ESA home Search Parliamentary services Research and analysis National governments Regional cooperation Development issues

National Implementation of Agenda 21

REPUBLIC OF FIJI

COUNTRY PROFILE
IMPLEMENTATION OF AGENDA 21:
REVIEW OF PROGRESS MADE SINCE THE
UNITED NATIONS CONFERENCE ON
ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT, 1992

Information Provided by the Government of the Republic of Fiji to the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development
Fifth Session
7-25 April 1997
New York

United Nations Department for Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development
Division for Sustainable Development
The Information contained in this Country Profile is also available on the World Wide Web, as follows:
http://www.un.org/dpcsd/earthsummit

FIJI

This country profile has been provided by:

Name of Ministry/Office: CENTRAL PLANNING OFFICE/DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENT

Date: 25 May 1997

Submitted by: Mr. Robin Yarrow, Permanent Secretary for Coordination

& Strategic Planning

Mailing address: P.O. Box 2351, Government Buildings, Suva, Fiji

Telephone: 211570

Telefax: 304809

E-mail:

Note from the Secretariat: An effort has been made to present all country profiles within a common format, with an equal number of pages. However, where Governments have not provided information for the tables appended to Chapters 4 and 17, those tables have been omitted entirely in order to reduce the overall length of the profile and save paper. Consequently, there may be some minor inconsistencies among the formats of the different country profiles.

All statistics are rendered as provided by the respective Governments.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACRONYMS
OVERVIEW
FACT SHEET
AGENDA 21 CHAPTERS
2. International cooperation to accelerate sustainable development in developing countries and related domestic policies
3. Combating poverty
4. Changing consumption patterns
5. Demographic dynamics and sustainability
6. Protecting and promoting human health
7. Promoting sustainable human settlement development
8. Integrating environment and development in decision-making
9. Protection of the atmosphere
10. Integrated approach to the planning and management of land resources
11. Combating deforestation
12. Managing fragile ecosystems: combating desertification and drought
13. Managing fragile ecosystems: sustainable mountain development
14. Promoting sustainable agriculture and rural development
15. Conservation of biological diversity
16. Environmentally sound management of biotechnology
17. Protection of the oceans, all kinds of seas, including enclosed and semi-enclosed seas, and coastal areas and the protection, rational use and development of their living resources
18. Protection of the quality and supply of freshwater resources: application of integrated approaches to the development, management and use of water resources
19. Environmentally sound management of toxic chemicals, including prevention of illegal international traffic in toxic and dangerous products
20. Environmentally sound management of hazardous wastes, including prevention of illegal international traffic in hazardous wastes
21. Environmentally sound management of solid wastes and sewage-related issues
22. Safe and environmentally sound management of radioactive wastes
23-32. Major groups
33. Financial resources and mechanisms
34. Transfer of environmentally sound technology, cooperation and capacity-building
35. Science for sustainable development
36. Promoting education, public awareness and training
37. National mechanisms and international cooperation for capacity-building in developing countries
38. International institutional arrangements
39. International legal instruments and mechanisms
40. Information for decision-making

ACRONYMS

APELL Awareness and Preparedness for Emergencies at Local Level
CFC chlorofluorocarbon
CGIAR Consultative Group on International Agriculture Research
CILSS Permanent Inter-State Committee on Drought Control in the Sahel
EEZ exclusive economic zone
ECA Economic Commission for Africa
ECE Economic Commission for Europe
ECLAC Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean
ELCI Environmental Liaison Centre International
EMINWA environmentally sound management of inland water
ESCAP Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific
ESCWA Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia
FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
GATT General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
GAW Global Atmosphere Watch (WMO)
GEF Global Environment Facility
GEMS Global Environmental Monitoring System (UNEP)
GEMS/WATER Global Water Quality Monitoring Programme
GESAMP Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Pollution
GIPME Global Investigation of Pollution in Marine Environment (UNESCO)
GIS Geographical Information System
GLOBE Global Legislators Organisation for a Balanced Environment
GOS Global Observing System (WMO/WWW)
GRID Global Resource Information Database
GSP generalized system of preferences
HIV human immunodeficiency virus
IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency
IAP-WASAD International Action Programme on Water and Sustainable Agricultural Development
IARC International Agency for Research on Cancer
IBSRAM International Board of Soil Resources and Management
ICCA International Council of Chemical Associations
ICES International Council for the Exploration of the Sea
ICPIC International Cleaner Production Information Clearing House
ICSC International Civil Service Commission
ICSU International Council of Scientific Unions
IEEA Integrated environmental and economic accounting
IFAD International Fund for Agricultural Development
IGADD Intergovernmental Authority for Drought and Development
IGBP International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (ICSU)
IGBP/START International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme/Global Change System for Analysis, Research and Training
ILO International Labour Organisation
IMF International Monetary Fund
IMO International Maritime Organization
INFOTERRA International Environment Information system (UNEP)
IOC Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission
IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
IPCS International Programme on Chemical Safety
IPM integrated pest management
IRPTC International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals
ITC International Tin Council
ITTO International Tropical Timber Organization
IUCN International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources
MARPOL International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships
OECD Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development
PGRFA plant genetic resources for agriculture
PIC prior informed consent procedure
SADCC South African Development Co-ordination Conference
SARD sustainable agriculture and rural development
UNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
UNDP United Nations Development Programme
UNDRO Office of the United Nations Disaster Relief Coordinator
UNEP United Nations Environment Programme
UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
UNFPA United Nations Population Fund
UNICEF United Nations Children's Fund
UNIDO United Nations Industrial Development Organization
UNU United Nations University
WCP World Climate Programme (WMO/UNEP/ICSU/UNESCO)
WFC World Food Council
WHO World Health Organization
WMO World Meteorological Organization
WWF World Wide Fund for Nature (also called World Wildlife Fund)
WWW World Weather Watch (WMO)
National Acronyms
FFA Forum Fisheries Agency
FCOSS Fiji Council of Social Services
IBSRM International Board of Soil Research and Management
NZODA New Zealand Official Development Assistance
ODS Ozone Depletion Section
SPREP South Pacific Regional and Related Protocols

FACT SHEET

FIJI

1. Name of Key National Sustainable Development Coordination Mechanism(s)/Council)(s)

Department of Environment, Ministry of Housing, Urban Development & Environment

Contact point (Name, Title, Office): Mr. Epeli Nasome, Director of Environment

18 Richards Road, Domain

Telephone: 311699

Fax: 312879

e-mail:

Mailing address: P.O. Box 2131, Government Buildings, Suva, Fiji

2. Membership/Composition/Chairperson:

2a. List of ministries and agencies involved:

Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries, Forest & Alta

Ministry of Urban Development, Housing & Environment

Ministry of Labour & Industrial Relations

Ministry for Education, Women & Culture

Ministry for Health

Ministry for Commerce, Trade & Industry

Ministry for Tourism and Civil Aviation

2b. Names of para-statal bodies and institutions involved, as well as participating of academic and private sector bodies:

2c. Names of non-governmental organizations involved:

Fiji Council of Social Services (FCOSS) : Community Environment Awareness Committee

Consumer Council of Fiji

National Food and Nutrition Committee (NFNC)

SPACHEE

3. Mandate role of above mechanism/council:

To provide for an effective environmental management capability, heritage protection

and meaningful public involvement in the protection of Fiji's environment.

4. If available, attach a diagram (organization chart) showing national coordination structure and linkages between ministries:

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 2: INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION TO ACCELERATE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES AND RELATED DOMESTIC POLICIES (with special emphasis on TRADE)

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: No information.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure:

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues:

3. Major Groups:

4. Finance:

5. Regional/International Cooperation:

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1985
1990
1992
Latest 1996
Unemployment (%)
6.4
5.4
6.0
Population living in absolute poverty (%)
6.0
Public spending on social sector (%)
29
26
27
24 (1997)
Other data: From 1996 Fiji Poverty Study Report which used 1990-91 information.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 3: COMBATING POVERTY

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

Focus of national strategy

In the Fiji Poverty Study Report published jointly this year by the Government and UNDP, the focus of the strategy for combating poverty is to:

1. Improve the productive capacity of the people;

2. Improve access to performance of social services;

3. Build capacities at the local level.

Highlight activities aimed at the poor and linkages to the environment

Institutional care and supervision for young persons and juveniles who are offenders or deemed to be at risk.

A family assistance scheme for destitute, elderly persons as well as housing assistance.

Legal aid for divorcees; adoption of infants; care and protection of children.

Income tax threshold is F$5,000.

NGO activity in appropriate housing; assistance to school children; sustainable use of local resources; care of orphans.

Tuition-free education up to Form 4.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information.

