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National Implementation of Agenda 21

SINGAPORE

IMPLEMENTATION OF AGENDA 21:
REVIEW OF PROGRESS MADE SINCE THE
UNITED NATIONS CONFERENCE ON
ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT, 1992

Information Provided by the Government of Singapore to the
United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development
Fifth Session
7-25 April 1997
New York

United Nations Department for Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development
Division for Sustainable Development
The Information contained in this Country Profile is also available on the World Wide Web, as follows:
http://www.un.org/dpcsd/earthsummit

SINGAPORE

This country profile has been provided by:

Name of Ministry/Office: Ministry of the Environment

Date: 13 January 1997

Submitted by: International Environment and Policy Department

Mailing address: 40 Scotts Road, Environment Building, Singapore 228231

Telephone: (65) 731 9647

Telefax: (65) 738 4468

E-mail:

Note from the Secretariat: An effort has been made to present all country profiles within a common format, with an equal number of pages. However, where Governments have not provided information for the tables appended to Chapters 4 and 17, those tables have been omitted entirely in order to reduce the overall length of the profile and save paper. Consequently, there may be some minor inconsistencies among the formats of the different country profiles.

All statistics are rendered as provided by the respective Governments.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACRONYMS
OVERVIEW
FACT SHEET
AGENDA 21 CHAPTERS
2. International cooperation to accelerate sustainable development in developing countries and related domestic policies
3. Combating poverty
4. Changing consumption patterns
5. Demographic dynamics and sustainability
6. Protecting and promoting human health
7. Promoting sustainable human settlement development
8. Integrating environment and development in decision-making
9. Protection of the atmosphere
10. Integrated approach to the planning and management of land resources
11. Combating deforestation
12. Managing fragile ecosystems: combating desertification and drought
13. Managing fragile ecosystems: sustainable mountain development
14. Promoting sustainable agriculture and rural development
15. Conservation of biological diversity
16. Environmentally sound management of biotechnology
17. Protection of the oceans, all kinds of seas, including enclosed and semi-enclosed seas, and coastal areas and the protection, rational use and development of their living resources
18. Protection of the quality and supply of freshwater resources: application of integrated approaches to the development, management and use of water resources
19. Environmentally sound management of toxic chemicals, including prevention of illegal international traffic in toxic and dangerous products
20. Environmentally sound management of hazardous wastes, including prevention of illegal international traffic in hazardous wastes
21. Environmentally sound management of solid wastes and sewage-related issues
22. Safe and environmentally sound management of radioactive wastes
23-32. Major groups
33. Financial resources and mechanisms
34. Transfer of environmentally sound technology, cooperation and capacity-building
35. Science for sustainable development
36. Promoting education, public awareness and training
37. National mechanisms and international cooperation for capacity-building in developing countries
38. International institutional arrangements
39. International legal instruments and mechanisms
40. Information for decision-making

ACRONYMS

APELL Awareness and Preparedness for Emergencies at Local Level
CFC chlorofluorocarbon
CGIAR Consultative Group on International Agriculture Research
CILSS Permanent Inter-State Committee on Drought Control in the Sahel
EEZ exclusive economic zone
ECA Economic Commission for Africa
ECE Economic Commission for Europe
ECLAC Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean
ELCI Environmental Liaison Centre International
EMINWA environmentally sound management of inland water
ESCAP Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific
ESCWA Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia
FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
GATT General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
GAW Global Atmosphere Watch (WMO)
GEF Global Environment Facility
GEMS Global Environmental Monitoring System (UNEP)
GEMS/WATER Global Water Quality Monitoring Programme
GESAMP Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Pollution
GIPME Global Investigation of Pollution in Marine Environment (UNESCO)
GIS Geographical Information System
GLOBE Global Legislators Organisation for a Balanced Environment
GOS Global Observing System (WMO/WWW)
GRID Global Resource Information Database
GSP generalized system of preferences
HIV human immunodeficiency virus
IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency
IAP-WASAD International Action Programme on Water and Sustainable Agricultural Development
IARC International Agency for Research on Cancer
IBSRAM International Board of Soil Resources and Management
ICCA International Council of Chemical Associations
ICES International Council for the Exploration of the Sea
ICPIC International Cleaner Production Information Clearing House
ICSC International Civil Service Commission
ICSU International Council of Scientific Unions
IEEA Integrated environmental and economic accounting
IFAD International Fund for Agricultural Development
IGADD Intergovernmental Authority for Drought and Development
IGBP International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (ICSU)
IGBP/START International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme/Global Change System for Analysis, Research and Training
ILO International Labour Organisation
IMF International Monetary Fund
IMO International Maritime Organization
INFOTERRA International Environment Information system (UNEP)
IOC Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission
IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
IPCS International Programme on Chemical Safety
IPM integrated pest management
IRPTC International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals
ITC International Tin Council
ITTO International Tropical Timber Organization
IUCN International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources
MARPOL International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships
OECD Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development
PGRFA plant genetic resources for agriculture
PIC prior informed consent procedure
SADCC South African Development Co-ordination Conference
SARD sustainable agriculture and rural development
UNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
UNDP United Nations Development Programme
UNDRO Office of the United Nations Disaster Relief Coordinator
UNEP United Nations Environment Programme
UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
UNFPA United Nations Population Fund
UNICEF United Nations Children's Fund
UNIDO United Nations Industrial Development Organization
UNU United Nations University
WCP World Climate Programme (WMO/UNEP/ICSU/UNESCO)
WFC World Food Council
WHO World Health Organization
WMO World Meteorological Organization
WWF World Wide Fund for Nature (also called World Wildlife Fund)
WWW World Weather Watch (WMO)

OVERVIEW

(You may wish to use pages v and vi to briefly present your national position five years after UNCED)

The protection of the environment has always been an important concern in the development of Singapore. In the early years of Singapore's development, the main tasks in environmental protection were on institution building, setting up the basic infrastructure, legal framework and management system for public health and environmental protection. These were achieved by the end of the 1980s and Singapore was able to enjoy a clean and healthy environment.

