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National Implementation of Agenda 21

REPUBLIC OF UZBEKISTAN

COUNTRY PROFILE
IMPLEMENTATION OF AGENDA 21:
REVIEW OF PROGRESS MADE SINCE THE
UNITED NATIONS CONFERENCE ON
ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT, 1992

Information prepared by the Government of Uzbekistan for the
United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development
Fifth Session
7-25 April 1997
New York

United Nations Department for Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development
Division for Sustainable Development
The Information contained in this Country Profile is also available on the World Wide Web, as follows:
http://www.un.org/dpcsd/earthsummit

UZBEKISTAN

This country profile was prepared by:

Name of Ministry/Office: Ministry of Macroeconomics and Statistics of

the Republic of Uzbekistan, in conjunction with other ministries and offices (list attached)

Date: May 1997

Postal address: 700003, Uzbekistan, Tashkent

u1. Uzbekistanskaya, 45a

Telephone: (3712) - 398084

Telefax: (3712) - 398639

E-mail:

Note from the Secretariat: An effort has been made to present all country profiles within a common format, with an equal number of pages. However, where Governments have not provided information for the tables appended to Chapters 4 and 17, those tables have been omitted entirely in order to reduce the overall length of the profile and save paper. Consequently, there may be some minor inconsistencies among the formats of the different country profiles.

All statistics are rendered as provided by the respective Governments.

LIST OF MINISTRIES AND OFFICES OF THE

REPUBLIC OF UZBEKISTAN WHICH PARTICIPATED IN THE

PREPARATION OF THE COUNTRY PROFILE

1. Ministry of Macroeconomics and Statistics

2. State Committee for Science and Technology

3. State Environmental Protection Committee

4. Principal Hydrometeorological Office of the Cabinet of Ministers

of the Republic of Uzbekistan

5. Ministry of Health

6. State Forestry Committee

7. Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries

8. Ministry of National Education

9. Ministry of Social Security

10. Ministry of Labour

11. Ministry of Foreign Affairs

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACRONYMS
OVERVIEW
FACT SHEET
AGENDA 21 CHAPTERS
2. International cooperation to accelerate sustainable development in developing countries and related domestic policies
3. Combating poverty
4. Changing consumption patterns
5. Demographic dynamics and sustainability
6. Protecting and promoting human health
7. Promoting sustainable human settlement development
8. Integrating environment and development in decision-making
9. Protection of the atmosphere
10. Integrated approach to the planning and management of land resources
11. Combating deforestation
12. Managing fragile ecosystems: combating desertification and drought
13. Managing fragile ecosystems: sustainable mountain development
14. Promoting sustainable agriculture and rural development
15. Conservation of biological diversity
16. Environmentally sound management of biotechnology
17. Protection of the oceans, all kinds of seas, including enclosed and semi-enclosed seas, and coastal areas and the protection, rational use and development of their living resources
18. Protection of the quality and supply of freshwater resources: application of integrated approaches to the development, management and use of water resources
19. Environmentally sound management of toxic chemicals, including prevention of illegal international traffic in toxic and dangerous products
20. Environmentally sound management of hazardous wastes, including prevention of illegal international traffic in hazardous wastes
21. Environmentally sound management of solid wastes and sewage-related issues
22. Safe and environmentally sound management of radioactive wastes
23-32. Major groups
33. Financial resources and mechanisms
34. Transfer of environmentally sound technology, cooperation and capacity-building
35. Science for sustainable development
36. Promoting education, public awareness and training
37. National mechanisms and international cooperation for capacity-building in developing countries
38. International institutional arrangements
39. International legal instruments and mechanisms
40. Information for decision-making

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 2: INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION TO ACCELERATE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES AND RELATED DOMESTIC POLICIES

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: Uzbekistan's independence was proclaimed on 31 August 1991 and Uzbekistan is now a full subject of international law. On 2 March 1992 Uzbekistan was accepted into membership of the United Nations. Offices have been opened in Uzbekistan by such international organizations as the United Nations (and its specialized agencies: UNDP, UNEP, WHO, UNCTAD, UNICEF, etc.), the Commission of the European Community, the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, a German economic mission, the German Technical Cooperation Agency, etc.

There are 24 intergovernmental organizations working in Uzbekistan.

The State's domestic and foreign policies are aimed at building a democratic society, integrating Uzbekistan into the world economic system, and establishing mutually advantageous partnerships with the countries of the world and representatives of the world of business. Uzbekistan is a member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) and the Inter-State Council of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan, and it coordinates its sustainable development activities with the other States of Central Asia under the auspices of the International Fund to Save the Aral Sea and the Regional Commission on Sustainable Development.

The broad range of this participation in international and regional cooperation is designed to ensure the country's sustainable development without damaging the environment.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 3: COMBATING POVERTY

NATIONAL PRIORITY: Provision of assistance to the most vulnerable population groups and creation of the conditions for improving their incomes from work and business activities.
STATUS REPORT: Between 1991 and 1996 the people's real monetary incomes fell by about 47 per cent, and the purchasing power of an average wage declined by 40 per cent in comparison with the pre-reform period. As a result of the social policies which are being carried out, including policies to support poor population groups, Uzbekistan has managed to avoid the sharp increase in inequality typically experienced by most of the countries moving towards a market economy.

Uzbekistan is gradually establishing its own model of the social protection of its population. The following are this model's most distinctive features:

- The target of the social assistance provided by the State is not the individual but the family. Thus the basic social benefits are paid directly to the family;

- A family's need for State social benefits is assessed not by the central authorities but by representatives of local self-government bodies (skhody, makhalli);

- The targeting of social assistance for families is constantly being improved;

- The programme of assistance for poor families is funded not only by the Government but also by various non-governmental organizations (NGOs).

As a result of the reform of the social security system, the many benefits paid to poor families, which had become almost totally worthless as a result of inflation, were replaced by two basic types of family allowance: for families having children aged up to 16 years, and for poor families.

In view of the positive experience of operating the new system for distributing benefits to poor families, since 1997 it has been used as well for the distribution of allowances to families with children. Under the programme of State assistance for poor families an average of about 600,000 families (14.5 per cent of the total) receive family allowances every month. In 1996 these payments amounted to 1.1 per cent of total budgetary expenditure. Children's allowances were paid to more than 2.9 million families. This amounted to 6.4 per cent of budgetary expenditure.

The social assistance programme also includes special-purpose allowances: to mothers on the birth of a child; to mothers with children aged up to two years; to persons who have lost their breadwinner; to persons disabled from childhood (from the Social Insurance Fund); and to the unemployed (from the Employment Fund).

Since about 12 per cent of the population are pensioners, scenarios for reform of the pension system are currently being developed in the light of world experience.

Highlight activities aimed at the poor and linkages to the environment

Attention is drawn to the establishment of the Social Transformation Fund, which will help to create the conditions for boosting employment and increasing incomes, improving the people's well-being and developing small- and medium-sized enterprises, etc.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-making structure: On 24 August 1994 the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Uzbekistan adopted a decree on "Questions of the organization of the social protection of poor families", which lays down the basic principles for carrying out measures of targeted social protection for the people in accordance with the Presidential Decree of 23 August 1994 on "Measures to strengthen the social protection of poor families". On 10 December 1996 the Cabinet of Ministers adopted an Order on "Measures to strengthen social support for families with children", which sets out the procedure for the award and payment of allowances to families having children aged up to 16 years in accordance with the Presidential Decree of 10 December 1996 on "Further strengthening State support for families with children".

The amounts of the minimum wage, pensions, student grants, and other allowances are indexed.

2. Capacity-building/technology issues: No information.

3. Major groups: Pensioners, children, the unemployed, workers in establishments funded by the State budget, the disabled, and large families.

4. Finance: State budget, Social Insurance Fund.

5. Regional/international cooperation: In conjunction with the World Bank "poverty" is monitored in all parts of the country, including surveys of family budgets, with a view to adopting in good time targeted measures to reduce inequality.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1985-1990
1992
1995
1990
Unemployment (%) Not recorded 0.3 0.4 0.4
Population with incomes below the

average per capita minimum (%)

Public spending on social sector %
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 4: CHANGING CONSUMPTION PATTERNS

NATIONAL PRIORITY: High.
STATUS REPORT:

National policy objectives/focus

Securing the long-term interests of society - national security, political sovereignty, and sustainable socio-economic development.

The basic goal of the reforms in Uzbekistan is to build a democratic State based on the rule of law and a civil society with a sustainable socially oriented market economy.

The Government's economic strategy is currently aimed at solving three basic problems:

1. Halting the decline in production;

2. Achieving macroeconomic stabilization as the basis for economic growth;

3. Creating the conditions for sustainable economic growth.

A decent standard of living for the people achieved by means of a worthy contribution by each individual to social development, the protection and redevelopment of the land in which he lives, and preservation of traditions and development of the national culture.

The restructuring of the economy is designed to secure the full and rational use of Uzbekistan's natural resource and manpower potential, reduce the resource consumption in the gross domestic product, introduce new high-technology production methods, and improve the structure of consumption.

Cross-sectoral issues

1. Decision-making structure: The work of achieving the national goals for the establishment of rational consumption structures is conducted within the framework of specific decision-making procedures, which include the education of public opinion, enactment of legislation, and preparation and adoption of governmental decisions.

2. Capacity-building/technology issues: Consumption capacity-building is predetermined by the need to solve, as the first step, the acute economic and social problems, with strict observance during the transitional period of justified environmental constraints on economic activity. At the same time action will be taken to guarantee political, economic and social human rights, with particular importance attached to maintaining and improving the state of the environment as the human habitat.

3. Major groups: No information.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/international cooperation: The following main areas of activity are envisaged in the development of international cooperation for the conservation, protection and restoration of the Earth's ecosystem: preservation of biodiversity, protection of the ozone layer, prevention of anthropogenic climate change, combating desertification and drought, protection of forests and reforestation, development and improvement of the network of specially protected natural areas, and solution of global environmental problems, including the problem of the shrinking of the Aral Sea.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996
GDP (millions of som at current

prices)

61.5 443.9 5095.2 64877.6 302787.3 560146.7
Real GDP growth (%) 99.5 88.9 97.7 94.8 99.1 101.6
Electricity output (billions of

Kw hours)

54.2 50.9 49.1 47.8 47.5 45.4
Natural gas production (billions

of cubic metres)

41.9 42.8 45.0 47.2 48.6 49.0
Coal production (thousands of

tons)

5948 4681 3807 3845 3054 2837
Industrial output (billions of

som)*

63.0 51.6 5239 51.5 235 444.1

* At the prices and in the currency of the year in question.