3. Major Groups: No information.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation:

NB: Developed countries, where domestic poverty alleviation is not a major concern may wish to briefly describe their position regarding global poverty alleviation.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1985
1990
1992
Latest 1996
Unemployment (%)
6.4
5.4
6.0
Population living in absolute poverty %
6.0
Public spending on social sector %
29
26
27
24 (1997)
Other data

From 1996 Fiji Poverty Study Report which used 1990-1991 information.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 4: CHANGING CONSUMPTION PATTERNS

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

National policy objectives/focus

The current trend is to adopt a Westernized dietary pattern. Over the years this consumption pattern has resulted in increasing dependence on overseas food supplies, partly due to changing production priorities domestically, with greater emphasis on cash and export crops and also, to some extent, insufficient domestic supplies. Wider exposure to exotic foods through mobility and marketing (advertisements, TV, etc.) have led to changing preferences, such that more and more people are preferring imported refined food compared to indigenous food. With the changing consumption patterns and also changing lifestyles, the emerging disease patterns are similar to those that are prevalent overseas, a major cause being a diet which is rich in saturated and unsaturated fat and minimal fibre.

Policy objectives include the following:

a. Improve and strengthen household food security

At present, approximately 57% of the country's food as well as 60% of its protein and 64% of its fat, are imported. The Government's current policy emphasizing export-oriented agriculture, may result in an increased dependence on imported food. An attempt should be made to modify the agriculture policy in order to increase domestic food production, with the aim of having more than 50% of the country's food supplied locally.

UNICEF support for family food production oriented projects within MAFFA has assisted the Ministry to refocus on domestic food production. The World Food Summit (Rome, 1996) has also provided an impetus for MAFFA to begin to redirect resources so that they also address food security issues.

b. Improve and strengthen the promotion of local foods

At present, nutrition and health education are continuing to promote local foods as better alternatives for good health (c.f. imported foods, which are generally processed and have a high salt, sugar and fat content, and minimal fibre). Current analysis of local foods at the University of the South Pacific has provided evidence of the nutritional superiority of these foods. Selling the idea of their superior nutritional quality over the cheaper but less nutritious imported foods is what is needed. Greater emphasis on local food production with resources allocated to research and improved cultivars and marketing of local foods may improve their competitiveness. At the moment, the convenience offered by imported foods in terms of storability and ease in preparation (in an almost ready-to-eat state) make them more attractive and in some cases a more economical choice. However, the costs they incur in the long run) may offset their current advantages.

Support for NGO activity, especially KANA in boarding schools, and Soqosoqo Vakamarama etc. for improved family nutrition.

c. Incorporation of Food and Nutrition in the formal education system

The teaching of Food and Nutrition as a subject up to 7th form level and subject to examination, makes it possible to create awareness and impart knowledge so that young people can make informed food choices, hopefully for the better. It is encouraging to note that at this level both girls and boys are enrolled in the subject.

There is a need, however, to ensure that the curriculum does contribute to a greater appreciation of local foods, and that it is geared to helping students avoid being victims of diet-related diseases. The curriculum needs to be specific to the country's current health problems.

Awareness created in students can be reinforced if the Ministry of Education adopts supportive health promotion policies such as health and nutrition policy for schools, and ensures that schools provide a health promoting environment, e.g. school canteens.

d. Deregulation Policy

There is an urgent need to ensure that food safety regulations and quality control standards are in place and are enforced. Otherwise, the country could be left open to being a dumping ground for food of inferior quality and safety.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information.

3. Major Groups: No information.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1985
1990
1992
Latest 199_
GDP per capita (current F$)
1,690
2,474
2,787
3,002
Real GDP growth (%)
2.3
9.0
8.3
5.1
Annual energy consumption per capita (Kg. of oil equivalent per capita)
Motor vehicles in use per 1000 inhabitants
Other data

Government policies affecting consumption and production.

1. Goals and Agents (Stakeholders)

Indicate with a (X) those agents which your Governments policies are meant most to influence.

Agents

Goals

Producers
Local

authorities
Central

Government
Households
Civil society
Material efficiency
x
x
x
x
Energy efficiency:
Transport
x
x
Housing
x
x
x
x
Other
Waste:
Reduce
x
x
Reuse
x
x
Recycle
x
x

Comments:

2. Means & Measures and Agents (Stakeholders)

Indicate with an (R) those agents who assume primary responsibility for any of the policy measures indicated; indicate with an (I) the agents for which the impact is expected to be especially significant.

Agents

Means & Measures

Producers
Local

Authorities
Central

Government
House-

holds
Civil

Society
Improving understanding and analysis
Information and education (e.g., radio/TV/press)
Research
R
R
I
I
Evaluating environmental claims
I
R
R
I
Form partnerships
I
R
R
I
Applying tools for modifying behaviour
R
I
Community based strategies
R
I
I
Social incentives/disincentives (e.g., ecolabelling)
I
R
R
I
Regulatory instruments
I
R
I
I
Economic incentives/disincentives
I
R
R
I
Voluntary agreements of producer responsibility for

aspects of product life cycle

R
R
Provision of enabling facilities and infrastructure

(e.g., transportation alternatives, recycling)

R
R
I
Procurement policy
I
R
R
Monitoring, evaluating and reviewing performance
Action campaign
R
R
I
R
Other (specify)

Comments:

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 5: DEMOGRAPHIC DYNAMICS AND SUSTAINABILITY

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

Reports from provisional results of 1996 population census:

- declining population growth rates overall and the lowest growth rate

(10.8% per annum) between censuses since 1991.

- decrease in the proportion as well as the size of the overall rural population due to heavy Indian losses and a small Fijian increase.

- intensified urbanization particularly for Fijians. Urban dwellers now comprise 46.4% of the total population.

National priority is to:

1. Limit the rate of population growth so that it is compatible with sustained improvements in the standard of living.

2. Equip the population with a satisfactory range of skills for use in the workplace and society.

The Government considers the population growth and fertility level as satisfactory and wishes to maintain the status quo in both cases; however, it wishes to maintain a lower fertility rate among teenagers.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information.

3. Major Groups: No information.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1990
1993
Latest 1996 #
Population (Thousands) mid-year estimates
733,000*
771,000*
773,000
Annual rate of increase (1990-1993)
1.9
0.8 +
Surface area (Km2)
Population density (people/Km2)
40
42
42
Other data Exclusive Economic Zone 1.3Km2

* Estimation

# 1996 Population Census

+ Average Annual Rate 1996

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 6: PROTECTING AND PROMOTING HUMAN HEALTH

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

Infant mortality, neo-natal and maternal mortality rates have declined by 60% to 80% over the last two decades. Immunization coverage is over 90%. There were no cases reported in the last five years of major childhood communicable diseases (polio, diphtheria, whooping cough, tetanus). However, TB is increasing, although not at a high rate. Information on sexually transmitted diseases (SIDs), including gonorrhea, syphilis, HIV and AIDS, is difficult to obtain due to unreported cases, but SIDs are believed to be increasing. There were 34 reported cases of AIDS as of mid-1995, and one of these had developed through pregnancy.

Non-communicable diseases are increasing. Cardiovascular diseases (for example, heart diseases and high blood pressure) and diabetes are major causes of death among adults in Fiji. Two thousand cases of malnutrition were reported in 1995. Most cases were either moderate or mild and only 1% was diagnosed as severe. Goitre is a relatively small problem. Anaemia is a significant problem, particularly among pregnant women. Substance abuse is being addressed by the Government through programmes at St. Giles Hospital, the Fiji Police Force, and the National Centre for Health Promotion.

NGOs are involved in the advocacy of hygiene, nutrition, cancer detection, diarrhoea control, family planning, HIV/STD prevention etc. at the community level. Other services provided are sight and hearing testing for school children, trauma counselling services for patients such as diabetic amputees or for people recovering from such events as cyclones or total house fires; blood collection and education of symptoms such as "the bends", which can paralyze Scuba Divers who do not adhere to safe diving practices.

Most constructed structures are not accessible to persons with disabilities. Action and legislation for enabling and protecting persons with disabilities are needed in Fiji.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information.

3. Major Groups: No information.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 1995
Life expectancy at birth

Male

Female

61

65

70

74

70

74
Infant mortality (per 1000 live births)
26
16
13
Maternal mortality rate (per 100000 live births)
90
68
Access to safe drinking water (% of population)
62%
70%
72% est
Access to sanitation services (% of population) (sewerage facilities)
6%
12%
15% est
Other data

Total fertility rate 30% 2.9%

Under (5) five mortality rate (per 1,000 live births) 23 24

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 7: PROMOTING SUSTAINABLE HUMAN SETTLEMENT DEVELOPMENT

NATIONAL PRIORITY: Provision of affordable housing to low income earners as well as home ownership.
STATUS REPORT:

Since the Earth Summit the Ministry for Urban Development, Housing & Environment has reviewed its Housing and Urbanization policy and a new set of policies on housing and urbanization was adopted in 1995. The main thrust of the new policy is the provision of necessary infrastructure, concessions and support as well as administrative and legislative mechanisms for the provision of affordable housing to various income groups.

The Government adopted a National Squatter Policy in 1995, which provides for a two-pronged approach to the squatter problem in Fiji. Upgrading of squatter colonies in consultation with landowners is recommended and policing is also recommended to contain the growth of squatter areas.

For the destitute and disabled, who include the elderly, the deserted, widows and single mothers, the Government has been providing grants to "Housing Assistance and Relief Trusts", an NGO, for accommodation of these poor people.

The provision of adequate shelter for all its people remains a challenge for the Government. Public sector housing is provided through two institutions: the Housing Authority and the Public Rental Board. The former is involved in a sites and services programme as well as mortgage financing. The Public Rental Board provides rental accommodation to more than 1700 tenants.