It had become evident in the late eighties that it would be difficult to maintain a clean and healthy environment through further investment in environmental infrastructure and tighter legislation alone. In the coming years, the pressures of a growing population with increasingly high expectations will put greater stress on limited resources.

In the eighties, global environmental issues, such as protection of the ozone layer, global warming, preservation of biodiversity and endangered species and pollution of the sea began to take on a higher prominence. Commitments under international conventions and protocols were beginning to have an impact on our businesses and industries. It was clear that a new approach was needed for us to keep to the path of sustainable development. A major review of policy was carried out at the end of the eighties and the result was the Singapore Green Plan.

THE SINGAPORE GREEN PLAN

The Singapore Green Plan (SGP) is the environmental master plan to take Singapore into the twenty-first century. It describes what the government has done and maps out the policies and strategies the government would implement to transform Singapore into a model Green City. The SGP vision is Singapore as a city with a high standard of public health and a quality environment conducive to gracious living, with a population that cares for the local as well as the global environment. Under the SGP, investment in environmental infrastructure wil continue. An anticipated $3 billion will be spent on infrastructural programmes such as upgrading of sewage treatment works, a new offshore landfill facility, a new refuse incineration plant and improvements to water bodies over the years to 2000.

New strategic directions in environmental education, resource conservation, promotion of clean technologies, nature conservation, noise management and promotion of environmental technologies have been mapped out in the SGP. These new directions are multi-dimensional. By October 1993, a total of 133 specific action programmes have been formulated with inputs from government ministries, statutory boards and private organisations.

THE ACTION PROGRAMMES

Implementation of the SGP action programmes by the various lead agencies began in Nov 1993. The lead agencies include both government and non-government bodies.

An inter-ministerial Steering Committee on the SGP has been formed to oversee and guide the implementation of the action programmes. The Steering Committee is chaired by Permanent Secretary (Environment) and has representatives from the main government bodies that are involved in the implementation. The ministry has also formed six Working Committees to coordinate and track the implementation of the action programmes. The Chairmen of the Working Committees report to the Steering Committee.

INDUSTRY RESPONSE

Increasingly, industry has been taking a more proactive role to protect the environment in the conduct of their business in response to growing concerns with the impacts their activities could cause. Various industry committees and groupings on the environment have been formed to promote environmentally friendly practice among businesses. The publication of international environmental standards by ISO is a further impetus for industry to move in this direction. The government has also been actively encouraging industry to adopt the international standard on environmental management and has provided financial assistance schemes to help the smaller firms.

COMMUNITY RESPONSE

Heightened awareness among the community has led to greater involvement across a wide sector of the community from primary schools to residents' associations and the general public. This has led to numerous environmental activities being held and higher expectations of a good living environment.

UNCSD - NATIONAL LEVEL COORDINATION STRUCTURE OF AGENDA 21 ACTIONS

(Fact Sheet)

SINGAPORE

1. Key National Sustainable Development Coordination Mechanism(s)/Council(s).

National Council on the Environment

Contact point (Name, Title, Office): Ms. Kirtida Mekani, Executive Director

Telephone: (65) 731-9862

Fax: (65) 235-6601

e-mail:

Mailing address: Environment Building, 11th Floor, 40 Scotts Road, Singapore 0922

2. Membership/Composition/Chairperson: Patron-in-Chief: Mr. Mah Bow Tan, Minister for the Environment; Board of Directors: Chairman: Mr. Ho Kwon-Ping, President, Wah-Chung International Corporation Pte. Ltd.; Vice Chairman: Mr. Chng Hee Kok, Chairman, United Paper Industries.

2a. List of ministries and agencies involved: Dr. Tan Wee Kiat, Executive Director, National Parks Board; Mr. John Yip Soon Kwong, Director of Education, Ministry of Education; Mr. Tan Guong Ching, Permanent Secretary, Ministry of Environment; Mr. Daniel Wang Nan Chee, Commissioner of Public Health, Ministry of Environment; Mr. Chan Kwong Lok, Director, Resource Planning, Ministry of Defence; Executive Director: Ms. Kirtida Medai, National Council on the Environment.

2b. Names of para-statal bodies and institutions involved, as well as participation of academic and private sectors:

Mr. Richard E. Hale, Chief Executive Officer, The Hongkong & Shanghai Banking Corporation Ltd.; Prof. Leo Tan Wee Hin, Director, National Institute of Education and Dean, School of Science; Assoc. Prof. Chou Loke Ming, Department of Zoology, National University of Singapore; Mrs. Cynthia Wee-Hoefer, Member, Nature Society Singapore;

2c. Names of non-governmental organizations:

Prof. Wee Yeow Chin, Department of Botany, National Univeristy of Singapore (President, Nature Society); Dr. Ahmad Mattar, Executive Chairman, Mabetex Enviro-World Pte. Ltd.; Mrs. Fatima Villanueva-Traazil, General Manager, Mount Carmal Enterprise (1992 Greenleaf Award Winner); Mr. Edwin Khew, Managing Director, Environmental Engineering Services Pte. Ltd.

