vessel, the name of the vessel, the name and identifying information of the master of the vessel, the owner of the vessel, and the original seller of the cargo, and efforts made to seek the consent of the vessel’s Flag State, requests the Committee to notify the Flag State of the inspected vessel that an inspection has been undertaken, notes the prerogative of any Member State to write to the Committee concerning the implementation of any aspect of this resolution, and further encourages the SEMG to share relevant information with Member States operating under the authorization set out in this resolution;
“21. Affirms that the authorizations provided in this resolution apply only with respect to the situation in Somalia and shall not affect the rights or obligations or responsibilities of Member States under international law, including any rights or obligations under UNCLOS, including the general principle of exclusive jurisdiction of a Flag State over its vessels on the high seas, with respect to any other situation, underscores in particular that this resolution shall not be considered as establishing customary international law, and notes further that such authorizations have been provided only following the receipt of the 8 October 2014 letter conveying the request of the President of the Federal Republic of Somalia;
“22. Decides to review after six months from the date of this resolution, the provisions set out in paragraphs 11 to 21 above;
“23. Decides to authorize the Member States of the African Union to maintain the deployment of AMISOM, as set out in paragraph 1 of resolution 2093 (2013) until 30 November 2015, in line with the Security Council’s request to the African Union for a maximum level of 22,126 troops, which shall be authorized to take all necessary measures, in full compliance with its Member States’ obligations under international humanitarian law and human rights law, and in full respect of the sovereignty, territorial integrity, political independence and unity of Somalia, to carry out its mandate;
“24. Recalls the benchmarks for the deployment of a United Nations peacekeeping operation as set out in both the African Union Commission Chairperson’s 11 October 2013 letter and the Secretary-General’s subsequent 14 October 2013 letter to the President of the Security Council, requests that the Secretary-General keep these benchmarks under continuous review in close consultation with the AU, and further requests the Secretary-General and African Union to review jointly the impact of the temporary surge authorized in resolution 2124 (2013) and to set out recommendations on next steps in the military campaign by 30 May 2015, taking into due consideration the political situation in Somalia;
“25. Recalls that, in line with the Joint United Nations-African Union Review of AMISOM, the increases in the force strength decided in resolution 2124 (2013) are to provide a short-term enhancement of AMISOM’s military capacity, for a period of 18 to 24 months and as part of an overall exit strategy for AMISOM, after which a decrease in AMISOM’s force strength will be considered;
“26. Reiterates paragraphs 4 and 14 of resolution 2124 (2013) and paragraphs 4 and 5 of resolution 2093 (2013) with regard to the logistical support package for AMISOM;
“27. Requests the Secretary-General to continue to work closely with and provide technical expertise and to the African Union as set out in paragraph 9 of resolution 2124 (2013) in particular by improving the efficiency in planning and strategic management of AMISOM, including strengthening command and control structures and improving the coordination between troop contingents, sectors and joint operations with the SNA;
“28. Welcomes the recent joint AMISOM and SNA offensive operations, which have had a significant impact in reducing territory held by Al Shabaab, underlines the importance of such operations continuing, further underlines that it is essential that military operations are followed immediately by national efforts to establish or improve governance structures in recovered areas and by the delivery of basic services, including security, and in that regard encourages the timely delivery of Quick Impact Projects in support of FGS stabilization efforts;
“29. Underlines the imperative of securing key supply routes to areas recovered from Al Shabaab in view of the deteriorating humanitarian situation Somalia, requests AMISOM and the Somali National Army to ensure they give the utmost priority to securing key supply routes essential to improve the humanitarian situation in the most affected areas, and requests the Secretary-General to report, in consultation with the FGS and AMISOM, on progress in this regard in his written reports to the Security Council as set out in paragraph 15 of resolution 2158 (2014);
