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National Implementation of Agenda 21

KAZAKSTAN

COUNTRY PROFILE

IMPLEMENTATION OF AGENDA 21:
REVIEW OF PROGRESS MADE SINCE THE
UNITED NATIONS CONFERENCE ON
ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT, 1992

Information Provided by the Government of Kazakstan to the
United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development
June 1997


United Nations Department for Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development
Division for Sustainable Development
The Information contained in this Country Profile is also available on the World Wide Web, as follows:
http://www.un.org/dpcsd/earthsummit

KAZAKSTAN

This country profile has been provided by:

Name of Ministry/Office: Ministry of Ecology, Center of National Environmental Action Plan for Sustainable Development

Date: June 1997

Submitted by: Bulat Esekin, National Coordinator, Chairman

Mailing address: 106, Panfilov str., Almaty, 480091, Republic of Kazakstan

Telephone: (3272) 63-16-12, (3272) 50-77-84

Telefax: (3272) 50-77-84

E-mail: neapkz@online.ru

Note from the Secretariat: An effort has been made to present all country profiles within a common format, with an equal number of pages. However, where Governments Have not provided information for the tables appended to Chapters 4 and 17, those tables have been omitted entirely in order to reduce the overall length of the profile and save paper. Consequently, there may be some minor inconsistencies among the formats of the different country profiles.

All statistics are rendered as provided by the respective Governments.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACRONYMS
OVERVIEW
FACT SHEET
AGENDA 21 CHAPTERS
2. International cooperation to accelerate sustainable development in developing countries and related domestic policies
3. Combating poverty
4. Changing consumption patterns
5. Demographic dynamics and sustainability
6. Protecting and promoting human health
7. Promoting sustainable human settlement development
8. Integrating environment and development in decision-making
9. Protection of the atmosphere
10. Integrated approach to the planning and management of land resources
11. Combating deforestation
12. Managing fragile ecosystems: combating desertification and drought
13. Managing fragile ecosystems: sustainable mountain development
14. Promoting sustainable agriculture and rural development
15. Conservation of biological diversity
16. Environmentally sound management of biotechnology
17. Protection of the oceans, all kinds of seas, including enclosed and semi-enclosed seas, and coastal areas and the protection, rational use and development of their living resources
18. Protection of the quality and supply of freshwater resources: application of integrated approaches to the development, management and use of water resources
19. Environmentally sound management of toxic chemicals, including prevention of illegal international traffic in toxic and dangerous products
20. Environmentally sound management of hazardous wastes, including prevention of illegal international traffic in hazardous wastes
21. Environmentally sound management of solid wastes and sewage-related issues
22. Safe and environmentally sound management of radioactive wastes
23-32. Major groups
33. Financial resources and mechanisms
34. Transfer of environmentally sound technology, cooperation and capacity-building
35. Science for sustainable development
36. Promoting education, public awareness and training
37. National mechanisms and international cooperation for capacity-building in developing countries
38. International institutional arrangements
39. International legal instruments and mechanisms
40. Information for decision-making

ACRONYMS

APELL Awareness and Preparedness for Emergencies at Local Level
CFC chlorofluorocarbon
CGIAR Consultative Group on International Agriculture Research
CILSS Permanent Inter-State Committee on Drought Control in the Sahel
EEZ exclusive economic zone
ECA Economic Commission for Africa
ECE Economic Commission for Europe
ECLAC Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean
ELCI Environmental Liaison Centre International
EMINWA environmentally sound management of inland water
ESCAP Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific
ESCWA Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia
FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
GATT General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
GAW Global Atmosphere Watch (WMO)
GEF Global Environment Facility
GEMS Global Environmental Monitoring System (UNEP)
GEMS/WATER Global Water Quality Monitoring Programme
GESAMP Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Pollution
GIPME Global Investigation of Pollution in Marine Environment (UNESCO)
GIS Geographical Information System
GLOBE Global Legislators Organisation for a Balanced Environment
GOS Global Observing System (WMO/WWW)
GRID Global Resource Information Database
GSP generalized system of preferences
HIV human immunodeficiency virus
IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency
IAP-WASAD International Action Programme on Water and Sustainable Agricultural Development
IARC International Agency for Research on Cancer
IBSRAM International Board of Soil Resources and Management
ICCA International Council of Chemical Associations
ICES International Council for the Exploration of the Sea
ICPIC International Cleaner Production Information Clearing House
ICSC International Civil Service Commission
ICSU International Council of Scientific Unions
IEEA Integrated environmental and economic accounting
IFAD International Fund for Agricultural Development
IGADD Intergovernmental Authority for Drought and Development
IGBP International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (ICSU)
IGBP/START International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme/Global Change System for Analysis, Research and Training
ILO International Labour Organisation
IMF International Monetary Fund
IMO International Maritime Organization
INFOTERRA International Environment Information system (UNEP)
IOC Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission
IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
IPCS International Programme on Chemical Safety
IPM integrated pest management
IRPTC International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals
ITC International Tin Council
ITTO International Tropical Timber Organization
IUCN International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources
MARPOL International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships
OECD Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development
PGRFA plant genetic resources for agriculture
PIC prior informed consent procedure
SADCC South African Development Co-ordination Conference
SARD sustainable agriculture and rural development
UNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
UNDP United Nations Development Programme
UNDRO Office of the United Nations Disaster Relief Coordinator
UNEP United Nations Environment Programme
UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
UNFPA United Nations Population Fund
UNICEF United Nations Children's Fund
UNIDO United Nations Industrial Development Organization
UNU United Nations University
WCP World Climate Programme (WMO/UNEP/ICSU/UNESCO)
WFC World Food Council
WHO World Health Organization
WMO World Meteorological Organization
WWF World Wide Fund for Nature (also called World Wildlife Fund)
WWW World Weather Watch (WMO)

OVERVIEW

Stretching between the Caspian Sea and China, the Republic of Kazakstan is the largest of Central Asian Republic and the second largest of the former Soviet Republics. The country has the total land area of 2.7 million km, the size of Western Europe. Nearly 60% of the land is steppe, 26% is desert, 3.5% forests, and 10% mountainous. With a total precipitation of about 207 mm of rain per year, the country has a distinctly continental climate characterised by hot, dry summers and short winters with low snowfall. Kazakstan also has one of the smallest amounts of accessible water resources among the FSU republics. Kazakstan's population is approximately 17 million, 59% of whom live in urban areas.