3. Mandate role of above mechanism/council: To educate, inspire, and assist individuals, business organizations, and environmental groups to care for and protect the environment; to promote greater public awareness and interest in environmental issues; to seek public cooperation in protecting and improving the environment; and to involve business leaders in a pro-active process of environmental management.

4. If available, attach a diagram (organization chart) showing national coordination structure and linkages between ministries:

Submitted by

(Name):

Signature:

Title:

Date: April 1995

Ministry/Office:

Telephone:

Fax:

e-mail:

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 2: INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION TO ACCELERATE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES AND RELATED DOMESTIC POLICIES (with special emphasis on TRADE)

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: No information

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information

3. Major Groups: No information

4. Finance: No information

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 3: COMBATING POVERTY

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: No information

Focus of national strategy

Highlight activities aimed at the poor and linkages to the environment

No information

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information

3. Major Groups: No information

4. Finance: No information

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information

NB: Developed countries, where domestic poverty alleviation is not a major concern may wish to briefly describe their position regarding global poverty alleviation.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1985
1990
1992
Latest 199_
Unemployment (%)
Population living in absolute poverty
Public spending on social sector %
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 4: CHANGING CONSUMPTION PATTERNS

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

National policy objectives/focus

To promote green consumerism, the Ministry of the Environment introduced the Singapore Green Labelling Scheme in May 1992. The scheme applies to most products, excepts foods, drinks and pharmaceuticals. It does not apply to services and processes. To date, there are 545 products that have been awarded the Singapore GreenLabel. The scheme helps consumers to identify environmentally friendly products and enable consumers to exercise their choice more objectively so as to influence producers and suppliers to take into account the protection of the environment when producing goods.

The government has also worked closely with the retail sector to promote minimal packaging for consumer products and introduce programmes to educate consumers to be less wasteful in their consumption patterns.

National targets

No information

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The Waste Minimisation Unit of the Ministry of the Environment administers the GreenLabel Scheme. It decides on the product categories and solicits suggestions from industries and the public. In addition, it processes and approves applications for the GreenLabel. An Advisory Committee comprising representatives from private sectr organisations, academic institutions and government agencies sets the criteria to grant the right for a product to display the GreenLabel.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information

3. Major Groups: The Consumers Association of Singapore is the main consumers grouping that aims to look after the interests of consumers. The Singapore Environment Council acts as an umbrella organisation for environmental NGOs in Singapore and seeks to promote environmentally responsible behaviour among the population.

4. Finance: No information

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1985
1990
1992
Latest 199_
GDP per capita (current US$) 7.128 13,683 17,633 28,449
Real GDP growth (%)
Annual energy consumption per capita (Kg. of oil equivalent per capita)
Motor vehicles in use per 1000 inhabitants 196 200 198 215
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 5: DEMOGRAPHIC DYNAMICS AND SUSTAINABILITY

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: No information

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information

3. Major Groups: No information

4. Finance: No information

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1990
1993
Latest 199_
Population (Thousands) mid-year estimates
Annual rate of increase (1990-1993)
Surface area (Km2)
Population density (people/Km2)
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 6: PROTECTING AND PROMOTING HUMAN HEALTH

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: No information

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information

3. Major Groups: No information

4. Finance: No information

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 199_
Life expectancy at birth

Male

Female

Infant mortality (per 1000 live births)
Maternal mortality rate (per 100000 live births)
Access to safe drinking water (% of population)
Access to sanitation services (% of population)
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 7: PROMOTING SUSTAINABLE HUMAN SETTLEMENT DEVELOPMENT

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: Environmental protection controls have been factored into land use planning to ensure that developments are properly sited and are compatible with surrounding land uses. The Ministry of the Environment is consulted by the Urban Redevelopment Authority (URA), the planning and development control authority in Singapore, on all new developments. After a planning development has been granted planning approval, a developer can proceed to submit building plans to the Building Control Division (BCD) of the Ministry of National Development for approval to proceed with the construction work. The developer is required to submit a set of these building plans to the Ministry of the Environment for clearance on technical requirements on environmental health, drainage, sewerage, air and water pollution control, and hazardous and toxic wastes.

To promote energy conservation in buildings, the building control regulations require that the envelope of all commercial buildings that are air-conditioned must be designed with an overall thermal transfer value not exceeding a prescribed value. The value takes into account the heat gained through the external walls and windows of buildings. In addition, there are tax incentive schemes to encourage owners of trade, commercial and industrial buildings to use energy-efficient equipment and technology and highly efficient pollution control equipment.

A key strategy to integrate environment and development in decision-making is to incorporate the planning and construction of environmental infrastructure in development projects. With this strategy, practically all the population is served by sewers and the sewage treated before discharge into the seas. Refuse is collected daily and disposed of by incineration or sanitary landfill.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The Ministry of National Development and the Urban Redevelopment Authority are the bodies that are primarily concerned with developments.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information

3. Major Groups: No information

4. Finance: No information

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1990
1995
Urban population in % of total population
Annual rate of growth of urban population (%)
Largest city population (in % of total population)
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 8: INTEGRATING ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT IN DECISION-MAKING

(See pages vii and viii at the beginning of the profile)

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: The protection of the environment has always been an important concern in the development of Singapore. In the early years of Singapore's development, the main tasks in environmental protection were on institution building, setting up the basic infrastructure, legal framework and management system for public health and environmental protection. These were achieved by the end of the 1980s and Singapore was able to enjoy a clean and healthy environment.

