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COMPILATION OF INTERNATIONAL NORMS
AND STANDARDS RELATING TO DISABILITY

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

I. General Human Rights Instruments

1) International Treaties

Charter of the United Nations, Signed: 26 June 1945, entry into force: 24 October 1945

Convention against Torture and other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, Adopted by G/A/RES 39/46 on 10 December 1984, entry into force: 26 June 1987

Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, Adopted by G/A/RES 34/180 of 18 December 1979, entry into force: 3 September 1981, in accordance with Article 27 (1)

Convention on the Rights of the Child, Adopted by G/A/RES 44/25 of 20 November 1989, entry into force: 2 September 1990, in accordance with Article 49

Convention relating to the Status of Refugees, Adopted in 28 July 1951 by the United Nations Conference of Plenipotentiaries on the Status of Refugees and Stateless Persons convened under G/A/RES 429 (V) of 14 December 1950, entry into force: 22 April 1954, in accordance with Article 43

International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, Adopted by G/A/RES 2106 (XX) of 21 December 1965, entry into force: 4 January 1969, in accordance with Article 19

International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, Adopted by G/A/RES 2200A (XXI) of 16 December 1966, entry into force: 23 March 1976, in accordance with Article 49

International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Adopted by G/A/RES 2200A (XXI) of 16 December 1966, entry into force: 3 January 1976, in accordance with Article 27

International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families, Adopted by G/A/RES 45/158 of 18 December 1990 (not in force)

Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, Adopted by G/A/RES 2200A (XXI) of 16 December 1966, entry into force: 23 March 1976, in accordance with Article 9

Second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, aiming at the abolition of the penalty, Adopted and proclaimed by G/A/RES 44/128 of 15 December 1989

Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, Adopted 23 May 1969, entry into force: 27 January 1980

2) International Declarations, Resolutions and other relevant Norms and Standards

Basic Principles on the Role of Lawyers, Adopted by the 8th United Nations Congress of the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders, Havana (Cuba), 27 August to 7 September 1990

Basic Principles for the Treatment of Prisoners, Adopted and proclaimed by G/A/RES 45/111 of 14 December 1990

Beijing Declaration, Report of the Fourth World Conference on Women, held in Beijing 4-15 September 1995, United Nations, New York 1995

Body of Principles for the Protection of all Persons under Any Form of Detention or Imprisonment, Adopted by G/A/RES 43/173 of 9 December 1988

Code of Conduct for Law Enforcement Officials, Adopted by G/A/RES 34/169 of 17 December 1979

The Copenhagen Declaration on and Programme of Action, Report of the World Summit for Social Development, held in Copenhagen 6-12 March 1995, United Nations, New York 1995

Declaration on Social Progress and Development, Proclaimed by G/A/RES 2542 (XXIV) of 11 December 1969

Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women, Adopted by G/A/RES 48/104 of 20 December 1993

Declaration of the Rights of the Child, Proclaimed by G/A/RES 1386 (XIV) of 20 November 1959

Declaration on the Protection of Women and Children in Emergency and Armed Conflict, Proclaimed by G/A/RES 3318 (XXIX) of 14 December 1974

Declaration on the Right to Development, Adopted by G/A/RES 41/128 of 4 December 1986

Five-Year Review of the Implementation of the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action, Interim Report of the UNHCHR, Commission on Human Rights, 16 March – 24 April 1998

General Comment No. 5: Persons with Disabilities, in: General Comments of the UNHCHR, adopted on 9 December 1994

Global Strategy for Shelter to the Year 2000, Adopted by G/A/RES 43/181 of 20 December 1988

Istanbul Declaration on Human Settlements, Adopted at the United Nations Conference on Human Settlements (Habitat II), Istanbul (Turkey), 3-14 June 1996

Principles of Medical Ethics Relevant to the Role of Health Personnel, Particularly Physicians, in the Protection of Prisoners and Detainees against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, Adopted by G/A/RES 37/194 of 18 December 1982

Proclamation of Teheran, Proclaimed by the International Conference on Human Rights at Teheran on 13 May 1968

Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Adopted by G/A/RES 217A (III) of 10 December 1948

Universal Declaration on the Eradication of Hunger and Malnutrition, Adopted by the World Food Conference, Rome 1974

United Nations Declaration on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, Proclaimed by G/A/RES 1904 (XVIII) of 20 November 1963

United Nations Rules for the Protection of Juveniles Deprived of their Liberty, Adopted by G/A/RES 45/113 of 14 December 1990

The Vancouver Declaration on Human Settlements, Adopted at the United Nations Conference on Human Settlements (Habitat I), Vancouver (Canada), 31 May – 11 June 1976

Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action, Adopted at the World Conference on Human Rights on 25 June 1993

Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, Adopted by the United Nations in 1969

World Declaration on Nutrition, Adopted by the International Conference on Nutrition, Rome (Italy), December 1992

II. Human Rights Instruments Specifically Related to Disability

Declaration on the Rights of Disabled Persons, Proclaimed by G/A/RES 3447 (XXX) of 9 December 1975

Declaration on the Rights of Mentally Retarded Persons, Proclaimed by G/A/RES 2856 (XXVI) of 20 December 1971

Declaration on the Rights of Deaf-Blind Persons, Adopted by the Helen Keller World Conference on Services to Deaf-Blind Youths and Adults on 16 September 1977

Principles for the Protection of Persons with Mental Illness and the Improvement of Mental Health Care, Adopted by G/A/RES 46/119 of 17 December 1991

The Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities, Adopted by G/A/RES 48/96 of 20 December 1993

Tallinn Guidelines for Action on Human Resources Development in the Field of Disability, Adopted by G/A/RES 44/70 of 15 March 1990

World Programme of Action concerning Disabled Persons, Adopted by G/A/RES 37/52 on 3 December 1982

Implementations of the World Programme of Action concerning Disabled Persons, G/A/RES 37/53 on 3 December 1982, G/A/RES 40/31 on 29 November 1985 and G/A/RES 52/82 on 12 December 1997

III. International Labour Organization

Convention concerning the Simplification of the Inspection of Emigrants on Board Ship, ILO Convention No. 21, Adopted by the General Conference, 29 December 1927

Convention concerning Migration for Employment (Revised 1949), ILO Convention No. 97, Adopted by the General Conference, 1 July 1949

Convention concerning Minimum Standards of Social Security, ILO Convention No. 102, Adopted by the General Conference, 28 June 1952

Convention concerning Discrimination in Respect of Employment and Occupation, ILO Convention No. 111, Adopted by the General Conference, 25 June 1958

Convention concerning Benefits in Case of Employment Injury, ILO Convention No. 121, Adopted by the General Conference, 17 June 1964

Convention concerning Invalidity, Old-Age and Survivors’ Benefits, ILO Convention No. 128, Adopted by the General Conference, 29 June 1967

Convention concerning Medical Care and Sickness Benefits, ILO Convention No. 130, Adopted by the General Conference, 25 June 1969

Convention concerning Vocational Guidance and Vocational Training in the Development of Human Resources, ILO Convention No. 142, Adopted by the General Conference, 4 June 1975

Convention concerning Migrations in Abusive Conditions and the Promotion of Equality of Opportunity and Treatment of Migrant Workers, ILO Convention No. 143, Adopted by the General Conference, 24 June 1975

Convention concerning Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment (Disabled Persons), ILO Convention No. 159, Adopted by the General Conference, 1 June 1983

Convention Concerning Employment Promotion and Protection against Unemployment, ILO Convention No. 168, Adopted by the General Conference, 1 June 1988

Recommendation concerning the Recruitment, Placing and Conditions of Labour of Migrants for Employment, ILO Recommendation No. 61, Adopted by the General Conference, 28 June 1939

Recommendation concerning Vocational Rehabilitation of the Disabled, ILO Recommendation No. 99, Adopted by the General Conference, 1 June 1955

Recommendation concerning Workers’ Housing, ILO Recommendation No. 115, Adopted by the General Conference, 7 June 1961

