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National Implementation of Agenda 21

MALAWI

COUNTRY PROFILE
IMPLEMENTATION OF AGENDA 21:
REVIEW OF PROGRESS MADE SINCE THE
UNITED NATIONS CONFERENCE ON
ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT, 1992

Information Provided by the Government of Malawi to the
United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development
Fifth Session
7-25 April 1997
New York

United Nations Department for Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development
Division for Sustainable Development
The Information contained in this Country Profile is also available on the World Wide Web, as follows:
http://www.un.org/dpcsd/earthsummit

MALAWI

This country profile has been provided by:

Name of Ministry/Office: Ministry of Research and Environmental Affairs

Date: 4/7/1997

Submitted by: Zipangani M. Vokhiwa, PhD

Mailing address: P.O. Box 30745, Lilongwe 3, Malawi

Telephone: (265) 781-111

Telefax: (265) 781-487

E-mail: ZVokhiwa@Unima.wn.apc.org

Note from the Secretariat: An effort has been made to present all country profiles within a common format, with an equal number of pages. However, where Governments have not provided information for the tables appended to Chapters 4 and 17, those tables have been omitted entirely in order to reduce the overall length of the profile and save paper. Consequently, there may be some minor inconsistencies among the formats of the different country profiles.

All statistics are rendered as provided by the respective Governments.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACRONYMS
OVERVIEW
FACT SHEET
AGENDA 21 CHAPTERS
2. International cooperation to accelerate sustainable development in developing countries and related domestic policies
3. Combating poverty
4. Changing consumption patterns
5. Demographic dynamics and sustainability
6. Protecting and promoting human health
7. Promoting sustainable human settlement development
8. Integrating environment and development in decision-making
9. Protection of the atmosphere
10. Integrated approach to the planning and management of land resources
11. Combating deforestation
12. Managing fragile ecosystems: combating desertification and drought
13. Managing fragile ecosystems: sustainable mountain development
14. Promoting sustainable agriculture and rural development
15. Conservation of biological diversity
16. Environmentally sound management of biotechnology
17. Protection of the oceans, all kinds of seas, including enclosed and semi-enclosed seas, and coastal areas and the protection, rational use and development of their living resources
18. Protection of the quality and supply of freshwater resources: application of integrated approaches to the development, management and use of water resources
19. Environmentally sound management of toxic chemicals, including prevention of illegal international traffic in toxic and dangerous products
20. Environmentally sound management of hazardous wastes, including prevention of illegal international traffic in hazardous wastes
21. Environmentally sound management of solid wastes and sewage-related issues
22. Safe and environmentally sound management of radioactive wastes
23-32. Major groups
33. Financial resources and mechanisms
34. Transfer of environmentally sound technology, cooperation and capacity-building
35. Science for sustainable development
36. Promoting education, public awareness and training
37. National mechanisms and international cooperation for capacity-building in developing countries
38. International institutional arrangements
39. International legal instruments and mechanisms
40. Information for decision-making

ACRONYMS

APELL Awareness and Preparedness for Emergencies at Local Level
CFC chlorofluorocarbon
CGIAR Consultative Group on International Agriculture Research
CILSS Permanent Inter-State Committee on Drought Control in the Sahel
EEZ exclusive economic zone
ECA Economic Commission for Africa
ECE Economic Commission for Europe
ECLAC Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean
ELCI Environmental Liaison Centre International
EMINWA environmentally sound management of inland water
ESCAP Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific
ESCWA Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia
FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
GATT General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
GAW Global Atmosphere Watch (WMO)
GEF Global Environment Facility
GEMS Global Environmental Monitoring System (UNEP)
GEMS/WATER Global Water Quality Monitoring Programme
GESAMP Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Pollution
GIPME Global Investigation of Pollution in Marine Environment (UNESCO)
GIS Geographical Information System
GLOBE Global Legislators Organisation for a Balanced Environment
GOS Global Observing System (WMO/WWW)
GRID Global Resource Information Database
GSP generalized system of preferences
HIV human immunodeficiency virus
IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency
IAP-WASAD International Action Programme on Water and Sustainable Agricultural Development
IARC International Agency for Research on Cancer
IBSRAM International Board of Soil Resources and Management
ICCA International Council of Chemical Associations
ICES International Council for the Exploration of the Sea
ICPIC International Cleaner Production Information Clearing House
ICSC International Civil Service Commission
ICSU International Council of Scientific Unions
IEEA Integrated environmental and economic accounting
IFAD International Fund for Agricultural Development
IGADD Intergovernmental Authority for Drought and Development
IGBP International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (ICSU)
IGBP/START International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme/Global Change System for Analysis, Research and Training
ILO International Labour Organisation
IMF International Monetary Fund
IMO International Maritime Organization
INFOTERRA International Environment Information system (UNEP)
IOC Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission
IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
IPCS International Programme on Chemical Safety
IPM integrated pest management
IRPTC International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals
ITC International Tin Council
ITTO International Tropical Timber Organization
IUCN International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources
MARPOL International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships
OECD Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development
PGRFA plant genetic resources for agriculture
PIC prior informed consent procedure
SADCC South African Development Co-ordination Conference
SARD sustainable agriculture and rural development
UNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
UNDP United Nations Development Programme
UNDRO Office of the United Nations Disaster Relief Coordinator
UNEP United Nations Environment Programme
UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
UNFPA United Nations Population Fund
UNICEF United Nations Children's Fund
UNIDO United Nations Industrial Development Organization
UNU United Nations University
WCP World Climate Programme (WMO/UNEP/ICSU/UNESCO)
WFC World Food Council
WHO World Health Organization
WMO World Meteorological Organization
WWF World Wide Fund for Nature (also called World Wildlife Fund)
WWW World Weather Watch (WMO)

OVERVIEW

Following the Rio Earth Summit in June 1992, Malawi embarked on the development of a National Environmental Action Plan (NEAP) process in September 1992. The NEAP process which was highly participatory involving Civil Society, the private sector and other individuals was finally launched in December, 1994, by the Vice President of the Republic of Malawi, Hon. Justin Malewezi.

In February 1996, the National Environmental Policy (NEP) was endorsed by Parliament. Another legal instrument which was enacted by Parliament was the Environmental Management Act in June 1996. This act has been in force since August 1996. Along with the spirit of Agenda 21 was the development of Environmental Impact Assessment guidelines for use by prospective developers so that development projects of various sizes are not detrimental to the environment.

Further, an Environmental Education and Communication Strategy has been developed with the main objective of creating public awareness in both formal and non-formal sectors of the country. Under the UNDP Capacity 21 programme, devolution and decentralization of the decision-making process to local communities is underway.

As a signatory to a number of conventions, agreements and protocols under UNCED, Malawi has several national committees put in place to deal with various sectors stipulated in both Agenda 21 and other national development strategies. Amongst the national committees are: the National Biodiversity Committee, the Global Environmental Facility (GEF) National Steering Committee, the Malawi Wetlands National Steering Committee, the Drought and Desertification Steering Committee, the Population and Family Planning Committee, etc. The national committees are composed of members from other line government agencies and stakeholders, NGOs, the private sector and civil society. For example, the Traditional Herbalist Association of Malawi is a member of the National Biodiversity Committee.

Most of the activities dealing with sustainable development in the country are coordinated by the Ministry of Research and Environmental Affairs which has been in place since 1994. Prior to that this entity was a Department of Research and Environmental Affairs under the Office of the President and Cabinet.

Currently, a National Committee on the Environment (NCE) has been put in place as the highest advisory wing to the Cabinet with technical advice from the Technical Committee for the Environment (TCE) comprised of Principal Secretaries from various ministries involved in environment and other members from NGOs, the private sector and General Managers of para-statals, with a major mandate for ensuring that the provisions of the Environmental Management Act are fully adhered to.

In the spirit of Rio to integrate economic growth, social development and sustainable environmental management, Malawi launched the Vision 2020 Programme in 1996. This programme aims at making every Malawian look at sustainable development as we head to the year 2020.

FACT SHEET

NAME OF COUNTRY: MALAWI

1. Name of Key National Sustainable Development Coordination Mechanism(s)/Council(s).

Ministry of Research and Environmental Affairs

Contact point (Name, Title, Office): The Principal Secretary

Telephone: (265) 781-111

Fax: (265) 781-487

e-mail: ZVokhiwa@Unima.wn.apc.org

Mailing address: Lingazi House, P.O. Box 30745, Lilongwe 3, Malawi, Africa

2. Membership/Composition/Chairperson: Chair: National Council on the Environment (NCE)

Line ministries, departments, NGOs, private sector

2a. List of ministries and agencies involved:

Ministries of Agriculture and Livestock Development: Natural Resources; Economic Development and Planning; Treasury; Justice and Attorney General; Energy and Mining; Local Government and Rural Development; Office of the President and Cabinet; Education, Housing and Physical Planning; Irrigation and Water Development; Transport and Civil Aviation; Customs; Women and Children Affairs, Community and Social Welfare; Health and Population; and Labour.

2b. Names of para-statal bodies and institutions involved, as well as participating of academic and private sector bodies:

University of Malawi; National Herbarium and Botanical Gardens; Malawi Industrial Research and Technology Development Centre (MIRTDC); The Tobacco Association of Malawi; Agriculture Research and Extension Trust (ARET); The Malawi Investment Promotion Agency (MIPA); Water Boards; Centre for Social Research; The Chamber of Commerce; The Tea Research Association of Malawi.

2c. Names of non-governmental organizations involved:

Coordination Unit for the Rehabilitation of the Environment (CURE); AFRI-CARE; Concern Universal; Save the Children; Christian Service Committee (CSC).

3. Mandate role of above mechanism/council:

To coordinate all environmental matters in the country to ensure that economic development does not compromise sustainable environmental management.

4. If available, attach a diagram (organization chart) showing national coordination structure and linkages between ministries:

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 2: INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION TO ACCELERATE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES AND RELATED DOMESTIC POLICIES (with special emphasis on TRADE)

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: Malawi has bilateral and multilateral trade relations with a number of countries based on the Most Favoured Nations Principle, within the Southern African Development Community (SADC) and the Common Market for East and Central Africa (COMESA). These trade relations involve twelve Southern African countries and some of the Eastern countries.

Under these trade measures, issues on export bonus vouchers, a dual exchange rate system and a common currency has been put in place to stimulate trade in the region.

In addition, Malawi has adopted a liberal trade and investment policy to stimulate economic development through invigorating private sector participation, make domestic products competitive, diversify trade and generate employment.

International trade fairs have been attended and organised by Malawi which serve to improve reactions and highlight products and processes which contribute towards sustainable living and encourage investment in Malawi in addition to the promotion of sustainable development through trade liberalization. However, to date, few domestic policies have been formulated and put in place which are designed to accelerate sustainable development through trade. Through various discussions between the Ministry of Trade and Industry and members of SADC, COMESA and others participating in WTO and UNCTAD initiatives, Malawi is expecting to develop strategies which will integrate trade and environmental affairs with concrete policy formulation and proposals.