It had become evident in the late eighties that it would be difficult to maintain a clean and healthy environment through further investment in environmental infrastructure and tighter legislation alone. In the coming years, the pressures of a growing population with increasingly high expectations will put greater stress on limited resources.

In the eighties, global environmental issues, such as protection of the ozone layer, global warming, preservation of biodiversity and endangered species and pollution of the sea began to take on a higher prominence. Commitments under international conventions and protocols were beginning to have an impact on our businesses and industries. It was clear that a new approach was needed for us to keep to the path of sustainable development. A major review of policy was carried out at the end of the eighties and the result was the Singapore Green Plan.

The Singapore Green Plan (SGP) is the environmental master plan to take Singapore into the twenty-first century. It describes what the government has done and maps out the policies and strategies the government would implement to transform Singapore into a model Green City. The SGP vision is Singapore as a city with a high standard of public health and a quality environment conducive to gracious living, with a population that cares for the local as well as the global environment. Under the SGP, investment in environmental infrastructure wil continue. An anticipated $3 billion will be spent on infrastructural programmes such as upgrading of sewage treatment works, a new offshore landfill facility, a new refuse incineration plant and improvements to water bodies over the years to 2000.

New strategic directions in environmental education, resource conservation, promotion of clean technologies, nature conservation, noise management and promotion of environmental technologies have been mapped out in the SGP. These new directions are multi-dimensional. By October 1993, a total of 133 specific action programmes have been formulated with inputs from government ministries, statutory boards and private organisations.

Implementation of the SGP action programmes by the various lead agencies began in Nov 1993. The lead agencies include both government and non-government bodies. An inter-ministerial Steering Committee on the SGP has been formed to oversee and guide the implementation of the action programmes. The Steering Committee is chaired by Permanent Secretary (Environment) and has representatives from the main government bodies that are involved in the implementation. The ministry has also formed six Working Committees to coordinate and track the implementation of the action programmes. The Chairmen of the Working Committees report to the Steering Committee.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure (please also refer to the fact sheet): No information

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information

3. Major Groups: The SGP is being implemented by various lead agencies, including both government and non-government bodies. In addition, industry has increasingly been taking a more proactive role to protect the environment in the conduct of their business in response to growing concerns with the impacts their activities could cause. Various industry committees and groupings on the environment have been formed to promote environmentally friendly practice among businesses. The publication of international environmental standards by ISO is a further impetus for industry to move in this direction. The government has also been actively encouraging industry to adopt the international standard on environmental management and has provided financial assistance schemes to help the smaller firms.

Heightened awareness among the community has led to greater involvement across a wide sector of the community from primary schools to residents' associations and the general public. This has led to numerous environmental activities being held and higher expectations of a good living environment.

4. Finance: No information

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 9: PROTECTION OF THE ATMOSPHERE

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

The Montreal Protocol and its Amendments

Every four years, starting in 1990, the parties shall assess the control measures in the protocol on the basis of available scientific, environmental, technical and economic information.

Not more than 9 months after the close of a calendar year, each country owes data on annual production, use, destruction, imports and exports of controlled substances (from Annex A and Annex B of the Protocol).

Montreal Protocol (1987) acceded to on 5 January 1989.

London Amendment (1990) acceded to on 2 March 1993.

Copenhagen Amendment (1992) signed in 19--

The latest report to the Montreal Protocol Secretariat was prepared in 1995.

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

Parties shall: (a) develop and publish periodic national inventories of anthropogenic emissions; (b) publish, formulate and update national programmes to mitigate climate change by addressing emissions by sources and sinks; (c) promote and cooperate in development of technologies, practices and processes that control or reduce emissions; (d) promote sustainable management and promote and cooperate in the conservation and enhancement as appropriate of sinks and reservoirs, etc.

Developed countries shall develop national policies and take measures (that demonstrate leadership role).

Developed countries to provide financial resources.

Each party shall report: (a) a national inventory of anthropogenic emissions be sources and removals by sinks of all greenhouse gases not controlled by the Montreal protocol; (b) a general descriptions of steps taken or envisaged; (c) any other information the party considers relevant. Developed countries must report a detailed description of policies and measures it has adopted. Parties other than developed countries must submit their report within 3 years of accession or upon financial wherewithal. Least developed countries may submit at their discretion.

UNFCCC was signed on 13 June 1992.

The latest report to the UNFCCC Secretariat was submitted in 199-.

Additional comments relevant to this chapter

Singapore has adopted a multi-pronged approach to reduce and eventually phase out the consumption of ozone-depleting substances (ODS). The Ministry of the Environment (ENV), acting as a focal point between government agencies, is responsible for formulating strategies and policies to control the use of ODS in industries.

The Ministry of Trade and Industry, through the Trade Development Board, administers a Tender and Quota Allocation System to cap the consumption of ODS in accordance with guidelines set by the Protocol. The system ensures an equitable distribution of the controlled supply of ODS to registered distributors and end-users.