Government policies affecting consumption and production.

1. Goals and Agents (stakeholders)

Indicate with an (X) those agents which your Government's policies are meant most to influence.

Agents

Goals

Producers
Local

authorities
Central

Government
Households
Civil society
Material efficiency X X
Energy efficiency: X X
Transport X X X
Housing X X X
Waste:
Reduce X X
Reuse X X
Recycle X X

Comments:

2. Means & Measures and Agents (stakeholders)

Indicate with an (R) those agents who assume primary responsibility for any of the policy measures indicated; indicate with an (I) the agents for which the impact is expected to be especially significant.

Agents

Means & Measures

Producers
Local

authorities

Central

Government
House-

holds
Civil

Society
Improving understanding and analysis
Information and education (e.g., radio/TV/press) R R R
Evaluating environmental claims
Form partnerships R R R
Applying tools for modifying behaviour
Community based strategies R R R
Social incentives/disincentives (e.g., ecolabelling)
Regulatory instruments
Economic incentives/disincentives R IR IR
Voluntary agreements of producer responsibility for

aspects of product life cycle

R R
Provision of enabling facilities and infrastructure

(e.g., transportation alternatives, recycling)

R R R R
Procurement policy R R
Monitoring, evaluating and reviewing performance
Action campaign R R R
Other (specify)

Comments:

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 5: DEMOGRAPHIC DYNAMICS AND SUSTAINABILITY

NATIONAL PRIORITY: Stabilization and development of positive trends in demographic processes.
STATUS REPORT:

Since the early 1990s positive trends have been observed in demographic processes in Uzbekistan. The death and birth rates are declining, as is the natural population growth. The total death and birth rates for the past seven years (1990-1996) fell by 0.3 and 5.4 per cent respectively. The current demographic situation has emerged against a background in which the economic decline is being checked, the structural transformations in the economy continued, the macroeconomic stabilization consolidated, and the market reforms developed. In 1985-1986 life expectancy was 68.2 years, in 1990 69.3 years, and in 1994 70.4 years. For the same years this indicator for men and women respectively was 65.1 and 71, 66.1 and 72.4, and 68 and 72.5. Thus by 1994 life expectancy had increased by 2.2 years in comparison with 1985-1986.

Recent years have seen improvements in the indicators of infant mortality. The mortality rate among children aged under one year fell to 22.2 per 1,000 as against 26 per 1,000 in 1995 and 35.1 per 1,000 in 1991. However, the infant mortality rate is still high in comparison with the developed countries of the world.

Cross-sectoral issues

1. Decision-making structure: The Ministry of Labour is preparing and implementing measures to achieve the basic goals of social and demographic policy. The Ministry of Macroeconomics and Statistics prepares for the Government quarterly reports on the country's socio-economic development which, together with other aspects of social development, reflect the current position and the trends of demographic change and contain proposals for the solution of population problems.

2. Capacity-building/technology issues: No information.

3. Major groups: The Ministry of Macroeconomics and Statistics and the Ministry of Labour coordinate the work of the relevant ministries, offices and local authorities on the fundamental problems of the demographic development of Uzbekistan.

4. Finance: The State budget and the Employment Fund.

5. Regional/international cooperation: The Ministry of Labour, in conjunction with the Ministry of Macroeconomics and Statistics, acts as the lead agency for Uzbekistan's participation in international organizations dealing with population questions and coordinates the work of the regions on their demographic development.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996
Population (thousands) mid-year estimates 20862.5 21359.7 21852.5 22282.4 22689.7 23139.2
Annual % rate of increase 102.4 102.3 102.0 101.8 102.0
Surface area (1,000 km2) 447.4 447.4 447.4 447.4 447.4 447.4
Population density (people/km2) 46.3 47.7 48.8 49.8 50.7 51.7
Life expectancy at birth (years)

Men

Women

68.0

72.0

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 6: PROTECTING AND PROMOTING HUMAN HEALTH

NATIONAL PRIORITY: The health of the country's population elevated to the level of State policy.
STATUS REPORT: A person's health depends on many factors: the environment, personal relationships, housing and working conditions, degree of satisfaction of requirements for food, clothing, social benefits and leisure, and the level of medical care.

The Government has a fundamental task in the period of socio-economic transformation - to maintain the established level of medical care and provide the guaranteed volume and quality of medical services for the people, and to prevent the spread of infectious diseases and any further increase in the mortality rate among vulnerable population groups - children, mothers and old people.

In the light of the fundamental goals of ensuring justice in the provision of health care, prolonging worthwhile life, and reducing premature death, disease and disability, the Government of the Republic of Uzbekistan has carried out a reform of the health system with the basic aim of creating a sound network of health care with guaranteed access and high standards of medical care for the country's population.

The principles of the concept of reform of the health system are:
- Review of the network and structure of health institutions at all levels;
- Protection of the health of mothers and children;
- Review of the principles for financing the health sector, with a shift from the hospital bed as the funding unit to funding per inhabitant on a long-term basis;
- Consolidation of prophylactic health services, with increased out-patient and polyclinic services and the establishment of new forms of provision of medical care: daily home visits, ambulatory surgery facilities, specialized out-patient clinics, local health posts, etc.
In 1991-1996 hospital beds which were being used inefficiently were taken out of service (90,000 beds or 40 per cent of the total). It was thus possible to create better conditions for the treatment of in-patients and to increase the efficiency of hospital use. As a result resources were redistributed, with priority given to out-patient services, which offer greater possibilities of prophylactic treatment and rehabilitation of patients.
Expensive in-patient treatment has been replaced by a network of efficient out-patient services: day-hospitalization for treatment in polyclinics and local rural hospitals, home visits, and out-patient centres for individual categories and groups of illness (pulmonary, gastroenterological, etc.). In addition, out-patient surgery facilities have been established all over the country.

In 1996 1.4 million patients received day-hospitalization treatment. This reduced the rate of round-the-clock hospitalization to 16.4 (in 1995, 18.1) per 100 inhabitants (1991, 24.7; 1992, 23.6). The development of out-patient surgery facilities has altered the ratio of operations carried out in hospitals and in out-patient facilities in favour of a higher number of out-patient operations. In 1996 44 per cent of operations were carried out on an in-patient basis and 56 per cent on an out-patient basis, including 25.2 per cent in out-patient surgery facilities.

These measures have led to a steady decline in the mortality rate without any increase in the morbidity rate.

The strengthening of prophylactic services and public health/epidemiological monitoring has led to a decline in the incidence of the most serious infectious diseases, in particular viral hepatitis and intestinal infections. The regulation and provision of vaccinations has prevented mass outbreaks of measles, diphtheria, whooping-cough and other controllable infections. Despite the unfavourable situation in neighbouring countries, Uzbekistan has prevented the spread of particularly dangerous infections - peritoneal typhus, malaria and AIDS. Thanks to the vaccination days held annually in April-May, poliomyelitis among children has almost been eliminated.

Cross-sectoral issues

1. Decision-making structure: Every person has an inalienable right to health. This right is inscribed in the country's fundamental law - the Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan.

The right of citizens to have their health protected by the State is confirmed in several pieces of legislation:

1. Protection of Citizens' Health Act;

2. State Public Health Monitoring Act;

3. AIDS Prevention Services Act.

In addition, the Cabinet of Ministers has adopted a number of orders spelling out cross-sectoral and inter-departmental activities for protection of the health of the population of Uzbekistan:

1. "Social protection of the disabled in the Republic of Uzbekistan";

2. "Comprehensive solution of the health problems of the rising generation";

3. "Drinking water supply for the population of the Aral Sea region";

4. "State programme for the rehabilitation of the disabled, 1996-2000";

5. "Compliance with animal-health regulations in the production and delivery of meat and dairy products, and prevention of infectious diseases found in farm animals";

6. "Public health monitoring of bakery facilities and bakery products, and licensing system for juridical and physical persons producing bread and other bakery products";

7. "Programme of rural infrastructure development up to 2000";

8. "Organization of a medical/social community care system";

9. "Stronger measures to combat hydrophobia and rabies in Uzbekistan";

10. "Measures to regulate market activities and their management".

Practical scientific programmes are currently being developed to prevent and reduce the incidence of tuberculosis, viral hepatitis, AIDS, and oncologic and other non-communicable diseases.

Principles are being formulated for the creation of a private sector and a market in medical services, with the development of competition between institutions providing curative and preventive services. A package of documents on medical insurance is being prepared.

3. Major Groups:

4. Finance:

5. Regional/International Cooperation:

2. Capacity-building/technology issues: No information.

3. Major groups: The protection of mothers and children remains one of the priorities of Uzbekistan's health service. The Government has adopted a number of instruments to improve the situation of women, protect mothers and children, strengthen the family, etc. A national health programme has been formulated for women of child- bearing age and children, together with a comprehensive health programme for the rising generation; many ministries and other Government offices, voluntary funds, commercial bodies and public organizations are participating in the implementation of these programmes.

Application of the principle of rational control of women's reproductive function has led to a reduction in the maternal and infant mortality rates, with a greater number of children born healthy and wanted. At present in Uzbekistan 90 per cent of women give birth between the ages of 20 and 35, i.e. during the optimum period recommended by WHO, although until recently about one third of children were born to women aged about 40 and older, a practice which notoriously results in the birth of unhealthy children.

Educational work has been carried out to inform people about the need to increase the spacing of births to at least three years, emphasizing that the 20-30 age range is the safest for mother and child, and to increase the use of contraception by women of child-bearing age (to 42 per cent as against 12.1 per cent in 1990), especially women suffering from extra-genital ailments.

Arrangements have been introduced for dealing with difficult births and for mothers to be hospitalized before giving birth and during the post-partum period. For this purpose maternity facilities have been established in all districts and towns, including prenatal training departments, delivery blocks and recovery wards. The number of delivery rooms has been increased to cope with a rate of 10.5 deliveries per delivery room every 24 hours.