As a member of CITES, the implementation of this Convention in terms of permit control, involves regulations and issuing of permits, and the ongoing training of nature conservators and the staff of general investigations, special investigations, import and export sections, which enforce the requirements of the international convention. In order to fully improve the trade sector and enforce the requirements of the associated conventions and agreements, Malawi plans to carry out public awareness campaigns and train its personnel so that errors are minimized, including monitoring function at major airports to regulate the in- and outflow of wildlife products, exports of domestic products and import of capital goods and products.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: Environmental concerns are being looked at in the process of developing and up-dating integrated national and sectoral policies, plans and programmes. Malawi is currently chairman of SADC and COMESA through the Ministry of Trade and Industry and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: Under Capacity 21 initiatives, every effort is being made to develop decision-making at the local community level. In order to utilize the labour of the country, labour intensive technologies with prior environmental impact assessment are being adopted. There is also a massive use of renewable resources and training of personnel in trade and nature conservation.

3. Major Groups: Forestry; National Parks and Wildlife; Education; Health; Women; Children Affairs and Community Services; Economic Planning and Development; Energy; Agriculture; NGOs and the Chamber of Commerce; Local communities.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: Within SADC and COMESA, Malawi actively participates in trade matters through the two regional institutions working groups and project teams. As a chair to COMESA, Malawi is an active partner within the Southern Africa region.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 3: COMBATING POVERTY

NATIONAL PRIORITY: Poverty reduction is a national priority
STATUS REPORT:

Focus of national strategy

Poverty in Malawi is exceptionally high and is part of the nexus of high population growth and environmental degradation leading to low levels of living standards in the country. Poverty afflicts million of people in Malawi, especially women and rural dwellers. Large-scale unemployment in the formal sector of the economy exists.

The key component of the national strategy is the promotion of medium and small enterprises (MSEs) and informal sector enterprises; there is a comprehensive policy on medium and small enterprises developed by the Ministry of Commerce, which includes comprehensive strategies on development of infrastructure, entrepreneurship and skills development, technology support, credit and technical advisory services, market skills development, credit and resources. All measures to be linked with appropriate institutional development programmes to support medium and small enterprises and informal sector enterprises.

The overall strategy of the government is to increase both economic growth and investments in priority areas, such as agriculture, industries and rural infrastructure in particular, education, health, human resources, especially for women and youth development, as well as free primary education for girls, large scale training and credit provisions for employing women and unemployed youth. Government and NGOs are collaborating to combat poverty.

Highlight activities aimed at the poor and linkages to the environment

Main programmes at work are:

1. A Poverty Alleviation Fund has been established in the Office of the President and Cabinet with the main purpose for the poor mass to access some financial resources to address unemployment and save the environment in the final analysis.

2. The Malawi Social Action Fund (MASAF), a World Bank supported project, aims at providing financial support to local communities for projects that aim at addressing social and economic strategies for reduction of poverty and unemployment.

3. Different ministries, departments and NGOs have their own programmes which help to increase employment opportunities for income generation.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: Ministries, departments, NGOs and the private sector are all part of the process to eradicate poverty in Malawi. Decision-making structures for poverty alleviation and environmental improvements includes highest political commitments at both ministerial and local government level.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: Capacities of the government organizations, NGOs and the local communities have to be developed and enhanced. Public awareness through formal and non-formal means will be useful in this respect. Programmes on capacity-building for nutrition workers, extension workers, women and youth are in place.

3. Major Groups: Major groups receiving assistance in this sector are local communities and the unemployed, marginal farmers, the rural and urban poor, unemployed youth and other vulnerable groups.

4. Finance: The government finances poverty alleviation programmes through its development budget, and a little bit from revenue. The NGOs, the private sector and other interested groups have their own resources for addressing poverty alleviation in the country.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: Malawi participates in all regional and international fora dealing with poverty alleviation with the hope that from this participation, programmes and infrastructure can be developed to provide job opportunities and other economic benefits to the country and its neighbours.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1985
1990
1992
Latest 199_
Unemployment (%)
Population living in absolute poverty
Public spending on social sector %
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 4: CHANGING CONSUMPTION PATTERNS

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

National policy objectives/focus

No policy has been drafted yet, although a number of sub-committees are in place in various sectors of the government and in NGO sectors to address the issue of consumption patterns in the country.

Although consumers in Malawi may seem not to be aware of their environment or ways in which sustainability could be achieved, it is the nexus of poverty, high population growth, environmental degradation and the concomitant lack of alternatives that the Malawian has difficulty in addressing sustainable consumption patterns. However, efforts have been made and are being put in place to monitor consumption of energy, food security, the use of appropriate technologies for energy and production, and to modernize traditional industries. An NGO, the Consumer Association of Malawi, has been established to monitor consumption patterns in the country with support of the government.

National targets

The Ministry of Energy and Mining, the Malawi Industrial Research and Technical Centre and other associated organizations have been mandated to work expeditiously in the area of energy for the masses in the country which should include the use of biogas, solar energy, multi-fuel oven using sawdust wood, mai-bawo (an energy-saving stove) and probably establish and monitor eco-labelling through the mandate of the Malawi Bureau of Standards and the Consumer Association of Malawi.

Of major importance could be the establishment of kerosene oil depots in places where regular energy supply for people can be ensured without harming the forests. This initiative will have to go side by side with mass production of kerosene stoves throughout the country.

Mass public awareness campaigns in this area will be Malawi's strategy.

Legislation needs to be established to control and encourage consumers regarding the use of alternative energy sources which do not contribute to deforestation and production of greenhouse gases as it is the case at the moment. Workshops, committees, media coverage, waste recycling and waste re-use initiatives are just beginning to be understood by the masses.

Appropriate technologies including cleaner production technology through capacity building will serve to reduce the use of non-renewable resources, reduce the consumption of environmentally sensitive materials and reduce emissions and waste. Public awareness campaigns are to be beefed up together with some suggestions for alternatives. The Ministries of Energy and Mining, Trade and Industry, Local Government, Economic Planning and Development, Women and Children Affairs, Research and Environmental Affairs, the Malawi Bureau of Standards and the Consumer Association of Malawi are working hand in hand in these initiatives to move towards "green consumerism".

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The Ministries of Energy and Mining, Trade and Industry, Forestry and Natural Resources, Economic Planning and Development, Women and Children Affairs, Research and Environmental Affairs, the Malawi Bureau of Standards and the Consumer Association of Malawi need to constantly meet and then develop a national strategy and the associated legislation. The Malawi Industrial Research and Technology Development Centre (MIRTDC) has to be a full partner.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: Capacity building takes part through pilot projects in the use of cleaner alternative technologies in production, formal and non-formal training and study tours around the region.

Public awareness campaigns have been carried out with the Malawi Bureau of Standards and the Consumer Association of Malawi to inform the public about what needs to be done in this area. The Ministries of Energy, Trade and Industry need to be on the forefront.

3. Major Groups: Major target groups are industries and households. Contributors in this initiative include the Government, para-statals, NGOs, donor agencies and the local communities.

4. Finance: Funding for alternative energy programmes has been mostly from donor agencies. Government contribution has been in kind. THe Government contribution has to be increased if sustainability is to be achieved in this area.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: On energy, there are initiatives through the GEF and UNDP to establish an Energy Centre in Malawi. Malawi belongs to other energy and consumption patterns fora within SADC and other international organisations.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1985
1990
1992
Latest 199_
GDP per capita (current US$)
Real GDP growth (%)
Annual energy consumption per capita (Kg. of oil equivalent per capita)
Motor vehicles in use per 1000 inhabitants
Other data

Government policies affecting consumption and production.

1. Goals and Agents (Stakeholders)

Indicate with a (X) those agents which your Governments policies are meant most to influence.

Agents

Goals

Producers
Local
authorities
Central
Government
Households
Civil society
Material efficiency
x
x
x
Energy efficiency:
Transport
x
x
x
x
Housing
x
x
x
x
x
Other
x
x
x
Waste:
Reduce
x
x
x
x
x
Reuse
x
x
x
x
x
Recycle
x
x
x
x
x

Comments:

2. Means & Measures and Agents (Stakeholders)

Indicate with an (R) those agents who assume primary responsibility for any of the policy measures indicated; indicate with an (I) the agents for which the impact is expected to be especially significant.

Agents

Means & Measures

Producers
Local
authorities
Central
Government
House-
holds
Civil
Society
Improving understanding and analysis
Information and education (e.g., radio/TV/press)
R
R
R
I
I
Research
R
R
I
Evaluating environmental claims
I
R
R
I
I
Form partnerships
I
R
R
I
Applying tools for modifying behaviour
Community based strategies
R
R
I
I
Social incentives/disincentives (e.g., ecolabelling)
R
R
I
I
Regulatory instruments
I
R
R
I
Economic incentives/disincentives
I
R
R
I
Voluntary agreements of producer responsibility for

aspects of product life cycle

R
R
I
Provision of enabling facilities and infrastructure

(e.g., transportation alternatives, recycling)

I
R
R
I
I
Procurement policy
I
R
R
I
Monitoring, evaluating and reviewing performance
Action campaign
I
R
I
I
Other (specify)

Comments:

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 5: DEMOGRAPHIC DYNAMICS AND SUSTAINABILITY

NATIONAL PRIORITY: Very high
STATUS REPORT: Population growth and fertility level are too high in the Government's view, and interventions are used to lower the rates to be compatible with the attainment of social and economic goals.

(a) Malawi adopted an explicit and comprehensive National Population Policy in March 1994. It is an integrated part of the country's social and economic development plan. The strategies for implementing the policy include the following areas:
- interrelationships between population, sustainable economic growth and sustainable development;
- population growth and structure;
- population distribution.

(b) Development of Policy and Plan of Action for Women under the NPP.

A coordinated action plan for the implementation of the policy has been formulated and finalised in 1996.

(c) An appropriate infrastructure for the implementation of the population programme is in place, made up of the Population and Human Resources Development Unit (PHRDU), the Demographic Training Unit in the University of Malawi, the National Family Welfare Council of Malawi and a number of line ministries, department agencies, and NGOs. However, these efforts have suffered from limited institutional capacity at various levels.

(d) There is an increased provision of family planning services through an increased budget for population activities in the 1996/97 financial year.

(e) The country is mounting a mass awareness campaign on population, development and poverty amongst parliamentarians and Cabinet Ministers, Principal Secretaries, chief executives and communities:
- Parliamentarians and Cabinet Ministers (November 1995)
- Principal Secretaries and chief executives (May 1996)
- Traditional Leaders (October 1996).

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information.

3. Major Groups: No information.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1990
1993
Latest 199_
Population (Thousands) mid-year estimates
Annual rate of increase (1990-1993)
Surface area (Km2)
Population density (people/Km2)
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 6: PROTECTING AND PROMOTING HUMAN HEALTH

NATIONAL PRIORITY: High, aiming to raise the level of health of all Malawians through the prevention and control of common illnesses
STATUS REPORT:

(a) A National Health Policy which emphasises among other approaches the strengthening of preventive and promotive Maternal and Child Health Services, and the management of common illnesses through the strengthening of special disease control programmes was in place in 1995.

(b) A Safe Motherhood Initiative (SMI) was launched in October 1996. The SMI's goal is to reduce the high maternal mortality rate in the country by providing circumstances under which child-bearing women have a choice as to when they want to become pregnant, and when they do become pregnant, have access to trained antenatal and essential obstetric care.