To keep carbon dioxide emission level as low as possible, action programmes have been formulated to promote energy efficiency and resource conservation. Power generation is from fuel oil and natural gas and accounts for about half of the carbon dioxide emission. To improve efficiency, combined-cycle technology is being introduced wherever it is technically feasible to do so. Resource conservation programmes aim to minimise use of energy, water and other raw materials and hence to reduce waste generation.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The Ministry of the Environment is responsible for the protection of the environment.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: Financial and technical assistance schemes have also been made available to help industries switch to non-ODS substitutes or alternatives. The Singapore Productivity and Standards Board (PSB) provides technical consultancy to small and medium enterprises wishing to switch to ozone-friendly processes under the Local Enterprise Technical Assistance Scheme. Companies which require financial assistance can seek grants through the PSB which administers the Local Enterprise Finance Scheme (for concessionary loans) and also approach the Economic Development Board for the Investment Allowance Scheme (tax allowance for approved investment in new equipment).

3. Major Groups:

The government and the private sector have collaborated in various activities under this programme.

4. Finance: No information

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 199-
CO2 emissions (eq. million tons)
SOx "
NOx "
CH4 "
Consumption of ozone depleting substances (Tons)
Expenditure on air pollution abatement in US$ equivalents (million)
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 10: INTEGRATED APPROACH TO THE PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT OF LAND RESOURCES

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: No information

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information

3. Major Groups: No information

4. Finance: No information

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 11: COMBATING DEFORESTATION

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: No information

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information

3. Major Groups: No information

4. Finance: No information

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1985
1990
Latest 199-
Forest Area (Km2)
Protected forest area
Roundwood production (solid volume of roundwood without bark in mill m3)
Deforestation rate (Km2/annum)
Reforestation rate (Km2/annum)
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 12: MANAGING FRAGILE ECOSYSTEMS: COMBATING DESERTIFICATION AND DROUGHT

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

International Convention to Combat Desertification in Countries Experiencing Drought and/or Desertification

Particularly in Africa

Each party shall file reports on implementation with the Conference of Parties, as often and in the form to be determined. Parties are to report on development of national action programmes. The Conference shall assist affected developing countries to make reports.

Convention : No information

The latest report to the Secretariat of the Convention was prepared in 19--.

Additional comments relevant to this chapter: No information

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information

3. Major Groups: No information

4. Finance: No information

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 199_
Land affected by desertification (Km2)
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 13: MANAGING FRAGILE ECOSYSTEMS: SUSTAINABLE MOUNTAIN DEVELOPMENT

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: No information

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information

3. Major Groups: No information

4. Finance: No information

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 14: PROMOTING SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: No information

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information

3. Major Groups: No information

4. Finance: No information

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1985
1990
Latest 199_
Agricultural land (Km2)
Agricultural land as % of total land area
Agricultural land per capita
1989/90
1992/93
Latest 199_
Consumption of fertilizers per Km2 of agricultural land as of 1990
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 15: CONSERVATION OF BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

Convention on Biological Diversity

Parties are to develop national strategies, plans and programmes for sustainable use and conservation of biodiversity and integrate them into general development plans.

Parties shall identify, monitor and maintain data on components of biodiversity.

Parties shall introduce appropriate procedures requiring EIAs for projects likely to have significant adverse effects on biological diversity.

Parties shall submit reports on measures which it has taken for the implementation of the Convention, at intervals to be determined.

Convention : No information

Latest report submitted in 19--.

Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora

Parties to take appropriate measures to enforce regulatory provisions and prohibit trade in specimens in violation thereof. Convention also governs treatment of animals in shipment.

Each party to prepare periodic reports on its implementation of the convention and to prepare: (a) an annual report listing export permits issued and species involved, and (b) a biennial report on legislative, regulatory and administrative measures taken.

Convention signed in 19--.

Latest report submitted in 19--.

Additional comments relevant to this chapter: No information

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information

3. Major Groups: No information

4. Finance: No information

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1992
Latest 199_
Protected area as % of total land area
1990
Latest 199_
Number of threatened species
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 16: ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT OF BIOTECHNOLOGY

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: No information

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information

3. Major Groups: No information

4. Finance: No information

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 17: PROTECTION OF THE OCEANS, ALL KINDS OF SEAS, INCLUDING ENCLOSED AND SEMI-ENCLOSED SEAS, AND COASTAL AREAS AND THE PROTECTION, RATIONAL USE AND DEVELOPMENT OF THEIR LIVING RESOURCES

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: No information

The UN Convention on the Law of the Sea

See also the attached tables on the next pages.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information

3. Major Groups: No information

4. Finance: No information

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 199-
Catches of marine species (metric tons)
Population in coastal areas
Population served by waste water treatment (% of country's

total population)

Discharges of oil into coastal waters (metric tons)
Releases of phosphate into coastal waters (metric tons)
Releases of nitrate into coastal waters (metric tons)
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 18: PROTECTION OF THE QUALITY AND SUPPLY OF FRESHWATER RESOURCES: APPLICATION OF INTEGRATED APPROACHES TO THE DEVELOPMENT, MANAGEMENT AND USE OF WATER RESOURCES

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

Clean, potable, piped water that can be drunk straight from the tap is available to practically 100% of the population. The water supply comes from both local sources and neighbouring Johor, Malaysia. Careful and integrated land use planning and a policy that all waste water must be discharged into sewers, have helped to safeguard these water catchments from pollution. Close monitoring of the quality of the waterways and reservoirs is carried out to assess the impact of urbanisation and the effectiveness of water pollution control measures. In addition, daily chemical and bacteriological tests are carried out to ensure that treated water meets the guidelines for drinking water quality set by the World Health Organisation.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The Water Department of the Public Utilities Board is responsible for the production of potable water. The Water Department and the Ministry of the Environment maintain a national network to monitor the quality of water in the water catchments and ensure that the treated water is safe for human consumption.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: Water conservation is an important issue and strongly promoted. There are fiscal incentives to promote water conservation in industry and monetary penalities to discourage wasteful use of water.