“30. Strongly urges Member States to provide helicopters to AMISOM for the authorized aviation component of up to twelve military helicopters, provided for in paragraph 6 of resolution 2036 (2012) as well as providing the enablers and force multipliers which were identified as necessary in the 2013 joint United Nations-African Union benchmarking assessment;
“31. Reiterates its request and that of the African Union Peace and Security Council for AMISOM to develop further an effective approach to the protection of civilians, notes with concern that AMISOM has not yet established a Civilian Casualty Tracking, Analysis and Response cell (CCTARC), as requested in resolutions 2093 (2013) and 2124 (2013), and requests the African Union to conclude the deployment of this cell without any further delay;
“32. Looks forward to the results of both the African Union’s investigation and investigations by troop contributing countries concerning acts of sexual exploitation and abuse allegedly perpetrated by some AMISOM soldiers, underlines the importance of accountability and transparency in this regard, requests the African Union to review and endorse the draft African Union policy on prevention and response to sexual exploitation and abuse, and requests the African Union and the Secretary-General to make public the outcomes of these investigations;
“33. Underlines the need for AMISOM troops to continue to receive appropriate information and predeployment training in relation to human rights principles, including gender equality and sexual violence, and for AMISOM personnel to be properly informed of the accountability mechanisms in place should any abuse be committed;
“34. Encourages AMISOM to strengthen the mechanisms to prevent and respond to sexual violence and sexual exploitation and abuse, such as introducing a centralized database for the efficient and independent receipt, preliminary assessment and tracking of investigations into allegations of sexual and gender-based violence and sexual exploitation and abuse, including through the institution of protective measure for complainants in order to prevent the redeployment of any individual who has been involved in serious violations of international humanitarian and international human rights law, including those related to sexual violence;
“35. Condemns all violations and abuses committed against children by all parties in Somalia, calls for the immediate cessation of such violations and abuses and for those responsible to be held to account, and requests the FGS and AMISOM to protect and treat as victims those children who have been released or otherwise separated from armed forces and armed groups, including through the full implementation of standard operating procedures for the protection and hand-over of these children;
“36. Reiterates the need for AMISOM to ensure that any detainees in their custody, including disengaged combatants, are treated in strict compliance with applicable obligations under international humanitarian law and human rights law, including ensuring their humane treatment, and further reiterates its request for AMISOM to allow appropriate access to detainees by a neutral body;
“37. Reiterates its call for new donors to support AMISOM through the provision of additional funding for troop stipends, equipment, technical assistance and uncaveated funding for AMISOM to the United Nations Trust Fund for AMISOM, calls upon the African Union to consider how to provide sustainable funding for AMISOM, such as through its own assessed costs as it did for the African-led International Support Mission in Mali, and underlines the African Union’s call for its Member States to provide financial support to AMISOM;
Public financial management in Somalia
“38. Expresses its concern that corruption continues to undermine both security in the country and the FGS’ efforts to rebuild Somalia’s institutions, and urges the FGS to fight corruption and tighten financial governance procedures in order to improve transparency and accountability of public financial management, and urges the FGS to ensure that assets recovered from overseas and revenue raised including through the ports are documented transparently and channelled through the national budget;
“39. Underlines the importance of ensuring that international aid is also delivered in a transparent manner and encourages all Member States to use the structures being currently being established between the FGS and donors, particularly on recurrent financing;
Humanitarian situation in Somalia
“40. Expresses serious concern at the deterioration of the humanitarian situation in Somalia, condemns in the strongest terms increased attacks against humanitarian actors and any misuse of donor assistance and the obstruction of the delivery of humanitarian aid, and reiterates paragraph 10 of resolution 2158 (2014) in this regard;