Private sector involvement in housing is encouraged, and it is more active in the provision of serviced sites for the upper income group.

The Government has also recently reviewed planning and infrastructure standards to make them more relevant to the needs of the poor.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: Ministry for Urban Development, Housing and Environment, The Housing Authority, The Public Rental Board and Central Planning Office.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: The use of innovative design in the planning of land subdivision for housing and the use of building materials other than concrete and timber for low income housing.

3. Major Groups: In the provision of housing, consultation with women and youths is undertaken.

4. Finance: Financing of housing projects has been possible through the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) and the Asian Development Bank (ADB) as well as the local capital market.

5. Regional/International Cooperation:

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
Census
1986
199
Urban population in % of total population
38.7%
46.4%
Annual rate of growth of urban population (%) between 1986 - 1996
2.6%
Largest city population (in % of total population) (Suva)
19.7%
21.7%
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 8: INTEGRATING ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT IN DECISION-MAKING

(See pages vii and viii at the beginning of the profile)

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

The Government's document "Opportunities for Growth", published in 1993, contains policies and strategies for sustainable development. Based on the recognition of the twin requirements of a high quality of life and a better environment, the Government's policy on sustainable development includes the following elements:

(i) ensuring that renewable resources are used in a sustainable manner;

(ii) ensuring that environmental management is an integral part of the planning and development process;

(iii) strengthening of institutional capacity for sound environment management;

(iv) use of environmental impact assessment studies for new project proposals;

(v) ensuring that environmental expenditures are prioritized on the basis of best estimates of their contribution to socio-economic development.

The Sustainable Development Bill gives effect to the compulsory process of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) by all Government ministries, departments and agencies for all proposed developments, undertakings or activities which are likely to have an adverse effect on human health, society or the environment.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure (please also refer to the fact sheet):

All EIA reports are to be submitted to the Environmental Assessment Administrator of the Department of Environment for an assessment; the recommendations are subsequently submitted to the National Council for Sustainable Development for approval.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information.

3. Major Groups: All Ministries, departments and agencies are required to undertake environmental impact assessments for all new project proposals.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 9: PROTECTION OF THE ATMOSPHERE

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

The Montreal Protocol and its Amendments

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change - signed in 1992.

Additional comments relevant to this chapter

Protection of the Atmosphere

An Ozone Depletion Section (ODS) was formed within the Department of Environment in 1995, with an ODS officer in 1996.

A Consultative Committee on ODS was also established with the mandate for coordinating the reporting on annual use, import and storage of controlled substances.

The Department of Environment has formulated a draft Sustainable Development Bill (a comprehensive, integrative environmental and resource management legislation) inclusive of a section on Climate Change and Ozone Depletion. However, the Ozone Depletion Section was taken out in order to enable quick passage through the legislative process.

Climate Change

A Climate Change Unit has been formed in the Department of Environment to coordinate Fiji's inventory process and reporting, and related studies to produce integrated resource management plans for coastal areas.

Fiji ratified the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) in 1992 and is in the process of complying through undertaking the US Country Studies Programme. This involves studies of greenhouse gas sources and sinks. The

GEF-funded Pacific Islands Climate Change Assistance Project (PICCAP) will assist Fiji, as with other island countries, to meet its national reporting obligations under the FCCC.

The Climate Change project has involved an assessment of the vulnerability of areas where the impacts of sea level rise are likely to be greatest, using geographical, social and economic indicators. By the end of 1997, strategies for adaptation of high risk areas were developed.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure:
ODS Unit - analysis of future demands of ODSs;
- administrative functions - funding and other technical and audit process for data collection;
- ensure compliance with standards and codes of practice;
- accreditation of services.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues:
- ODS Unit to coordinate the licensing and training of personnel in Government and industry;
- tertiary institutions undertake training of government and industrial workers;
- Consultative Committee instigates liaison work in the industrial sector.

3. Major Groups:

The Consultative Committee on ODS (CCODS) includes representatives from:
  - the Government
 - Fire Control Sector
 - Motor Industry
  - Tertiary Institutions
 - Hotel Industry
 - Shipbuilding Industry
 - Builders Industry

4. Finance:

UNEP

Multilateral Fund

5. Regional/International Cooperation:

  - International consultation services that prepared Country Programme.
  - ODSONET Meeting in Asia.
  - UN Multilateral funding.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 1996
CO2 emissions (eq. million tons) (GIGAGRAMS)
778.5
SOx "
NOx " (GIGAGRAMS)
0.53
CH4 " (GIGAGRAMS)
0.96
Consumption of ozone depleting substances (Tons)
20
40
63
Expenditure on air pollution abatement in US$ equivalents (million)
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 10: INTEGRATED APPROACH TO THE PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT OF LAND RESOURCES

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

A National Landuse Plan project has been drafted by the Ministry of Agriculture: Procedures to regulate natural resources extraction are being established including monitoring and audit of extraction operations.

The Convention on Biological Diversity was signed in 1992. To date the inventory of natural resources undertaken includes:

1. Forestry by the Department of Forestry.
2. Minerals by the Department of Minerals.
3. Land use Capabilities by Agricultural Department.
4. Formulation and Implementation of a National Resource Management Plan.
- Risk assessment of areas prone to flooding and exposure to cyclonic effects have been done
in order to mitigate measures to develop a preventive approach.
- Fiji is a party to other international and regional conventions, including:
- Convention for the Protection of Natural Resources and Environment in the
South Pacific Region and Related Protocols (SPREP Convention).

- Convention on the Conservation of Nature (Apia Convention).
- Fiji is also considering becoming a party to the CITES and Ramsar Conventions.

The resource base of nature-based tourism in Fiji is vast and consists of the sum total of Fiji's natural resources. In particular, the sea and marine life, as well as the ecology of inland areas and settlements, provide major attractions for visitors.

Susceptible to external influences and increasingly attractive to tourists, the country is open to exploitation for profit and consequently more prone to degradation. In this regard, the Government has provided funding for the establishment of the Sigatoka Sand Dunes national park.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure:

An integrative decision-making structure exists. The Government takes a leading role to consult line ministries on their views and policies related to resource management. A Landuse Plan is being proposed to guide decisions on resource use.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues:

The National Environment Strategy recommended the formation of Environmental Management Units in line ministries to be responsible for resource use management on a sustainable level.

Volunteer experience through Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), VSO, Peace Corps, etc.

Training within region.

3. Major Groups:

Government Organizations: Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries, Forests; Ministry of Urban Development, Housing & Environment; Ministry of Tourism; Ministry of Lands & Mineral Resources; Ministry of Fijian Affairs.

Statutory Bodies: Native Land Trust Board; National Trust of Fiji; NGOs; SPACHEE; Women's Groups; Local Area Groups; Media Groups.

4. Finance: Internaitonal/Regional donors.

5. Regional/International Cooperation:

- Technical assistance: consultants, equipment, training, workshops.
- Formulation of strategies and action plans.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 11: COMBATING DEFORESTATION

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

Fiji has a total area of 18,390m2 and comprises islands of which 100 are inhabited and supporting a population of 783,550 (end 1994), with a population growth well below 2% (Bureau of Statistics 1990). The largest islands are Viti Levu and Vanua Levu which together contain over 90% of the population and comprise 87% of the land area.

The islands lie between 178oE and 179oW longitude and between 16o and 23oS latitude just inside the tropical belt. They are largely volcanic, of varying geological age and of moderately fertile soil, with fairly steep dissected topography in the forest areas.

After several thousands of years of human occupation and over a century of European influence, approximately 0.8 million hectares (ha) or about 47% of the country remains under natural forest cover. Reforestation together with afforestation has brought some 90,000 ha of long deforested land back into production. A small area totalling about 42,000 ha is under mangrove forest. Fiji thus has a total land area of 1.83 million hectares under forest. Broadly speaking, extensive areas of the drier parts of the two main islands have suffered deforestation. Consequently, the indigenous forest cover is more than 50% in the wetter parts of the country.

Forest Type by Division Indigenous Plantation

Mangrove Tropical Softwood Hardwood

(a) Total area of Forest

Type (ha x 1000 ha)

42

797

50

46%
(b) % Forest Area by Division

Central Division

35

33

8

47
Northern Division
14
41
20
37
Western Division
51
26
72
16

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 11: COMBATING DEFORESTATION cont'd.

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

Indigenous Forests

Indigenous forests occupy 797,000 ha, making up 47% of the land and include 253,000 ha of unexploited production forest on which the hardwood industry is presently based. This area comprises 31% of all forests. Eighty-nine percent of the unexploited production forest and 84% of all Fijian forest are under communal ownership.

Plantations

(a) Pine Plantations

By the end of 1994, Fiji Pine Limkted's fully stocked area of pine stood at 43,686 ha with plans to extend this area to 55,000 ha by 2006.

(b) Hardwood Plantations

By the end of 1996, the Forestry Department had established 51,004 ha of hardwood plantations of mainly mahogany. It is planned to plant 85,000 ha by 2010.