FACT SHEET

KAZAKSTAN

1. Name of Key National Sustainable Development Coordination Mechanism(s)/Council(s).

Center of National Environmental Action Plan

Contact point (Name, Title, Office): Ministry of Ecology, Center of National Environmental Action Plan for Sustainable Development

Telephone: (3272) 63-16-12, (3272) 50-77-84

Fax: (3272) 50-77-84

e-mail: neapkz@online.ru

Mailing address: 106, Panfilov str., Almaty, 480091, Republic of Kazakstan

2. Membership/Composition/Chairperson: Bulat Esekin, National Coordinator, Chairman

2a. List of ministries and agencies involved: Ministry of Ecology, Ministry of Health

Coordinator: Center of National Environmental Action Plan for Sustainable Development

2b. Names of para-statal bodies and institutions involved, as well as participating of academic and private sector bodies:

Institute of Ecology and others

2c. Names of non-governmental organizations involved:

Fund of environmental education support, Environmental Unit of associations and enterprises "Tabigat" and others.

3. Mandate role of above mechanism/council:

- coordination of activities aimed at introducing the sustainability component into development-oriented decisions.

4. If available, attach a diagram (organization chart) showing national coordination structure and linkages between ministries:

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 2: INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION TO ACCELERATE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES AND RELATED DOMESTIC POLICIES (with special emphasis on TRADE)

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

No information.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information.

3. Major Groups: No information.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 3: COMBATING POVERTY

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

Focus of national strategy

No information.

Highlight activities aimed at the poor and linkages to the environment

No information

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information.

3. Major Groups: No information.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information.

NB: Developed countries, where domestic poverty alleviation is not a major concern may wish to briefly describe their position regarding global poverty alleviation.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1985
1990
1992
Latest 199_
Unemployment (%)
Population living in absolute poverty
Public spending on social sector %
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 4: CHANGING CONSUMPTION PATTERNS

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

National policy objectives/focus

No information.

National targets

No information

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information.

3. Major Groups: No information.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1985
1990
1992
Latest 199_
GDP per capita (current US$)
Real GDP growth (%)
Annual energy consumption per capita (Kg. of oil equivalent per capita)
Motor vehicles in use per 1000 inhabitants
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 5: DEMOGRAPHIC DYNAMICS AND SUSTAINABILITY

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: No information.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information.

3. Major Groups: No information.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1990
1993
Latest 199_
Population (Thousands) mid-year estimates
Annual rate of increase (1990-1993)
Surface area (Km2)
Population density (people/Km2)
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 6: PROTECTING AND PROMOTING HUMAN HEALTH

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: Health care remains one of major issues in Kazakstan as every forth person was suffered from respiratory decease in 1995. The most cases of diseases were in Almaty, Eastern-Kazakstan oblast, Semipalatenskaya oblast and Karagandinskaya oblast where the level of emissions from transport, ferrous and non-ferrous metal industry was the highest and where nuclear bombs were tested. The highest concentration of tuberculosis was in Atyrauskaya oblast, Kyzylordinskaya oblast and Easter-Kazakstan oblast where the quality of water is lower than normal. The half of population suffered from cancer especially in regions where industry was located. The highest level of mortality was in Eastern-Kazakstan oblast, and Northern-Kazakstan oblast where 13,6 and 12,1 people died per 1000 in 1995.

Center of National Environmental Activity Plan for Sustainable Development (NEAP/SD) coordinates activities on collection and analysing the information in order to identify the connection between rate of diseases and pollution. Ecological problems, projects and activities will be discussed and priorities will be identified at the Republic Seminar.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: Ministry of Health, Center of National Environmental Activity Plan for Sustainable Development (NEAP/SD)

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: Kazakstan is ready to establish National Cleaner Production Center (NCPC) within the framework of NEAP/SD Project approved by the RK Government. The NEAP/SD Center is capable of serving as the nexus for research and dissemination of cleaner production process for major industrial sectors. The NCPC will serve a coordinating and catalytic role in regard to cleaner production. Their activities cover four areas: in-plant demonstration, training, information dissemination, and policy assessment.

3. Major Groups: Ministries and departments.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: GTC,UNDP, World Bank, TACIS, OECD, UNDP, HIID, UNEP/GRID, UNDP, UNIDO/UNEP

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1985
1990
Latest 1995
Life expectancy at birth

Male

Female

60

67
60

67
58

62
Infant mortality (per 1000 live births)
32.7
26.4
27.0
Maternal mortality rate (per 100000 live births)
Access to safe drinking water (% of population)
85
95
95
Access to sanitation services (% of population)
55
55
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 7: PROMOTING SUSTAINABLE HUMAN SETTLEMENT DEVELOPMENT

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: No information.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information.

3. Major Groups: No information.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1990
1995
Urban population in % of total population
Annual rate of growth of urban population (%)
Largest city population (in % of total population)
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 8: INTEGRATING ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT IN DECISION-MAKING

(See pages vii and viii at the beginning of the profile)

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: In accordance with the Resolution of the Government of the Republic of Kazakstan of February 19, 1996, N21-8/1725 and the provisions of the Conception of Environmental Safety approved by the Resolution of the President of the Republic of Kazakstan dated April 30, 1996, Coordinating Working Group (CWG) Has carried out the preparatory phase of work on the National Environmental Action Plan for Sustainable Development (NEAP/SD) with the support of the UNDP and Harvard Institute of International Development.

The CWG's activities resulted in working out the joint action plan on the environmental priority problem solution involving ministries and departments, central and local agencies, public communities. In November 1996, the Programme for 1997 was adopted at the Republican conference. Being approved by the Government it was directed to all central and local agencies for implementation (the Government order of February 18, 1997 N21-3/002/718).This Programme was supported by international organisations. At present the World Bank and the UNDP awarded grants to support the NEAP/SD preparation plan.