(c) An "African 2000" Water and Sanitation Initiative was launched in October 1996. Its aim is to provide safe water and sound sanitation practices to unserved communities in Malawi.

(d) There has been a decentralisation of services to strengthen the quality and quantity of health care at the peripheral level through the Primary Health Care (PHC) approach continues.

(e) Efforts to effectively balance the financial allocation between curative and preventive health care are under serious discussion.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure:
- Controller of preventive health services,
- section heads on preventive health,
- regional structures on preventive health.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues:
- Off-shore training of programme managers and other staff,
- workshops and seminars,
- in-country training courses for specialists.

3. Major Groups:
- Ministry of Health and Population,
- Christian Hospital Association of Malawi Units,
- NGOs,
- community support groups.

4. Finance: Ministry of Health and Population, UNFPA, WHO, World Bank, UNICEF, European Union, ODA, FFW, JICA, GTZ, USAID, International Association for Community Health, regional health organisations and other NGOs.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: See under FINANCE.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
1992
Life expectancy at birth

Male

Female

51.7

51.0

52.4

Infant mortality (per 1000 live births) 134
Maternal mortality rate (per 100000 live births) 620
Access to safe drinking water (% of population) U: 87

R: 57

Access to sanitation services (% of population) U: 67

R: 51

Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 7: PROMOTING SUSTAINABLE HUMAN SETTLEMENT DEVELOPMENT

NATIONAL PRIORITY: Very high
STATUS REPORT:
- Malawi created the Ministry of Housing.
- In May 1996, Malawi compiled the "Urban and Housing Indicators for Malawi Cities".
- In May 1996, Malawi developed the National Plan of Action for the Period 1996-2000. The programmes in this plan bear directly on poverty alleviation as they seek to give security of land tenure to the poor, to promote income generating activities, to broaden access to affordable housing finances and to support the delivery of integrated infrastructure services.
- The Ministry of Housing is formulating a National Housing Policy. The Government wants to move away from being a provider of shelter and related services, but continuing to provide an enabling environment. The Government is currently encouraging home ownership.

Urban Land Market:

- Creation of dynamic, efficient and equitable urban land markets.
- Improving access to land by low income households and vulnerable groups.

Housing Finance:


- Improving competition in the conventional housing finance market.
- Improving access to housing finance for low and medium income groups.

Finance for infrastructure:

- Create a viable financial base for the local authorities.
- Improve cost recovery for new infrastructure.
- Encourage participation in infrastructure provision by private development.

Construction industry

- Build the capacity of small contractors.
- Expand the supply and use of alternative local building materials.

Rural Housing:

- Improve the quality of rural housing,
- Improve the performance of the rural housing programme.

Community Participation:

- ensure the sustainability of housing programmes,
- promote leadership capacities within communities.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure:

The Ministry of Housing is in charge of policy and coordination of housing issues.

The Ministry of Lands and Valuation is in charge for land policy and land allocation.

The Ministry of Physical Planning and Surveys is in charge of enforcing planning standards.

Local authorities are in charge of the provision of human settlements related issues.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues:

The focus is on the Ministries of Housing, Lands and Valuation, Research and Environmental Affairs, Physical Planning and Surveys, local authorities, local contractors, NGOs involved in human settlements development and communities.

3. Major Groups:

The Ministries of Housing, Lands and Valuation, Physical Planning, Research and Environmental Affairs, building sections (work and supply), the Malawi Housing Corporation, Habitat for Humanity, Christian Services Committee, New Building Society, Maone Parks, Malawi Development Corporation, individuals and donor community.

4. Finance: There is still lack of competition on the mortgage market. Hence, access to housing finance by low and medium income groups is almost non-existent. Finance for infrastructure is almost not available.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: Malawi is a member of Shelter-Afrique and the African Housing Fund. Malawi also benefits from the World Bank and other UN bodies like UNDP, UNCDF, UNICEF. There is also bilateral cooperation with countries such as Japan, USA, UK, Germany among others.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1990
1995
Urban population in % of total population 11 13
Annual rate of growth of urban population (%) 7 (1987) 6.7
Largest city population (in % of total population) 4.17 (1987) 6.36
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 8: INTEGRATING ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT IN DECISION-MAKING

(See pages vii and viii at the beginning of the profile)

NATIONAL PRIORITY: High
STATUS REPORT: The National Council for the Environment (NCE) has been established through the Environmental Management Act to recommend to the Cabinet, through the Minister of Research and Environmental Affairs, measures necessary for the integration of environmental considerations into all aspects of economic planning and development, taking into consideration that harmonisation exists between activities, plans and policies with the protection and management of the environment and the conservation and sustainable utilization of natural resources to promote and coordinate the implementation of sustainable development in accordance with Agenda 21.

Currently, the above principles are used in the development of projects for the Public Sector Investment Programme (PSIP). Specifically programmes and projects are screened to see their impact on poverty alleviation; environmental impacts are also taken into account in project appraisals.

The national strategy focuses on influencing the interaction between the population and the nation's natural resources. This is reflected in the distribution of investment in economic, social and infrastructural activities, the achievement of rapid and sustainable economic growth and development, and reduction in the instability of welfare for both the individual and the whole nation.

In order to achieve these three objectives, focus will be on increasing the productivity of the natural resource base which includes land, forests, minerals, fish, tourism and natural environment. However, this will only be able to reverse income and employment to a small proportion of the population; hence some of the balance will have to be taken up by provision of economic, social and administrative services in the public sector. Thus public sector investment through PSIP will have to play a key role in the achievement of development.

The PSIP, apart from providing a framework for planning and scheduling of investment projects in line with long-term sustainable development goals and objectives, serves as an instrument for integrating poverty alleviation strategies into macro economic policies. The achievement of the goals is through the focusing of policies, programmes and projects to reflect positive impacts on the population, especially through sustainable utilisation of their natural resources base.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure (please also refer to the fact sheet): There is a 10-year planning document (1987-1996) which stipulates the direction of development and priority areas. This document is then translated into medium term policies and plans which is further disaggregated into PSIP and a poverty framework paper at the macro level and then into development to ensure that sectoral policies, programmes and projects complement each other and minimize policy conflict.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: Building capacity for economic planning and development to carry out its responsibility efficiently and effectively is crucial and as such capacity building had to be a continuous process. Otherwise, problems of lack of capacity will crop up. This capacity has to be for policy analysis to see the impact of one sectoral policy on the rest of the policies in addition to the overall sectoral policies in the national development goals and objectives. To achieve these objectives of being able to carry out a crucial policy analysis, there is a need to have a well developed data base with a good monitoring system. To this effect the poverty alleviation programme has launched a poverty monitoring system which is hoped to provide the necessary data base and also signals as to where policy is lagging behind.

3. Major Groups: No information.

4. Finance: A good policy analysis requires careful research for the realities apart from availability of data. To this end, financial resources are very critical if both sustainable poverty alleviation and environmental concerns are to be integrated into the overall development goals and objectives. Currently, because of financial constraints, less than optimal analysis is being carried out, but there is room for more work and efforts in order to achieve sustainable development.

The management of the country's economy through the integration of environment and development in decision-making is undertaken by the Government through its own budget and development funds utilizing a number of statutory controls and quasi-public institutions such as the Reserve Bank of Malawi. Although there are a number of controls on private sector investment, foreign trade, business location, retail pricing and employee wages and working conditions, the current trend in the democratic Malawi is to liberalize trade and investment to curb poverty and unemployment. The overall objective is to continue to stimulate balanced economic activities, protect consumers and employees and most of all promote sustainable development.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 9: PROTECTION OF THE ATMOSPHERE

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

The Montreal Protocol was acceded to in 1991, the London and the Copenhagen Amendments were ratified in 1994. The latest report to the Montreal Protocol Secretariat was submitted in December 1996.

The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change was signed in 1992 and ratified in 1994. The latest report to the UNFCCC Secretariat was submitted in 1996.

Additional comments relevant to this chapter

In accordance with the requirements of the UNFCCC, Malawi is conducting a Climate Change Country Study which consists of three areas:

(a) a greenhouse gas inventory,
(b) vulnerability and adaptation studies (V&A),
(c) a study on mitigation greenhouse gases concentrations.

The greenhouse gas inventory was produced in October 1996. The V&A study is still underway. A preliminary report was produced in September 1996 and is undergoing peer review.

Malawi is also an active member of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and participated actively at COP meetings and sessions of its subsidiary bodies.

In respect of the Montreal Protocol, the Meteorological Department operates a Background Air Pollution Monitoring Station at Lilongwe Airport where atmospheric turbidity and chemical composition of rainwater are monitored.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: Ministries of Research and Environmental Affairs, Transport and Civil Aviation, Natural Resources, Agriculture and Livestock Development.

The Ministry of Research and Environmental Affairs (MOREA) is the coordinating ministry (executive agency) to whom two line agencies, the Meteorological Department and the Department of national Parks and Wildlife, report as lead institutions.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: The focus is on training and developing institutional linages between Malawi, EPA, USA and the Early Warning Weather Station in Harare, Zimbabwe. The Climate Change Country Study Project has capacity-building and technology-transfer components.Several regional and international training workshops, in which Malawi participated, have been conducted. The country has also benefited from the use of the IPCC in compiling its national greenhouse inventory.

3. Major Groups: Farmers, communities, industry, motorists and city councils.

4. Finance: The US Government is funding the climate change country studies through the EPA. UNDP intends to fund remaining activities of the studies, such as mitigation, under the umbrella "enabling activities".

5. Regional/International Cooperation: Malawi works with the Early Warning Weather System in Harare, Zimbabwe, and with EPA in the USA. Through regional and international workshops there is an exchange of data and information among countries participating in country study projects.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 199-
CO2 emissions (eq. million tons) 20.5
SOx " N/A
NOx " 0.029
CH4 " 0.34
CO emissions " 0.93
NO emissions " 0.35
CO removals (sinks) " 1.30
Consumption of ozone depleting substances (Tons) 220 200
Expenditure on air pollution abatement in US$ equivalents (million) N/A
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 10: INTEGRATED APPROACH TO THE PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT OF LAND RESOURCES

NATIONAL PRIORITY: Very, very high
STATUS REPORT:

- Controlling soil erosion and land degradation
- Pilot agro-forestry programme for poverty alleviation, funded by the European Union
- Addressing soil erosion with agro-forestry interventions in Blantyre, Salima, Lilongwe, Liwonde, Shire Valley
- Development of land use policy by the Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock Development has been completed and is ready to be implemented at various levels.