Fiji has continued to promote sustainable forest management both through domestic policy development and at international fora. Fiji is committed to the effective implementation of the outcome of UNCED, having signed and ratified the International Convention on Biological Diversity and the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. Fiji has just become a member of ITTO. Major initiatives taken towards sustainable forest management, include:

(a) Fiji Forest Sector Review and its incorporation into the National Forestry Action Plan;

(b) Re-inventory of the indigenous forest, installation of the Geographic Information System;

(c) Fiji Logging Code of Practice.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 11: COMBATING DEFORESTATION cont'd.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure:

Explicit, transparent, comprehensive and responsive to long-term as well as short- and medium-term needs. It is based on detailed knowledge of the present and a vision of the future.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues:

Strengthening innovation management capacity. More broadly, innovative technology is central to the economic development of Fiji, especially for enhancing the efficiency, effectiveness and productivity of existing business and in promoting new businesses.

3. Major Groups:

These include: Administration and Support Survey, Training, Forest Management Services, Research, Plantation, Natural Forest and Conservation Forest Parks, Recreation and Nature Reserves.

4. Finance:

Of a total allocation of $7,7542 million allocation, $5,1326 million is "operating" and the balance is "expenditure".

5. Regional/International Cooperation:

Total Aid-in-Kind is $1,382 million and is broken down as follows:

$1.1 million - EU Aid for Logging School
$0.2 million - Fiji Pine Plantation Study
$0.82 million - Mahogany Marketing Study
NZ Aid: ($2 million) ($145,914) (NZ Aid) under Requisition.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1985
1990
Latest 199-
Forest Area (Km2)
8991
8904.8
8200
Protected forest area
2691
2681.3
2603.4
Roundwood production (solid volume of roundwood without bark in mill m3)
0.203
0.255
0.255
Deforestation rate (Km2/annum)
64.14
51.61
50.04
Reforestation rate (Km2/annum)
82.26
42.17
64.79
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 12: MANAGING FRAGILE ECOSYSTEMS: COMBATING DESERTIFICATION AND DROUGHT

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

International Convention to Combat Desertification in Countries Experiencing Drought and/or Desertification

Particularly in Africa

N/A.

Additional comments relevant to this chapter

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure:

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues:

3. Major Groups:

4. Finance:

5. Regional/International Cooperation:

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 199_
Land affected by desertification (Km2)
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 13: MANAGING FRAGILE ECOSYSTEMS: SUSTAINABLE MOUNTAIN DEVELOPMENT

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: N/A.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure:

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues:

3. Major Groups:

4. Finance:

5. Regional/International Cooperation:

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 14: PROMOTING SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

The Fiji Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries, Forests & ALTA (MAFF&A) is committed to promoting sustainable agriculture and rural development. MAFF&A's "Mission Statement", as laid out in its 1997-2000 Corporate Plan clearly states "... MAFF&A is committed to the responsible and sustainable development of Fiji's agricultural, fisheries and forestry resources ...". This commitment to the concept of sustainability is made real through four (4) areas of operation.

1. Legislation

Fiji has a comprehensive "Land Conservation and Improvement Act" which covers good husbandry of land. Failure to adhere to the Act can lead to a farmer losing his/her lease entitlement. Good land husbandry practices are also an integral part of the Agricultural Landlord and Tenant Act which governs all leasing of agricultural land. The MAFF&A does not lend its approval to any potential farmer attempting to gain a lease on "marginal" land, where the MAFF&A perceives there to be a high risk of land degradation.

2. Farmer Education and Awareness

The MAFF&A has a staff of over 200 extension officers who advise farmers on the best long-term use of their land. Environmental conservation is seen as an integral part of the extension process. The active promotion of Integrated Pest Management, and the use of vetiver grasses are good examples of this. In the past, the MAFF&A has also funded projects specifically promoting agro-forestry.

3. Research

MAFF&A has been carrying out research into minimizing the soil loss from farming on sloping lands under the International Board of Soil Research and Management (IBSRAM) project. The IBSRAM project is investigating ways of producing crops on flatlands, which are traditionally grown on sloping land due to the need for good drainage. A separate but interlinked project, the "Soil and Crop Evaluation Project" has been running for 5 years and is investigating the use of organic fertilisers in Fijian agricultural systems. Separate research projects are being carried out into sustainable livestock husbandry practices.

4. Infrastructure

The Land & Water Resource Management Division is charged with the " ... overall management of Fiji's land and water resources ... in an environmentally sustainable manner ... ". This involves the use of mass media for awareness and demonstration farms. This Division also undertakes land reclamation programmes and the construction of irrigation facilities. In 1977, with the assistance of the Japan International Co-operation Agency (JICA), the Division is undertaking thorough research of Fiji's watershed catchment areas in order to formulate a Watershed Management Master Plan. In the long term this will remove the current need for river dredging operations.

All of the above activities are co-ordinated by the MAFF&A Environmental Technical Committee, which has also drawn up a "MAFF&A Environmental Policy Paper". The MAFF&A (through the Land Use Section) is a member of Fiji's Land Conservation Board.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure:

The Environmental Technical Committee is the primary co-ordinating body within the Ministry of Agriculture. The Economic Planning Division sets policy, and the Land Water Resources Management Division implements this policy.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues:

IBSRAM Land Capability Irrigation Provision

Regional Fruit Fly Project Soil & Crop Evaluation Research

Integrated Pest Management Watershed Study

3. Major Groups:

Fiji Sugar Corporation, Department of Environment, Native Land Trust Board, Land Conservation Board, National Trust, Department of Lands, South Pacific Commission.

4. Finance:

Operational funding for Day-to-Day Extension & Policy Work by Divisions.

Capital Project and Country Development. Funding of Specific Projects.

Japanese Assistance (JICA), AusAid, South Pacific Commission (SPC).

5. Regional/International Cooperation:

Pacific Regional Agricultural Programme (PRAP)

Pacific Land Network (IBSRAM)

Meeting of Agricultural Ministers of the Pacific Island Nations

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1968
1978
Latest 1991
Agricultural land (Km2)
2420
3200
5910
Agricultural land as % of total land area
18.5%
24.5%
45%
Agricultural land per capita
0.0051
0.0058
0.008
1989/90
1992/93
Latest 199_
Consumption of fertilizers per Km2 of agricultural land as of 1990
Other data - 14.64 tonnes per Km2.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 15: CONSERVATION OF BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

Convention on Biological Diversity - ratified in 1992.

Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora

Additional comments relevant to this chapter

As one of its key topics Fiji's National Environment Strategy addresses the protection of its natural biodiversity. This includes recommendations of strategic objectives. Fiji has just recently secured some funding from GEF, through UNDP, to prepare its Biodiversity Conservation Strategy and Action Plan, and to prepare its national report to the Conference of the Parties. This project will include the assessment of existing stock and information, national workshops for consultations and analysis of options. The current draft of the Sustainable Development Bill has a section on Biodiversity to ensure promotion of protection of biological diversity.

Besides the preparation of the Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan as an integrative approach by many organizations, the issue of biological diversity has been incorporated into various structures of responsibilities of various governmental and non-governmental organizations. It is when formulating national policies or projects that these responsibilities are realized and integrated. Examples include the preparation of mangrove management plans and a national landuse plan.

Fiji ratified the Convention on Biological Diversity in 1992. Other relevant issues that Fiji has attempted to address include conservation of marine resources, intellectual property rights, bioprospective and biosafety.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure:

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues:

3. Major Groups:

4. Finance:

5. Regional/International Cooperation:

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1992
Latest 1997
Protected area as % of total land area
0.3%
0.36%
1990
Latest 1997
Number of threatened species
18
20
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 16: ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT OF BIOTECHNOLOGY

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: N/A.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure:

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues:

3. Major Groups:

4. Finance:

5. Regional/International Cooperation:

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 17: PROTECTION OF THE OCEANS, ALL KINDS OF SEAS, INCLUDING ENCLOSED AND SEMI-ENCLOSED SEAS, AND COASTAL AREAS AND THE PROTECTION, RATIONAL USE AND DEVELOPMENT OF THEIR LIVING RESOURCES

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

The UN Convention on the Law of the Sea - signed and ratified on 10 December 1982.

See also the tables attached to this chapter.

In terms of fisheries development and conservation, Fiji is committed to the responsible and rational management of fisheries. Current fishing policies regarding conservation and exploitation of fish stocks are enshrined in the Fisheries Act Cap 158, the Marine Species Act Cap 158A and subsidiary legislation.

The Fisheries Act addresses fishing within traditional customary fishing areas and the policy on catching fish within the customary fishing rights area is that no commercial fishing activities would be undertaken in traditional fishing areas unless the consent of the chiefs and the people having the right to fish in these areas is obtained.

Through the customary marine tenure system, traditional methods of conserving fish stocks can be executed, and this form of traditional management is beneficial, resulting in the sustainable and continuing supply of protein to rural people.

Fiji supports the principle of responsible fisheries management and conservation, especially also due to the growing fishing pressures and declining fish stocks worldwide.

The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), the United Nations Implementing Agreement (UNIA) and the FAO Conduct for Responsible Fisheries all make reference to responsible fisheries management and conservation; Fiji has been a party to the UNCLOS and tuna agreements.

Fiji is very much in the forefront in the regional management of tuna and is very supportive of the current initiatives taken by the Forum Fisheries Agency member countries towards the management of highly migratory fish stocks in the high seas.