Uzbek families traditionally have many children. Every woman of child-bearing age (19 to 49 years) has an average of 4.1 children. In recent years there has been a reduction in the birth rate: between 1991 and 1996 the total birth rate per 1,000 inhabitants fell from 34.5 to 27.3.

Considerable attention has been given to the development of primary health care, especially in rural areas, where the plan is to create new medical facilities and health posts in addition to improving the existing ones. This will bring qualified medical care closer to the rural population, providing 80 to 85 per cent of patients with access to the necessary treatment.

4. Finance: In 1996 expenditure on health services accounted for 3.1 per cent of GDP.

5. Regional/international cooperation: Contacts with WHO, UNICEF and other international organizations are currently being expanded. Cooperation with such organizations includes the formulation and implementation of concrete programmes of scientific research and practical activities to combat a number of infectious diseases and provide for immunization and preventive services, environmental hygiene, and mother and child protection.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
1995
1996
Birth rate per 1,000 33,9 33,7 29,9 28,5
Infant mortality (per 1,000 live births) 47 34,6 26 24,3
Maternal mortality rate (per 100,000

live births)

46,3 34,1 32,2 20,7
Access to safe drinking water

(% of population): urban

rural

80,6

42,3

84,6

45,8

87,7

59,2

87,7

59,2

Access to sanitation services

(% of population)

44,6 45,6 44,6 44,6

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 7: PROMOTING SUSTAINABLE HUMAN SETTLEMENT DEVELOPMENT

NATIONAL PRIORITY: Establishment of a sustainable human settlement system.
STATUS REPORT: Uzbekistan has an area of 447,700 square kilometres. As of 1 January 1997 it has a population of 23.35 million, including an urban population of 8.9 million. However, urban population growth is being outstripped by the growth in rural areas: in 1991 rural dwellers accounted for 59.8 per cent of the population but by the beginning of 1997 the figure was already in excess of 62 per cent.

There are 163 districts (excluding urban districts), 120 towns, and 114 urban settlements.

Uzbekistan has one city with a population of over a million (Tashkent - 2,109,500) and 11 towns with a population of over 100,000. Migration from the countryside is making a substantial contribution to urban population growth.

One special feature of Uzbekistan's population distribution pattern is the predominance of rural settlements. The rural population pattern is structured around regional centres in the shape of small towns, settlements of the urban type and rural settlements. The district centres bear the whole weight of organization, services and administration. These types of settlement constitute in fact the skeleton of the whole system of population distribution.

The demographic situation is characterized by a low level of mobility of the local population within the country, persistent demographic patterns, and strong population growth with the accompanying problems of effective use of manpower resources and the natural resource potential of rural areas.

At present the most pressing problems in the establishment of sustainable human settlements are connected with the creation of an efficient jobs system and the development of the industrial and social infrastructures which will ensure maximum satisfaction of the people's social needs and create the conditions for attracting production investments to the countryside.

In view of the shortage of land and water resources there is a need to create additional jobs by organizing small- and medium-sized enterprises in the countryside and in the district centres, primarily for the processing of agricultural products and other local raw materials.

In this process of establishing a sustainable system of human settlements particular attention will be given to the environmental health of towns and rural settlements, especially in the Aral Sea zone of ecological crisis, and to the establishment on this basis of a favourable human habitat and maintenance of the historical traditions and authenticity of the environment of the various ethnic and ethno-cultural population groups.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-making structure: An employment programme is being prepared with a view to accelerating the industrialization of the economy and making fuller use of the natural resource potential and manpower resources of rural areas and to establishing a sustainable system of human settlements.

2. Capacity-building/technology issues: Monitoring of the use of rural manpower resources has been introduced, and funds are being obtained for the creation of additional jobs.

3. Major groups: Towns, rural settlements.

4. Finance: The State and local budgets, employment funds, support from business, and the resources of enterprises and private investors.

5. Regional/international cooperation: Cooperation with the International Labour Organization, and creation of a national transformation fund.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
Beginning

1991

Beginning

1996

Urban population as % of total population 40,3 38,3
Annual rate of growth of urban population (%) 101,2 101,2
Large city population (as % of total population) 20,8 19,6
Number of towns 123 119
Number of districts 156 163

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 8: INTEGRATING ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT IN DECISION-MAKING

NATIONAL PRIORITY: High, bearing in mind the transition from a centrally planned to a market economy and the consistent progress towards sustainable development.
STATUS REPORT: From the moment of the country's independence the Government concentrated its efforts on carrying out a reform programme. The Environmental Protection Act adopted in 1992 became the fundamental instrument for the formulation of environmental policy.

The established processes of harmful ecosystem change are not an exclusively national problem since they have an effect on neighbouring countries as well. Accordingly, in tackling Uzbekistan's environmental problems particular attention is given to the joint efforts of the countries of Central Asia and international organizations, primarily in connection with the improvement of the environmental situation in the Aral Sea basin.

As a result of the joint initiatives of the World Bank, UNDP, UNEP and other international organizations, since 1993 programmes have been prepared and measures implemented to combat the Aral Sea crisis.

By a decision of the second European Conference on Environment and Health (Helsinki, 1994) Uzbekistan was designated a pilot country for the formulation of a national plan of action on environmental hygiene. The plan was that the document prepared by Uzbekistan would be taken as the basis for a recommendation to the countries of Central Asia and the Transcaucasus. The work is being coordinated by the State Environmental Protection Committee and the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Uzbekistan.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-making structure: The concept of the "establishment of scientifically based economic and legal mechanisms for the use of natural resources in the Republic of Uzbekistan" was approved by the Cabinet of Ministers on 26 June 1996.

By a decree of the Supreme Assembly of the Republic of Uzbekistan dated 26 March 1997 a decision was taken to draw up a State programme on environmental protection and rational use of natural resources.

National and regional programmes to combat the Aral Sea crisis.

2. Capacity-building/technology issues: Since 1992 the State agencies responsible for natural resources management and environmental protection have been implementing:

- The phased preparation and enactment of laws and regulations and methodological and management documents on the transition to payment for use of natural resources;

- Improvements in the monitoring arrangements and information base for assessing adverse environmental impacts;

- Formulation, and submission to the Government for approval, of action to be taken by ministries, agencies and organizations in the implementation of sectoral and regional environmental protection programmes, together with the subsequent coordination of such action.

3. Major groups: No information.

4. Finance: In Uzbekistan environmental protection activities are financed from the State budget, local budgets, the resources of enterprises, and extrabudgetary sources.

5. Regional/international cooperation: Bilateral and multilateral agreements relating to environmental protection and use of natural resources.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 9: PROTECTION OF THE ATMOSPHERE

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: The processes of economic restructuring which have been given priority in Uzbekistan since 1991, together with some decline in economic performance, have brought with them definite improvements: emissions of pollutants into the atmosphere from stationary and moving sources have fallen from 2.6 to 1.9 million tons a year.

The State Environmental Protection Committee is responsible for the legal regulation and monitoring of emissions from industrial enterprises and motor transport.

The Principal Hydrometeorological Office is responsible for monitoring the state of the atmosphere.

In 1996 the Supreme Assembly adopted the Protection of the Atmosphere Act, which takes into account the national experience in this area as well as the international requirements.

As part of the development of international cooperation for the protection of the atmosphere against anthropogenic activities, in 1993 Uzbekistan signed the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. This was particularly important for Uzbekistan, for it is among the countries which are extremely vulnerable to climate change: the desert and semi-desert zone occupies more than 80 per cent of its territory. The increasing shortage of water resources may lead to further degradation of the agricultural and ecological systems.

For the purposes of coordinating the activities of ministries, agencies and organizations in the prevention of dangerous climate changes, measures have been prepared to adapt the economy and the environment to such changes, and the Government has created the National Commission on Problems of Climate Change. Its members include managers and experts from more than 30 of the country's ministries, agencies and scientific centres.

The Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer, the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer and the London and Copenhagen amendments to the Montreal Protocol were signed in 1995.

The State Environmental Committee was designated the lead agency for matters connected with the implementation of these instruments. A working group composed of representatives of the ministries and agencies concerned has begun work on a national programme to protect the ozone layer.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-making structure: In October 1995 the Cabinet of Ministers created the National Commission on Problems of Climate Change, and specified its functions; a plan of action has been prepared and is being carried out.

2. Capacity-building/technology issues: In December 1995 the National Commission on Problems of Climate Change held a regional seminar with a view to coordinating the work on reducing the adverse impact of economic activity on the climate and formulating specific measures for each ministry.

The findings of the inventory of greenhouse gases made in 1995-1996 and the structure of Uzbekistan's national report on climate change were considered at a National Commission meeting.

In November 1996 the National Commission held a regional seminar for the countries of Central Asia in conjunction with the secretariat of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.

A start was made in 1997 on the compilation of a national register of emissions and sources of greenhouse gases, evaluation of the impact of climate change, and formulation and assessment of measures of relief and adaptation under the GEF/UNDP project "Uzbekistan - country study on climate change".

A second intergovernmental consultative meeting on the Montreal Protocol for countries with economies in transition was held in May 1997.

A State energy programme for the period up to 2010 is under preparation and it will reflect the possibilities of using non-traditional types of energy (wind, solar, water). A programme on small hydroelectric stations was adopted by a decree of the Cabinet of Ministers in 1995. Since 90 per cent of the country's energy is produced at thermal stations whose atmospheric emissions account for more than 30 per cent of total emissions from stationary sources, these documents are of great significance for the environment.

3. Major groups: By a decision of the National Commission on Problems of Climate Change and the Working Group on Protection of the Ozone Layer appropriate task forces will be set up if necessary.

4. Finance: The work of protecting the atmosphere is funded from the State budget, the resources of Uzbek enterprises and organizations, and local budgets, as well as from international donor support of project execution and preparation of national programmes and reports.

For 1997-1998 GEF/UNDP decided to fund the project "Uzbekistan - country study on climate change".

5. Regional/international cooperation: Since 1993 Uzbekistan has taken an active part in the preparation and work of sessions of the Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee on the Framework Convention on Climate Change, the first and second Conferences of the Parties, and subsidiary bodies of the Conference of the Parties.