According to the RK Government Resolution and orders N137 of 03.02.1997 and N21-3/002-718 of 18.02.1997 and N20 of 27.03.1997 as well as agreements between the RK Government and international organisations on issues of the preparation and implementation of the NEAP/SD Project in Kazakstan, the NEAP/SD Center under the MEBR was established to formulate and implement the Project.

The Center coordinates activities of ministries and departments, local agencies, public organisations and business structures, international and other organisations to prepare and implement the NEAP/SD of the Republic of Kazakstan.

The Center's targets are:

- identifying environmental priorities for the Republic of Kazakstan;

- preparation and implementation of action plans (programmes and projects) to solve priority problems;

- involving the public to the NEAP/SD preparation and implementation process( in cooperation with the Coordinating Working Group).

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: Ministry of Ecology, Center of National Environmental Activity Plan for Sustainable Development (NEAP/SD) .

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: Kazakstan is ready to establish National Cleaner Production Center (NCPC) within the framework of NEAP/SD Project approved by the RK Government. The NEAP/SD Center is capable of serving as the nexus for research and dissemination of cleaner production process for major industrial sectors. The NCPC will serve a coordinating and catalytic role in regard to cleaner production. Their activities cover four areas: in-plant demonstration, training, information dissemination, and policy assessment.

3. Major Groups: Ministries and departments, local agencies, public organisations and business structures

4. Finance: Contribution to NEAP of UN is $ 102,500, of government is $ 414,000 and of Institute of Ecology and Sustainable Development is $ 7,500.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: GTC,UNDP, World Bank, TACIS, OECD, UNDP, HIID, UNEP/GRID, UNDP, UNIDO/UNEP

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 9: PROTECTION OF THE ATMOSPHERE

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

The Montreal Protocol and its Amendments

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

Signed in 1992.

Additional comments relevant to this chapter

Center of National Environmental Activity Plan for Sustainable Development (NEAP/SD) coordinates activities of ministries and departments, local agencies, public organisations and business structures to implement work for the atmosphere protection. It coordinates activity on environmental assessment of power plants, and industry, and transport. The Center of NEAP/SD collects information on monitoring of SO2, NOx, dust and other Hazardous substances emissions, deforestation, desertification and climate changing, analyses their impact on health risk.

An Agreement on Cooperation in Implementing Rolling Framework Program for Sustainable Development of the Republic of Kazakstan was signed on the 31 of March. Ecological problems, projects and activities will be discussed and priorities will be identified at the Republic Seminar.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: Ministry of Ecology, Center of National Environmental Activity Plan for Sustainable Development (NEAP/SD) are responsible for protection of the atmosphere. Recent instruments are the licensing system for polluting activities determining emission limits for pollution, regulations of atmosphere protection control, methods of damage calculation and payment determination for air pollution.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: Kazakstan is ready to establish National Cleaner Production Center (NCPC) within the framework of NEAP/SD Project approved by the RK Government. The NEAP/SD Center is capable of serving as the nexus for research and dissemination of cleaner production process for major industrial sectors. The NCPC will serve a coordinating and catalytic role in regard to cleaner production. Their activities cover four areas: in-plant demonstration, training, information dissemination, and policy assessment.

3. Major Groups: Ministries and departments, local agencies, public organisations and business structures.

4. Finance: 3,79 billion tenge were expended on atmosphere protection in 1995.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: GTC,UNDP, World Bank, TACIS, OECD, UNDP, HIID, UNEP/GRID, UNDP, UNIDO/UNEP.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 1995
CO2 emissions (eq. thousand tons)
446
SOx "
1132.9
NOx "
233.4
CH4 "
5.7
2.1
Consumption of ozone depleting substances (Tons)
Expenditure on air pollution abatement in US$ equivalents (million)
29.8
60.1
18.7
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 10: INTEGRATED APPROACH TO THE PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT OF LAND RESOURCES

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: Center of National Environmental Activity Plan for Sustainable Development (NEAP/SD) coordinates activities of ministries and departments, local agencies, public organisations and business structures to implement work for the planing and land resources management . The Center of NEAP/SD collects information on monitoring and stimulate activity on rational use of land resources.

Ecological problems, projects and activities will be discussed and priorities will be identified at the Republic Seminar.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: Ministry of Ecology, Center of National Environmental Activity Plan for Sustainable Development (NEAP/SD) are responsible for rational use of land resources.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: Kazakstan is ready to establish National Cleaner Production Center (NCPC) within the framework of NEAP/SD Project approved by the RK Government. The NEAP/SD Center is capable of serving as the nexus for research and dissemination of cleaner production process for major industrial sectors. The NCPC will serve a coordinating and catalytic role in regard to cleaner production. Their activities cover four areas: in-plant demonstration, training, information dissemination, and policy assessment.

3. Major Groups: Ministries and departments, local agencies, public organisations and business structures.

4. Finance: 0,2 billion tenge were directed to mineral resources protection in 1995.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: GTC,UNDP, World Bank, TACIS, OECD, UNDP, HIID, UNEP/GRID, UNDP, UNIDO/UNEP.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 11: COMBATING DEFORESTATION

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: Forests area in Kazakstan is 24.5 million hectares, that is 3.8% of Republic area. 95 % of forest area is protected and other used for forest production. 50% of forests land is used as pastures. 1,320 cases of forest fire took place in 1995 and 163.5 thousand hectares were affected by pests. Recreation work was made on 35.3 thousand Hectares of territory in 1995. Protection of forests is very important in combating desertification and drought. Scientific program "Sustainable conservation and rational use of biodeversity of forests and vegetation resources of Kazakstan" was developed by Forest Committee and Academy of Science in order to realise statements of Convention on biodeversity.

The Center of National Environmental Activity Plan for Sustainable Development (NEAP/SD) collects and analyses information on the forests in order to assess damage from deforestation and to co-ordinate activity of Forest Committee and other local agencies, public organisations and business structures.

