Policing for peace: The law-and-order role played by blue berets
A Forensic team of the United Nations
Police (UNPOL) and the Timor-Leste
National Police (PNTL) use panoscan
photographic equipment to carry out an
investigation of the 11 February 2008
attack and ambush on Prime Minister
Kay Rala Xanana Gusmão.
UN Photo/Martine Perret
When the words ‘UN peacekeeping’ are mentioned, for many they tend to conjure up an image of a blue-helmeted military force dispatched to a conflict-torn area to help bring about peace and stability. Unknown to some, a vital part in such peace operations is played by growing numbers of UN policemen and women who help to establish law and order – not temporarily, but for the long haul.
In January this year, a widely published picture of a UN policewoman in a Darfur refugee camp alongside women and children highlighted the dangerous and sensitive role that the UN Police, known as UNPOL, is increasingly being called upon to play. The joint UN-African Union Mission in Darfur (UNAMID) will field more than 6,000 UNPOL officers, the largest ever deployment of United Nations Police. As the UN Police take up their responsibilities to protect civilians in camps and carry out regular patrols, their presence is beginning to bring a sense of security and hope. But expectations of the UN may be unrealistically high – and without adequate and qualified numbers and proper equipment, the mission will be one of the most challenging – and riskiest – in UN history.
Every day some 11,000 UN police officers worldwide go on patrol, provide training, and advise on national police, penal and human rights procedures as part of the expanded role UNPOL now plays to re-establish the rule of law for millions of people affected by conflict. These numbers represent a historic high and an increase of around 65 per cent in the past two years alone.
Managing such rapid expansion is a major challenge that involves balancing the Three Q’s – “Quantity, Quality and Quickness”. Strategic initiatives to deal with these challenges include establishing a Standing Police Capacity (SPC), the first unit of which was sent to Chad in November 2007 to begin training recruits for a specialized national police unit; and providing increasing numbers of Formed Police Units (FPUs). These are highly trained, specialized units capable of responding to a variety of difficult situations – such as civilian unrest – with force both proportionate and sufficient to resolve potentially destabilizing localized conflicts. In cases where local security institutions are unable to respond effectively, these FPUs provide an invaluable “interim capacity” for the UN between a peace operation’s military component and the more traditional unarmed UN police monitors. The first all-female FPU was deployed from India in January 2007 to the UN Mission in Liberia (UNMIL) and has just been replaced with a new all-female Indian FPU.
UNPOL has a presence in 18 peace missions, the largest units being in Haiti, Timor Leste and Kosovo. UN Police may be mandated to build capacity and eventually hand over to national police forces at the appropriate time – and they are sometimes assigned the task of interim law enforcement as part of transition arrangements, such as in Timor Leste and Kosovo. They also have an important role to play in security sector reform and strengthening rule of law organizations, key to rebuilding the trust in state institutions in fragile post conflict situations.
- Since the early 1990s, the role of UN Police officers in peacekeeping operations has evolved from their traditional role of monitoring activities established when UN Civilian Police were first introduced in the UN Operation in the Congo (ONUC) in 1960 to a more complex set of functions currently undertaken by UNPOL that include reforming, restructuring and rebuilding.
- In 2000, a blue-ribbon Panel on UN Peace Operations – led by Lakhdar Brahimi – concluded that the goal of the UN Police should be “to focus primarily on the reform and restructuring of local police forces in addition to traditional advisory, training and monitoring tasks.”
- Highlighting the growing role and importance of policing in UN peacekeeping operations, Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon in February 2007 recognized DPKO’s Police Division as being the “lead support entity” in policing and law enforcement, meaning that it performs this function on behalf of the whole UN system.
- Building further on recommendations made in the Brahimi report, the restructuring of DPKO in 2007 brought the Police Division within the new Office of Rule of Law and Security Institutions, which also includes the judicial, legal and correctional unit; mine action; disarmament, demobilization and reintegration, as well as security sector reform functions.
- Lessons learnt from past missions showed that a gap existed between the deployment of unarmed UN police and the military units. In situations of serious threats to peace or public order, the unarmed UN Police was ineffective while the heavily armed military units were not appropriately trained or equipped. The proposed solution: Formed Police Units armed with non-lethal weapons (but capable of using lethal weaponry, if required) and a robust law enforcement capacity. These Units consist of approximately 120-140 police officers who have been trained together and work as a cohesive, specialized unit. They act as a back-up support to the UN Police component and also provide high visibility crime deterrence capability to the unarmed UN Police.
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION:
DPKO Police Division:
Ata Yenigun, Tel: +1 212 963 6642
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