Uzbek national experts take part in the work of the meetings and seminars of the Moscow State Economic Institute and of regional and international seminars on climate change.

The Heads of State of the countries of Central Asia hold regular meetings to address the problems of the Aral Sea crisis. They adopted the Nukus (1995) and Almaty (1997) Declarations. The International Fund to Save the Aral Sea has been established, with its Executive Board headquartered in Tashkent.

The problems of climate change are kept under constant review by the Inter-State Council on Hydrometeorology, which coordinates the activities of the hydrometeorlogical services of the States members of CIS. The Council has overseen work on issues connected with the preparation of national reports on activities under the Convention carried out by States members of CIS, and the formulation of coordinated proposals for the establishment of a greenhouse gas monitoring network in the territories of the CIS countries.

3. Major Groups:

4. Finance:

5. Regional/International Cooperation:

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
Greenhouse gases (eq. million tons)
1980
1990
Since 1995
CO2 emissions 106.2
SO2 0.56
NOx 0.48
CO 2.1
CH4 2.2

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 10: INTEGRATED APPROACH TO THE PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT OF LAND RESOURCES

NATIONAL PRIORITY: Management of land resources with a view to their maximum preservation as a means of providing for the essential needs of Uzbekistan's population and sustaining and enhancing the fertility of the land.
STATUS REPORT:

The condition of Uzbekistan's land remains unsatisfactory and in some regions critical. Harmful processes continue to develop: decline of humus content, flooding, subsidiary salination, and pollution of soil with pesticide residues, heavy metals, etc.

In these circumstances it is a matter of immediate urgency to introduce land monitoring, legal and standard-setting instruments regulating land use, and economic regulators which will ensure rational land use.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-making structure: Order of the Cabinet of Ministers of 17 June 1996 on "Confirmation of the instructions concerning the procedure for and implementation of a unified system of State land surveys of the Republic of Uzbekistan".

A methodology has been prepared for evaluating the land of agricultural enterprises on the basis of use-efficiency ratings.

Work is continuing in conjunction with the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) to develop and introduce an electronic system of land survey and registration in Uzbekistan.

2. Capacity-building/technology issues: No information.

3. Major groups: No information.

4. Finance: State and local budgets.

5. Regional/international cooperation: No information.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1985 1990 Latest 1995
Agricultural land (1,000 ha) 28122,2 28080,4 26923,5
Agricultural land as % of total land area 61.8 61.7 60.5
Irrigated land (1,000 ha) 3930.3 4154.7 4297.9
Irrigated land per capita (ha) 0.22 0.21 0.19
AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 11: COMBATING DEFORESTATION

NATIONAL PRIORITY:

There is no status report: the area of forests totals 9,119,000 hectares or 20 per cent of the country's territory.

Uzbekistan is a thinly forested country. Nevertheless, its forests are of considerable economic importance and their role is increasing still further as a result of the deterioration of the ecology in the region because they are such a powerful and irreplaceable factor for improvement of the environment. Forests play a protective, water-conservation, health and recreational role, as well as regulating the climate and providing a habitat for the animal world.

The fight against the destruction of forests in Uzbekistan is conducted on the basis of a system of rational and sustainable use and sound management of forests as a purposeful, long-term and economically advantageous process.

The preservation of forests as a component of land use in accordance with scientifically based standards and comprehensive assessment of possible impacts on forest ecosystems is established in the corresponding legislative and regulatory instruments and in the guidelines and recommendations on forestry in Uzbekistan.

The country's programme to combat deforestation has the following components:

- The concept of sustainable forest use, which is one of the fundamental criteria for preservation of the biodiversity and sustainable development of forest ecosystems;

- Development of forestry management plans and monitoring and regulation of the extraction of forest products in conjunction with forestry and forest-protection measures of various degrees of stringency, with a view to preservation and enhancement of the social, ecological and economic value of managed forests for succeeding generations;

- Redirection of forest management away from environmentally unsound practices which may contribute to destruction of the environment and biodiversity, and their replacement with environmentally sound technologies for the use of forest resources.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-making structure: In order to satisfy the requirements of the local population for building timber, on the proposal of the forestry agencies the Government adopted Order No. 62 of the Cabinet of Ministers dated 8 February 1994 on "Measures to develop the industrial cultivation of poplars and establishment of plantations of other quick-growing species", which envisages the establishment of such plantations on more than 90,000 hectares by 2003.

2. Capacity-building/technology issues: No information.

3. Major groups: No information.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/international cooperation: No information.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
Unit of

measurement

Volume 1993 1994 1995 1996
Forest area 1,000 ha 7989 8272,4 8285,3 9119
Specially protected natural land,

including reserves and national

parks

1,000 ha

110,2

118,5

118,5

118,5

Felling rate m3 72736 60226 52213 49688
Reforestation rate 1,000 ha 29,7 31,2 32,1 33,2

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 12: MANAGING FRAGILE ECOSYSTEMS: COMBATING DESERTIFICATION AND DROUGHT

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: Desert and semi-desert occupies about four fifths of Uzbekistan's land area. Almost all crops are produced on irrigated land. There are about 7.5 million hectares of desert forest and 25 million hectares of desert grazing land. Desertification and drought are thus of extremely great significance for the country's economy.

Intensive processes of desertification are at work in the shrinking of the Aral Sea - 33,400 km of sea bed has dried up.

The International Convention to Combat Desertification was ratified by Uzbekistan on 31 October 1995.

The National Commission to Combat Desertification and Drought has now been established, and work has started on the preparation of a national programme.

Pursuant to article 26 of the Convention Uzbekistan will submit reports on its implementation of the decisions of the Conference of the Parties in accordance with the form and schedule for submitting information.

Cross-sectoral issues

1. Decision-making structure: The National Commission to Combat Desertification and Drought coordinates the activities of ministries and agencies connected with combating desertification and drought in implementation of the United Nations Convention and it is responsible for informing the population about the work done in these areas.

2. Capacity-building/technology issues: No information.

3. Major groups: No information.

4. Finance: The State budget, international organizations and donor countries, and the public funds of organizations, enterprises and commercial organizations.

5. Regional/international cooperation: No information.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
Unit of

measurement

1980

1990

Latest 1995

Desert grazing land million ha. 24.95
Area of dried-up bed of Aral Sea thousand km2 33,4

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 13: MANAGING FRAGILE ECOSYSTEMS: SUSTAINABLE MOUNTAIN DEVELOPMENT

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: High mountains occupy only a tiny part of the Republic of Uzbekistan; as a result of this, up to the present the country has never had a special programme of sustainable mountain development. Nevertheless, mountain regions are of considerable importance owing to the natural resource potential of the foothills for the formation of river flows.

The specific characteristics of their mountain areas influences to differing degrees the socio-economic development of the regions of Andizhan, Namangan, Ferghana, Tashkent, Surkhan-Darya, and Kashkadar, in which 53 per cent of the country's total population lives. These regions also have the highest population density, hence the need for accelerated economic development of foothills and mountains.

The arid climate invests mountain ranges acquire with special importance for the formation of river flows, since irrigated land provides more than 95 per cent of the total production of crops, and the availability of water resources is a decisive condition for the sustainability of agriculture. This circumstance is of great significance in view of the contribution of agriculture to the country's economy - it supplies some 25-30 per cent of GDP and determines the conditions and sustainability of other sectors (processing, light industry, agricultural engineering, etc.).

The following are the most acute problems of mountain and foothill regions:

- Water erosion and washing away of soils in the foothills, affecting about 20 per cent of the land. These processes have natural causes but are also due to anthropogenic activities involving the use of inappropriate irrigation methods and techniques;

- Degradation of grazing land trampled down as a result of unregulated grazing of livestock;

- Pollution of rivers and groundwater by toxic chemicals and industrial, agricultural and domestic wastes;

- Depletion of transboundary water resources at the regional and national levels, which is a constraint on the development of traditional and other water-intensive economic activities and a potential source of conflicts between States;

- The difficult natural conditions, heavily broken relief and irregular precipitation pattern with periods of torrential rain cause unusual conditions for the formation of surface flow and extremely dangerous natural phenomena such as flash floods and landslides. The fact that the mountains are thinly forested (about 2 per cent of the area) contributes to these processes;

- Monitoring of possible radioactive pollution of the waters of underground and surface transboundary flows from areas where the waste storage facilities of neighbouring countries and mine tips are located;

- One of the most difficult problems is the establishment in mountain regions of a social and production infrastructure, with creation of additional jobs to ensure a rational employment structure, and fuller use of their natural resource and manpower potential.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-making structure: A programme of specific actions on the problems of the Aral Sea basin was adopted by the Heads of State of the countries of Central Asia in 1994 in Nukus.

2. Capacity-building/technology issues: No information.

3. Major groups: No information.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/international cooperation: Such cooperation is conducted under the agreement between the States of Central Asia on joint measures to solve the problems of the Aral Sea and the surrounding area and to improve the environmental status of the socio-economic development of the Aral Sea region.

International organizations take an active part in carrying out the programmes.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 14: PROMOTING SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT

NATIONAL PRIORITY: Food supply and improvement of consumer supplies of environmentally sound food products.
STATUS REPORT:

The years of reform in Uzbekistan have seen radical changes in the structure of agriculture. Almost all the State farms and collective farms have been transformed into joint stock companies or small private farms; farm owners have become the main producers of agricultural goods.

By the beginning of 1997, 19,800 small farms had been established on 308,200 hectares of irrigated land. The non-State sector produces 97 per cent of the gross agricultural product. As a result of privatization, the processing and marketing of farm products are undergoing considerable changes.

In general terms Uzbekistan's agriculture and its foodstuffs market are in an extremely difficult situation. It is essential to devise a price-setting machinery for fuel and energy resources and agricultural products, and to ensure the preparation of a suitable legal and regulatory framework, institutional structure and flow of investments for the sustainable development of agriculture.

To this end Uzbekistan is elaborating the concept of developing agriculture and fisheries for the long term, which will specify the means of reform and the development of effective and sustainable agriculture under a market system.

A system of measures of State regulation and serious support for the country's agro-industrial complex is envisaged.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-making structure:
- Presidential Decree of 3 April 1996 on "Measures of State support for agricultural production".
(a) Land and real estate:
- Land Act of 20 June 1990;
- Small Private Farms Act of 3 July 1992;
- Property in Uzbekistan Act of 30 October 1990;
- Land Leasing Act of 19 November 1991.