Forest problems, projects and activities will be discussed and priorities will be identified at the Republic Seminar.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

Decision-Making Structure: Ministry of Ecology, Center of National Environmental Activity Plan for Sustainable Development (NEAP/SD), Forest Committee are responsible for forestry sector.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: Kazakstan is ready to establish National Cleaner Production Center (NCPC) within the framework of NEAP/SD Project approved by the RK Government. The NEAP/SD Center is capable of serving as the nexus for research and dissemination of cleaner production process for major industrial sectors. The NCPC will serve a co-ordinating and catalytic role in regard to cleaner production. Their activities cover four areas: in-plant demonstration, training, information dissemination, and policy assessment.

3. Major Groups: Local agencies, public organisations and business structures.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: GTC,UNDP, World Bank, TACIS, OECD, UNDP, HIID, UNEP/GRID, UNDP, UNIDO/UNEP.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1985
1990
Latest 1995
Forest Area (Km2)
Protected forest area 831.7 856.7 919.4
Roundwood production (solid volume of roundwood without bark in mill m3)
Deforestation rate (thousand m2) 1833 1735 716
Reforestation rate (Km2/annum) 83.8 82.6 35.3
Cases of forest fires 432 629 1320
Areas of forest fires (Ha) 709 1329 22540

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 12: MANAGING FRAGILE ECOSYSTEMS: COMBATING DESERTIFICATION AND DROUGHT

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

International Convention to Combat Desertification in Countries Experiencing Drought and/or Desertification Particularly in Africa was signed in 1994.

Additional comments relevant to this chapter Climate in Kazakstan is distinctly continental with frequent drought so 179.9 million Hectares or 60% of the territory of Kazakstan occurs in large desertification. Further environmental degradation will lead to irreparable losses of biodeversity, loss of agriculture production and living conditions for Kazakstan will deteriorate.

National Activity Program on Combating Desertification in Kazakstan was developed by Ministry of Ecology.

The Center of National Environmental Activity Plan for Sustainable Development (NEAP/SD) is going to continue information collection, assessment damage from desertification, to develop measures and to co-ordinate activity directed towards combating desertification.

Deserts problems, projects and activities will be discussed and priorities will be identified at Republic Seminar.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: Ministry of Ecology, Center of National Environmental Activity Plan for Sustainable Development (NEAP/SD)are responsible for the sustainable development of arid regions and for co-ordination of activities directed toward combating desertification.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: Kazakstan is ready to establish National Cleaner Production Center (NCPC) within the framework of NEAP/SD Project approved by the RK Government. The NEAP/SD Center is capable of serving as the nexus for research and dissemination of cleaner production process for major industrial sectors. The NCPC will serve a co-ordinating and catalytic role in regard to cleaner production. Their activities cover four areas: in-plant demonstration, training, information dissemination, and policy assessment.

3. Major Groups: Temporary creative group with specialists from ministries and departments, local agencies, public organisations and business structures.

4. Finance: Grant UNEP - project "Investigation and desertification report development in Kazakstan"

- $25,000, grant UNEP - "National Activity Program on Combating Desertification" - $40,000,

UNEP - $60,000.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: GTC,UNDP, World Bank, TACIS, OECD, UNDP, HIID, UNEP/GRID, UNDP, UNIDO/UNEP.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 1997
Land affected by desertification (Km2)
179.9
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 13: MANAGING FRAGILE ECOSYSTEMS: SUSTAINABLE MOUNTAIN DEVELOPMENT

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: Mud flows, landslides and avalanches inflict a lot of damage in the mountains of Kazakstan.

The Center of National Environmental Activity Plan for Sustainable Development (NEAP/SD) is going to collect information, to develop measures and to co-ordinate activity directed toward the prediction of mud flows, landslides and avalanches. The Center of NEAP/SD is also going to study glaciers and their influence on climate change.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: Ministry of Ecology, Center of National Environmental Activity Plan for Sustainable Development (NEAP/SD).

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information.

3. Major Groups: Local agencies, public organisations.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: GTC,UNDP, World Bank, TACIS, OECD, UNDP, HIID, UNEP/GRID, UNDP, UNIDO/UNEP.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 14: PROMOTING SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: Since the number of agriculture products has decreased this has also led to a corresponding decrease of pesticides and nitrates on environment of Kazakstan. But there are some cases of nitrate in Almatinskaya oblast, Mangistauskaya oblast, Kokshetauskaya oblast and others.

The Center of National Environmental Activity Plan for Sustainable Development (NEAP/SD) collects and analyses information on pollution, land erosion and pasture degradation in order to best decide the most efficient way the land can be used or to return to its former state.

Agriculture problems, projects and activities will be discussed and priorities will be identified at the Republic Seminar.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: Ministry of Agriculture, Center of National Environmental Activity Plan for Sustainable Development (NEAP/SD).

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: Kazakstan is ready to establish National Cleaner Production Center (NCPC) within the framework of NEAP/SD Project approved by the RK Government. The NEAP/SD Center is capable of serving as the nexus for research and dissemination of cleaner production process for major industrial sectors. The NCPC will serve a co-ordinating and catalytic role in regard to cleaner production. Their activities cover four areas: in-plant demonstration, training, information dissemination, and policy assessment.

3. Major Groups: Local agencies, public organisations.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: GTC,UNDP, World Bank, TACIS, OECD, UNDP, HIID, UNEP/GRID, UNDP, UNIDO/UNEP.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1985
1990
Latest 1994
Agricultural land (Km2)
35796.1
35182.1
31671.8
Agricultural land as % of total land area
13.1
12.9
11.6
Agricultural land per capita
2.3
2.1
1.9
1989/90
1992/93
Latest 199_
Consumption of fertilizers per Km2 of agricultural land as of 1990
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 15: CONSERVATION OF BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

The Convention on Biological Diversity was signed in 1992.

Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora

No information.

Additional comments relevant to this chapter

There are about 2.3 % of protected areas in Kazakstan. The development of data bank of nature resources is under way. There are 835 spices of animals and birds in Kazakstan, 229 of them are in the Red Book.

The Center of National Environmental Activity Plan for Sustainable Development (NEAP/SD) collects and analyses information on biodeversity in order to develop measures and to co-ordinate activities directed toward biodeversity protection and increase of animals number.