Fiji signed and ratified the Wellington Convention on 11 August 1993 and 18 January 1994, respectively; this convention prohibits the use of long driftnets in the South Pacific.

Fiji is also in the process of undertaking a survey of its total fishery resources. This will further establish appropriate policies for and gradually improve implementation of these policies for national fisheries at the local level. Complementary policies and management plans have been put in place, such as mangrove management plans, and are in the process of being improved. This has been made possible by the integrative approach of the various governmental agencies that have areas of responsibility in coastal areas.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: Cabinet - Minister for Agriculture & Fisheries,

Permanent Secretary for Agriculture & Fisheries, Director of Fisheries.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: Linked with the Forum Fisheries Agency programmes.

3. Major Groups: Government and private sector in the fishing industry.

4. Finance: Local.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: Through the Forum Fisheries Agency for the South Pacific Forum countries.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 199-
Catches of marine species (metric tons)
27,000
32,000
Population in coastal areas
Population served by waste water treatment (% of country's

total population)

Discharges of oil into coastal waters (metric tons)
Releases of phosphate into coastal waters (metric tons)
Releases of nitrate into coastal waters (metric tons)
Other data

Chapter 17 (Oceans) Continued:

Check the boxes in the column below left: Check the boxes in the column below right:
For level of importance use: For level of implementation use:
*** = very important *** = fully covered
** = important ** = well covered- gaps being addressed
* = not important * = poorly covered
N = not relevant O = not covered; N = not relevant

TABLE I. THE FOLLOWING ACTIVITIES HAVE BEEN CONSIDERED BY THE APPROPRIATE COORDINATING MECHANISM FOR INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF COASTAL AND MARINE AREAS AND THEIR RESOURCES.

LEVEL OF

IMPORTANCE
ACTIVITY AS DESCRIBED IN AGENDA 21
LEVEL OF

IMPLEMENTATION
a. Preparation and implementation of land and water use and siting policies.
**
b. Implementation of integrated coastal and marine management and sustainable development plans and programmes at appropriate levels.
*
**
c. Preparation of coastal profiles identifying critical areas including eroded zones, physical processes, development patterns, user conflicts and specific priorities for management.
*
***
d. Prior environmental impact assessment, systematic observation and follow-up of major projects, including systematic incorporation of results in decision-making.
**
***
e. Contingency plans for human induced and natural disasters.
**
***
f. Improvement of coastal human settlements, especially in housing, drinking water and treatment and disposal of sewage, solid wastes and industrial effluents.
**
**
g. Periodic assessment of the impacts of external factors and phenomena to ensure that the objectives of integrated management and sustainable development of coastal areas and marine environment are met.
*
h. Conservation and restoration of altered critical habitats.
i. Integration of sectoral programmes on sustainable development for settlements, agriculture, tourism, fishing, ports and industries affecting the coastal areas.
**
j. Infrastructure adaptation and alternative employment.
*
***
k. Human resource development and training.
**
***
l. Public education, awareness and information programmes.
**
***
m. Promoting environmentally sound technology and sustainable practices.
**
n. Development and simultaneous implementation of environmental quality criteria.

TABLE II. TECHNOLOGY (MARINE ENVIRONMENT)

LEVEL OF

IMPORTANCE
ACTIVITY AS DESCRIBED IN AGENDA 21
LEVEL OF

IMPLEMENTATION
A. Apply preventive, precautionary and anticipatory approaches so as to avoid degradation of the marine environment, as well as to reduce the risk of long-term or irreversible adverse effects upon it.
B. Ensure prior assessment of activities that may have significant adverse impacts upon the marine environment.
C. Integrate protection of the marine environment into relevant general environmental, social and economic development policies.
D. Develop economic incentives, where appropriate, to apply clean technologies and other means consistent with the internalization of environmental costs, such as the polluter pays principle, so as to avoid degradation of the marine environment.
E. Improve the living standards of coastal populations, particularly in developing countries, so as to contribute to reducing the degradation of the coastal and marine environment.
F. Effective monitoring and surveillance within the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of fish harvesting and transportation of toxic and other hazardous materials.

TABLE III. SEWAGE RELATED ISSUES

LEVEL OF

IMPORTANCE
ACTIVITY AS DESCRIBED IN AGENDA 21
LEVEL OF

IMPLEMENTATION
A. Sewage related problems are considered when formulating or reviewing coastal development plans, including human development plans.
B. Sewage treatment facilities are built in accordance with national policies.
C. Coastal outfalls are located so as to maintain acceptable level of environmental quality and to avoid exposing shell fisheries, water intakes and bathing areas to pathogens.
D. The Government promotes primary treatment of municipal sewage discharged to rivers, estuaries and the sea, or other solutions appropriate to specific sites.
E. The Government supports the establishment and improvement of local, national, subregional and regional, as necessary, regulatory and monitoring programmes to control effluent discharge. Minimum sewage effluent guidelines and water quality criteria are in use.

TABLE IV. OTHER SOURCES OF MARINE POLLUTION, THE GOVERNMENT HAS:

LEVEL OF

IMPORTANCE
ACTIVITY AS DESCRIBED IN AGENDA 21
LEVEL OF

IMPLEMENTATION
A. Established or improved upon, as necessary, regulatory and monitoring programmes to control emissions, including recycling technologies.
B. Promoted risk and environmental impact assessments to help ensure an acceptable level of environmental quality.
C. Promoted assessment and cooperation at the regional level, where appropriate, with respect to the input of point source pollutants from the marine environment.
D. Taken steps to eliminate emissions or discharges of organohalogen compounds from the marine environment.
E. Taken steps to eliminate/reduce emissions or discharges or other synthetic organic compounds from the marine environment.
F. Promoted controls over anthropogenic inputs of nitrogen and phosphorous that enter coastal waters where such problems as eutrophication threaten the marine environment or its resources.
G. Taken steps to develop and implement environmentally sound land-use techniques and practices to reduce run-off to water courses and estuaries which would cause pollution or degradation of the marine environment.
H. Promoted the use of environmentally less harmful pesticides and fertilizers and alternative methods for pest control, and considered the prohibition of those found to be environmentally unsound.
I. Adopted new initiatives at national, subregional and regional levels for controlling the input of non-point source pollutants which require broad changes in sewage and waste management, agricultural practices, mining, construction and transportation.
J. Taken steps to control and prevent coastal erosion and siltation due to anthropogenic factors related to, inter alia, land-use and construction techniques and practices.

TABLE V. ADDRESSING CRITICAL UNCERTAINTIES FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT AND CLIMATE CHANGE. IN ORDER TO IMPLEMENT THIS PROGRAMME AREA THE GOVERNMENT IS CARRYING OUT THE FOLLOWING ACTIVITIES:

LEVEL OF

IMPORTANCE
ACTIVITY AS DESCRIBED IN AGENDA 21
LEVEL OF

IMPLEMENTATION
A. Coordinating national and regional observation programmes for coastal and near-shore phenomena related to climate change and for research parameters essential for marine and coastal management in all regions.
B. Providing improved forecasts of marine conditions for the safety of inhabitants of coastal areas and for the efficiency of marine operations.
C. Adopting special measures to cope with and adapt to potential climate change and sea-level rise.
D. Participating in coastal vulnerability assessment, modelling and response strategies particularly for priority areas, such as small islands and low-lying and critical coastal areas.
E. Identifying ongoing and planned programmes of systematic observation of the marine environment, with a view to integrating activities and establishing priorities to address critical uncertainties for oceans and all seas.
F. Research to determine the marine biological effects of increased levels of ultraviolet rays due to the depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer.
G. Carrying out analysis, assessments and systematic observation of the role of oceans as a carbon sink.
TABLE VI. RATING OF ACTIVITIES IN THE AIR AND MARITIME TRANSPORT SECTORS IN THE SMALL ISLANDS DEVELOPING STATES (SIDS)

AIR TRANSPORT
RATING
MARITIME TRANSPORT
RATING
1. Frequency (external flights)
***
1. Frequency (external shipping)
***
2. Frequency (in-country flights)
***
2. Frequency (in-country shipping)
***
3. Cooperation at regional level in air transport and civil aviation
***
3. Cooperation at regional level in shipping
**
4. Cooperation at international level
**
4. Cooperation at international level
**
5. Economic viability of national air line
***
5. Economic viability of national shipping line(s)
*
6. Economic viability of regional air line
*
6. Economic viability of regional shipping line (s)
**
7. national level training in skills for air transport sector
**
7. National level training in skills for maritime transport sector
***
8. Access to training in skills for air transport sector within the region
**
8. Regional level training in skills for maritime transport sector
**
9. Access to international training for air transport sector
**
9. Access to international training for maritime transport sector
*
10. Supportive of ICAO
***

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 18: PROTECTION OF THE QUALITY AND SUPPLY OF FRESHWATER RESOURCES: APPLICATION OF INTEGRATED APPROACHES TO THE DEVELOPMENT, MANAGEMENT AND USE OF WATER RESOURCES

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

Fiji's National Environment Strategy provides a strategic approach to water management and its relation to other aspects of sustainable development. Watershed management and waste control strategies are p;art and parcel of freshwater management.