3. Major Groups: No information

4. Finance: The capital and recurrent costs of building and operating the water and wastewater treatment plants are financed by the government and recouped from the users following closely the Polluter Pays Principle by way of fees and tariffs.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: Singapore and Malaysia have agreed on a joint programme to clean up the Straits of Johor that both countries share.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 199-
Fresh water availability (total domestic/external in million m3)
Annual withdrawal of freshwater as % of available water
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 19: ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT OF TOXIC CHEMICALS, INCLUDING PREVENTION OF ILLEGAL INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN TOXIC AND DANGEROUS PRODUCTS

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

The Ministry of the Environment controls the import, transport, storage and use of hazardous substances under the Poisons Act and the Poisons (Hazardous Substances) Rules. Any person or company planning to engage in such activities needs to obtain a Poisons Licence or Permit from the Ministry. Requirements on packaging, allowable load, route, transportation mode and schedule and emergency response plans are imposed to ensure the safe transportation of hazardous substances.

The chemical industry has responded positively to programmes that promote environmentally sound management of hazardous chemicals and has launched a Responsible Care programme to raise the standard of environmental care in the industry.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The Ministry of the Environment is responsible for the management of hazardous substances.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information

3. Major Groups: No information

4. Finance: No information

5. Regional/International Cooperation:

Singapore and malaysia have agreed on a procedure to manage the transportation of hazardous substances across the causeway linking the two countries.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 20: ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT OF HAZARDOUS WASTES, INCLUDING PREVENTION OF ILLEGAL INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN HAZARDOUS WASTES

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal

Parties shall cooperate to disseminate information on transboundary movement of hazardous wastes. Parties shall cooperate to promote environmentally sound low-waste technologies, to transfer technology and cooperate in developing codes of practice. Parties to assist developing countries.

Parties shall immediately inform affected parties as to accidents. Prior to the end of each calendar year, parties shall provide the following information on the preceding calendar year: (a) the authorities handling Convention matters; (b) information regarding the transboundary movement of hazardous wastes; (c) measures adopted to implement convention; (d) available statistics on human health and environmental effects of generation, transport and disposal of hazardous wastes; (e) information on agreements entered into; (f) information on accidents; (g) information on disposal options; and (h) information on development of waste-reduction technologies;

Basel Convention ratified on 2 January 1996

The latest information was provided to the Basel Convention Secretariat in 19--.

Additional comments relevant to this chapter

The Ministry of the Environment controls the disposal of toxic industrial wastes under the Environmental Public Health (Toxic Industrial Waste) Regulations. A Licence is required before a person or company can collect and dispose of toxic industrial wasts. In 1995, approvals were granted to 100 companies to collect, treat and dispose of toxic industrial wastes. About 64,880 cu m of chemical wastes were collected, of which 80% were treated and recycled and the rest treated and rendered safe for disposal. Hospital wastes are collected separately and disposed of at two dedicated incinerators.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The Ministry of the Environment is responsible for the management of hazardous wastes.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: The policy and approach adopted have helped to minimise the generation of hazardous wastes and promote treatment of these wastes for reuse.

3. Major Groups: The private sector plays a major role in the collection, transportation, treatment and disposal of hazardous industrial wastes.

4. Finance: No information

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 199-
Generation of hazardous waste (t)
Import of hazardous wastes (t)
Export of hazardous wastes (t)
Area of land contaminated by hazardous waste (km2)
Expenditure on hazardous waste treatment (US$)
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 21: ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT OF SOLID WASTES AND SEWAGE-RELATED ISSUES

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: A comprehensive system of sewers, pumping stations and six centralised sewage treatment works ensure that all wastewater generated by domestic and non-domestic sources are collected and treated before discharge into the sea. In 1995, 430 million cu m of wastewater was collected and treated at the sewage treatment works where secondary treatment was applied to the wastewater. Sludge produced is stabilised in digesters before disposal as a soil conditioner for reclaimed land. Biogas is produced at all the sewage treatment works as a by-product of sludge stabilisation and utilised to generate electricity to operate the works. To promote water conservation, the treated effluent from the sewage treatment works is used for non-potable purposes such as engine cooling, watering of golf courses and for industrial purposes after tertiary treatment to improve the quality of water and disinfection.

About 2.68 million tonnes of solid waste were collected in 1995, half of which was from domestic and commercial sources, and the other half from industrial sources. About 70% of this waste was disposed of at three refuse incineration plants and the rest at a sanitary landfill site. In line with the programme to conserve resources, electricity is generated from the three incineration plants and ferrous metals recovered for recycling.