Related policies:

- Forestry Policy
- Water Resources Policy
- Land use utilization and catchment protection
- Rehabilitation and reclamation of degraded lands

The Government has established the Presidential Land Commission to look into matters related to land tenure as it affects rural and urban communities, the large estate sector, and finally at linkages and synergies of land matters in relation to the promotion of initiatives for sustainable development, taking into account the social, economic and sustainable environmental management in the country.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure:

- Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock Development
- Ministry of Research and Environmental Affairs
- Ministry of Natural Resources
- Ministry of Irrigation and the Water Department
- University of Malawi

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues:

- Training at the Land Husbandry Training Centre
- Training in land utilization, agro-forestry, land use planning, soil conservation
- Training and institutional development for local communities, NGOs and line agencies

3. Major Groups:

- local communities
- farmers
- NGOs, the Coordination Unit for the Rehabilitation of the Environment (CURE)

4. Finance:

- Government
- European Union
- SADC-ELMS

5. Regional/International Cooperation:

- SADC Environment and Land Management Sector (ELMS)
- Southern African Regional Centre for Rehabilitation and Utilization of Soil (SARCCUS)
- Other international, bilateral and multilateral cooperation.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 11: COMBATING DEFORESTATION

NATIONAL PRIORITY: Very, very high
STATUS REPORT: The Forestry Department changed its policy to manage forests in cooperation with communities. This is being emphasized in both forest reserves and forests on customary land. Under a wood energy project in the urban areas of Blantyre, Zomba and Lilongwe, 278 tree nurseries were established. Seedlings were sold to farmers at subsidised rates. There is now a policy change, whereby communities and NGOs produce their own seedlings for forest plantation establishment.

The 5th country programme was redirected towards natural resources management. Modules were funded by FAO, UNDP and the Government of Malawi, including:
- learning by earning,
- a tree for every child,
- energy efficient stoves,
- food for work (reforestation funded by WFP).

Promotion of community forestry management is an important component of the strategy to combat degradation of natural woodland by those who rely on fuelwood for energy. Education and training are now being used to sensitize people on afforestation.

A Malawi Forestry Policy has been carried out, and the Forestry Act is now under review. Malawi has signed and ratified the Convention to Combat Desertification in June 1996, making it a priority to combat desertification and drought in the country.

Way Forward:

Linking the Forestry Policy with national water and energy policies and other sectoral policies and initiatives.

Promotion of tree planting and agro-forestry under the co-management policy.

Other attempts - production of softwood charcoal from Chikangawa and Mulanje. This met with mixed success.

Enforcement of policies and strategies through local community participation and decision-making is what all line agencies and stakeholders plan to do at premise.

Other interventions:

- Rural electrification programme under the Ministry of Energy and Mining as a social service.
- Use of biogas technology being promoted by the Malawi Industrial Research Technology and Development Centre.
- Use of maiabo-stoves for energy efficiency promoted by the Malawi Industrial Research Technology and Development Centre.
- Under the energy programme of UNDP, Malawi has developed and submitted a project proposal under the National
Sustainable and Renewable Energy Programme to GEF, which aims at enhancing the sustainable use of and access to

energy in the country, focusing on renewables through the establishment of a Council, a Technical Committee, a

Knowledge Centre and an Energy Secretariat. Leveraged additional resources towards the implementation of the

components of the project include the World Bank, Danida, the Commonwealth Secretariat, NORAD, UNITAR,

UNESCO, UNICEF, SADC/FINESSE.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: Ministries of Natural Resources, Energy and Mining, Women, Children Affairs and Social Welfare, Local Government and Rural Development, MIRTOC, the Electricity Supply Commission of Malawi (ESCOM), NGOs and the private sector.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: Funding by UNDP, UNHCR and the Government of Malawi for training forestry staff on the new forestry act and new forestry policy.

The Ministry of Energy and Mining has undertaken surveys in:
- biomass and marketing,
- urban energy consumption.
These surveys will provide baseline data on how much firewood/charcoal is being consumed mainly in the major urban areas.

3. Major Groups: Local communities, NGOs, para-statals and the private sector.

4. Finance: USAID, ODA, UNDP, GEF, NORAD, DANIDA, UNESCO, UNITAR, Commonwealth Secretariat, the World Bank, SADC/FINESSE.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: See under FINANCE.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1985
1990
Latest 199-
Forest Area (Km2)
Protected forest area
Roundwood production (solid volume of roundwood without bark in mill m3)
Deforestation rate (Km2/annum)
Reforestation rate (Km2/annum)
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 12: MANAGING FRAGILE ECOSYSTEMS: COMBATING DESERTIFICATION AND DROUGHT

NATIONAL PRIORITY: Very high
STATUS REPORT:

The International Convention to Combat Desertification in Countries Experiencing Drought and/or Desertification

Particularly in Africa was signed in 1995 and ratified in 1996.

Additional comments relevant to this chapter

The Department of Forestry in the Ministry of Natural Resources is the chair of the National Desertification Steering Committee, while the Ministry of Research and Environmental Affairs is the secretariat. The National Committee is comprised of all relevant sectors both from government and the private sector whose activities contribute to desertification in one way or the other.

Related activities:
- Disaster Management Act of 1991
- Disaster Management Plan (Strategy), draft produced in 1991
- Small Scale Irrigation Draft Policy, 1996
- Establishment of a drought early warning system in 1991 with the Ministry of Water and Irrigation as the lead agency
- South African Development Countries Food Security Early Warning Unit under the Ministry of Agriculture and

Livestock Development
- Famine Early Warning System under agro-economic survey of the Ministry of Economic Planning and Development

Malawi has yet to produce an umbrella project to combat desertification after ratifying the Desertification Convention in June, 1996. This will include finalization of the National Action Plan (NAP) which is being developed with UNDP.

NGOs got involved actively under the WFP for projects from 1993 to 1995.

Other strategies include water harvesting techniques and programmes by the Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock

Development.

The Ministry of Irrigation and Water Development has been mandated to look into ways and means to develop

programmes which aim at water harvesting during the rainy season. Development of irrigation schemes for small-

scale, medium and large-scale farmers is Government's priority number one utilizing the water bodies of Lakes

Malawi, Chilwa, Chiuta, Malombe and the Shire River water systems.

To implement the Convention, the following is planned to take place soon:
- a national workshop to formulate a strategy for awareness-raising.
- develop a National Action Plan (NAP) White Paper where strategies and actions including project ideas will be developed.
- create an institutional basis for planning and implementing the NAP and to build capacity within this basis.
- raise awareness of the relevant actors and affected groups at local community level, regional and national levels including all decision-makers in line agencies, NGOs, the private sector and other interested individuals and affected groups.
- Develop ways and means through the Environmental Management Act, the National Environmental Policy, the National Water Policy, the Forestry Act, the National Rural Development Plan to develop an integrated community forestry, rehabilitation and reclamation of river basins and catchment areas to reduce pressure on natural woodlands, revamp the water catchment areas and river basins respectively.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The Ministry of Economic Planning and Development, the Secretary to the Treasury, the Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock Development, the Office of the President and Cabinet, the Ministry of Irrigation and Water Development, the Ministry of Local Government and Rural Development, the Sugar Corporation of Malawi (SUCOMA), the Electricity Supply Commission of Malawi (ESCOM), the Water Boards in Malawi, the Ministry of Physical Planning, the Ministry of Research and Development, the Tobacco Association of Malawi (TAMA) and the Agricultural Research and Extension Trust (ARET) strengthen the National Desertification and Drought Steering Committee.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: Developing capacity and institutional mechanisms to develop a comprehensive and practical National Action Plan through local community participation and decision-making processes utilizing other avenues such as the Capacity 21 initiative, at national, regional and local levels.

The Government has attended INC and follow-up Convention meetings including SADC initiatives and relevant annual committee meetings.

3. Major Groups: NGOs such as the Coordination Unit for the Rehabilitation of the Environment (CURE), the private sector (Malawi Investment Promotion Agency: MIPA), the Tobacco Association of Malawi (TAMA), the Agricultural Research and Extension Trust (ARET), the Teas Research Council of Malawi (TRC), local government, the Forestry Department (as chair), the Ministry of Research and Environmental Affairs (Secretariat), the Land Resources and Conservation Unit of the Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock Development, SDC, and the Malawi Industrial Research and Technology Development Centre (MIRTDC).

4. Finance: Reclamation and rehabilitation work financed by the SADC Environment and Land Management Sector, the Government revenue and development budget, NGOs and CBOs. The Ministry of Research and Environmental Affairs is currently negotiating with the CCD Secretariat and UNSO through UNDP to procure funds for the development of the NAP, an audit strategy and for the national awareness-raising workshop and campaigns.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: Malawi is a member of SADC. SADC is currently busy formulating a sub-regional action programme to combat drought and desertification. As a party to the CCD, Malawi stands within the aegis to the Convention to develop forestry, land, rehabilitation and restoration initiatives to address the CCD commitments through training courses, exchange of information and advice and afforestation/agro-forestry initiatives within the region and internationally.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 199_
Land affected by desertification (Km2)
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 13: MANAGING FRAGILE ECOSYSTEMS: SUSTAINABLE MOUNTAIN DEVELOPMENT

NATIONAL PRIORITY: High
STATUS REPORT: Fragile mountain catchment ecosystems are considered sensitive areas in the Environmental Management Act. They are major water catchment areas with indigenous forests, commercial forests used for recreation, nature conservation, agriculture and other communal land uses. Most of these areas are threatened and require urgent action to save them from further degradation. Some initiatives are:

Park establishment for conservation of catchment areas of major rivers, which support hydro electric power production and irrigation.

Initiatives carried out since 1992 with GTZ support:
- Malawi-German Bee Keeping Project for placement of hives in the park for honey which is collected by local communities in the area.
- Improvement of transit infrastructure e.g. roads and housing and training of staff in tourism.

Conservation of Mount Mulanje with community involvement. Conservation of endangered species found in Mount Mulanje with assistance from the Overseas Development Agency. GEF has provided Malawi with US$ 300,000 to enable the establishment of the Mulanje Mountain Conservation Trust (MMCT).

Rehabilitation of deforested hills and mountains in rural and urban areas.

Management of the mid-Shire River aiming at reducing soil erosion within the catchment area.

Conservation framework for the land management of open areas.

The National Water Development Project aiming at sustainable management of water resources which mitigates environmental degradation through integrated management of mountain, forest and river ecosystems.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: Ministry of Irrigation and Water Development, Department of National Parks and Wildlife, Bee Keepers Association of Malawi, local communities, Ministry of Natural Resources / Department of Forestry, Ministry Research and Environmental Affairs (National Council on the Environment), Ministry of Local Government and Rural Development, NGOs, donor agencies,

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: Staff development through research, training and dissemination of information; infrastructure development; strategies for mountain conservation evolvement; training of bee keepers.

3. Major Groups: Local community, NGOs, CBOs and para-statals.

4. Finance: GTZ (Bee Keeping Association, since 1992), GEF/World Bank (Mulanje Mountain Conservation Trust, since 1997), ODA (Mulanje Mountain Conservation Trust, 1995), UN (Rural Water Supply and Sanitation in Malawi ? Sustainability through Community Based Management 1994-2010), UNDP (National Sustainable and Renewable Energy Programme, 1997-2001).

The Government through its revenue budget supports some of the sustainable mountain development initiatives.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: Malawi, as a SADC member, operates within the regional structures of this organisation. Bilateral cooperation with other neighbours, Mozambique and Zambia, deals with border mountain ecosystems and areas.