All freshwater areas fall under the Traditionally Customary Fishing Rights Area. The tenure system therefore is the management system in place. No person shall undertake any activities, such as fishing etc., unless approved by the Customary Rights owners. There is no commercial fishing in freshwater in Fiji because of the paucity of freshwater fauna.

The draft "Sustainable Development Bill" requires the formulation and implementation of a "Policy on Water Quality Management". Such a policy would include the prohibition of pollution of any water resource and provide for the enactment of regulations to give effect to the requirements of the policy.

With the assistance of the Government of Japan, Fiji is now in the process of finalizing a watershed management plan; in particular, it would address flood control and the protection of arable land.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: Cabinet, Ministry for Agriculture & Fisheries, Permanent Secretary of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forests - Director of Fisheries.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information.

3. Major Groups: The Government represented by the Fisheries Division, The Customary Rights Owners, other private individuals and companies.

4. Finance: all local.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: through the South Pacific Commission's Fisheries Programmes/Division.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 199-
Fresh water availability (total domestic/external in million m3)
Annual withdrawal of freshwater as % of available water
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 19: ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT OF TOXIC CHEMICALS, INCLUDING PREVENTION OF ILLEGAL INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN TOXIC AND DANGEROUS PRODUCTS

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: N/A.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information.

3. Major Groups: No information.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 20: ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT OF HAZARDOUS WASTES, INCLUDING PREVENTION OF ILLEGAL INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN HAZARDOUS WASTES

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal

Basel Convention

Additional comments relevant to this chapter

Fiji's State of the Environment Report of 1992 identified the causes and constraints of waste disposal, and its National Environment Strategy of 1993 recommended national priorities for waste management and pollution prevention.

In 1994, with the assistance of SPREP, a national workshop was conducted for a comprehensive and integrated approach to preparing a national Waste Minimization and Pollution Control Strategy. This is still in draft form and submissions have been made for its finalization and funding for implementation. The strategy, even in its current draft form, provides guidance and information towards developing environmental regulations on waste management.

The findings of Fiji's State of the Environment Report include the fact that none of Fiji's waste dump sites meets international standards. Attempts are currently being made to establish a suitable site for a regional sanitary landfill.

The necessary feasibility study has been completed and the recommendations are being studied in a public review process. The proposed landfill site would include facilities for reducing wastes that are disposed of; the separation of wastes at source would be encouraged and recycling operations established. Fiji currently has a number of companies that recycle papers and scrap metals.

Fiji has virtually no information available on the generation, storage or disposal of hazardous wastes. No specific regulations are available to deal with safe storage, transportation and disposal of such wastes. Substances classified as hazardous include: pesticides, chemicals (arsenic), petroleum wastes, et al.

When enacted, the Sustainable Development Bill will regulate the import, export, transportation, storage, selling or disposal of hazardous substance or waste (according to the Basel Convention).

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The Ministry of Agriculture, Forests & Fisheries to control import licensing.

The Customs Department to regulate import/export.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: Training by more developed countries.

Develop information systems and network.

3. Major Groups: Industries

Government organizations (Agriculture, Forestry, Customs, Health, Environment)

4. Finance: Government Budget provisions.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: Regional organization and technical assistance to establish framework to implement conventions.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 199-
Generation of hazardous waste (t)
Import of hazardous wastes (t)
423.148 kg
326.416 kg
Export of hazardous wastes (t)
Area of land contaminated by hazardous waste (km2)
Expenditure on hazardous waste treatment (US$)
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 21: ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT OF SOLID WASTES AND SEWAGE-RELATED ISSUES

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

The Public Health Act and the Local Government Act are current laws in Fiji that control the collection and disposal of waste and sewage. However, these Acts do not cover sanitary landfills.

National regional landfill is being proposed with appropriate disposal, recycling, separation, and leachate control facilities. Feasibility studies and environmental impact assessments have yet to be undertaken.

The Sustainable Development Bill includes provisions for waste minimization and pollution control.

Local authorities play a catalyst role in the collection and disposal of solid waste. A revised Litter Decree came into force in 1997.

The Public Works Department is responsible for sewage disposal and treatment. There are also ongoing efforts to put sewer lines in unsewered areas.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Urban Development, Housing & Environment are responsible for solid waste and sewage disposal. The Public Works Department develops facilities for the disposal and treatment of sewage.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: Training by WHO, SPREP and other international and regional organizations;

A "Sustainable Development Bill" to identify and develop waste management responsibilities of various bodies, and a "Waste Authority" to manage the process.

3. Major Groups: Local Governments and Authorities;

Ministry of Urban Development, Housing & Environment;

Ministry of Health;

Ministry of Public Works.

4. Finance: Government grant;

New Zealand Official Development Assistance (NZODA);

European Union (EU) funding.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: Consultancy services for studies;

Technical assistance for site preparation;

Workshops for training.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 199-
Generation of industrial and municipal waste (t)
Waste disposed(Kg/capita)
Expenditure on waste collection and treatment (US$)
Waste recycling rates (%)
Municipal waste disposal (Kg/capita)
Waste reduction rates per unit of GDP (t/year)
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 22: SAFE AND ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: N/A.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: N/A.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: N/A.

3. Major Groups: N/A.

4. Finance: N/A.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: N/A.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTERS 23-32: MAJOR GROUPS

The role of major groups are also covered under the various chapters of Agenda 21. The following is a summary of main objectives outlined in Agenda 21. Please check the appropriate boxes and describe briefly any important steps or obstacles.

STATUS REPORT ON PARTICIPATION BY MAJOR GROUPS AT THE

NATIONAL AND LOCAL LEVELS
Ch. 24: GLOBAL ACTION FOR WOMEN TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND EQUITABLE DEVELOPMENT.

The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women was

acceded 25 August 1995.

24.a Increasing the proportion of women decision makers.

Percentage of women in government: 25% (3/12)(1992); 6.6% (1/15)(1996);
Percentage of women in parliament: 42% (3/70)(1992); 2.8% (2/70)(1996);
Percentage of women at local government level: 4% (6/159)(1992); 9.4% (13/138).

24.b assessing, reviewing, revising and implementing curricula and other educational material with a view to promoting dissemination of gender-relevant knowledge.

Curricula and educational material

No action taken yet.

24.c and 24.d formulating and implementing policies, guidelines, strategies and plans for achievement of equality in all aspects of society including issuing a strategy by year 2000 to eliminate obstacles to full participation of women in sustainable development

Ecosystem Management and Control of Environment Degradation

Regarding submissions for the "Sustainable Development Bill", the Department responsible for these matters is represented in the Working Committee on the "Year of the Coral". It has facilitated workshops and 'environment' education programmes for women in the rural and urban communities. It has also provided support for funding applications and other NGO programmes on the environment. Future plans are to mainstream gender balance into all environmental policies and programmes.

Discrimination

Fiji acceded to the UN Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) in August 1995. Fiji's first report to the CEDAW Committee is being finalized; the Fiji Law Reform Committee is working in the area of Family Law and the Department has already made its submission. The Department of Women has also commissioned a paper on a "Review of Laws that Discriminate Against Women", following a commitment made at the United Nations Fourth World Conference on Women (Beijing, September 1995). NGOs are very active in this area of concern.

24.e establishing mechanisms by 1995 to assess implementation and impact of development and environment policies and programmes on women

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page):

The Department of Women is involved in completing a National Implementation Plan for Women which will address the commitments made by the Government at the UN Conference on Women.

Decision Making

A Cabinet decision in 1996 urged relevant authorities to increase women's membership by 30-50% in the next 3 to 5 years; and those Boards and Committees that do not have women should have them in the immediate future. In 1993, the percentage of women members on Boards and Committees was 9.7%; in 1996, it increased to 13.3%.

STATUS REPORT ON PARTICIPATION BY MAJOR GROUPS AT THE

NATIONAL AND LOCAL LEVELS
Ch. 25: CHILDREN AND YOUTH IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT.

25.a establishing processes that promote dialogue between the youth and government at all levels and mechanisms that permit youth access to information and opportunity to present their views on implementing Agenda 21.

1. Provincial Youth Council;
2. National Assembly of District Youth Council;
3. Fiji National Youth Council;
4. International Youth Organization (YWCA; YMCA; etc.).

Describe their role in
the national process:

25.b reducing youth unemployment

Youth unemployment 1992: 16.4% (Bureau of Statistics).

Youth unemployment 1996: Not available (Bureau of Statistics).

25.c ensuring that by year 2000 more than 50% of youth -- gender balanced -- have access to appropriate secondary education or vocational training.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page):

Young people between the ages of 15 and 24 are the concern of youth programmes in Fiji. In 1996, these constituted about 20 percent of the total population. While in formal terms the programmes are targeted to every age group, much of the effort is focused in mobilizing and training unemployed youth and school leavers in various capacities to broaden and facilitate career development and self-employment.

However, the problem is not so much having access to appropriate secondary education or vocational training as the limited opportunities for paid employment. This problem has intensified in recent years due to a greater number of rural youth seeking employment in urban areas.

STATUS REPORT ON PARTICIPATION BY MAJOR GROUPS AT THE

NATIONAL AND LOCAL LEVELS
Ch. 26: RECOGNIZING AND STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF INDIGENOUS PEOPLE AND THEIR COMMUNITIES.