Recommendation concerning Vocational Guidance and Vocational Training in the Development of Human Resources, ILO Recommendation No. 150, Adopted by the General Conference, 4 June 1975

Recommendation concerning Migrant Workers, ILO Recommendation No. 151, Adopted by the General Conference, 24 June 1975

Recommendation concerning Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment (Disabled Persons), ILO Recommendation No. 168, Adopted by the General Conference, 1 June 1983

IV. World Health Organisation

Declaration of Alma-Ata, adopted by the International Conference on Primary Health Care on 12 September 1978

V. United Nations Economic, Social and Cultural Organisation

Convention against Discrimination in Education, Adopted by the UNESCO General Conference on 14 December 1960, entry into force: 22 May 1962

Sundberg Declaration, Adopted by the UNESCO World Conference on Actions and Strategies for Education, Prevention and Integration, Malaga (Spain), 2 - 7 November 1981

The Salamanca Statement, Adopted by the UNESCO World Conference on Special Needs Education: Access and Quality, Salamanca (Spain), 7 - 10 June 1994

Universal Declaration on the Human Genome and Human Rights, Adopted by the UNESCO General Conference

World Declaration on Education for All: Meeting Basic Learning Needs, Adopted by the UNESCO World Conference on Education for All on 9 March 1990

VI. Regional Instruments

1) Europe

European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, Opened for Signature: 4 November 1950, entry into force: 3 September 1953, in accordance with Article 66

European Convention on the Exercise of Children's Rights, Adopted by the Council of Europe, Strasbourg, 25 January 1996

European Social Charter, Opened for Signature: 18 October 1961, entry into force: 26 February 1965, in accordance with Article 35

Additional Protocol to the European Social Charter, Adopted by the Council of Europe, Strasbourg, 5 May 1988

Additional Protocol to the European Social Charter providing for a System of Collective Complaints, Adopted by the Council of Europe, Strasbourg, 9 November 1995

2) The Americans

American Convention on Human Rights, Opened for Signature: 22 November 1969, entry into force: 18 July 1978, in accordance with Article 74

Additional Protocol to the American Convention on Human Rights in the Area of Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights, Opened for Signature: 17 November 1988, entry into force: not yet (1994), in accordance with Article 21

American Declaration on the Rights and Duties of Man, Adopted by the Ninth International Conference of American States, Bogota, 1948

Americans with Disabilities Act, Adopted in 1990

Charter of the Organisation of American States, Opened for Signature: 30 April 1948, entry into force: 13 December 1951

Panama Commitment to Persons with Disabilities in the American Hemisphere, Adopted by the OAS General Assembly Resolution AG/doc.3381/96 on 5 June 1996

3) Africa

African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights, Opened for Signature: 26 June 1981, Entry into force: 21 October 1986, in accordance with Article 63

African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child, OAU Doc. CAB/LEG/24.9/49 (1990)

Convention Governing the Specific Aspects of Refugees Problems in Africa, entered into force: 20 June 1974

The Addis Ababa Document on Refugees and Forced Population Displacements in Africa, Adopted by the OAU/UNHCR Symposium on Refugees and Forced Population Displacements in Africa, 8-10 September 1994 in Addis Ababa (Ethiopia)

The Khartoum Declaration on Africa’s Refugees Crisis, Adopted by the OAU 17th Extraordinary Session of the Commission of Fifteen on Refugees, Meeting in Khartoum (Republic of Sudan), 22-24 September 1990

4) Asia

Disability Discrimination Ordinance, Published under section 2 (3) of the Laws Ordinance 1990, Chapter 487; up to date as of 2 May 1997; Government of Hong Kong (GB)

VII. Humanitarian Law Instruments

Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and their Destruction, Adopted by G/A/RES 52/38 of 8 January 1998

Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field, Adopted on 12 August 1949 by the Diplomatic Conference for the Establishment of International Conventions for the Protection of Victims of War, held in Geneva from 21 April to 12 August 1949, entry into force 21 October 1950

Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of Wounded, Sick and Shipwrecked Members of Armed Forces at Sea, Adopted on 12 August 1949 by the Diplomatic Conference for the Establishment of International Conventions for the Protection of Victims of War, held in Geneva from 21 April to 12 August 1949, entry into force 21 October 1950

Geneva Convention relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War, Adopted on 12 August 1949 by the Diplomatic Conference for the Establishment of International Conventions for the Protection of Victims in War, held in Geneva from 21 April to 12 August 1949, entry into force 21 October 1950

Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War, Adopted on 12 August 1949 by the Diplomatic Conference for the Establishment of International Conventions for the Protection of Victims in War, held in Geneva from 21 April to 12 August 1949, entry into force 21 October 1950

Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts (Protocol 1), Adopted on 8 June 1977 by the Diplomatic Conference on the Reaffirmation and Development of International Humanitarian Law applicable in Armed Conflicts, entry into force: 7 December 1979, in accordance with Article 95

Protocol II Additional to the Geneva Conventions of August 12, 1949, and Relating to the Protection of Victims of Non-International Armed Conflicts, Opened for Signature: 12 December 1977, entered into force: 7 December 1978

VIII. United Nations and Specialised Body Publications

Designing with Care - a guide to Adaptation of the Built Environment for Disabled Persons, United Nations in co-operation with SIDA and UNCHS, New York 1983

Employment Prospects for Disabled People in Transition Countries, International Labour Organization, Geneva 1996

Guidelines for Educational Assistance to Refugees - UNHCR Programme and Technical Support Section, United Nations, Geneva 1995

Guidelines for the Establishment and Development of National Co-ordinating Committees on Disability or Similar Bodies, United Nations Office, Vienna 1991

The Habitat Agenda, Adopted at the United Nations Conference on Human Settlements (Habitat II) in Istanbul (Turkey), 3-14 June 1996

Human Rights and Disabled Persons. Study series 6 of the Centre for Human Rights, United Nations, Geneva 1993

International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights. Human Rights Fact Sheet No. 13, United Nations, Geneva 1992

Manual on the Equalization of Opportunities for Disabled Persons, United Nations – Department of International Economic and Social Affairs, New York 1986

UNICEF Annual Report 1994

World Campaign for Human Rights, Study series 6, Human Rights and Disabled Persons by Leonardo Despouy (Special Rapporteur of the Sub-Commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities), United Nations, New York 1993

IX. Books and Publications

Alston, Philip (editor): The United Nations and Human Rights - A Critical Appraisal, Clarendon Press, Oxford 1992

Amerasinghe, C. F.: Local Remedies in International Law, Grotius Publications, Cambridge 1990

Anon, N.D.: Human Rights Legislation, Policies, Disabilities – Bibliographic list of references, Inter-American Children’s Institute

Bernhardt, R.: Human Rights and Judicial Review: The European Court of Human Rights, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1994

Brett, Rachel: The contribution of NGOs to the Monitoring and Protection of Human Rights in Europe: An analysis of the role and access of NGOs to the intern-governmental organisations, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1993

Buergenthal, Thomas: Self-executing and Non-self-executing Treaties in National and International Law, in: Recueil des Cours 1992, IV, No. 235, pp. 303-400

Cazar, Ramiro: Estudio de Normes Legales sobre Persones con Discapecidas, National Council on Disabilities

Charlton, James I.: Nothing About Us Without Us: Disability, Oppression, and Empowerment, University of California Press, Berkeley 1998

Chowdhury, Subrata R.: Rule of Law in a State of Emergency, Pinter Publishers London 1989

Conforti, Benedetto: International Law and the Role of Domestic Legal Systems, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Dordrecht 1993

Conforti, Benedetto and Francioni, Francesco (editors): Enforcing International Human Rights in Domestic -Courts, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Dordrecht 1997.