Malawi is an active member of the Convention on Biological Diversity, the Convention on Wetlands of International Importance especially as Waterfowl habitat, the Convention on Migrating Species, the IUCN, CITES, the Convention to Combat Desertification and Drought and the Climate Change Convention. As such, all stipulations of these Conventions which affect the sustainable management of fragile ecosystems and sustainable mountain development are considered in linkages at various national committees and as appropriate.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 14: PROMOTING SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT

NATIONAL PRIORITY: High
STATUS REPORT: A National Environment Policy and an Environmental Management Act were developed in 1996. A White Paper for Agriculture was developed during 1995/96 addressing production, marketing, sustainable utilization of natural resources, financing, institutional infrastructure, information and agricultural technology, research, extension and training in line with sustainable development and environmental management. Strategies include:

- mitigation of drought,
- liberation of micro agriculture, crops,
- rural based development projects; the Malawi Social Action Fund,
- liberation and marketing of agricultural inputs, e.g. fertilizers,
- establishment of a rural finance company for small scale business projects,
- strong increase in NGO activities in rural departments,
- introduction of small-scale irrigation schemes managed by communities,
- integrated approach in natural resources and environmental management by the Department of Parks and Wildlife and
the Wildlife Society of Malawi,

- promotion of drought tolerant crops,
- land resource conservation through agro-forestry, erosion control and afforestation and other conservation practices,
- job creation.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: Ministry of Lands and Valuation, Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock Development, Ministry of Local Government and Rural Development, Ministry of Physical Planning, Agricultural Research and Extension Trust (ARET), NGOs, Tea Growers Association of Malawi, Sugar Association of Malawi, Agriculture Policy Research Unit, the National Seed Company of Malawi.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues:
- training at various levels for local communities, extension workers and decision-makers
- promotion of rope and washer pump for small scale irrigation
- promoting use of shadoof for small scale irrigation
- credit management schemes

3. Major Groups: Para-statals (Agricultural Development and Marketing Corporation, ADMAC), farmers, local communities, universities, NGOs.

4. Finance:
- Agricultural Development and Marketing Corporation (ADMAC)
- Malawi Social Action Fund
- Rural Finance Company
- Finance Company of Malawi (FINCO)
- Tobacco Association of Malawi (TAMA)
- Sugar Corporation of Malawi (SUCOMA)
- Coffee Authority of Malawi
- Smallholder Tea Association of Malawi

5. Regional/International Cooperation: SADC (Food and Natural Resources Sector, Environment and Land Management Sector), SACCAR, Gene Bank, Regional Early Warning System for Food Security.

International cooperation with multilateral organisations such as FAO, the World Bank, UNDP, IFAD, and between Malawi and the USA takes place at various levels.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1985
1990
Latest 199_
Agricultural land (Km2)
Agricultural land as % of total land area 85
Agricultural land per capita < 1.0 ha
1989/90
1992/93
Latest 199_
Consumption of fertilizers per Km2 of agricultural land as of 1990 substantial
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 15: CONSERVATION OF BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

The Convention on Biological Diversity was signed in 1992 and ratified in 1994. A report will be submitted in January 1998.

The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora was acceded to in 1982.

Additional comments relevant to this chapter

The National Parks and Wildlife Act was passed in 1992. It encourages community participation in the management of national parks. Communities also benefit from it.

Botanical gardens have been established in the cities.

A National Biological Diversity Committee was formed to oversee the work of other biodiversity sub-committees such as the Genetic Resources, Biosafety and Biotechnology Committee, and

the Lower Shire Wetlands Project (Zambezi Basin Wetland Conservation and Resource Utilisation Project) was set up.

Currently, Malawi is conducting the National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (NBSAP) with financial support of GEF through UNEP. Eight components covering eight areas of biological resources and the associated literature and legal requirements are being investigated by local Malawi consultants with full consultation with UNEP headquarters in Nairobi, Kenya.

Due to its active participation in the Convention negotiations before the Rio Summit, Malawi was the first chair of the Subsidiary Body on Technical and Technological Advice (SBSTTA) in 1995/96. The SBSTTA chairmanship was handed over to Norway at the second SBSTTA meeting in Montreal, Canada in September 1996.

As a full party, Malawi has attended COP 1, 2 and 3 and has maintained its active role in CBD matters. A sub-committee has been put in place to deal with issues on clearing house mechanisms. Next step through the NBSAP is to conduct a national biodiversity awareness workshop in July, 1997, where the public and stakeholders will be informed and briefed on what the National Biodiversity Committee is doing as it prepares for the first National Report, due in January 1998. The issue of incentive measures and the full participation of women and local communities on issues of biological diversity including the integration of sectoral policies and legislation is what the country plans to put in place.

Malawi fully participates in CITES matters as a full member. However, public awareness on this convention has not been raised. The country needs to educate and inform the general Malawi public regarding the importance of this Convention and what it means to the common man in general.

As a RAMSAR member, efforts are also underway to let the general public know what this Convention means to the wetlands of the country. Lake Chilwa was designated as a RAMSAR site in 1996.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: National Herbarium Steering Committee for National Biological Conservation and Natural Wetland Conservation Committee; Ministry of Research and Environmental Affairs; Department of National Parks and Wildlife; Ministry of Natural Resources; the Malawi National Biodiversity Committee.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues:
- raising public awareness of communities and decision-makers on the importance of biodiversity,
- protected areas conservation strategies,
- training of taxonomists to deal with agro-biodiversity,
- training of experts in other biodiversity areas.

3. Major Groups: Local communities.

4. Finance: GEF through UNEP, World Bank and UNDP.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: Regional and international mechanisms; Southern African Development Community Coordination on Biological Conservation; SACIM; Pan African Association of Zoological Gardens; Aquaria and Botanical Gardens; WWF; RAMSAR; IUCN - Regional Office for Southern Africa.

Malawi is a member of the Southern Africa (SABONET) Project dealing with botanical diversity in the region.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1992
Latest 199_
Protected area as % of total land area
1990
Latest 199_
Number of threatened species
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 16: ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT OF BIOTECHNOLOGY

NATIONAL PRIORITY: Very high
STATUS REPORT: Some work has been done in investment in modern biotechnology such as use of biogas as a renewable energy source. However, a lot needs to be done in order to stipulate:

(a) increasing availability of food, feed and renewable raw materials,

(b) improving human health,

(c) enhancing the protection of the environment,

(d) enhancing safety and developing international mechanisms for cooperation,

(e) establishing enabling mechanisms for the development and the environmentally sound application of biotechnology.

Malawi has in place a National Biosafety and Biotechnology Committee chaired by the Biology Department of the University of Malawi. This committee is under the ambit of the National Biodiversity Committee and the National Research Council of Malawi.

Members of the National Committee are drawn from the government line agencies, the university, NGOs, the private sector, the Malawi Bureau of Standards and the Ministry of Research and Environmental Affairs.

The mandate of the Committee is to look at the 5 stipulations mentioned above, to look into the safe use and handling of genetically modified organisms, put into effect the UNEP Guidelines of Biosafety and the development, monitoring and evaluation of other biotechnology initiatives in the country including safe disposal of pharmaceutical wastes according to UNICEF standards and appropriate technology.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure:

National Research Council of Malawi

Ministry of Research and Environmental Affairs (NCE/TCE)

Malawi Industrial Research Technology and Development Centre

Genetic Resources and Biotechnology Committee

University of Malawi

Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock Development

Malawi Bureau of Standards

National Herbarium and Botanical Gardens

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: Human resource training, laboratory construction for tissue cultures, mushroom culture at Bvumbwe, Chancellor College and private entrepreneurs.

3. Major Groups:
National Research Council of Malawi
Genetic Resources and Biotechnology Committee
University of Malawi
Malawi Bureau of Standards
National Herbarium and Botanical Gardens

4. Finance: Public donor and private funding contribute to the current biotechnology initiatives in Malawi.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: Malawi participates in all sub-regional, regional and international cooperative policy development and capacity-building ventures. Malawi attends meetings at the regional biosafety and biotechnology centre based in Harare and other SADC centres. Attendance of the biosafety and biotechnology meetings organized by the Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity in Cairo, Madrid, Aarhus and Ethiopia was also done.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 17: PROTECTION OF THE OCEANS, ALL KINDS OF SEAS, INCLUDING ENCLOSED AND SEMI-ENCLOSED SEAS, AND COASTAL AREAS AND THE PROTECTION, RATIONAL USE AND DEVELOPMENT OF THEIR LIVING RESOURCES

NATIONAL PRIORITY: Not applicable
STATUS REPORT:

The UN Convention on the Law of the Sea was signed in 1984.

Not applicable.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: Not applicable.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: Not applicable.

3. Major Groups: Not applicable.

4. Finance: Not applicable.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: Not applicable.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 199-
Catches of marine species (metric tons)
Population in coastal areas
Population served by waste water treatment (% of country's

total population)

Discharges of oil into coastal waters (metric tons)
Releases of phosphate into coastal waters (metric tons)
Releases of nitrate into coastal waters (metric tons)
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 18: PROTECTION OF THE QUALITY AND SUPPLY OF FRESHWATER RESOURCES: APPLICATION OF INTEGRATED APPROACHES TO THE DEVELOPMENT, MANAGEMENT AND USE OF WATER RESOURCES

NATIONAL PRIORITY: Very high
STATUS REPORT: At the national level, a National Water Development Policy has been developed with the assistance of the World Bank and UNICEF. There is an ongoing water development project to get good and clean water to the rural community, upgrading management of water resources and the provision of water related services.

Areas receiving attention in policy and strategy formulation are (1) Integrated Water Resources Development and Management which will involve integrated catchment management thus developing water resources and managing water in harmony with other natural resources taking into account the interactions among water and social and economic development; (2) protection of water resources, water resources and aquatic resources; (3) drinking water supply and sanitation, (4) water and sustainable urban development; (5) water for sustainable food production and rural development and (6) impacts of climate change on water resources.

A large part of the Malawi population does not have access to an adequate supply with potable water and many do lack basic sanitation. Within the National Water Development Policy, it is the government's commitment to bring on board communities, water boards, local authorities, the private sector, NGOs and government line agencies in the areas of forestry, agriculture, national parks and local governments to address the issue of integrated management of water resources and drinking water supply and sanitation in the country with full community participation.

National Water Development Project for upgrading the management of water resources and provision of water related services to:
(a) ensure convenient access to safe water for domestic use for a progressively larger population of the community;
(b) provide water infrastructure capable of underpinning economic development;
(c) ensure the protection and management of water resources and aquatic and riparian environments which include:
- Seawatch for Lake Malawi which involves installation of equipment to collect and transmit data on various parameters of the lake,
- Lake Malawi level control,
- Flood forecasting of the Lower Shire River,
- Hydrogeological and hydrological assessment and mapping to provide information base.

The project is supported from UNICEF.

The National Parks and Wildlife Department aims at protecting natural resources within Lake Malawi. The department is also in charge for the management of wetlands.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure:

Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock Development
Ministry of Irrigation and Water Development - the Water Resources Board
Department of National Parks and Wildlife
Ministry of Natural Resources - Forestry Department
University of Malawi
Ministry of Local Government and Rural Development
Water Boards
City Councils and Local Communities
Ministry of Research and Environmental Affairs
Ministry of Transport and Civil Aviation - Department of Meteorology

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: Capacity-building for local communities at the Husbandry Training Centre, Natural Resources College, Community Training Centres, SADC-ELMS in Lesotho. Public awareness campaigns are ongoing in this sector and facilitate the importance of water and inclusion in the national education curricula.