26.a establishing a process to empower indigenous people and their communities -- through policies and legal instruments:

This is in place.

26.b strengthening arrangements for active participation in national policies:

Indigenous people participate fully in appropriate national processes.

26.c involving indigenous people in resource management strategies and programmes at the national and local level:

Mechanisms for involvement are being discussed.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page):

Ch. 27: STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS: PARTNERS FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT.

27.a developing mechanisms that allow NGOs to play their partnership role responsibly and effectively.

27.b reviewing formal procedures and mechanisms to involve NGOs in decision making and implementation.

27.c promoting and allowing NGOs to participate in the conception, establishment and evaluation of official mechanisms to review Agenda 21 implementation.

27.d establishing a mutually productive dialogue by 1995 at the national level between NGOs and governments.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page):

FOOSS as the representative NGO umbrella organization participates in government-established bodies, such as:

- Department of Environment Committees such as the Environment Week Committee and the Coral Reef Steering Committee;

- National Disaster Management Council;

- National Squatter Council;

- Technical Working Group on Poverty Alleviation.

Among the activities undertaken for environment awareness are:
- Publication of Sustainable Development issues in the quarterly "Voluntary Action Network";
- Posters conveying messages for a sustainable livelihood;
- Dissemination of "sustainable development" articles to key organizations;
- Inclusion of "environmental impact studies" in all projects seeking grants;
- Inclusion of "sustainable development" as a key topic in all civil society executive training programmes including the training of school managers.

STATUS REPORT ON PARTICIPATION BY MAJOR GROUPS AT THE

NATIONAL AND LOCAL LEVELS
Ch. 28: LOCAL AUTHORITIES' INITIATIVES IN SUPPORT OF AGENDA 21.

28.a encouraging local authorities to implement and monitor programmes that aim to ensure participation of women and youth in local decision making:

The Government supports local agenda 21 initiatives.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page):

While local authorities have not formed local agenda 21s, they have adapted policies in pursuance of sustainable development. They have been guided by national policies e.g. on the preservation of mangroves, the conservation of wildlife and forest, coral reefs, waste disposal, littering in public places and pollution of the air, rivers and seas.

Ch. 29: STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF WORKERS AND THEIR TRADE UNIONS.

29.a full participation of workers in implementation and evaluation of A21.

29.b (By year 2000, (a) promoting ratification of ILO conventions; (b) establishing bipartite and tripartite mechanism on safety, health and sustainable development; (c) increasing number of environmental collective agreements; (d) reducing occupational accidents and injuries; (e) increasing workers' education and training efforts.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page):

In promoting and strengthening the role of the workers and their Trade Union, Fiji has done the following:

(a) Promoting Ratification of ILO Conventions

Fiji has ratified three (3) out of the seven (7) core Conventions, in addition to fourteen (14) others, making a total of 17 ratifications so far. With the recent amendments of its labour legislation, Fiji would be in a position to ratify Convention No. 87 dealing with Freedom of Association and the Protection of the Right to Organize Convention 1948. This would bring the number of core conventions ratified to four (4), leaving a balance of three which could be ratified before the Year 2000. The conventions concerned are Convention

No. 100 concerning Equal Remuneration 1951; Convention No. 111 on Discrimination (Employment and Occupation) 1958, and Convention No. 138 dealing with the Minimum Age 1973.

(b) Establishing Bipartite and Tripartite Mechanisms on Safety, Health and Sustainable Development

The tripartite mechanism on safety and health is provided for in the newly enacted Health and Safety at Work Act 1996, which will come into force on 1 November 1997. The Tripartite National Occupational Health and Safety Advisory Board established by the said Act would deal with the subject assisted by the Health and Safety Committees and the Health and Safety Representatives.

(c) Increasing Number of Environmental Collective Agreements

The Act is now in place and its impact will automatically influence negotiations in collective agreements to encompass environmentally friendly conditions to be drawn up. This impact could be more accurately gauged after a period of five or more years.

(d) Reducing Occupational Accidents and Injuries

The new Health and Safety at Work Act 1996 has shifted the responsibility of looking after the safety of workers to the workers themselves. As such, the emphasis would be placed on the concept of a safe workplace instead of a safe worker. This arrangement will compel employers to discuss the matter with workers and their representatives as to what is needed to create a safe workplace and thus reduce accidents and injuries.

(e) Increasing Workers' Education and Training Efforts

For any change to be effective in the workplace, increased education and training of the workers concerned is essential. To assist in this area, the Ministry responsible (under the new Health and Safety at Work Act) will be monitoring any injuries sustained in the various industries with a view to conducting training courses specifically geared to addressing those areas identified where further training is needed.

Lastly, workers' views, apart from those obtained through the National Occupational Health and Safety Advisory Board, could also be obtained from the tripartite Labour Advisory Board, the existing eight Wage Councils and the Tripartite Forum.

30: STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY.

30.a increasing the efficiency of resource use, including reuse, recycling, and reduction of waste per unit of economic output.

30.b encouraging the concept of stewardship in management and use of natural resources by entrepreneurs.

List any actions taken in this area:

30.c increasing number of enterprises that subscribe to and implement sustainable development policies.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page):

The Ministry of Commerce, Trade and Industry does not administer laws, standards or programmes specifically dealing with sustainable management. However, the Ministry is working on a Memorandum of Understanding with Australia and New Zealand on the effective enforcement of international standards which will address environmental issues. The new ISO 14000 Standard series dealing specifically with environmental issues is being encouraged and will be implemented by the office of Fair Trading and Consumer Affairs.

STATUS REPORT ON PARTICIPATION BY MAJOR GROUPS AT THE

NATIONAL AND LOCAL LEVELS
Ch. 31: SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL COMMUNITY.

31.a improving exchange of knowledge and concerns between s&t community and the general public.

No information.

31.b developing, improving and promoting international acceptance of codes of practice and guidelines related to science and technology and its role in reconciling environment and development.

No information.

Brief comments on this chapter not already described in chapter 35 (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page):

Ch. 32: STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF FARMERS.

32.a promoting and encouraging sustainable farming practices and technologies: through applied research, crop and livestock extension programmes, the mass media and practical demonstrations.

32.b developing a policy framework that provides incentives and motivation among farmers for sustainable and efficient farming practices: legislation for land conservation already exists and the Ministry of Agriculture has an "Environmental Technical Committee".

32.c enhancing participation of organizations of farmers in design and implementation of sustainable development policies: the Fiji Sugar Corporation (FSC) works closely with the Fiji Sugar Cane Growers' Council and the Ministry of Agriculture attends all Provincial Council Meetings.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page):

The Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries, Forests & ALTA (MAFF&A) is committed to agricultural sustainability. MAFF&A recognizes that problems of land and water degradation exist in Fiji, and it is formulating policies and practices to minimize them and their impact. As a developing nation, however, Fiji farmers cannot enjoy the same choices as farmers from developed nations. Moreover, there are no specific financial incentives for farmers in Fiji to conserve their land. Therefore, many challenges lie ahead for Fijian agriculture to ensure long-term sustainability.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 33: FINANCIAL RESOURCES AND MECHANISMS

Financial resources and mechanisms are also covered under each sectoral chapter of Agenda 21 where relevant. This summary highlights broader national financial policies, domestic and external (including ODA)

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

Financial resources to undertake globally, regionally and nationally significant activities are limited. However, some assistance has been forthcoming from overseas donors. These have come mainly from:

the Foundation for the South Pacific (FSP); World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF); South Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP); Tourism Council of the South Pacific (TCSP); South Pacific Commission (SPC); United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Small grant schemes have been provided by various developed countries, such as the USA, Japan, Canada, New Zealand and Australia. Funds have come from the Global Environment Facility (GEF) for regional programmes and for Fiji's preparation of the Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan. The European Union (EU), World Bank and Asian Development Bank (ADB) have funded environment-related projects in the infrastructure, education, agriculture and health sectors.

CHANGES IN NATIONAL BUDGET TO ADDRESS SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT:

NEW ECONOMIC INSTRUMENTS:

Through the Sustainable Development Bill the Government is working towards providing the use of market-based instruments such as tradeable rights and taxes in almost all sectors where there is an abundance of natural resources, particularly in the fisheries and marine sectors. This will ensure a move towards market-based instruments/incentives to provide the right market signals to prices or resources and investment, cost, etc., from the traditional regulatory framework, which is known for its costly administrative inefficiencies.

ELIMINATION OF ENVIRONMENTALLY UNFRIENDLY SUBSIDIES:

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
ODA funding provided or received (Total US$million)
Average for 92-93
Average for 94-96
Net flow of external capital from all sources as % of GDP
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 34: TRANSFER OF ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND TECHNOLOGY, COOPERATION AND CAPACITY-BUILDING

Transfer of environmentally sound technology, cooperation and capacity-building is also covered under each sectoral chapter of Agenda 21 where relevant. This summary highlights broader national policies and actions relating to chapter 34.

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT ON LINKS BETWEEN NATIONAL, REGIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL INFORMATION NETWORKS/SYSTEMS: The Sustainable Development Bill makes provision for an effective sustainable policy formulation process. This process is to be established within every government ministry, department or statutory body that has responsibility for the management or administration of social, economic, environmental or natural resource matters. This would ensure that policy formulation is undertaken through the broadest possible consultation and participation.