Biodeversity problems, projects and activities will be discussed and priorities will be identified at Republic Seminar.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: Ministry of Ecology, Center of National Environmental Activity Plan for Sustainable Development (NEAP/SD) are responsible for biodeversity and genetic resources forests protection ..

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: Kazakstan is ready to establish National Cleaner Production Center (NCPC) within the framework of NEAP/SD Project approved by the RK Government. The NEAP/SD Center is capable of serving as the nexus for research and dissemination of cleaner production process for major industrial sectors. The NCPC will serve a coordinating and catalytic role in regard to cleaner production. Their activities cover four areas: in-plant demonstration, training, information dissemination, and policy assessment.

3. Major Groups: Ministries and departments, local agencies, public organizations and business structures

4. Finance: Expenses on wild animals and birds reproduction protection were 53402.9 thousand tenge.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: GTC,UNDP, World Bank, TACIS, OECD, UNDP, HIID, UNEP/GRID, UNDP, UNIDO/UNEP.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1992
Latest 1995
Protected area as % of total land area
2.3
1990
Latest 1995
Number of threatened species
229
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 16: ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT OF BIOTECHNOLOGY

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: Kazakstan is ready to establish National Cleaner Production Center (NCPC) within the framework of National Environmental Activity Plan for Sustainable Development (NEAP/SD)Project approved by the RK Government. The NEAP/SD Center is capable of serving as the nexus for research and dissemination of cleaner production process for major industrial sectors. The NCPC will serve a co-ordinating and catalytic role in regard to cleaner production. Their activities cover four areas: in-plant demonstration, training, information dissemination, and policy assessment.

The Center of National Environmental Activity Plan for Sustainable Development (NEAP/SD) also studies the international experience and develops technologies of animals, plants and resources protection.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: Ministry of Ecology, Center of National Environmental Activity Plan for Sustainable Development (NEAP/SD)

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: Kazakstan is ready to establish National Cleaner Production Center (NCPC) within the framework of NEAP/SD Project approved by the RK Government. The NEAP/SD Center is capable of serving as the nexus for research and dissemination of cleaner production process for major industrial sectors. The NCPC will serve a co-ordinating and catalytic role in regard to cleaner production. Their activities cover four areas: in-plant demonstration, training, information dissemination, and policy assessment.

3. Major Groups: Ministries and departments, local agencies, public organisations and business structures

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: GTC,UNDP, World Bank, TACIS, OECD, UNDP, HIID, UNEP/GRID, UNDP, UNIDO/UNEP.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 17: PROTECTION OF THE OCEANS, ALL KINDS OF SEAS, INCLUDING ENCLOSED AND SEMI-ENCLOSED SEAS, AND COASTAL AREAS AND THE PROTECTION, RATIONAL USE AND DEVELOPMENT OF THEIR LIVING RESOURCES

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

The UN Convention on the Law of the Sea

There are three big lakes on the territory of Kazakstan: Aral Sea, Caspian Sea and Balhash lake. Approximately 1.4 million people in Kazakstan are affected by one of the most acute environment disasters in the world. Manifestation of this crisis include desiccation of the Aral Sea, environmental degradation in the upper and middle water shed/ especially deforestation, soil erosion, and increase vulnerability to large-scale landslides; and distraction of wetlands, loss of livehoods, and gradual increase of poverty and illness among those living in deltas of Syr Darya and Amu Darya rivers.

Aral Sea Basin Program includes various activities to develop sustainable water and related land management strategies.

Main problem of Caspian Sea is the fluctuation in water levels. It has increased the threat of water pollution through the inundation and realise of hazardous industrial wastewater stored in stabilisation ponds close to the water 's edge. In Kazakstan , the expanding Caspian Sea flooded a large stretch of farmland in the country and poses serious threats to the country ports, power, and oil industries. As the result of pollution the rich Caspian Sea fisheries are throated too.

Caspian Sea Environmental Program was developed by the World Bank and UN program in order to identify activities of countries and co-ordinate international donors.

Center of National Environmental Activity Plan for Sustainable Development (NEAP/SD) is going to co-ordinate activities directed toward Caspian and Aral problems.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: Ministry of Ecology, Center of National Environmental Activity Plan for Sustainable Development (NEAP/SD) are responsible for the protection of seas and solving sea problems.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: Kazakstan is ready to establish National Cleaner Production Center (NCPC) within the framework of NEAP/SD Project approved by the RK Government. The NEAP/SD Center is capable of serving as the nexus for research and dissemination of cleaner production process for major industrial sectors. The NCPC will serve a co-ordinating and catalytic role in regard to cleaner production. Their activities cover four areas: in-plant demonstration, training, information dissemination, and policy assessment.

3. Major Groups: governments, ministries and departments, local agencies, public organisations and business structures.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: GTC,UNDP, World Bank, TACIS, OECD, UNDP, HIID, UNEP/GRID, UNDP, UNIDO/UNEP.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 199-
Catches of marine species (metric tons)
Population in coastal areas
Population served by waste water treatment (% of country's

total population)

Discharges of oil into coastal waters (metric tons)
Releases of phosphate into coastal waters (metric tons)
Releases of nitrate into coastal waters (metric tons)
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 18: PROTECTION OF THE QUALITY AND SUPPLY OF FRESHWATER RESOURCES: APPLICATION OF INTEGRATED APPROACHES TO THE DEVELOPMENT, MANAGEMENT AND USE OF WATER RESOURCES

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: Kazakstan is supplied by fresh surface and underground water. In 1995 the annual withdrawal of water from rivers was 28.81 km3, 22.24 km3 of water were used and 5.52 km3 were lost. Discharge of waste water was 7.07 km3: 5.78 km3 in surface water, 1.27 in special ponds and 0.02 in underground waters. Water resources are polluted with various chemicals of industrial-agricultural origin. Pollution problems are particularly severe in vicinity of urban and industrial centers where adequate and fully operational wastewater treatment facilities do not exist either for municipal or industrial effluents.