(b) Management of land and water resources:
- Water and Water Use Act of 6 May 1993;
- Regulations of 7 August 1993 on "Water protection zones, reservoirs and other storage facilities, rivers and main canals and collector networks, and sources of drinking, medicinal and mineral water in the Republic of Uzbekistan";
- Interim regulations of 3 August 1993 on "Limitation of water use in the Republic of Uzbekistan";
- Environmental Protection Act of 9 December 1992;
- Natural Resources Special Protection Act of 7 May 1993.

The legislative and regulatory instruments directly affecting land and water issues and therefore agriculture in Uzbekistan establish requirements concerning the location and use of land, rational use of resources, and protection of land and water sources against pollution by fertilizers and pesticides.

2. Capacity-building/technology issues: No information.

3. Major groups: No information.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/international cooperation: Bilateral and multilateral agreements (CIS and countries of Central Asia) relating to agriculture.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 15: CONSERVATION OF BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY

NATIONAL PRIORITY: High in view of the critical ecosystem imbalances.
STATUS REPORT: The policies of the former USSR had an extremely adverse impact on the country's ecology, especially in the Aral Sea region. It is very difficult to halt the established processes which are affecting environmental stability. Uzbekistan must make every effort to correct the environmental imbalances which have already appeared.

The only way to do this is to preserve and restore natural ecosystems at a sufficient level to guarantee the stabilization and support of biosphere processes. Uzbekistan has acceded to the Convention on Biological Diversity, which was ratified by the Supreme Assembly on 6 May 1995.

Work is proceeding on a frontier project on biodiversity (Western Tyan-Shan).

Cross-sectoral issues

1. Decision-making structure: Governmental project UZB/96/G-31/A-1G/014, which has been approved by UNDP. Work is also proceeding on a project on a national strategy to preserve biological diversity and on the formulation of a plan of action.

2. Capacity-building/technology issues: The State Environmental Protection Committee has established an Intersectoral Coordination Council (Steering Committee).

3. Major groups: These will be set up by the Intersectoral Coordination Council if necessary.

4. Finance: State budget, Global Environment Facility, UNDP.

5. Regional/international cooperation: A variety of activities are being carried out under bilateral and multilateral cooperation agreements.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
TITLE Area

km2

% of total

protected area

Type and IUCN category
Biosphere and protected areas - Cat. I 452 2
National parks - Cat. II 6061 30
State protected land (reserves) - Cat. I 1658 8
Special State protected land (preserves) - Cat. IV 11576 56

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 16: ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT OF BIOTECHNOLOGY

NATIONAL PRIORITY: Life sciences and biotechnology.
STATUS REPORT:

The problem of the environmentally sound management of biotechnology is becoming a critical one for Uzbekistan. It is a matter of utmost urgency for the country to create a legal and regulatory framework for biotechnology.

Where biotechnologies are concerned, the biological method of combating agricultural pests and plant diseases is the one most broadly introduced. This method is being used on 5.6 million hectares, in round figures. The biological method of protecting forests against pests and diseases is being used on more than 20,000 hectares.

Cross-sectoral issues

1. Decision-making structure: No information.

2. Capacity-building/technology issues: No information.

3. Major groups: No information.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/international cooperation: No information.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 17: PROTECTION OF THE OCEANS, ALL KINDS OF SEAS, INCLUDING ENCLOSED AND SEMI-ENCLOSED SEAS, AND COASTAL AREAS AND THE PROTECTION, RATIONAL USE AND DEVELOPMENT OF THEIR LIVING RESOURCES

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: Central Asia has the enclosed Aral Sea, the southern and south-western parts of which are located in the territory of Uzbekistan.

The volume of the Aral Sea is determined by the flows of the transboundary rivers Amy Darya and Syr Darya. As a result of heavy outtakes from the rivers for economic purposes (primarily farm irrigation), from the 1960s their flow gradually declined, ceasing entirely by the end of the 1980s. As a result the volume of the Aral Sea was reduced by a factor of four, its level fell by 15 metres, and its surface shrank by a factor of two. The area of dried-up sea bed totalled 33,400 km.

The Aral Sea has lost its importance for fisheries, recreation and transport.

In conjunction with international organizations (United Nations, World Bank, etc.) cooperation has been organized in recent years at the international and regional levels in order to preserve the Aral Sea as a natural feature. Restoration of the Aral Sea will require a radically altered economic structure with a shift in the direction of sectors which are not water-intensive and the total exclusion of farm irrigation. In view of the economic possibilities of the countries of the region such changes seem unlikely in the very near future, but the work which is now being carried out on the rational use of water resources is already producing results, and in recent years the flow of the rivers into the deltas and the Sea itself has reached 15-20 km3, which has slowed the rate of the fall in its level.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-making structure: Decisions on matters connected with the use of the water resources of the transboundary rivers of the Aral Sea basin are taken at the inter-State level. For this purpose an inter-State water management coordination commission has been set up and is in operation; it is made up of representatives, at the ministerial level, of the five States of the Aral Sea basin: Kazakhstan, Kyrgystan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. Their decisions on limitation of the use of the rivers' waters are binding on all the States. They also take decisions on the release of water into the river deltas and the Aral Sea. The executive organs of this commission are the "Amy Darya" and "Syr Darya" Basin Water Management Associations.

The use of water resources at the national level is regulated by the Water and Water Use Act. The executive agencies are the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, the State Environmental Protection Committee (monitoring functions), the Ministry of Macroeconomics and Statistics (calculation of the water use balance and accounting), and the Principal Hydrometeorological Office (monitoring of water quality at source).

2. Capacity-building/technology issues: No information.

3. Major groups: No information.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/international cooperation: Since the collapse of the USSR the problems of the Aral Sea crisis have been tackled on a regional and international basis. In 1993 the Heads of State of the countries of Central Asia decided to establish the International Fund to Save the Aral Sea and an inter-State council on the problems of the Aral Sea basin, with the corresponding executive agencies. In view of the existing duplication of functions, at their meeting in Almaty in February 1997 the Heads of State decided to reorganize the management structure and establish in Tashkent a single Executive Board of the International Fund. The Fund is headed by one of the presidents of the States of Central Asia elected for a two-year term. The Executive Board has two representatives from each member State. An agreement has been adopted on the formation and use of the Fund's resources.

A meeting of Heads of State in Nukus in 1994 approved the concept of saving the Aral Sea and a programme of concrete actions for the next five years, under which regional and international cooperation is being organized.

An international conference on the Aral Sea crisis, convened by the United Nations in Nukus in 1995, adopted a decision on the drafting of an international convention on the sustainable development of the Aral Sea basin and created the Regional Commission on Sustainable Development.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 1995
Catches of marine species (metric tons)
Total
including sea fishing
Population of coastal areas
Population using treated waste water (% of country's total population)
Discharges of oil into coastal waters (metric tons)
Releases of phosphates into coastal waters (metric tons)
Releases of nitrates into coastal waters (metric tons)
Other data

TABLE I. THE FOLLOWING ACTIVITIES HAVE BEEN CONSIDERED BY THE APPROPRIATE COORDINATING MECHANISM FOR INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF COASTAL AND MARINE AREAS AND THEIR RESOURCES.

Check the boxes in the column below left: Check the boxes in the column below right:
For level of importance use: For level of implementation use:
*** = very important *** = fully covered
** = important ** = well covered- gaps being addressed
* = not important * = poorly covered
N = not relevant O = not covered; N = not relevant

LEVEL OF

IMPORTANCE
ACTIVITY AS DESCRIBED IN AGENDA 21
LEVEL OF

IMPLEMENTATION
***
a. Preparation and implementation of land and water use and siting policies.
*
***
b. Implementation of integrated coastal and marine management and sustainable development plans and programmes at appropriate levels.
*
***
c. Preparation of coastal profiles identifying critical areas including eroded zones, physical processes, development patterns, user conflicts and specific priorities for management.
***
d. Prior environmental impact assessment, systematic observation and follow-up of major projects, including systematic incorporation of results in decision-making.
*
e. Contingency plans for human induced and natural disasters.
***
f. Improvement of coastal human settlements, especially in housing, drinking water and treatment and disposal of sewage, solid wastes and industrial effluents.
*
***
g. Periodic assessment of the impacts of external factors and phenomena to ensure that the objectives of integrated management and sustainable development of coastal areas and marine environment are met.
*
***
h. Conservation and restoration of altered critical habitats.
*
***
i. Integration of sectoral programmes on sustainable development for settlements, agriculture, tourism, fishing, ports and industries affecting the coastal areas.
*
***
j. Infrastructure adaptation and alternative employment.
**
***
k. Human resource development and training.
**
***
l. Public education, awareness and information programmes.
**
***
m. Promoting environmentally sound technology and sustainable practices.
*
***
n. Development and simultaneous implementation of environmental quality criteria.
*

TABLE II. TECHNOLOGY (MARINE ENVIRONMENT)

LEVEL OF

IMPORTANCE
ACTIVITY AS DESCRIBED IN AGENDA 21
LEVEL OF

IMPLEMENTATION

***
a. Apply preventive, precautionary and anticipatory approaches so as to avoid degradation of the marine environment, as well as to reduce the risk of long-term or irreversible adverse effects upon it.
*
***
b. Ensure prior assessment of activities that may have significant adverse impacts upon the marine environment.
**
**
c. Integrate protection of the marine environment into relevant general environmental, social and economic development policies.
***
d. Develop economic incentives, where appropriate, to apply clean technologies and other means consistent with the internalization of environmental costs, such as the polluter pays principle, so as to avoid degradation of the marine environment.
*
***
e. Improve the living standards of coastal populations, particularly in developing countries, so as to contribute to reducing the degradation of the coastal and marine environment.
*
f. Effective monitoring and surveillance within the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of fish harvesting and transportation of toxic and other hazardous materials.