In the same manner, technical assistance and technologies accessible to Fiji in international and regional organizations would be approached in an integrative manner by the Ministries concerned.

MEANS OF IMPLEMENTATION: The Sustainable Development Bill would empower various Ministries to formulate environmental management policies related to their respective areas of work. Technologies that are introduced to Fiji in the various sectors would be insured by the Government Ministries that receive them, and those that are relevant to promote sustainable development in the sectors.

Describe any work being undertaken at the national or local level regarding efforts to promote clean production processes and/or the concepts of eco-efficiency. These processes may include training, preferential financial arrangements, information dissemination and changes in legal or regulatory frameworks.

The Sustainable Development Bill of Fiji would empower the planning authorities to ensure cleaner production of new industries. Codes of practice would be formulated to enable self-regulation of industries. International and regional organizations would be approached to fund projects on training which would be required in order to implement the Bill.

Provide information on the adoption of environmental management systems. National reaction to environmental management system standards such as the ISO 14000 Series and others. Please note efforts made at the national level to promote their adoption and the creation of certification infrastructure in order to facilitate access to these standards to local industry.

The Bill makes provision for Codes of Practice, which ensures that industries meet the standards of the ISO 14000 series. The self-regulatory process would also include monitoring and auditing of operations on a regular basis.

List and describe programs or work under way to facilitate the transfer of ESTs to small and medium sized enterprises. Please note efforts to facilitate access to financial resources and other transfer strategies.

A donors meeting was organized in September 1997, to determine projects to fund in order to implement the Bill - in particular, to provide training to industries on environment management responsibilities, etc.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 35: SCIENCE FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT ON NATIONAL SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE, RESEARCH NEEDS AND PRIORITIES:

No information.

STEPS TAKEN TO ENHANCE SCIENTIFIC UNDERSTANDING, IMPROVE LONG TERM SCIENTIFIC ASSESSMENT, BUILDING OF CAPACITY AND CAPABILITY:

1. Upgrading science resources in schools, i.e. buildings, science equipment and teacher training;

2. Emphasis is also placed on technical vocational training to meet market demand;

3. Database on a national programme on human resources for planning purposes.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
Year
Number of scientists, engineers and technicians engaged in research and experimental development # 19--
Total expenditure for research and experimental development (US$eq.) $ 19--
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 36: PROMOTING EDUCATION, PUBLIC AWARENESS AND TRAINING

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

The Government continues to maintain education through accrediting schools, recruiting teachers, developing the curriculum, providing resources including teaching materials, and providing external examinations. School attendance for all children but especially for rural and poor children is being encouraged through support services such as the tuition fee assistance scheme and remission of fees scheme for secondary school and increased per capita grants for primary school pupils.

a) Reorientation of education towards sustainable development

A key component of policies and strategies in education and training is the development of vocational and technical education in response to, and to cater for, market demand. Technical and vocational education will continue to be strengthened to provide students with relevant knowledge and skills to prepare them to enter society and the world and also to be responsible to market demand.

b) Increasing public awareness

A growing public awareness of sustainable development in the community is a direct result of community support programmes conducted for schools and their communities. Ongoing work is still focussed on this area.

c) Promoting training

Training needs in this area are great but are hindered by a lack of resources, expertise and funding. The linking of small rural training centres to larger centres in urban areas appears to be alleviating some problems.

ROLE OF MAJOR GROUPS:

Ministry: Formulation of policy, identification of activities strategies,

implementation and monitoring of projects.

School Community: Implementation of projects, and provision of labour and some supportive skills.

FINANCING AND COST EVALUATION OF THE LABOUR ACTIVITIES:

Labour activities provided by the community are neither costed nor paid for.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 1993
Adult literacy rate (%) Male
87.0
90.6
93.1
Adult literacy rate (%) Female
85.0
88.0
88.1
% of primary school children reaching grade 5 (1986-97)
91.0
92.0
91.0
Mean number of years of schooling
6
6
6
% of GNP spent on education
5.1
5.6
Females per 100 males in secondary school
102
96
105
Women per 100 men in the labour force
Other data

Education (as a percentage of total government expenditure) 18.6 15.42

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 37: NATIONAL MECHANISMS AND INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION FOR CAPACITY-BUILDING IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

National capacity building is also covered under sectoral chapters.

Donors: You may wish to describe here how Agenda 21 has influenced your ODA policies in this area.

Developing countries: You may wish to describe any new national mechanisms for capacity building - and any changes in technical cooperation.

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT ON NATIONAL ENDOGENOUS CAPACITY BUILDING:

Technical assistance has been forthcoming from overseas donors to develop scientific knowledge that will support sustainable development of Fiji's resources.

Assistance has been provided by the Foundation of the South Pacific (FSP); World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF); South Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP); Tourism Council of the South Pacific (TCSP); South Pacific Commission (SPC); United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Small grant schemes have been provided by various developed countries such as USA, Japan, Canada, New Zealand and Australia. Funds have come from the Global Environment Facility (GEF) for regional programmes and for Fiji's preparation of the Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan. The European Union (EU), World Bank and Asian Development Bank (ADB) have funded environment-related projects in the infrastructure, education, agriculture and health sectors.

It is an ongoing objective to develop international cooperative arrangements to support various sustainable development activities and must include substantial direction and involvement of the Fiji Government. On sustainable economic and social development, particular stress is given to the development of human resources, gender issues and environmental protection.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 38: INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS

Ch. 38: Brief summary of any particular UN System response affecting this country/state:

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 39: INTERNATIONAL LEGAL INSTRUMENTS AND MECHANISMS

Ch. 39: International Legal Instruments are covered under the relevant sectoral chapters. This is a listing of major agreements/conventions (not already covered) entered into and relevant to Agenda 21:

CONVENTION DATE FIJI BECAME PARTY TO AGREEMENT

  1. Convention on the High Seas 1970

  2. International Plant Protection Agreement 1956

  3. Convention on the Continental Shelf 1970

  4. Convention on Fishing and Conservation of the Living Resources of the High Seas 1971

  5. Plant Protection Agreement for South East Asia 1971

  6. Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapon Tests in the Atmosphere, Outer Space and Underwater 1972

  7. Treaty on Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons 1972

  8. International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution of the Sea by Oil 1972

  9. Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, and Stockpiling of Bacteriological and Toxin Weapons and their Destruction 1973

  10. International Atomic Energy Agency 1973

  11. International Convention Relating to Intervention on the High Seas in Cases of Oil Pollution Casualties 1975

  12. International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage 1975

  13. South Pacific Forum Fisheries Agency Convention 1979

  14. United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea 1982

  15. International Convention on the Establishment of an International Fund for Compensation for Oil Pollution Damage 1983

  16. South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty and Protocol 1985

  17. Vienna Convention and Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer 1989

  18. Convention on the Conservation of Nature in the South Pacific (Apia Convention) 1989

  19. Convention for the Protection of Natural Resources and Environment of the South Pacific and their Related Protocols (SPREP Convention) 1989

  20. Convention for the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage 1990

  21. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change 1992

  22. Convention on Biological Diversity 1992

  23. Trans-Boundary Movement of Hazardous Waste in the South Pacific Region (Waigani Convention) 1996

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 40: INFORMATION FOR DECISION-MAKING

This chapter is also covered under sectoral and other chapters of this profile. The matrix below gives an overview of how national authorities rate the available information for decision making.

Rating of available data and information suitable for decision-making

Agenda 21 Chapters
Very
good
Good
Some good
data but
many gaps
Poor
Remarks
2. International cooperation and trade
*
3. Combating poverty
*
4. Changing consumption patterns
*
5. Demographic dynamics and sustainability
*
6. Human health
*
7. Human settlements
*
8. Integrating E & D in decision-making
*
9. Protection of the atmosphere
*
10. Integrated planning and management of land resources
*
11. Combating deforestation
*
12. Combating desertification and drought
*
13. Sustainable mountain development
N/A
14. Sustainable agriculture and rural development
N/A
15. Conservation of biological diversity
*
16. Biotechnology
*
17. Oceans, seas, coastal areas and their living resources
*
18. Freshwater resources
*
19. Toxic chemicals
*
20. Hazardous wastes
*
N/A
21. Solid wastes
*
22. Radioactive wastes
*
24. Women in sustainable development
*
25. Children and youth
*
26. Indigenous people
*
27. Non-governmental organizations
*
28. Local authorities
*
29. Workers and trade unions
30. Business and industry
*
31. Scientific and technological community
*
32. Farmers
*
*
33. Financial resources and mechanisms
*
34. Technology, cooperation and capacity-building
*
35. Science for sustainable development
*
36. Education, public awareness and training
*
37. International cooperation for capacity-building
*
38. International institutional arrangements
*
39. International legal instruments
*
40. Information for decision-making
*

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1993
Latest 199-
Number of telephones in use per 100 inhabitants
Other data

Home | Search | Parliament | Research | Governments | Regions | Issues


Copyright United Nations
Department of Economic and Social Affairs
Comments and suggestions: esa@un.org
1 November 1997