While it is necessary to continue to plan ahead to ensure adequate disposal facilities for solid wastes, the Ministry of the Environment hopes to slow down the rate of waste generation and has introduced a series of programmes to achieve this. The Ministry works closely with industry, trade associations and business groups to promote and enhance efforts on waste minimisation. Land has also been set aside at disused landfill sites for the setting up of recycling plants.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The Ministry of the Environment is responsible for the management of solid wastes and sewage.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information

3. Major Groups: No information

4. Finance: The capital investments and recurrent costs of the municipal solid waste disposal facilities and the sewerage system and sewage treatment works are financed by the government and the users. The dedicated incinerators for hospital wastes are built and operated by the private sector on a commercial basis.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 199-
Generation of industrial and municipal waste (t)
Waste disposed(Kg/capita)
Expenditure on waste collection and treatment (US$)
Waste recycling rates (%)
Municipal waste disposal (Kg/capita)
Waste reduction rates per unit of GDP (t/year)
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 22: SAFE AND ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: No information

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information

3. Major Groups: No information

4. Finance: No information

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS

AGENDA 21 CHAPTERS 23-32: MAJOR GROUPS

The role of major groups are also covered under the various chapters of Agenda 21. The following is a summary of main objectives outlined in Agenda 21. Please check the appropriate boxes and describe briefly any important steps or obstacles.

STATUS REPORT ON PARTICIPATION BY MAJOR GROUPS AT THE

NATIONAL AND LOCAL LEVELS
Ch. 24: GLOBAL ACTION FOR WOMEN TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND EQUITABLE DEVELOPMENT.

The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women was

No information

24.b Increasing the proportion of women decision makers.

Percentage of women: No information

in government %

in parliament %

at local government level %

24.2.e assessing, reviewing, revising and implementing curricula and other educational material with a view to promoting dissemination of gender-relevant knowledge.

Curricula and educational material : No information

24.2.f and 24.2.c formulating and implementing policies, guidelines, strategies and plans for achievement of equality in all aspects of society including issuing a strategy by year 2000 to eliminate obstacles to full participation of women in sustainable development. Policies/strategies etc. have been

No information

24.2.d establishing mechanisms by 1995 to assess implementation and impact of development and environment policies and programmes on women:

No information

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page): No information

STATUS REPORT ON PARTICIPATION BY MAJOR GROUPS AT THE

NATIONAL AND LOCAL LEVELS
Ch. 25: CHILDREN AND YOUTH IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT.

25.4 establishing processes that promote dialogue between the youth and government at all levels and mechanisms that permit youth access to information and opportunity to present their views on implementing A21.

Name relevant youth fora (3-4 most important): No information

1.

2.

3.

4.

Describe their role in

the national process:

25.6 reducing youth unemployment

No iformation

25.5 ensuring that by year 2000 more than 50% of youth -- gender balanced -- have access to appropriate secondary education or vocational training.

The goal set in Agenda 21: No information

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page): No information

STATUS REPORT ON PARTICIPATION BY MAJOR GROUPS AT THE

NATIONAL AND LOCAL LEVELS
Ch. 26: RECOGNIZING AND STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF INDIGENOUS PEOPLE AND THEIR COMMUNITIES.

26.3.a establishing a process to empower indigenous people and their communities -- through policies and legal instruments: No information

26.3.b strengthening arrangements for active participation in national policies: No information

26.3.c involving indigenous people in resource management strategies and programmes at the national and local level.

No information

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page): No information

Ch. 27: STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS: PARTNERS FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT.

27.5 developing mechanisms that allow NGOs to play their partnership role responsibly and effectively.

27.6 reviewing formal procedures and mechanisms to involve NGOs in decision making and implementation.

27.8 promoting and allowing NGOs to participate in the conception, establishment and evaluation of official mechanisms to review Agenda 21 implementation.

No information

27.7 establishing a mutually productive dialogue by 1995 at the national level between NGOs and governments.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page): No information

STATUS REPORT ON PARTICIPATION BY MAJOR GROUPS AT THE

NATIONAL AND LOCAL LEVELS
Ch. 28: LOCAL AUTHORITIES' INITIATIVES IN SUPPORT OF AGENDA 21.

28.2.d encouraging local authorities to implement and monitor programmes that aim to ensure participation of women and youth in local decision making.

There are at least ------ local agenda 21s. -----% involve representation of women and/or youth

They involve ----% of population

Government support of local agenda 21 initiatives: No information

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page): No information

Ch. 29: STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF WORKERS AND THEIR TRADE UNIONS.

29.2 full participation of workers in implementation and evaluation of A21.

29.3 a to e (By year 2000, (a) promoting ratification of ILO conventions; (b) establishing bipartite and tripartite mechanism on safety, health and sustainable development; (c) increasing number of environmental collective agreements; (d) reducing occupational accidents and injuries; (e) increasing workers' education and training efforts.

No information

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page): No information

STATUS REPORT ON PARTICIPATION BY MAJOR GROUPS AT THE

NATIONAL AND LOCAL LEVELS
30: STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY.

30.6 increasing the efficiency of resource use, including reuse, recycling, and reduction of waste per unit of economic output.

No information

30.18.a encouraging the concept of stewardship in management and use of natural resources by entrepreneurs.

List any actions taken in this area: No information

30.18.b increasing number of enterprises that subscribe to and implement sustainable development policies.

No information

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page): No information

STATUS REPORT ON PARTICIPATION BY MAJOR GROUPS AT THE

NATIONAL AND LOCAL LEVELS
Ch. 31: SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL COMMUNITY.

31.3.b improving exchange of knowledge and concerns between s&t community and the general public.

No information

31.9 developing, improving and promoting international acceptance of codes of practice and guidelines related to science and technology and its role in reconciling environment and development.

Brief comments on this chapter not already described in chapter 35 (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page): No information

Ch. 32: STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF FARMERS.

32.5.c promoting and encouraging sustainable farming practices and technologies.