3. Major Groups: The Government is committed to imposing the representation of women at all decision-making processes in the water sector. Others include NGOs, the private sector, church groups, donors and other interested parties.

4. Finance: The Government is obtaining funding from a variety of sources such as EU, IUNC, World Bank, UNICEF, ODA and NORAD for water supply and sanitation programmes, water policy and legislation, education, integrated management and conservation campaigns.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: Malawi is part of the SADC regional initiatives which address water for domestic use and sanitation. Malawi also participates in the regional management of shared river basins and water course systems such as the Zambezi Action Plan (ZACPLAN) and will be part of the Maseru-Lesotho meeting sponsored by EU and the SADC Environment and Land Resource Management Sector in May this year.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 199-
Fresh water availability (total domestic/external in million m3)
Annual withdrawal of freshwater as % of available water
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 19: ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT OF TOXIC CHEMICALS, INCLUDING PREVENTION OF ILLEGAL INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN TOXIC AND DANGEROUS PRODUCTS

NATIONAL PRIORITY: Improvement and Enhancement of the System of Environmentally Sound Management of Chemicals
STATUS REPORT: The Ministry of Commerce and Industry ensures that the country does not issue import and export licences for toxic and dangerous wastes. The same applies to firearms, ammunition, explosives and chemical and biological weapons.

A system of control of transport of chemicals is in place to ensure:
* improvement and enhancement of a system for the Safe Management of Chemicals
* improvement of the work on chemical dangers assessment
* coordination of classification, packaging and marketing of chemicals
* improvement of the work on measures to prevent illegal trade in toxic and hazardous chemicals
* exchange of relevant information regarding the safe management of chemicals

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure:
Ministry of Health and Population
Ministry of Commerce and Industry
Malawi Bureau of Standards
Drugs and Pharmaceutical Board of Malawi
Pesticide Association of Malawi
Consumer Association of Malawi (CAMA)
Ministry of Local Government and Rural Development
The Malawi Chamber of Commerce
Ministry of Defence

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues:
Training of human resources
Public awareness at all levels

3. Major Groups: Farmers, the local community, educational institutions, Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock Development, parastatals, the University of Malawi.

4. Finance:

Government revenue
Donor Funding
Bilateral and multilateral organizations

5. Regional/International Cooperation: Malawi belongs to the Montreal Protocol and other related agreements both regionally and internationally.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 20: ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT OF HAZARDOUS WASTES, INCLUDING PREVENTION OF ILLEGAL INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN HAZARDOUS WASTES

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal was ratified in 1994.

Additional comments relevant to this chapter

Under the Basel Convention, Malawi has a grace period for implementation up to 1997, including carrying out an inventory on industries. This has led to identifying training centres for capacity building in the management of hazardous waste. These are:
- South Africa for English-speaking countries including Malawi,
- Cote d'Ivoire for French-speaking countries,
- Egypt for Arabic-speaking countries.

A needs assessment aimed at identifying training needs in hazardous waste management was done in September. Locally, city councils had discussions with the Ministry of Trade and Commerce in the management of waste from industries, including air, land and waste-borne effluents.

A monitoring system has been established to identify who, where and what is being dumped. A discussion forum has been established with representatives from industries, to sensitize them on environmental damage by hazardous waste.

A project is in the pipeline for recycling waste used by large industries in Blantyre City.

A good housekeeping project includes discussions held in partnership with MBS, MIRTDC, Polytechnic and industry managers.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: Authorities handling Convention matters: MOREA (informing industry), the Ministry of Justice and MIRTDC. Also, the Ministries of Trade, Industry and Commerce and the Chamber of Commerce and Industry are involved.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: Once established, the regional training centres in South Africa, Cote d'Ivoire and Egypt will provide training to developing countries. MIRTDC promotes waste incinerators and saw-dust briquetting and assists in Stanlinks briquetting of agricultural waste.

Information on waste reduction is provided from UNIDO.

3. Major Groups: Communities and industry.

4. Finance: CIDA, World Bank, Basel Convention (funds for training).

5. Regional/International Cooperation: Malawi has not yet ratified the Bamako Convention, which prohibits the import of hazardous waste. Expired and nearly expired chemicals are being imported to Malawi.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 199-
Generation of hazardous waste (t)
Import of hazardous wastes (t)
Export of hazardous wastes (t)
Area of land contaminated by hazardous waste (km2)
Expenditure on hazardous waste treatment (US$)
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 21: ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT OF SOLID WASTES AND SEWAGE-RELATED ISSUES

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: Solid waste is generated on streets, in commercial areas, from markets and as domestic waste, and it is collected and disposed at uncontrolled landfills. Waste disposal is managed by either council or private bodies. The system shows problems associated with collection vessels, road access to waste and uncontrolled landfill issues.

The sewer system only covers 24% of the area (e.g. commercial areas, institutions); 76% is served with pit latrines and septic tanks.

The Blantyre City Sanitation Master Plan Study was conducted in 1992 as part of the local government development programme and covers four towns: Blantyre, Lilongwe, Zomba and Mzuzu.

The Malawi Industrial Research Technology and Development Centre conducted an inventory for waste, i.e. what type is to be recycled and used and how to reduce waste generation.

In Mzuzu City, waste is being collected twice a week from households, commercial and industrial areas, and daily from public places, markets and hospitals. The equipment available includes two refuse trucks, one tractor trailer, one micro bin and one micro van.

In Zomba municipality, 47.3% of all refuse is collected. There is one vehicle available and the only landfill is already exhausted. A study for a new landfill has been carried out. Market and location committees on environmental issues were established. There is one tanker available for emptying septic tanks. Provision is being made for ventilated improved pit latrines in peri-urban areas, for maintenance of burst sewer lines, and for emptying septic tanks/VIP latrines.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure:
Management structure (top-bottom).
Council structure (bottom-top).
Ministry of Local Government.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues:
Training programmes from Councils, Government and foreign aid.
Exchange programmes with sister cities.

3. Major Groups: City councils, municipality councils, town councils, district councils.

4. Finance: NGOs, UNICEF, World Bank, African Development Bank, Government grants (e.g. from Japan, Sweden, Canada), Mitsubishi corporation.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: International Water Supply Association, bilateral agreements with SADC member states.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 199-
Generation of industrial and municipal waste (t)
Waste disposed(Kg/capita)
Expenditure on waste collection and treatment (US$)
Waste recycling rates (%)
Municipal waste disposal (Kg/capita)
Waste reduction rates per unit of GDP (t/year)
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 22: SAFE AND ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: No information.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information.

3. Major Groups: No information.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTERS 23-32: MAJOR GROUPS

The role of major groups are also covered under the various chapters of Agenda 21. The following is a summary of main objectives outlined in Agenda 21. Please check the appropriate boxes and describe briefly any important steps or obstacles.

STATUS REPORT ON PARTICIPATION BY MAJOR GROUPS AT THE

NATIONAL AND LOCAL LEVELS
Ch. 24: GLOBAL ACTION FOR WOMEN TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND EQUITABLE DEVELOPMENT.

The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women was ratified on 12 March 1987.

24.a Increasing the proportion of women decision makers.

No information.

24.b assessing, reviewing, revising and implementing curricula and other educational material with a view to promoting dissemination of gender-relevant knowledge.

Curricula and educational material

See under comments.

24.c and 24.d formulating and implementing policies, guidelines, strategies and plans for achievement of equality in all aspects of society including issuing a strategy by year 2000 to eliminate obstacles to full participation of women in sustainable development. Policies/strategies etc.

See under comments.

24.e establishing mechanisms by 1995 to assess implementation and impact of development and environment policies and programmes on women

See under comments.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page):

A policy and action plan for women in sustainable development was put in place.

A National Commission for women and development was set up.

There is access to opportunities in education and development, employment economic empowerment, review of laws which are discriminatory to women and decision making levels.

Access to appropriate technologies is gender sensitive as it reduces the burden on women.

Projects on reproductive health are being implemented in order to allow women to have a say on when to reproduce and the number of children to have.

School curricula are being developed which are sensitive to gender.

There is a social mobilization programme at the University of Malawi Chancellor College in order to sensitize the society on equality.

Promotion of women's education takes place through the Girls Attainment in Basic Level Education (GABLE).

Women involvement in low cost material production for building is encouraged.

There is opportunity for continuation of studies by pregnant girls and a change of attitude of women towards each other.

STATUS REPORT ON PARTICIPATION BY MAJOR GROUPS AT THE

NATIONAL AND LOCAL LEVELS
Ch. 25: CHILDREN AND YOUTH IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT.

Children and Youth have very high national priority since they are the future leaders of Malawi. Child and youth policy is in the process of being developed. 2/3 of Malawi's population are children and youth of ages between 14 and 25 years.

Main achievements:

Creation of Ministry responsible for Sports, Youth and culture in 1993.
National Youth Policy in January, 1996.
Youth Action Plan.
National Youth Act passed in Parliament.
There are 30 youths organisations established.
Establishment of six youth centres, two in each region.

Development of Youth Programmes like:
Vocational centres for skill training,
Youth credit schemes for entrepreneurs development,
Family life programmes on sex, education, family planning etc.,
Out of school anti-Aids groups,
Youth initiatives week for development work,
Young voices group programme for a will and child rights campaign as vulnerable groups,
Youth arm organisations for straight talk and afforestation programmes which are now in place.

Capacity Building:
Overseas training
In-house training
Restructuring of the Ministry of Youth

Funding:

Malawi government
UNFPA
UNICEF
Maegret Senga International (NY)

YOUTH DEFINITION:

The National Youth Policy launched in January, 1996 defines Youth as all young people, female and male from the age of 14 to 25 years. When definitions of a child and youth are critically compared, an overlap in terms of age is noticed between 14 and 18 years. This makes it difficult to distinguish a youth organisation in Malawi from a children's.

SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT:

The concept of sustainable development in this paper simply refers to developmental programmes/projects which are carried by/for the children and youth that are not only socially, economically, culturally and technically feasible and acceptable but also environmentally friendly.

STATUS REPORT ON PARTICIPATION BY MAJOR GROUPS AT THE

NATIONAL AND LOCAL LEVELS
Ch. 25: CHILDREN AND YOUTH IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT (cont'd)

PROFILE OF CHILDREN AND YOUTH IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT:

Children and youth make up half the population in many developing countries. This numerical advantage of the children and youth compels the government to consult and let youth participate in decisions that affect the environment. This is clearly outlined in the National Youth Policy, especially in the area for Action Science, technology and environment. Under this section there is emphasis on promotion of environmental education among the youth and their involvement in environmental conservation through the integration of environmental education in the formal and non-formal curricula.

The Ministry of Youth, Sports and Culture following the launching of the National Youth Policy has registered over 30 organisations. These youth organisations are involved in sustainable development projects. Most of these projects are agro-based since Malawi's economy is agricultural based. It has however been observed of late that many youth consider farming as a last resort due to limited land available, such that land holding sizes are declining to un-economical levels.

The situation is worse as a result of a high population growth rate estimated at 3.3%.

Having recognised the situation in Malawi, the Ministry of Youth, Sports and Culture and Youth organisations not only advocate for proper utilisation of the available natural resources which provide job opportunities for youth but also promote children's rights, education and their health. The following activities are being carried out in sustainable development:

1. MINISTRY OF YOUTH, SPORTS AND CULTURE

(a) VOCATIONAL TRAINING CENTRE

Established Nasawa and Salima Vocational Training Centres for the Youth skills training opportunities. About six more are to be established as Ex-Malawi Young Pioneers bases.