Center of National Environmental Activity Plan for Sustainable Development (NEAP/SD) co-ordinates activities of ministries and departments, local agencies, public organisations and business structures to implement work for the water resources rational use and protection. It co-ordinates activity on environmental assessment of power plants and industry. The Center of NEAP/SD collects information on monitoring of water pollution, analyses their impact on health risk.

An Agreement on Cooperation in Implementing Rolling Framework Program for Sustainable Development of the Republic of Kazakstan was signed on the 31 of March. Ecological problems, projects and activities will be discussed and priorities will be identified at the Republic Seminar.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: Ministry of Ecology, Center of National Environmental Activity Plan for Sustainable Development (NEAP/SD) are responsible for water resources protection.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: Kazakstan is ready to establish National Cleaner Production Center (NCPC) within the framework of NEAP/SD Project approved by the RK Government. The NEAP/SD Center is capable of serving as the nexus for research and dissemination of cleaner production process for major industrial sectors. The NCPC will serve a co-ordinating and catalytic role in regard to cleaner production. Their activities cover four areas: in-plant demonstration, training, information dissemination, and policy assessment.

3. Major Groups: Ministries and departments, local agencies, public organisations and business structures.

4. Finance: Grant of Germany government for Project ''Environmental water use'' - $ 1.5 million in 1996.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: GTC,UNDP, World Bank, TACIS, OECD, UNDP, HIID, UNEP/GRID, UNDP, UNIDO/UNEP.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 199-
Fresh water availability (total domestic/external in million m3)
Annual withdrawal of freshwater as % of available water
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 19: ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT OF TOXIC CHEMICALS, INCLUDING PREVENTION OF ILLEGAL INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN TOXIC AND DANGEROUS PRODUCTS

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: Center of National Environmental Activity Plan for Sustainable Development (NEAP/SD) co-ordinates activities of ministries and departments, local agencies, public organisations and business structures to implement work for control and management of toxic chemicals and dangerous products. The Center of NEAP/SD collects information on substances distribution and analyses their impact on health risk.

Ecological problems, projects and activities will be discussed and priorities will be identified at the Republic Seminar.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: Ministry of Ecology, Center of National Environmental Activity Plan for Sustainable Development (NEAP/SD).

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: Kazakstan is ready to establish National Cleaner Production Center (NCPC) within the framework of NEAP/SD Project approved by the RK Government. The NEAP/SD Center is capable of serving as the nexus for research and dissemination of cleaner production process for major industrial sectors. The NCPC will serve a co-ordinating and catalytic role in regard to cleaner production. Their activities cover four areas: in-plant demonstration, training, information dissemination, and policy assessment.

3. Major Groups: ministries and departments, local agencies, public organisations and business structures

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: GTC,UNDP, World Bank, TACIS, OECD, UNDP, HIID, UNEP/GRID, UNDP, UNIDO/UNEP.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 20: ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT OF HAZARDOUS WASTES, INCLUDING PREVENTION OF ILLEGAL INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN HAZARDOUS WASTES

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal

Basel Convention

Additional comments relevant to this chapter

It has been estimated that 800 million tons of hazardous wastes are generated in Kazakstan every year, and nearly 17 billion tons of these waste are presently being held in landfills in the country. While there is no comprehensive inventory of ranking as to risk they pose to human health, hazardous waste are disposed of primarily in unlined landfills that are not well-managed. Moreover, there is little systematic waste recycling by the industry. The presence of such metals as gold, platinum, vanadium, and copper in some of this waste indicates the need for cleaning up the landfill sites and introduction resource recovery.

Center of National Environmental Activity Plan for Sustainable Development (NEAP/SD) co-ordinates activities of ministries and departments, local agencies, public organisations and business structures to implement work for control and management of hazardous wastes.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

Decision-Making Structure: Ministry of Ecology, Center of National Environmental Activity Plan for Sustainable Development (NEAP/SD).

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: Kazakstan is ready to establish National Cleaner Production Center (NCPC) within the framework of NEAP/SD Project approved by the RK Government. The NEAP/SD Center is capable of serving as the nexus for research and dissemination of cleaner production process for major industrial sectors. The NCPC will serve a co-ordinating and catalytic role in regard to cleaner production. Their activities cover four areas: in-plant demonstration, training, information dissemination, and policy assessment.

3. Major Groups: Ministries and departments, local agencies, public organisations and business structures.

Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: GTC,UNDP, World Bank, TACIS, OECD, UNDP, HIID, UNEP/GRID, UNDP, UNIDO/UNEP.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 199-
Generation of hazardous waste (t)
Import of hazardous wastes (t)
Export of hazardous wastes (t)
Area of land contaminated by hazardous waste (km2)
Expenditure on hazardous waste treatment (US$)
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 21: ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT OF SOLID WASTES AND SEWAGE-RELATED ISSUES

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: Center of National Environmental Activity Plan for Sustainable Development (NEAP/SD) co-ordinates activities of ministries and departments, local agencies, public organisations and business structures to implement control and management of solid waste dumping and directs activity towards waste recycling.

Pollution problems are particularly severe in vicinity of urban and industrial centers where adequate and fully operational wastewater treatment facilities do not exist either for municipal or industrial effluents. Of the nearly 1,200 major industrial enterprises in the country, less than half have functioning pre-treatment facilities. Municipal wastewater is commonly treated in unlined lagoons, which received untreated or poorly treated industrial effluents as well. Approximately 8 billion cubic meters of wastewater is presently being held in lagoons in 8 major cities, causing contamination of surrounding soil as well as surface and groundwater resources through overflow and seepage.

The Center of National Environmental Activity Plan for Sustainable Development (NEAP/SD) co-ordinates activities directed towards waste water management and supplying the population with sewerage. The Center of NEAP/SD collects information on monitoring of water pollution, analyses its impact on health risk.

Ecological problems, projects and activities will be discussed and priorities will be identified at the Republic Seminar.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

Decision-Making Structure: Ministry of Ecology, Center of National Environmental Activity Plan for Sustainable Development (NEAP/SD)are responsible for forests protection .