TABLE III. SEWAGE RELATED ISSUES

LEVEL OF
IMPORTANCE
ACTIVITY AS DESCRIBED IN AGENDA 21
LEVEL OF IMPLEMENTATION
***
a. Sewage related problems are considered when formulating or reviewing coastal development plans, including human development plans.
*
***
b. Sewage treatment facilities are built in accordance with national policies.
*
c. Coastal outfalls are located so as to maintain acceptable level of environmental quality and to avoid exposing shell fisheries, water intakes and bathing areas to pathogens.
***
d. The Government promotes primary treatment of municipal sewage discharged to rivers, estuaries and the sea, or other solutions appropriate to specific sites.
*
***
e. The Government supports the establishment and improvement of local, national, subregional and regional, as necessary, regulatory and monitoring programmes to control effluent discharge. Minimum sewage effluent guidelines and water quality criteria are in use.
*

TABLE IV. OTHER SOURCES OF MARINE POLLUTION, THE GOVERNMENT HAS:

LEVEL OF
IMPORTANCE
ACTIVITY AS DESCRIBED IN AGENDA 21
LEVEL OF
IMPLEMENTATION
***
a. Established or improved upon, as necessary, regulatory and monitoring programmes to control emissions, including recycling technologies.
*
***
b. Promoted risk and environmental impact assessments to help ensure an acceptable level of environmental quality.
*
c. Promoted assessment and cooperation at the regional level, where appropriate, with respect to the input of point source pollutants from the marine environment.
d. Taken steps to eliminate emissions or discharges of organohalogen compounds from the marine environment.
e. Taken steps to eliminate/reduce emissions or discharges or other synthetic organic compounds from the marine environment.
***
f. Promoted controls over anthropogenic inputs of nitrogen and phosphorous that enter coastal waters where such problems as eutrophication threaten the marine environment or its resources.
*
***
g. Taken steps to develop and implement environmentally sound land-use techniques and practices to reduce run-off to water courses and estuaries which would cause pollution or degradation of the marine environment.
*
***
h. Promoted the use of environmentally less harmful pesticides and fertilizers and alternative methods for pest control, and considered the prohibition of those found to be environmentally unsound.
**
***
i. Adopted new initiatives at national, subregional and regional levels for controlling the input of non-point source pollutants which require broad changes in sewage and waste management, agricultural practices, mining, construction and transportation.
**
j. Taken steps to control and prevent coastal erosion and siltation due to anthropogenic factors related to, inter alia, land-use and construction techniques and practices.

TABLE V. ADDRESSING CRITICAL UNCERTAINTIES FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT AND CLIMATE CHANGE.

LEVEL OF
IMPORTANCE
ACTIVITY AS DESCRIBED IN AGENDA 21
LEVEL OF

IMPLEMENTATION
***
a. Coordinating national and regional observation programmes for coastal and near-shore phenomena related to climate change and for research parameters essential for marine and coastal management in all regions.
*
b. Providing improved forecasts of marine conditions for the safety of inhabitants of coastal areas and for the efficiency of marine operations.
***
c. Adopting special measures to cope with and adapt to potential climate change and sea-level rise.
*
d. Participating in coastal vulnerability assessment, modelling and response strategies particularly for priority areas, such as small islands and low-lying and critical coastal areas.
e. Identifying ongoing and planned programmes of systematic observation of the marine environment, with a view to integrating activities and establishing priorities to address critical uncertainties for oceans and all seas.
f. Research to determine the marine biological effects of increased levels of ultraviolet rays due to the depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer.
g. Carrying out analysis, assessments and systematic observation of the role of oceans as a carbon sink.

TABLE VI. RATING OF ACTIVITIES IN THE AIR AND MARITIME TRANSPORT SECTORS.

AIR TRANSPORT
RATING
MARITIME TRANSPORT
RATING
1. Frequency (external flights) 1. Frequency (external shipping)
2. Frequency (in-country flights) 2. Frequency (in-country shipping)
3. Cooperation at regional level in air transport and civil aviation 3. Cooperation at regional level in shipping
4. Cooperation at international level 4. Cooperation at international level
5. Economic viability of national air line 5. Economic viability of national shipping line(s)
6. Economic viability of regional air line 6. Economic viability of regional shipping line (s)
7. National level training in skills for air transport sector 7. National level training in skills for maritime transport sector
8. Access to training in skills for air transport sector within the region 8. Regional level training in skills for maritime transport sector
9. Access to international training for air transport sector 9. Access to international training for maritime transport sector
10. Supportive of ICAO

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 18: PROTECTION AND RATIONAL USE OF FRESHWATER RESOURCES

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

Water is the most valuable resource of the Aral Sea basin. The region's main water arteries are the Amy Darya and Syr Darya rivers. The use of their water resources must be regulated in the light of national and regional interests and the conflicting interests of economies and ecology.

Uzbekistan has 4,298,000 hectares of irrigated land, of which a possible 2,306,000 hectares require rehabilitation. In view of the limited water resources in the region, the principal measures for ensuring an increase in the water supply for irrigation are: rehabilitation of land, main inter-economy and intra-economy canals, collector systems, drainage measures and basic land planning.

The use of groundwater and collected/drainage water is an important means of increasing the irrigation water supply.

With a view to supporting regional cooperation in solving the many economic, environmental and social problems, in January 1994 the Heads of the five Central Asian States adopted a programme of concrete measures to improve the environmental situation in the Aral Sea basin; this programme takes into account the quality aspect of the region's water resources and envisages the formulation of principles governing the improvement of water quality, the reduction of all kinds of pollution, the adoption of effective measures to prevent discharge into the rivers and other water sources of the Aral Sea basin waste water with high mineral content and other polluted collected/drainage water, and unpurified industrial and domestic effluents.

Cross-sectoral issues

1. Decision-making structure:
- Water and Water Use Act of 6 May 1993;
- Regulations of 7 August 1993 on "Water protection zones, reservoirs and other storage facilities, rivers and main canals and collector networks, and sources of drinking, medicinal and mineral water in the Republic of Uzbekistan";
- Interim regulations of 3 August 1993 on "Limitation of water use in the Republic of Uzbekistan";
- Environmental Protection Act of 9 December 1992;
- Natural Resources Special Protection Act of 7 May 1993.

2. Capacity-building/technology issues: No information.

3. Major Groups: No information.

4. Finance: The national budget, budget of the Council of Ministers of the Republic of Karakalpakstan, regional and district authorities, resources of enterprises, foreign investments, bank loans and other extrabudgetary sources.

5. Regional/international cooperation: Joint management of water resources under the auspices of the Inter-State Water Management Coordination Commission of the countries of Central Asia.

Drafting and adoption of international agreements on water resource quality control. The Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Water Courses and International Lakes and the Nukus Declaration of the States of Central Asia and international organizations on the problems of the sustainable development of the Aral Sea basin (Nukus, 1995), and the recommendations of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe on assessment of water quality must serve as the basis for such international agreements.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 19: ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT OF TOXIC CHEMICALS

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

The availability of the necessary information for assessing the potential threat of chemicals to human health and the environment is an essential condition for ensuring their safe use and disposal.

For the purposes of exchange information about hazardous chemicals the State Environmental Protection Committee collaborates closely with the International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals (IRPTC/UNEP) and this Committee is the organ responsible for introduction of the London Guidelines for the Exchange of Information about Chemicals in International Trade.

Work is proceeding on the drafting of national legislation and standards regulating the production of chemical wastes, their use, storage, transport and disposal. A national register of potentially toxic chemicals is being compiled.

A selection of pesticides is being made for inclusion in the "List of toxic chemicals authorized for use in agriculture".

Cross-sectoral issues

1. Decision-making structure: No information.

2. Capacity-building/technology issues: No information.

3. Major groups: No information.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/international cooperation: The State Environmental Protection Committee participates in the work of the intergovernmental committee which is drafting a document to be vested with legal force ("Convention" status) concerning the management of a number of chemicals and pesticides; this instrument will increase the responsibilities of producer countries, importers and exporters.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 20: MANAGEMENT OF HAZARDOUS WASTES

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

Uzbekistan has accumulated over 21,000 tons of hazardous industrial wastes. This figure is increasing every year.

The present situation with regard to hazardous wastes is such that immediate action must be taken to solve this problem and make a start on the creation of a network of specialized sites for disposal of toxic wastes and treatment facilities for their destruction or disposition.

With a view to creating a system for the management and disposal of hazardous industrial wastes, Uzbekistan is working on the creation and improvement of a legal and regulatory framework for dealing with these matters.

A bill on "Industrial and consumer wastes" has been prepared.

Cross-sectoral issues

1. Decision-making structure: Order of the Cabinet of Ministers of 24 October 1992 on the collection and storage of wastes containing mercury.

2. Capacity-building/technology issues: No information.

3. Major groups: No information.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/international cooperation: The CIS countries have signed an agreement on the regulation of transboundary shipments of dangerous wastes and their disposal. Under this agreement the parties will take measures to regulate the import of wastes into their territory and the transit of hazardous and other wastes through their territory.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 21: DISPOSAL OF SOLID WASTES AND SEWAGE

NATIONAL PRIORITY: Development of a legal and regulatory framework for the implementation of investment measures for the treatment and use of wastes.
STATUS REPORT:

Uzbekistan has accumulated a total of over 2 billion tons of industrial wastes.

It is working on the improvement of the legal and regulatory framework for the creation of a system for management and disposal of industrial and consumer wastes.

Bills on "Industrial and consumer wastes" and "Interim rules on environmental protection and industrial and consumer wastes" have been prepared.

Cross-sectoral issues

1. Decision-making structure: No information.

2. Capacity-building/technology issues: No information.

3. Major groups: No information.

4. Finance: The work of improving the waste management system is funded both from the State budget and from local budgets in the form of financing for regional waste disposal programmes.

5. Regional/international cooperation: The CIS countries have signed an agreement on regulation of transboundary shipments of hazardous wastes and their disposal. Under this agreement the parties are required to implement agreed measures to regulate the import of wastes into their territory and the transit of hazardous and other wastes through their territory.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 22: DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

Uzbekistan has a special site for disposal of radioactive wastes. It is intended for the centralized disposal of solid and liquid radioactive wastes collected from laboratories, institutions and industrial enterprises in Uzbekistan.