(b) YOUTH DEVELOPMENT AND CREDIT SCHEME:

This scheme does not only provide credit facilities to the youth but also emphasizes the development of the youth into successful entrepreneurs. The scheme is funded by Commonwealth Youth Programme Africa Centre and the Ministry of Finances. Social dimension for Adjustment Programme and the recently launched K70 million Youth scheme. The project was developed on premise that the available credit systems are youth unfriendly and where youth have involved their enterprises have been unsustainable.

(c) FAMILY LIFE PROGRAMME:

This programme aims at the promotion of healthy life of the children and youth in Malawi. The areas which are covered in the programme are sex education, family planning, human development, adolescent health, reproductive health and HIV/AIDS. This programme is funded by UNFPA International. This is a three year project and it is envisaged that 2500 youths will be reached as peer educators.

(d) OUT OF SCHOOL YOUTHS ANTI-AIDS CLUBS

The aim of this programme is to help the youth to avoid HIV/AIDS infection. In order to empower the youth to change their behaviour, and to influence their friends, they participate in activities some of which are communication skills which help them take responsibility of their own health.

STATUS REPORT ON PARTICIPATION BY MAJOR GROUPS AT THE

NATIONAL AND LOCAL LEVELS
Ch. 25: CHILDREN AND YOUTH IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT (cont'd)

(2) YOUTH ORGANISATIONS

(a) SOLAR COOKER PRODUCTION

The Blantyre Young Voices Movement is involved in the production of solar cookers. The project aims at reducing the charcoal use in urban and rural areas which consequently has a positive effect on environment.

(b) MAKE A WILL CAMPAIGN

The Blantyre Young Voices Movement has embarked on this programm which aims at educating the parents need of writing a will. The will safeguards the future of children in case a parent dies.

(c) CHILD RIGHTS PROGRAMME

The Blantyre Young Voices Movement together with other youth organisations advocate for children rights including the right to life, names and nationality, education, health and health services, to be protected from torture, to social security, protected from child labour, standard of living, freedom of expressions etc.

(d) RE-ENFORCEMENT PROJECT

The Youth Arm Organisation is running this project with an aim of re-enforcing aides related messages to the youth, sports and communication skills.

(e) STRAIGHT TALK PROJECT

This is a radio programme which aims at giving the youth an opportunity of discussing, dissemination and participation on issues that affect them.

(f) AFFORESTATION PROJECT

The Youth Arm Organisation embarks on afforestation project at Mount Soche (Soche Hills). The main activity will take place as soon as the rains start. Active youth in self enhance (AYISE) are currently involved in afforestation in Bangwe.

(g) CHILINDE TANNERY

This youth group in Chilinde-Lilongwe turns hide into hide products such as shoes, belts, leather bags.

(h) WIND MILL - YOUNG ENTREPRENEUR FOUNDATION

This is a Blantyre youth group which has come up with a wind mill which uses wings in the generation of electricity which will have a positive environmental effect.

(i) BIO-GAS PLANT

A case in point is the Bunda College initiative of developing a bio-gas plant that will be operated and owned by female youth in Lilongwe. This is a reasonable cheap venture and reduces deforestation.

STATUS REPORT ON PARTICIPATION BY MAJOR GROUPS AT THE

NATIONAL AND LOCAL LEVELS
Ch. 25: CHILDREN AND YOUTH IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT (cont'd)

(f) POULTRY PRODUCTION

Many youth clubs in all districts are involved in the production of broiler and eggs which are scarce in Malawi and the demand is quite high. The poultry provide manure in addition to meat and eggs for sale.

(k) BEE KEEPING

Many youth clubs in the Northern region of Malawi and Mulanje venture into this business and reduce the problem of unemployment and poverty. They use modern hives.

(l) MUSHROOM PRODUCTION

Currently a few youth are involved in the growing of mushroom in Thyolo commercially. The retail price of mushroom is very attractive and is likely to provide a rate of return higher than many crops.

(m) ART THROUGH PAINTINGS AND SCULPTURE

Many youth in urban set ups are encouraged to own Agro-forestry projects.

(n) FISH FARMING

In Zomba, Mulanje, Mzuzu and other districts youth have fish ponds as an enterprise.

CONCLUSION:

The above list of sustainable development projects in which the children and youth are involved in is just giving an outline of projects known to exist by the Ministry. There may be some known by other Ministries and other organisations. It should also be noted that the formulation and implementation of the above projects is usually on:


- National objectives
- Environmental Management
- Sustainability of the project

It is therefore expected that many more children and youth will be involved in sustainable development with the availability of resources over time.

STATUS REPORT ON PARTICIPATION BY MAJOR GROUPS AT THE

NATIONAL AND LOCAL LEVELS
Ch. 26: RECOGNIZING AND STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF INDIGENOUS PEOPLE AND THEIR COMMUNITIES.

26.a establishing a process to empower indigenous people and their communities -- through policies and legal instruments:

Not applicable.

26.b strengthening arrangements for active participation in national policies

Not applicable.

26.c involving indigenous people in resource management strategies and programmes at the national and local level.

Not applicable.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page):

Not applicable.

Ch. 27: STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS: PARTNERS FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT.

27.a developing mechanisms that allow NGOs to play their partnership role responsibly and effectively.

27.b reviewing formal procedures and mechanisms to involve NGOs in decision making and implementation.

27.c promoting and allowing NGOs to participate in the conception, establishment and evaluation of official mechanisms to review Agenda 21 implementation.

NGOs are participating fully.

27.d establishing a mutually productive dialogue by 1995 at the national level between NGOs and governments.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page):

NGOs are working hand in hand with government departments in implementing some of the programmes for conservation and preservation of the natural resource base and in development projects.

A Council for Non-Governmental Organizations in Malawi (CONGOMA) was established to coordinate the work of all NGOs in Malawi.

A Coordination Unit for the Rehabilitation of the Environment (CURE) was established within the CONGOMA umbrella to deal with all matters related to environment within the NGO community. CURE works hand-in-hand with all other NGOs dealing with sustainable environmental management issues in the country.

NGOs and other relevant CBOs are in all the National Steering Committees in Biodiversity, Climate Change, Environmental Management Project under the World Bank, the GEF, and other relevant sectors dealing with sustainable environmental management and other related areas of concern.

Promoting and allowing NGOs to participate in decision-making at the national level through conception, establishment and evaluation of official mechanisms to review Agenda 21 implementation and other related strategies has been established in the country through the coordination of the Ministry of Research and Environmental Affairs. Various national government ministries and departments have entered into partnerships with NGOs at different levels.

STATUS REPORT ON PARTICIPATION BY MAJOR GROUPS AT THE

NATIONAL AND LOCAL LEVELS
Ch. 28: LOCAL AUTHORITIES' INITIATIVES IN SUPPORT OF AGENDA 21.

28.a encouraging local authorities to implement and monitor programmes that aim to ensure participation of women and youth in local decision making.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page):

Local Authority Policy has been reviewed. Local Authority have elected members to run councils.

ACHIEVEMENTS:

In recognition of local communities potentials and capacities authorities have strengthened local structures like:

Church groups
Location committees
Market Management committees
Youth clubs

ACTIVITIES:

Community training and mobilisation
Environmental rehabilitation
Numerous meetings on various agendas including how to manage solid waste.


Ch. 29: STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF WORKERS AND THEIR TRADE UNIONS.

29.a full participation of workers in implementation and evaluation of A21.

29.b (By year 2000, (a) promoting ratification of ILO conventions; (b) establishing bipartite and tripartite mechanism on safety, health and sustainable development; (c) increasing number of environmental collective agreements; (d) reducing occupational accidents and injuries; (e) increasing workers' education and training efforts.

23 ILO Conventions have been ratified.

Workers take some part in National Agenda 21 discussions/implementation.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page):

Trade Unions in Malawi are new but their focus is on the salaries of the workers and their well being through bargaining of the conditions of services which is supported by the labour act.

The Ministry of Labour and Manpower Development and other labour-related sectors, such as the University and the Chamber of Commerce, work hand-in-hand to ensure that the concerns of the labour force and unions are addressed at various levels both within the civil service and the political system.

STATUS REPORT ON PARTICIPATION BY MAJOR GROUPS AT THE

NATIONAL AND LOCAL LEVELS
30: STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY.

30.a increasing the efficiency of resource use, including reuse, recycling, and reduction of waste per unit of economic output.

30.b encouraging the concept of stewardship in management and use of natural resources by entrepreneurs.

List any actions taken in this area:

30.c increasing number of enterprises that subscribe to and implement sustainable development policies.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page):

Technology import and adaptation in Malawi lies in the hands of MIRTDC. New incentives have included economic ones e.g new investors guide by MIPA i.e. tax and allowances.

MBS solely responsible for ensuring standards in food processing.

Private sector to develop environmental codes.

STATUS REPORT ON PARTICIPATION BY MAJOR GROUPS AT THE

NATIONAL AND LOCAL LEVELS
Ch. 31: SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL COMMUNITY.

31.a improving exchange of knowledge and concerns between s&t community and the general public.

There is some effort in this direction. Brief description: establishment of environmental programmes related to science and technology and its role in reconciling and development.

31.b developing, improving and promoting international acceptance of codes of practice and guidelines related to science and technology and its role in reconciling environment and development.

Brief comments: Research in Malawi is done by Agricultural Research Department of Malawi and coordinated by the Agricultural Research Council of Malawi. The Agricultural Sciences Committee (ASC) has been established through a World Bank support to facilitate contract research in Malawi by scientific community in Malawi.

The University of Malawi is also carrying out some research. A Center for Environmental Research is to be based and coordinated at the University of Malawi's Bunda College of Agriculture in Lilongwe.

Brief comments on this chapter not already described in chapter 35 (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page):
- The "Science and Technology" and "You and Your environment" programmes have appeared on the Malawi Broadcasting Corporation Radio in English and in local language in a limited way.

- Innovative Rural Action Learning (IRALAS) was launched to bridge the gap between professionals and local people and promote farmer linkages within Malawi and Southern African Development Community coordinated by the University of Malawi and in conjunction with the Department of Land Husbandry and SADC/ELMS.

Ch. 32: STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF FARMERS.

32.a promoting and encouraging sustainable farming practices and technologies.

32.b developing a policy framework that provides incentives and motivation among farmers for sustainable and efficient farming practices.

32.c enhancing participation of organizations of farmers in design and implementation of sustainable development policies.

See under comments.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page):

Dambos are used for vegetable and tobacco nursery and lead to, hence, environmental degradation.

Cultivation in highlands is detrimental, hence need of a law to prohibit the cultivation at certain points.

The use of manure instead of inorganic fertilisers is encouraged, as inorganic fertilisers pollute lakes and water bodies and hence have an effect on some fish species.

The land tenure system to be revised in terms of land ownership.

Credit facilities are for inputs in ADDs which facilitate or promote productivity. Loan repayment is as low as 56% at present.

Farm supplies are limited due to removal of government subsidies on farm inputs.