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: Kazakstan is ready to establish National Cleaner Production Center (NCPC) within the framework of NEAP/SD Project approved by the RK Government. The NEAP/SD Center is capable of serving as the nexus for research and dissemination of cleaner production process for major industrial sectors. The NCPC will serve a co-ordinating and catalytic role in regard to cleaner production. Their activities cover four areas: in-plant demonstration, training, information dissemination, and policy assessment.

3. Major Groups: Ministries and departments, local agencies, public organisations and business structures.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: GTC,UNDP, World Bank, TACIS, OECD, UNDP, HIID, UNEP/GRID, UNDP, UNIDO/UNEP.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 1995
Generation of industrial and municipal waste (t)
220311.9
223639.4
Waste disposed(Kg/capita)
11.5
13.0
Expenditure on waste collection and treatment (US$)
Waste recycling rates (%)
Municipal waste disposal (Kg/capita)
Waste reduction rates per unit of GDP (t/year)
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 22: SAFE AND ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: The problem of radioactive waste is very serious in Kazakstan as there are a lot of uranium mines in Kazakstan. Also between 1949 and 1989, 470 nuclear devices were detonated in the Semipalatensk range which occupies an area of some 1.8 million hectares in the oblasts of Semipolatensk, Pavlodar, Karaganda, East Kazakstan. Archival materials now indicate that there were exposure levels one hundred times above permissible levels. The epidemiological studies indicate high level s of cancer, and mental illness among the people in the region.

Center of National Environmental Activity Plan for Sustainable Development (NEAP/SD) co-ordinates activities of ministries and departments, local agencies, public organisations and business structures to implement work for control and management of radioactive waste. The Center of NEAP/SD collects information on monitoring of radioactive waste analyses its impact on health risk.

Ecological problems, projects and activities will be discussed and priorities will be identified at the Republic Seminar.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: Ministry of Ecology, Center of National Environmental Activity Plan for Sustainable Development (NEAP/SD).

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: Kazakstan is ready to establish National Cleaner Production Center (NCPC) within the framework of NEAP/SD Project approved by the RK Government. The NEAP/SD Center is capable of serving as the nexus for research and dissemination of cleaner production process for major industrial sectors. The NCPC will serve a co-ordinating and catalytic role in regard to cleaner production. Their activities cover four areas: in-plant demonstration, training, information dissemination, and policy assessment.

3. Major Groups: Ministries and departments, local agencies, public organisations and business structures.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: GTC,UNDP, World Bank, TACIS, OECD, UNDP, HIID, UNEP/GRID, UNDP, UNIDO/UNEP.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS

AGENDA 21 CHAPTERS 23-32: MAJOR GROUPS

The role of major groups are also covered under the various chapters of Agenda 21. The following is a summary of main objectives outlined in Agenda 21. Please check the appropriate boxes and describe briefly any important steps or obstacles.

STATUS REPORT ON PARTICIPATION BY MAJOR GROUPS AT THE

NATIONAL AND LOCAL LEVELS
Ch. 24: GLOBAL ACTION FOR WOMEN TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND EQUITABLE DEVELOPMENT.

The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women was

24.a Increasing the proportion of women decision makers.

24.b assessing, reviewing, revising and implementing curricula and other educational material with a view to promoting dissemination of gender-relevant knowledge.

Curricula and educational material

24.c formulating and implementing policies, guidelines, strategies and plans for achievement of equality in all aspects of society including issuing a strategy by year 2000 to eliminate obstacles to full participation of women in sustainable development. Policies/strategies etc.

24.d establishing mechanisms by 1995 to assess implementation and impact of development and environment policies and programmes on women

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page):

No information.

STATUS REPORT ON PARTICIPATION BY MAJOR GROUPS AT THE

NATIONAL AND LOCAL LEVELS
Ch. 25: CHILDREN AND YOUTH IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT.

25.a establishing processes that promote dialogue between the youth and government at all levels and mechanisms that permit youth access to information and opportunity to present their views on implementing A21.

Describe their role in

the national process:

25.b reducing youth unemployment

25.c ensuring that by year 2000 more than 50% of youth -- gender balanced -- have access to appropriate secondary education or vocational training.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page):

No information.

STATUS REPORT ON PARTICIPATION BY MAJOR GROUPS AT THE

NATIONAL AND LOCAL LEVELS
Ch. 26: RECOGNIZING AND STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF INDIGENOUS PEOPLE AND THEIR COMMUNITIES.

26.a establishing a process to empower indigenous people and their communities -- through policies and legal instruments:

26.b strengthening arrangements for active participation in national policies

26.c involving indigenous people in resource management strategies and programmes at the national and local level.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page):

No information.

Ch. 27: STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS: PARTNERS FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT.

27.a developing mechanisms that allow NGOs to play their partnership role responsibly and effectively.

27.b reviewing formal procedures and mechanisms to involve NGOs in decision making and implementation.

27.c promoting and allowing NGOs to participate in the conception, establishment and evaluation of official mechanisms to review Agenda 21 implementation.

27.d establishing a mutually productive dialogue by 1995 at the national level between NGOs and governments.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page):

No information.

STATUS REPORT ON PARTICIPATION BY MAJOR GROUPS AT THE

NATIONAL AND LOCAL LEVELS
Ch. 28: LOCAL AUTHORITIES' INITIATIVES IN SUPPORT OF AGENDA 21.

28.a encouraging local authorities to implement and monitor programmes that aim to ensure participation of women and youth in local decision making.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page):

No information.

Ch. 29: STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF WORKERS AND THEIR TRADE UNIONS.

29.a full participation of workers in implementation and evaluation of A21.

29.b (By year 2000, (a) promoting ratification of ILO conventions; (b) establishing bipartite and tripartite mechanism on safety, health and sustainable development; (c) increasing number of environmental collective agreements; (d) reducing occupational accidents and injuries; (e) increasing workers' education and training efforts.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page):

No information.

30: STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY.

30.a increasing the efficiency of resource use, including reuse, recycling, and reduction of waste per unit of economic output.

30.b encouraging the concept of stewardship in management and use of natural resources by entrepreneurs.

List any actions taken in this area:

30.c increasing number of enterprises that subscribe to and implement sustainable development policies.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page):

No information.