The radiological service of the national public health and epidemiological system is the organization basically responsible for State supervision of installations using sources of ionizing radiation. Institutions and enterprises using in their activities radiation equipment and sources of ionizing radiation have official radiation protection services. Monitoring of background radiation is the responsibility of units of the Principle Hydrometeorlogical Office. The "Uzkyzyltepageologiya" industrial combine monitors radioactivity in public areas, towns and villages.

Cross-sectoral issues

1. Decision-making structure: No information.

2. Capacity-building/technology issues: No information.

3. Major groups: No information.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/international cooperation: No information.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 24: GLOBAL ACTION FOR WOMEN TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND EQUITABLE DEVELOPMENT

Ch. 24 GLOBAL ACTION FOR WOMEN TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND EQUITABLE DEVELOPMENT

The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women was signed on 17 July 1980 (USSR).

A Decree of 2 March 1995 specified measures to enhance the role of women in building the State and society in the Republic of Uzbekistan (Order of 14 March 1995).

24.a The situation of women and their proportion in decision-making bodies:

1992 1993 1994
Admission to secondary education (% of total admissions)

Graduation from secondary education (% of total graduation)

Admission to training courses in higher education institutions (% of total students)

Female labour force (% of total labour force)

Parliament (deputies - % of total deputies)

Administrative/managerial staff

49

44

39,3

46,5

9,4

48,9

45

40,3

45,9

9,4

48

47,3

41,1

43,5

9,4

17,5

24.b assessing, reviewing and preparing educational materials with a view to promoting dissemination of gender-relevant knowledge: Under revision.

24.c formulating and implementing policies, guidelines, strategies and plans for achievement of equality in all aspects of society, including issuing a strategy by year 2000 to eliminate obstacles to full participation of women in sustainable development: Policies/strategies are being drawn up.

24.d establishing mechanisms by 1996 to assess implementation and impact of development and environment policies and programmes on women: Mechanisms are being developed.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page): The Government recently produced a number of State programmes and laws designed to enhance the situation of women and secure greater involvement of public organizations, including women's organizations, in the decision-making process. However, the shortage of State funds for implementing State programmes often impedes the introduction of measures to enhance the situation of women, causing increased unemployment among women and deterioration of the health system, etc.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 25: CHILDREN AND YOUTH IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

Ch. 25 CHILDREN AND YOUTH IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

25.a promoting dialogue between youth and Government at all levels. Developing mechanisms that permit youth access to information and opportunity to present their view on implementing A21:

Youth forums: Role of youth in national affairs: Casual and intermittent.

25.b ensuring that by year 2000 more than 50% of youth - gender balanced - have access to secondary education: The goal set in Agenda 21 has been reached.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page): During the years since independence Uzbekistan has been working constantly to enhance the situation of children and women. The Foundations of State Youth Policy Act was adopted on 20 November 1991. The State attaches first priority to the task of helping the young generation to receive education and then to make full use of their knowledge and of freedom and democracy, encouraging them to be genuine creators and inventors.

Methodological, practical and material assistance in improving educational and training work and the spiritual growth of young people in the regions, school collectives and the family is provided by urban and district authorities, the "Kamolot" youth fund, the "Umid" fund, especially with respect to support and encouragement of talented young people, and by international organizations, including the United Nations and UNESCO. The Japanese-Uzbek Friendship League has established from personal savings a fund for higher education institutes in Uzbekistan in order to provide material assistance to outstanding students and young scientists of Uzbekistan, and for a number of other national and international public organizations.

Youth representatives are as yet little involved in the country's political and economic life or in the drafting of State documents relating to the environment and sustainable human development, but there is an increasing desire for cooperation on the part both of the State and of youth organizations.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 26: RECOGNIZING AND STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF INDIGENOUS PEOPLE AND THEIR COMMUNITIES

Ch. 26 RECOGNIZING AND STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF INDIGENOUS PEOPLE AND THEIR COMMUNITIES

26.a establishing a process to empower indigenous people and their communities - through policies and legal instruments: In place.

26.b strengthening arrangements for active participation in national policies: Participate fully.

26.c involving indigenous people in resource management strategies and programmes at the national and local level: Process under way.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page): Uzbekistan is a multi-national country, having at present representatives of 100 nationalities and peoples. Inhabitants of non-Uzbek nationality make up 24.2 per cent of the total population.

In the process of forming a multi-national society in Uzbekistan great importance is attached to language as a means of communication between nationalities, and since 1984 the Uzbek language has acquired the status of State language and is becoming a means of communication among citizens of different nationalities in all areas of activity. Disparagement of the State or other languages is forbidden.

At present the instruction in general-education schools is conducted in seven languages. Uzbekistan has 353 schools using the Karakalpak language, 595 the Kazakh, 70 the Kyrgyz, 332 the Tajik, 66 the Turkmen and 917 the Russian language; about 900,000 pupils of these nationalities are taught in these schools (over 17 per cent of the total enrolment in general-education schools).

The regular holding of international festivals, conferences, competitions and exhibitions in such areas as culture, literature, folklore, national handicrafts, and creative work by children, which reflect national colour, have a significant influence on the formation of high moral qualities and inculcation in young people of respect for the rich cultural heritage of the peoples living in Uzbekistan and for their national traditions.

In recent years the legislative framework has been created for more active participation by indigenous people in the taking of decisions affecting the development of their lands.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 27: STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS: PARTNERS FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

Ch. 27 STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS: PARTNERS FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

27.a developing mechanisms that allow NGOs to play their partnership role responsibly and effectively: Mechanisms do not exist, although NGOs are being granted consultative status and are responsible for carrying out certain tasks.

27.b reviewing formal procedures and mechanisms to involve NGOs in decision-making and implementation: No information.

27.c promoting and allowing NGOs to participate in the conception, establishment and evaluation of official mechanisms to review Agenda 21 implementation: It is envisaged that this work will be undertaken as far as possible.

27.d establishing a mutually productive dialogue by 1995 at the national level between NGOs and governments: In accordance with the Constitution social life in Uzbekistan is conducted on the basis of a variety of political institutions, ideologies and opinions; the political parties and public organizations are represented in the Supreme Assembly of the Republic of Uzbekistan. The conditions have been created for NGO activities, and their leaders are included in delegations to the regular meetings of the Heads of State of the countries of Central Asia on the problem of the Aral Sea basin, as well as in the preparation of important governmental decisions.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page): Before independence Uzbekistan had no arrangements for the creation and functioning of NGOs. Their emergence and development became possible during the past five years and they currently play a substantial role in the formation of public opinion and in governmental decisions on the most important social issues.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 28: LOCAL AUTHORITIES' INITIATIVES IN SUPPORT OF AGENDA 21

Ch. 28 LOCAL AUTHORITIES' INITIATIVES IN SUPPORT OF AGENDA 21

28.a encouraging local authorities to implement and monitor programmes that aim to ensure broader participation of women and youth in decision-making: In order to develop initiatives by local authorities the following legislation has been adopted:
- Local State Power Act of 2 September 1993;
- Organization of Civil Self-Government Act of 2 September 1993.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page):
Since the proclamation of its independence Uzbekistan has ratified or acceded to many international conventions, including conventions on environmental protection, and it attends to the practical fulfilment of the commitments arising from these conventions.

Uzbekistan is currently establishing its National Commission on Sustainable Development, whose membership will include individual representatives of local government bodies.

As the Commission's activities develop, it is envisaged that a strategy and concept of sustainable development will be elaborated at the national and local levels with broad involvement in decision-making of public and non-governmental organizations, various population groups and, primarily, women and young people.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 29: STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF WORKERS AND THEIR TRADE UNIONS

Ch. 29 STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF WORKERS AND THEIR TRADE UNIONS.

29.a full participation of workers in implementation and evaluation of A21: Partial participation.

29.b by year 2000: (a) promoting ratification of ILO conventions; (b) establishing bipartite and multipartite mechanisms on safety, health and sustainable development; (c) increasing number of environmental collective agreements; (d) reducing occupational accidents and injuries; (e) increasing workers' education efforts: ILO conventions have been ratified, and workers are partially involved in discussions on A21 issues.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page):

The democratic foundations of social development have been developing more quickly since Uzbekistan's independence, and trade unions represent and defend the socio-economic rights and interests of workers. Trade unions play a leading role in the organization of workers' leisure, and they own a large proportion of the recreation facilities.

As the principal organizations for the protection of workers' rights, trade unions have begun to take a more active part in the discussions on Agenda 21.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 30: STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY

Ch. 30 STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY

30.a increasing the efficiency of resource use, including recycling and reduction of waste per unit of economic output: State policies are in the development stage.

30.b encouraging the concept of stewardship in management and use of natural resources by entrepreneurs:

No information.

30.c increasing number of enterprises that subscribe to and implement sustainable development policies: Large and a few small and medium-sized enterprises have adopted sustainable development policies.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page): UNCED brought about some increase in the interest of business in environmental and sustainable development issues. In spite of a number of positive examples in this area, the economic crisis and the decline in industrial activity have confronted most enterprises with the problem of survival, so that the problems of the environment and sustainable development are not yet priorities for them.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 31: THE SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL COMMUNITY

Ch. 31 SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL COMMUNITY

31.a improving exchange of knowledge between s&t community and the general public: Some efforts are being made in this direction: Several popular publications have been produced, articles have been published in the mass information media, and conferences and seminars have been held.

31.b developing, improving and promoting international acceptance of codes of practice and guidelines related to science and technology and its role in achieving sustainable development: Some efforts have been made.

Brief comments on this chapter not already described in chapter 35 (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page): Although on the whole society's awareness of the importance of development is still not sufficient, by means of the kinds of activity mentioned above scientific and technical circles have been promoting the dissemination of these ideas among the general public and decision-makers, and this activity has facilitated Uzbekistan's transition to sustainable development.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 32: STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF FARMERS

Ch. 32 STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF FARMERS

32.a encouraging sustainable farming practices and technologies:

Uzbekistan is carrying out a policy of State support for farming and the cultivation of private plots and enhancement of their role in providing the country's food supply. An association of small private farmers and plot-holders has been established with a view to coordinating their activities and protecting their rights and interests.

32.b developing a policy that provides incentives among farmers for more sustainable farming practices:

In order to create the conditions for development of the farm movement, Uzbekistan adopted the Small Private Farms Act of 3 July 1992, the Decree of 29 November 1991 on "Further regulation of small private farms and State support for business activities in Uzbekistan", and the Order of 30 December 1991 on "Measures for the further development and consolidation of small private farms in Uzbekistan".

