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   Methodology Sheets - Environmental

Indicators for Environmental Aspects of
Sustainable Development

Table of Contents


Chapter 18: Protection of the quality and supply of freshwater resources

  • Annual withdrawals of ground and surface water
  • Domestic consumption of water per capita
  • Groundwater reserves
  • Concentration of faecal coliform in freshwater
  • Biochemical oxygen demand in water bodies
  • Waste
  • water treatment coverage
  • Density of hydrological networks

Chapter 17: Protection of the oceans, all kinds of seas and coastal areas

  • Population growth in coastal areas
  • Discharges of oil into coastal waters
  • Releases of nitrogen and phosphorus to coastal waters
  • Maximum sustained yield for fisheries
  • Algae index


Chapter 10: Integrated approach to the planning and management of land resources

  • Land use change
  • Changes in land condition
  • Decentralized local
  • level natural resource management

Chapter 12: Managing fragile ecosystems: combating desertification and drought

  • Population living below poverty line in dryland areas
  • National monthly rainfall index
  • Satellite derived vegetation index
  • Land affected by desertification

Chapter 13: Managing fragile ecosystems: sustainable mountain development

    - Population change in mountain areas - Sustainable use of natural resources in mountain areas - Welfare of mountain populations

Chapter 14: Promoting sustainable agriculture and rural development

  • Use of agricultural pesticides
  • Use of fertilizers
  • Irrigation percent of arable land
  • Energy use in agriculture
  • Arable land per capita
  • Area affected by salinization and waterlogging
  • Agricultural education

Other natural resources

Chapter 11: Combating deforestation

  • Wood harvesting intensity
  • Forest area change
  • Managed forest area ratio
  • Protected forest area as a percent of total forest area

Chapter 15: Conservation of biological diversity

  • Threatened species as a percent of total native species
  • Protected area as a percent of total area

Chapter 16: Environmentally sound management of biotechnology

  • R & D expenditure for biotechnology
  • Existence of national biosafety regulations or guidelines


Chapter 9: Protection of the atmosphere

  • Emissions of greenhouse gasses
  • Emissions of sulphur oxides
  • Emissions on nitrogen oxides
  • Consumption of ozone depleting substances
  • Ambient concentrations of pollutants in urban areas
  • Expenditure on air pollution abatement


Chapter 21: Environmentally sound management of solid wastes and sewage-related issues

  • Generation of industrial and municipal solid waste
  • Household waste disposed per capita
  • Expenditure on waste management
  • Waste recycling and reuse
  • Municipal waste disposal

Chapter 19: Environmentally sound management of toxic chemicals

  • Chemically induced acute poisonings
  • Number of chemicals banned or severely restricted

Chapter 20: Environmentally sound management of hazardous wastes

  • Generation of hazardous wastes
  • Imports and exports of hazardous wastes
  • Area of land contaminated by hazardous wastes
  • Expenditure on hazardous waste treatment

Chapter 22: Safe and environmentally sound management of radioactive wastes

  • Generation of radioactive wastes

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15 December 2004