STATUS REPORT ON PARTICIPATION BY MAJOR GROUPS AT THE

NATIONAL AND LOCAL LEVELS
Ch. 31: SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL COMMUNITY.

31.a improving exchange of knowledge and concerns between s&t community and the general public.

Scientific community has already established ways in which to address the general public and deal with

sustainable development.

31.b developing, improving and promoting international acceptance of codes of practice and guidelines related to science and technology and its role in reconciling environment and development.

Brief comments on this chapter not already described in chapter 35 (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page):

No information.

Ch. 32: STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF FARMERS.

32.a promoting and encouraging sustainable farming practices and technologies.

32.b developing a policy framework that provides incentives and motivation among farmers for sustainable and efficient farming practices.

32.c enhancing participation of organizations of farmers in design and implementation of sustainable development policies.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page):

No information.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 33: FINANCIAL RESOURCES AND MECHANISMS

Financial resources and mechanisms are also covered under each sectoral chapter of Agenda 21 where relevant. This summary highlights broader national financial policies, domestic and external (including ODA)

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: No information.

CHANGES IN NATIONAL BUDGET TO ADDRESS SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: No information

NEW ECONOMIC INSTRUMENTS: No information

ELIMINATION OF ENVIRONMENTALLY UNFRIENDLY SUBSIDIES: No information

ODA policy issues

No information

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
ODA funding provided or received (Total US$million)
Average for 92-93
Average for 94-96
Net flow of external capital from all sources as % of GDP
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 34: TRANSFER OF ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND TECHNOLOGY, COOPERATION AND CAPACITY-BUILDING

Transfer of environmentally sound technology, cooperation and capacity-building is also covered under each sectoral chapter of Agenda 21 where relevant. This summary highlights broader national policies and actions relating to chapter 34.

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT ON LINKS BETWEEN NATIONAL, REGIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL INFORMATION NETWORKS/SYSTEMS:

No information.

MEANS OF IMPLEMENTATION: No information

Describe any work being undertaken at the national or local level regarding efforts to promote clean production processes and/or the concepts of eco-efficiency. These processes may include training, preferential financial arrangements, information dissemination and changes in legal or regulatory frameworks.

No information.

Provide information on the adoption of environmental management systems. National reaction to environmental management system standards such as the ISO 14000 Series and others. Please note efforts made at the national level to promote their adoption and the creation of certification infrastructure in order to facilitate access to these standards to local industry.

No information.

List and describe programs or work under way to facilitate the transfer of ESTs to small and medium sized enterprises. Please note efforts to facilitate access to financial resources and other transfer strategies.

No information.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 35: SCIENCE FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT ON NATIONAL SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE, RESEARCH NEEDS AND PRIORITIES:

No information.

STEPS TAKEN TO ENHANCE SCIENTIFIC UNDERSTANDING, IMPROVE LONG TERM SCIENTIFIC ASSESSMENT, BUILDING OF CAPACITY AND CAPABILITY: No information

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
Year
Number of scientists, engineers and technicians engaged in research and experimental development # 19--
Total expenditure for research and experimental development (US$eq.) $ 19--
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 36: PROMOTING EDUCATION, PUBLIC AWARENESS AND TRAINING

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: No information.

a) Reorientation of education towards sustainable development

No information

b) Increasing public awareness

No information

c) Promoting training

No information

ROLE OF MAJOR GROUPS: No information

FINANCING AND COST EVALUATION OF THE LABOUR ACTIVITIES: No information

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 199-
Adult literacy rate (%) Male
Adult literacy rate (%) Female
% of primary school children reaching grade 5 (1986-97)
Mean number of years of schooling
% of GNP spent on education
Females per 100 males in secondary school
Women per 100 men in the labour force
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 37: NATIONAL MECHANISMS AND INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION FOR CAPACITY-BUILDING IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

National capacity building is also covered under sectoral chapters.

Donors: You may wish to describe here how Agenda 21 has influenced your ODA policies in this area.

Developing countries: You may wish to describe any new national mechanisms for capacity building - and any changes in technical cooperation.

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT ON NATIONAL ENDOGENOUS CAPACITY BUILDING: No information.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 38: INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS

Ch. 38: Brief summary of any particular UN System response affecting this country/state:

No information.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 39: INTERNATIONAL LEGAL INSTRUMENTS AND MECHANISMS

Ch. 39: International Legal Instruments are covered under the relevant sectoral chapters. This is a listing of major agreements/conventions (not already covered) entered into and relevant to Agenda 21:

No information.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 40: INFORMATION FOR DECISION-MAKING

This chapter is also covered under sectoral and other chapters of this profile. The matrix below gives an overview of how national authorities rate the available information for decision making.

Rating of available data and information suitable for decision-making

Agenda 21 Chapters
Very
good
Good
Some good
data but
many gaps
Poor
Remarks
2. International cooperation and trade
3. Combating poverty
4. Changing consumption patterns
5. Demographic dynamics and sustainability
6. Human health
7. Human settlements
8. Integrating E & D in decision-making
9. Protection of the atmosphere
10. Integrated planning and management of land resources
11. Combating deforestation
12. Combating desertification and drought
13. Sustainable mountain development
14. Sustainable agriculture and rural development
15. Conservation of biological diversity
16. Biotechnology
17. Oceans, seas, coastal areas and their living resources
18. Freshwater resources
19. Toxic chemicals
20. Hazardous wastes
21. Solid wastes
22. Radioactive wastes
24. Women in sustainable development
25. Children and youth
26. Indigenous people
27. Non-governmental organizations
28. Local authorities
29. Workers and trade unions
30. Business and industry
31. Scientific and technological community
32. Farmers
33. Financial resources and mechanisms
34. Technology, cooperation and capacity-building
35. Science for sustainable development
36. Education, public awareness and training
37. International cooperation for capacity-building
38. International institutional arrangements
39. International legal instruments
40. Information for decision-making

Additional Comments

No information

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1993
Latest 199-
Number of telephones in use per 100 inhabitants
Other data

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Last updated 1 November 1997