Training is offered from the Ministry of Agriculture and the Bunda College on Environmental Education.

Policies on boosting agricultural productivity concentrate on larger farms, promote other ventures such as fish farming and introduce agricultural cooperatives.

A study was commissioned from the Ministry of Lands and Valuation to look into land tenure. Credit mechanisms through the Malawi Rural Financing Company are restrictive. The Bunda College and the Ministry of Forestry and Agriculture are involved in land and water conservation. Estate owners to have 10% of their land devoted to tree growing.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 33: FINANCIAL RESOURCES AND MECHANISMS

Financial resources and mechanisms are also covered under each sectoral chapter of Agenda 21 where relevant. This summary highlights broader national financial policies, domestic and external (including ODA)

NATIONAL PRIORITY: Very high, since finances are required to support sustainable development strategies in the country
STATUS REPORT: The southern region of Malawi is still dependent on donor funding for development.

Activities:

- Introduction of a cash budget system to control expenditures,
- Privatisation,
- Removal of sub-bodies on fertilizers and paraffin, structural adjustment programmes.

CHANGES IN NATIONAL BUDGET TO ADDRESS SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT:

A revenue sharing mechanism scheme has been introduced, enabling local communities to benefit from the income from protected areas.

NEW ECONOMIC INSTRUMENTS:

- "Nature" - support was introduced for recurrent expenditure programmes.
- The land reform policy was financed by the World Bank, USAID and Overseas Development Agency.
- Establishment of the Malawi stock exchange.
- Introduction of a drought levy on salaries.
- Establishment of the Malawi Social Action Fund (MASAF).

ELIMINATION OF ENVIRONMENTALLY UNFRIENDLY SUBSIDIES:

ODA policy issues

No information

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
ODA funding provided or received (Total US$million)
Average for 92-93
Average for 94-96
Net flow of external capital from all sources as % of GDP
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 34: TRANSFER OF ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND TECHNOLOGY, COOPERATION AND CAPACITY-BUILDING

Transfer of environmentally sound technology, cooperation and capacity-building is also covered under each sectoral chapter of Agenda 21 where relevant. This summary highlights broader national policies and actions relating to chapter 34.

NATIONAL PRIORITY: Very High
STATUS REPORT ON LINKS BETWEEN NATIONAL, REGIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL INFORMATION NETWORKS/SYSTEMS:

The Malawi Industrial Research and Technology Development Centre (MIRTDC) is a member of the GEF. MIRTDC works together with the Malawi Bureau of Standards in conducting waste audits. MIRTDC has a data base for companies which have technology for transfer to other parties. There are links with Southern Africa on leadership for environment. There are also links with the SADC energy management project for industrial energy management.

MEANS OF IMPLEMENTATION:

There is a National Steering Committee for the GEF and an Energy Technical Panel at the national level. It is intended to set up a Regional Energy Training Centre at the Natural Resources College.

Describe any work being undertaken at the national or local level regarding efforts to promote clean production processes and/or the concepts of eco-efficiency. These processes may include training, preferential financial arrangements, information dissemination and changes in legal or regulatory frameworks.

- The Institutional Support for Environmental Management Project is funded by UNDP.
- Development of environmental legislation is supported by UNEP.
- Enabling activities on Climate Change Country Studies are funded by UNDP.

Provide information on the adoption of environmental management systems. National reaction to environmental management system standards such as the ISO 14000 Series and others. Please note efforts made at the national level to promote their adoption and the creation of certification infrastructure in order to facilitate access to these standards to local industry.

List and describe programs or work under way to facilitate the transfer of ESTs to small and medium sized enterprises. Please note efforts to facilitate access to financial resources and other transfer strategies.

- Appropriate technology initiatives are being developed.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 35: SCIENCE FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT ON NATIONAL SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE, RESEARCH NEEDS AND PRIORITIES:

Emphasis is being placed on research on the domestication of indigenous vegetables and fruits, on research on medicinal plants, and on the promotion of conservation efforts and sustainable agriculture by involving communities in a participatory approach.

A research policy was formulated for the University of Malawi.

Further activities:
- Programmes in order to sensitize teachers on environmental issues.
- An environmental awareness campaign has been carried out, including radio programmes, workshops, jingles, and other measures.

STEPS TAKEN TO ENHANCE SCIENTIFIC UNDERSTANDING, IMPROVE LONG TERM SCIENTIFIC ASSESSMENT, BUILDING OF CAPACITY AND CAPABILITY:


- Establishment of an e-mail-system at the University.
- Malawi is a member of the International Network for the Generation of Aquaculture (INGA).
- Establishment of a GIS at the University of Malawi.
- Summer camps have been held for 280 students for designing scientific research and projects.
- Science fairs have been held at district, regional and national levels.
- Environmental issues have been introduced in primary schools and are to be introduced for secondary school teachers.
- Curricula have been reviewed to strengthen scientific understanding.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
Year
Number of scientists, engineers and technicians engaged in research and experimental development # 19--
Total expenditure for research and experimental development (US$eq.) $ 19--
Other data

The University of Malawi has so far been allocating 0.28% of its budget to research. There is now a policy guideline to strive for an allocation of 5% on the medium term.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 36: PROMOTING EDUCATION, PUBLIC AWARENESS AND TRAINING

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: INCORPORATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION IN THE FORMAL EDUCATION SYSTEM.

The Malawi Institute of Education was mandated to develop curricula for the primary school level and for training of teachers at the primary education level. Consequently, environmental education in the formal education system was focused at these two levels. The institute is also mandated to develop the secondary education curriculum. The Malawi Institute of Education has also been given the mandate to coordinate environmental education activities in the formal education sector.

Malawi has developed a National Environmental Education and Communication Strategy with the main objective of creating environmental awareness in both the formal and non-formal sectors of the country.

a) Reorientation of education towards sustainable development

Efforts are being done to ensure coordination in environmental education for sustainable development.

b) Increasing public awareness

The Malawi Institute of Education organised a national workshop to sensitise key personnel in environmental education on the importance of sound environmental management and to assist policy makers. This initiative lead to the development of the National Environmental Education and Communication Strategy. Various line ministries, departments, NGOs, CBOs, parastatals, the private sector, and the University of Malawi have joined together to create awareness on environmental degradation in the country and to find ways and means to address the problems related to sustainability.

c) Promoting training

There has been no training in environmental education for curriculum developers, teacher trainers, teachers and education advisors due to lack of a coordinating body which would initiate training programmes. However, through the National Environmental Education and Communication Strategy, it is expected that training at various levels will be done and enhanced.

ROLE OF MAJOR GROUPS:

Some effort was made from donor agencies to coordinate environmental education activities between the Malawi Institute of Education and other stakeholders, e.g. Ministry of Education, University of Malawi, Domasi College of Education, Wildlife Society of Malawi and the Coordination Unit for Rehabilitation of the Environment (CURE), when developing the National Environmental Education and Communication Strategy. It is expected that all the agencies will form a national team to address environmental education in the country.

FINANCING AND COST EVALUATION OF THE LABOUR ACTIVITIES:

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 199-
Adult literacy rate (%) Male
Adult literacy rate (%) Female
% of primary school children reaching grade 5 (1986-97)
Mean number of years of schooling
% of GNP spent on education
Females per 100 males in secondary school
Women per 100 men in the labour force
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 37: NATIONAL MECHANISMS AND INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION FOR CAPACITY-BUILDING IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

National capacity building is also covered under sectoral chapters.

Donors: You may wish to describe here how Agenda 21 has influenced your ODA policies in this area.

Developing countries: You may wish to describe any new national mechanisms for capacity building - and any changes in technical cooperation.

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT ON NATIONAL ENDOGENOUS CAPACITY BUILDING:

No information.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 38: INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS

Ch. 38: Brief summary of any particular UN System response affecting this country/state:

No information.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 39: INTERNATIONAL LEGAL INSTRUMENTS AND MECHANISMS

Ch. 39: International Legal Instruments are covered under the relevant sectoral chapters. This is a listing of major agreements/conventions (not already covered) entered into and relevant to Agenda 21:


1. Joint Anti Poaching Agreement between Malawi, Zambia, Mozambique and Tanzania.
2. United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea.
Signature: 1984
3. Convention on the African Migratory Locust
4. Agreement for the Establishment of the Southern African Centre for Ivory Marketing.
Signature: 1991
5. Convention on the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage.
6. African Convention on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources.
Entry into force: 15th September, 1969.
7. Convention on the Territorial Sea and the Contiguous Zone
Accession: 3rd November, 1965
8. Convention on the High Seas
Accession: 3rd November, 1965
9. Convention on Fishing and Conservation of the Living Resources of the High Seas.
Accession: 3rd November, 1965
10. Convention on the Continental Shelf
Accession: 3rd November, 1965
11. Convention on Wetlands of International Importance especially as Waterfowl Habitat
entry: 1975
12 Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological)
and Toxic Weapons and on their Destruction.
entry: 1975
13. Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage
entry: 1975
14. Convention for the Prevention of Marine Pollution from Land-Based Sources
entry: 1978
15. Convention on the Prohibition of Military or any Other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques.
entry: 1978
16. Bamako Convention on the Ban of the Import into Africa and the Control of Transboundary Movement and
Management of Hazardous Waste within Africa.
Adoption: 1991.
17. Treaty Establishing Economic Community.
adoption: 1991
18. Lusaka Agreement on Cooperative Environment Operations Directed at Illegal Trade in Wild Fauna and Flora.
19. Convention on Wetlands of National Importance (Ramsar)

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 40: INFORMATION FOR DECISION-MAKING

This chapter is also covered under sectoral and other chapters of this profile. The matrix below gives an overview of how national authorities rate the available information for decision making.

Rating of available data and information suitable for decision-making

Agenda 21 Chapters
Very
good
Good
Some good
data but
many gaps
Poor
Remarks
2. International cooperation and trade
x
3. Combating poverty
x
4. Changing consumption patterns
x
5. Demographic dynamics and sustainability
x
6. Human health
x
7. Human settlements
x
8. Integrating E & D in decision-making
x
9. Protection of the atmosphere
x
10. Integrated planning and management of land resources
x
11. Combating deforestation
x
12. Combating desertification and drought
x
13. Sustainable mountain development
x
14. Sustainable agriculture and rural development
x
15. Conservation of biological diversity
x
16. Biotechnology
x
17. Oceans, seas, coastal areas and their living resources N/A
18. Freshwater resources
x
19. Toxic chemicals
x
20. Hazardous wastes
x
21. Solid wastes
x
22. Radioactive wastes
x
24. Women in sustainable development
x
25. Children and youth
x
26. Indigenous people
x
N/A
27. Non-governmental organizations
x
28. Local authorities
x
29. Workers and trade unions
x
30. Business and industry
x
31. Scientific and technological community
x
32. Farmers
x
33. Financial resources and mechanisms
x
34. Technology, cooperation and capacity-building
x
35. Science for sustainable development
x
36. Education, public awareness and training
x
37. International cooperation for capacity-building
x
38. International institutional arrangements
x
39. International legal instruments
x
40. Information for decision-making
x

Additional Comments

No information.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1993
Latest 199-
Number of telephones in use per 100 inhabitants
Other data

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Last updated 1 November 1997