32.5.e developing a policy framework that provides incentives and motivation among farmers for sustainable and efficient farming practices.

32.5.f enhancing participation of organizations of farmers in design and implementation of sustainable development policies.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page): No information

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 33: FINANCIAL RESOURCES AND MECHANISMS

Financial resources and mechanisms are also covered under each sectoral chapter of Agenda 21 where relevant. This summary highlights broader national financial policies, domestic and external (including ODA)

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: No information

CHANGES IN NATIONAL BUDGET TO ADDRESS SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT:

NEW ECONOMIC INSTRUMENTS:

ELIMINATION OF ENVIRONMENTALLY UNFRIENDLY SUBSIDIES:

ODA policy issues

Donor country: No information

Recipient: No information

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
ODA funding provided or received (Total US$million)
Average for 92-93
Average for 94-96
Net flow of external capital from all sources as % of GDP
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 34: TRANSFER OF ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND TECHNOLOGY, COOPERATION AND CAPACITY-BUILDING

Transfer of environmentally sound technology, cooperation and capacity-building is also covered under each sectoral chapter of Agenda 21 where relevant. This summary highlights broader national policies and actions relating to chapter 34.

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT ON LINKS BETWEEN NATIONAL, REGIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL INFORMATION NETWORKS/SYSTEMS: No information

MEANS OF IMPLEMENTATION: No information

Describe any work being undertaken at the national or local level regarding efforts to promote clean production processes and/or the concepts of eco-efficiency. These processes may include training, preferential financial arrangements, information dissemination and changes in legal or regulatory frameworks.

No information

Provide information on the adoption of environmental management systems. National reaction to environmental management system standards such as the ISO 14000 Series and others. Please note efforts made at the national level to promote their adoption and the creation of certification infrastructure in order to facilitate access to these standards to local industry.

No information

List and describe programs or work under way to facilitate the transfer of ESTs to small and medium sized enterprises. Please note efforts to facilitate access to financial resources and other transfer strategies.

No information

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 35: SCIENCE FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT ON NATIONAL SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE, RESEARCH NEEDS AND PRIORITIES: No information

STEPS TAKEN TO ENHANCE SCIENTIFIC UNDERSTANDING, IMPROVE LONG TERM SCIENTIFIC ASSESSMENT, BUILDING OF CAPACITY AND CAPABILITY: No information

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
Year
Number of scientists, engineers and technicians engaged in research and experimental development # 19--
Total expenditure for research and experimental development (US$eq.) $ 19--
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 36: PROMOTING EDUCATION, PUBLIC AWARENESS AND TRAINING

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: No information

a) Reorientation of education towards sustainable development

No information

b) Increasing public awareness

No information

c) Promoting training

No information

ROLE OF MAJOR GROUPS: No information

FINANCING AND COST EVALUATION OF THE LABOUR ACTIVITIES: No information

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 199-
Adult literacy rate (%) Male
Adult literacy rate (%) Female
% of primary school children reaching grade 5 (1986-97)
Mean number of years of schooling
% of GNP spent on education
Females per 100 males in secondary school
Women per 100 men in the labour force
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 37: NATIONAL MECHANISMS AND INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION FOR CAPACITY-BUILDING IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

National capacity building is also covered under sectoral chapters.

Donors: You may wish to describe here how Agenda 21 has influenced your ODA policies in this area.

Developing countries: You may wish to describe any new national mechanisms for capacity building - and any changes in technical cooperation.

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT ON NATIONAL ENDOGENOUS CAPACITY BUILDING: No information

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 38: INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS

Ch. 38: Brief summary of any particular UN System response affecting this country/state:

No information

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 39: INTERNATIONAL LEGAL INSTRUMENTS AND MECHANISMS

Ch. 39: International Legal Instruments are covered under the relevant sectoral chapters. This is a listing of major agreements/conventions (not already covered) entered into and relevant to Agenda 21: No information

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 40: INFORMATION FOR DECISION-MAKING

This chapter is also covered under sectoral and other chapters of this profile. The matrix below gives an overview of how national authorities rate the available information for decision making.

Rating of available data and information suitable for decision-making

Agenda 21 Chapters
Very
good
Good
Some good
data but
many gaps
Poor
Remarks
2. International cooperation and trade
3. Combating poverty
4. Changing consumption patterns
5. Demographic dynamics and sustainability
6. Human health
7. Human settlements
8. Integrating E & D in decision-making
9. Protection of the atmosphere
10. Integrated planning and management of land resources
11. Combating deforestation
12. Combating desertification and drought
13. Sustainable mountain development
14. Sustainable agriculture and rural development
15. Conservation of biological diversity
16. Biotechnology
17. Oceans, seas, coastal areas and their living resources
18. Freshwater resources
19. Toxic chemicals
20. Hazardous wastes
21. Solid wastes
22. Radioactive wastes
24. Women in sustainable development
25. Children and youth
26. Indigenous people
27. Non-governmental organizations
28. Local authorities
29. Workers and trade unions
30. Business and industry
31. Scientific and technological community
32. Farmers
33. Financial resources and mechanisms
34. Technology, cooperation and capacity-building
35. Science for sustainable development
36. Education, public awareness and training
37. International cooperation for capacity-building
38. International institutional arrangements
39. International legal instruments
40. Information for decision-making

Additional Comments

No information

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1993
Latest 199-
Number of telephones in use per 100 inhabitants
Other data

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Department of Economic and Social Affairs
Comments and suggestions: esa@un.org
1 November 1997