Craven, Matthew: The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Oxford University Press Inc., New York 1995

Danilenko, G. M.: Law-Making in the International Community, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Dordrecht 1993

Delmas-Marty D: The European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Dordrecht 1991

Degener, T. and Koster-Dreese, Y: Human Rights and Disabled Persons - Essays and Relevant Human Rights Instruments, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Dordrecht 1995

Despouys, Leandro: Human Rights and Disabled Persons, Centre for Human Rights, New York/Geneva 1993

Eide, Asbjorn: Future Protection of Economic and Social Rights in Europe, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1993

Fitzmaurice, Malgosia and Flinterman, Cees (editors): Interactions between International and Municipal Law - A Comparative Case Law Study, T.M.C. Asser Instituut, The Hague 1993

Frappola, Ana Maria Damini de: Strategies to Enhance Social Protection and Reduce Vulnerability, Inter-American Children’s Institut, Montevideo 1998

Gargam, Judith Gail: Non-combatant Immunity as a Norm of International Humanitarian Law, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Dordrecht 1993

Gray, Christine: Judicial Remedies in International Law, Clarendon Press, Oxford 1987

Gregorio, Carlos: Report on Social Policies on Persons with Disabilities in the Americas, Inter-American Children’s Institute, Montevideo (Uruguay)

Hahn, Harlan: Theories and Values: Ethics and contrasting Perspectives on Disability, University of Southern California

Hahn, Harlan: The Politics of Physical Differences: Disability and Discrimination, in: Journal of Social Issues, Vol. 44, No. 1, 1988

Hamalengwa, M.: The International Law of Human Rights in Africa: Basic Documents and Annotated Bibliography, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Dordrecht 1988

Hammarberg, Thomas: The Rights of Disabled Children: The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child

Inter-American Children’s Institute (OAS): Disabilities - Human Rights, Legislation and Policies, Specialized Bibliography, Montevideo 1998

Jackson, J. H.: Status of Treaties in Domestic Legal Systems: A Policy Analysis, in: American Journal of International Law No. 86 (1992), pp. 310-340

Nigerian Institute of International Affairs: Lagos. Human Rights in Africa, in co-operation with Macmillin Nigeria Publishers

Mc Dougal, Myres S. / Lasswell, Harald / Chen, Lung-Chu: Human Rights and World Public Order, Yale University Press, Yale 1980

Meron, Theodor: Convergence of International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights Law, in: Human Rights and Humanitarian Law - The Quest for Universality by Daniel Warner, pp.97-105, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Dordrecht 1997

Nahlik, Stanislaw E.: A Brief Outline of International Humanitarian Law, extract from the International Review of the Red Cross, July - August 1984

Oraa, James: Human Rights in States of Emergency in International Law, Clarendon Press, Oxford 1992 Paust, Jordan J.: International Law as Law of the United States, Carolina Academic Press, Carolina 1996

Paust, Jordan J. / Bassiouni, M.Cherif etc.: International Criminal Law, Carolina Academic Press, Carolina 1996

Pentikainen, M. and Scheinin, Martin: A comparative study of the monitoring mechanisms and the important institutional frameworks for human rights protection within the Council of Europe, the CSCE and the European Community, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1993

Republic of Botswana: National Policy on Care for People with Disabilities, 1996

Stienstra, Deborah and Kellerman, Patrick W.J.: Disposable Bodies: International Norms on Disability, Paper prepared for the International Studies Association Meeting, Minneapolis, 17-21 March 1998

South African White Paper: Integrated National Disability Strategy, White Paper Office of the Deputy President, 1997

Tardu, M. E: International Complaint Procedures for Violations of Human Rights, in: Indian Journal of International Law, Vol. 28, April - June No. 2, pp. 171-187

Udagama, Nelum Deepika: Invocation of International Human Rights Norms in National Courts: A Legal Framework for the British Commonwealth, Boalt Hall School of Law, University of California, Berkeley 1989

Wilkins, Richard G. and Mumford, Marcus R.: The Impact of UN Conference Declarations on International and Domestic Law, J. Reuben Clark School of Law, Brigham Young University, Provo 1998

Wolfrum, Ruediger and Philipp, Christiane: United Nations: Law, Policies and Practice, Volume 2, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Dordrecht

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Updated: 28 November 2003. Comments and suggestions: ito@un.org