In conjunction with the World Bank the Government is completing the technical and economic justification for a project on the development of small farms in Uzbekistan, which is intended to encourage the involvement of farmers in the development and introduction of sophisticated agricultural technologies in order to enhance the sustainability and efficiency of farm output.

32.c enhancing participation of farmers in design and implementation of sustainable development policies:

Such goals have not been set at the present stage of farming development.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page): The farm movement in Uzbekistan is in the early stages of development. Between 1992 and 1997 90,800 small private farms were established, and 308,200 hectares of irrigated land were transferred to them for their use. At this stage the State's policy consists of providing them with assistance, creating a favourable climate for their operation, and establishing the necessary infrastructure and legal and regulatory framework.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 33: FINANCIAL RESOURCES AND MECHANISMS

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

At present in the Republic of Uzbekistan State monitoring of the environment, natural resource use, and atmospheric pollution, as well as environmental monitoring in general and the solution of other environmental protection problems are the responsibility of the State Environmental Protection Committee and the Principle Hydrometeorlogical Office; expenditures on these activities are identified in the State budget.

These resources are intended for the conduct of environmental monitoring activities and for the organization and maintenance of reserves and national parks.

The State budget also makes provision for coastal-protection and flood-prevention works, repair of dams, cleaning of reservoirs, and maintenance of pumping stations and hydrological installations, and for other measures connected with the building, sustainment, protection and rehabilitation of water facilities and sources and for the maintenance by these means of a good-quality water supply for household and business consumers.

The State finances a specified volume of work in the zone of the Aral Sea crisis.

The federal budget also allocates resources for the elaboration of regional plans and programmes of environmental protection.

Resources for environmental protection measures are allocated directly by the enterprises using the natural resources and polluting the environment.

The resources of local and national environmental protection funds are used to finance individual measures for the construction and re-equipment of environmental protection facilities and the conduct of scientific research and planning studies of an environmental nature.

In 1997 the total amount of funding (from all sources) for all environmental protection measures in Uzbekistan should amount to 2.5 billion som.

Cross-sectoral issues

1. Decision-making structure: No information.

2. Capacity-building/technology issues: No information.

3. Major groups: No information.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/international cooperation: No information.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 34: TRANSFER OF ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND TECHNOLOGY, COOPERATION AND CAPACITY-BUILDING

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

The development of telecommunications in Uzbekistan is based on modern equipment and technology and the aim is to integrate the States members of CIS with overseas countries.

The organization on a self-funding basis of an inter-State environmental information telecommunications system will include the introduction of arrangements for the collection and exchange of environmental information and will facilitate the preparation and distribution of annual reports on the environment and environmental protection activities in the countries members of CIS, as well as helping to expand environmental education in Uzbekistan and developing cooperation with international environmental organizations.

Cross-sectoral issues

1. Decision-making structure: No information.

2. Capacity-building/technology issues: No information.

3. Major groups: No information.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/international cooperation: No information.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 35: SCIENCE FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT ON NATIONAL SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE, RESEARCH NEEDS AND PRIORITIES:

Legislation of the Republic of Uzbekistan concerning scientific activities:

- Section iv "Intellectual property" of the Civil Code of the Republic of Uzbekistan;
- Copyright and Associated Rights Act;
- Inventions, Working Models and Industrial Models Act;
- Information Technology Act;
- Trademarks and Trade Names Act;
- Legal Protection of Computer Programmes and Databases Act;
- Plant and Animal Species Selection Act.

The existing legal framework provides effective protection for items of intellectual property, and stimulates the development of innovations in Uzbekistan in tune with the priorities of sustainable economic and social development and ecological balance.

Work is proceeding on the preparation of an international programme on the study, preservation and rational use of the resources of the deserts of Central Asia. The implementation of these projects is envisaged on the basis of grants from INTAS, INCOCOPERNICUS, the Scientific Committee of NATO, USAID and the McArthur Fund. Funding for a project on study of the mechanisms of degradation of the vegetation cover of the Kyzylkum desert and of strategic means of rehabilitation and protection is being provided by the State Committee for Science and Technology in 1997-1998 as part of an innovatory programme.

The plan is to publish materials connected with problems of the environment and sustainable development in each of the future Bulletins.

STEPS TAKEN TO ENHANCE SCIENTIFIC UNDERSTANDING, IMPROVE LONG TERM SCIENTIFIC ASSESSMENT, BUILDING OF CAPACITY AND CAPABILITY: No information.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
Year
Number of scientists, engineers and technicians engaged in research and experimental development (thousands) 45,73

33,98

35,09

27,31

1992

1993

1994

1995

Total expenditure for research and experimental development (millions of som at prices for the year in question) 3379,5

32304,4

378,2

1033,9

1992

1993

1994

1995

Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 36: PROMOTING EDUCATION, PUBLIC AWARENESS AND TRAINING

NATIONAL PRIORITY: Protection of the environment and gradual re-education of the public to make it aware of the problems of sustainable development.
STATUS REPORT:

(a) Reorientation of education towards sustainable development :

A national training programme is being developed in the context of the emerging concept of Uzbekistan's sustainable development. The proposal is to introduce a guaranteed and compulsory 12-year period of secondary education. Teaching programmes have been created, textbooks are being produced, and a teacher-training system is being organized.

(b) Increasing public awareness :

Public information on matters of sustainable development is provided under the leadership and coordination of the State Environmental Protection Committee.

The State publicizes through the mass information media the advantages and importance of education and informs the public about the problems of sustainable development and environmental protection.

(c) Promoting training :

The Ministry of Higher and Secondary Special Education and the Ministry of National Education have drawn up recommendations for the redesign of teaching courses relating to questions of environmental protection to take into account the problems of Uzbekistan's sustainable development.

In 1997 for the first time the country's higher education institutions will enrol secondary school graduates to take the subject "Environmental protection".

Uzbekistan has established the Coordination Council for Economic Education, headed by the Prime Minister, to promote education and public awareness of sustainable development. The general-education schools have introduced additional subjects relating to economic education.

ROLE OF MAJOR GROUPS: No information.

FINANCING AND COST EVALUATION OF THE LABOUR ACTIVITIES: Funding for the work of re-educating the public in the problems of sustainable development is provided from the resources of the State budget and international programmes.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980 1990 1995

index

Adult literacy rate (%) 97,7 98,6
Male

Female

Mean number of years of general education 9 9,8
% of GDP spent on education 9,9
Females per 100 males in general education 97 97
Women per 100 men in the labour force 89 89
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 37: NATIONAL MECHANISMS AND INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION FOR CAPACITY-BUILDING IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: No information.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 38: INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS

Ch. 38 Brief summary of any particular UN System response affecting this country:

Uzbekistan is cooperating with a number of international organizations in the implementation of Agenda 21.

In conjunction with the Global Environment Facility, UNDP and UNEP a national report is being prepared on the problems of climate change, and a number of measures have been planned in fulfilment of Uzbekistan's obligations and commitments under the conventions on desertification and biodiversity. National plans of action for environmental protection and hygiene are being prepared with grant aid from the World Bank.

The Asian Development Bank has stated its intention to provide technical assistance to improve the organizational structure for environmental protection activities.

In conjunction with the States of Central Asia in 1994 the World Bank, UNDP, other international organizations and donor countries drew up a programme of measures of assistance to solve the problems of the Aral Sea environmental crisis.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 39: INTERNATIONAL LEGAL INSTRUMENTS AND MECHANISMS

Ch. 39 International Legal Instruments are covered under the relevant sectoral chapters. This is a listing of major agreements/conventions entered into and relevant to Agenda 21.

As a subject of international law Uzbekistan is a party to the following United Nations conventions:

Vienna Convention on the Protection of the Ozone Layer (1985) and the Montreal Protocol (1987);

Framework Convention on Climate Change (1992);

Convention on Biological Diversity (1992);

Convention to Combat Desertification in Those Countries Experiencing Serious Drought and/or Desertification, Particularly in Africa (1994).

Uzbekistan is also considering the possibility of acceding to a number of other international agreements and conventions.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 40: INFORMATION FOR DECISION-MAKING

This chapter is also covered under sectoral and other chapters of this profile. The matrix below gives an overview of how national authorities rate available information for decision-making.

Agenda 21 Chapters

Very
good

Good
Some good
data but
many gaps

Poor

Remarks
2. International cooperation and trade
X
3. Combating poverty
X
4. Changing consumption patterns
X
5. Demographic dynamics and sustainability
X
6. Protecting and promoting human health
X
7. Promoting sustainable human settlement development
X
8. Integrating environment and development in decision-making
X
9. Protection of the atmosphere
X
10. Integrated approach to the planning and management of land resources
X
11. Combating deforestation
X
12. Managing fragile ecosystems: combating desertification and drought
X
13. Managing fragile ecosystems: sustainable mountain development
X
14. Promoting sustainable agriculture and rural development
X
15. Conservation of biological diversity
X
16. Environmentally sound management of biotechnology
X
17. Oceans, seas, coastal areas and their living resources
X
18. Protection and rational use of freshwater resources
X
19. Environmentally sound management of toxic chemicals
X
20. Management of hazardous wastes
X
21. Disposal of solid wastes and sewage
X
22. Disposal of radioactive wastes
X
24. Global action for women towards sustainable and equitable development
X
25. Children and youth in sustainable development
X
26. Recognizing and strengthening the role of indigenous people and their communities
X
27. Non-governmental organizations
X
28. Local authorities' initiatives in support of Agenda 21
X
29. Strengthening the role of workers and their trade unions
X
30. Strengthening the role of business and industry
X
31. The scientific and technological community
X
32. Strengthening the role of farmers
X
33. Financial resources and mechanisms
X
34. Transfer of environmentally sound technology, cooperation and capacity-building
X
35. Science for sustainable development
X
36. Promoting education, public awareness and training
X
37. International cooperation for capacity-building
X
38. International institutional arrangements
X
39. International legal instruments
X
40. Information for decision-making
X

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Copyright United Nations
Department of Economic and Social Affairs
Comments and suggestions: esa@un.org
1 November 1997