“41. Decides that until 30 October 2015 and without prejudice to humanitarian assistance programmes conducted elsewhere, the measures imposed by paragraph 3 of resolution 1844 (2008) shall not apply to the payment of funds, other financial assets or economic resources necessary to ensure the timely delivery of urgently needed humanitarian assistance in Somalia, by the United Nations, its specialized agencies or programmes, humanitarian organizations having observer status with the United Nations General Assembly that provide humanitarian assistance, and their implementing partners including bilaterally or multilaterally funded NGOs participating in the United Nations Consolidated Appeal for Somalia;
“42. Requests the Emergency Relief Coordinator to report to the Security Council by 1 October 2015 on the delivery of humanitarian assistance in Somalia and on any impediments to the delivery of humanitarian assistance in Somalia, and requests relevant United Nations agencies and humanitarian organizations having observer status with the United Nations General Assembly and their implementing partners that provide humanitarian assistance in Somalia to increase their cooperation and willingness to share information with the United Nations Humanitarian Aid Coordinator for Somalia in the preparation of such reports and in the interests of increasing transparency and accountability;
The Somalia and Eritrea Monitoring Group
“43. Recalls resolution 1844 (2008) which imposed targeted sanctions and resolutions 2002 (2011) and 2093 (2013) which expanded the listing criteria, and notes one of the listing criteria under resolution 1844 (2008) is engaging in acts that threaten the peace, security and stability of Somalia;
“44. Reiterates its willingness to adopt targeted measures against individuals and entities on the basis of the above mentioned criteria;
“45. Requests Member States to assist the Monitoring Group in their investigations, and reiterates that obstructing the investigations or work of the Monitoring Group is a criterion for listing under paragraph 15 (e) of resolution 1907 (2009);
“46. Decides to extend until 30 November 2015 the mandate of the Somalia and Eritrea Monitoring Group as set out in paragraph 13 of resolution 2060 (2012) and updated in paragraph 41 of resolution 2093 (2013), expresses its intention to review the mandate and take appropriate action regarding the further extension no later than 30 October 2015, and requests the Secretary-General to take the necessary administrative measures as expeditiously as possible to re-establish the Monitoring Group, in consultation with the Committee, for a period of thirteen months from the date of this resolution, drawing, as appropriate, on the expertise of the members of the Monitoring Group established pursuant to previous resolutions;
“47. Requests the Monitoring Group to submit, for the Security Council’s consideration, through the Committee, two final reports; one focusing on Somalia, the other on Eritrea, covering all the tasks set out in paragraph 13 of resolution 2060 (2012) and updated in paragraph 41 of resolution 2093 (2013), not later than 30 September 2015;
“48. Requests the Committee, in accordance with its mandate and in consultation with the Monitoring Group and other relevant United Nations entities to consider the recommendations in the reports of the Monitoring Group and recommend to the Council ways to improve the implementation of and compliance with the Somalia and Eritrea arms embargoes, the measures regarding the import and export of charcoal from Somalia, as well as implementation of the measures imposed by paragraphs 1, 3 and 7 of resolutions 1844 (2008) and paragraphs 5, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 13 of resolution 1907 (2009) taking into account paragraph 15 above, in response to continuing violations;
“49. Requests the Monitoring Group to report on the implementation of the authorization set out in paragraph 15, as part of its regular reporting to the Committee;
“50. Encourages Member States from East Africa to appoint focal points for the purpose of coordinating and exchanging information with the Monitoring Group on regional investigations into Al Shabaab;
“51. Underlines the importance of a constructive relationship between the SEMG and the FGS, welcomes efforts made by both so far, and emphasizes the need for this to continue and deepen during the course of this mandate;
“52. Welcomes the SEMG’s ongoing and significant efforts to engage with the Government of Eritrea and the Government of Eritrea’s cooperation with the SEMG, emphasizes that this must continue and strengthen, and reiterates its expectation that the Government of Eritrea will facilitate the entry of the SEMG to Eritrea, as requested in paragraph 31 of resolution 2111 (2013);
“53. Urges Eritrea to make available information pertaining to Djiboutian combatants missing in action since the clashes of 10 to 12 June 2008;
“54. Decides to remain actively seized of the matter.”