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National Implementation of Agenda 21

GREECE

COUNTRY PROFILE

IMPLEMENTATION OF AGENDA 21:
REVIEW OF PROGRESS MADE SINCE THE
UNITED NATIONS CONFERENCE ON
ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT, 1992

Information Provided by the Government of Greece to the
United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development
Fifth Session
7-25 April 1997
New York

United Nations Department for Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development
Division for Sustainable Development
The Information contained in this Country Profile is also available on the World Wide Web, as follows:
http://www.un.org/dpcsd/earthsummit

GREECE

This country profile has been provided by:

Name of Ministry/Office: Ministry for the Environment, Physical Planning and Public Works, Department of International Relations and EU Affairs

Date: 13 January 1997

Submitted by: M. Kritikou

Mailing address: 17, Amaliados str., 11523 Athens, Greece

Telephone: 301-6411717

Telefax: 301-6434470

E-mail:

Note from the Secretariat: An effort has been made to present all country profiles within a common format, with an equal number of pages. However, where Governments have not provided information for the tables appended to Chapters 4 and 17, those tables have been omitted entirely in order to reduce the overall length of the profile and save paper. Consequently, there may be some minor inconsistencies among the formats of the different country profiles.

All statistics are rendered as provided by the respective Governments.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACRONYMS
OVERVIEW
FACT SHEET
AGENDA 21 CHAPTERS
2. International cooperation to accelerate sustainable development in developing countries and related domestic policies
3. Combating poverty
4. Changing consumption patterns
5. Demographic dynamics and sustainability
6. Protecting and promoting human health
7. Promoting sustainable human settlement development
8. Integrating environment and development in decision-making
9. Protection of the atmosphere
10. Integrated approach to the planning and management of land resources
11. Combating deforestation
12. Managing fragile ecosystems: combating desertification and drought
13. Managing fragile ecosystems: sustainable mountain development
14. Promoting sustainable agriculture and rural development
15. Conservation of biological diversity
16. Environmentally sound management of biotechnology
17. Protection of the oceans, all kinds of seas, including enclosed and semi-enclosed seas, and coastal areas and the protection, rational use and development of their living resources
18. Protection of the quality and supply of freshwater resources: application of integrated approaches to the development, management and use of water resources
19. Environmentally sound management of toxic chemicals, including prevention of illegal international traffic in toxic and dangerous products
20. Environmentally sound management of hazardous wastes, including prevention of illegal international traffic in hazardous wastes
21. Environmentally sound management of solid wastes and sewage-related issues
22. Safe and environmentally sound management of radioactive wastes
23-32. Major groups
33. Financial resources and mechanisms
34. Transfer of environmentally sound technology, cooperation and capacity-building
35. Science for sustainable development
36. Promoting education, public awareness and training
37. National mechanisms and international cooperation for capacity-building in developing countries
38. International institutional arrangements
39. International legal instruments and mechanisms
40. Information for decision-making
Annex I

ACRONYMS

APELL Awareness and Preparedness for Emergencies at Local Level
CFC chlorofluorocarbon
CGIAR Consultative Group on International Agriculture Research
CILSS Permanent Inter-State Committee on Drought Control in the Sahel
EEZ exclusive economic zone
ECA Economic Commission for Africa
ECE Economic Commission for Europe
ECLAC Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean
ELCI Environmental Liaison Centre International
EMINWA environmentally sound management of inland water
ESCAP Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific
ESCWA Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia
FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
GATT General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
GAW Global Atmosphere Watch (WMO)
GEF Global Environment Facility
GEMS Global Environmental Monitoring System (UNEP)
GEMS/WATER Global Water Quality Monitoring Programme
GESAMP Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Pollution
GIPME Global Investigation of Pollution in Marine Environment (UNESCO)
GIS Geographical Information System
GLOBE Global Legislators Organisation for a Balanced Environment
GOS Global Observing System (WMO/WWW)
GRID Global Resource Information Database
GSP generalized system of preferences
HIV human immunodeficiency virus
IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency
IAP-WASAD International Action Programme on Water and Sustainable Agricultural Development
IARC International Agency for Research on Cancer
IBSRAM International Board of Soil Resources and Management
ICCA International Council of Chemical Associations
ICES International Council for the Exploration of the Sea
ICPIC International Cleaner Production Information Clearing House
ICSC International Civil Service Commission
ICSU International Council of Scientific Unions
IEEA Integrated environmental and economic accounting
IFAD International Fund for Agricultural Development
IGADD Intergovernmental Authority for Drought and Development
IGBP International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (ICSU)
IGBP/START International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme/Global Change System for Analysis, Research and Training
ILO International Labour Organisation
IMF International Monetary Fund
IMO International Maritime Organization
INFOTERRA International Environment Information system (UNEP)
IOC Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission
IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
IPCS International Programme on Chemical Safety
IPM integrated pest management
IRPTC International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals
ITC International Tin Council
ITTO International Tropical Timber Organization
IUCN International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources
MARPOL International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships
OECD Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development
PGRFA plant genetic resources for agriculture
PIC prior informed consent procedure
SADCC South African Development Co-ordination Conference
SARD sustainable agriculture and rural development
UNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
UNDP United Nations Development Programme
UNDRO Office of the United Nations Disaster Relief Coordinator
UNEP United Nations Environment Programme
UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
UNFPA United Nations Population Fund
UNICEF United Nations Children's Fund
UNIDO United Nations Industrial Development Organization
UNU United Nations University
WCP World Climate Programme (WMO/UNEP/ICSU/UNESCO)
WFC World Food Council
WHO World Health Organization
WMO World Meteorological Organization
WWF World Wide Fund for Nature (also called World Wildlife Fund)
WWW World Weather Watch (WMO)

OVERVIEW

GREEK NATIONAL POLICY FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

Since the Rio Conference, Greece has started to adopt its strategic policy framework towards sustainable development. The environmental protection requirements are integrated into the implementation of the key development sectors. This is achieved either through the implementation of the EU policy (e.g. Fifth Environmental Action Programme) or through national measures.

In order to attain sustainable development Greece is focusing on the following targets:

Integration of Environment and Economy. Incorporation of the principles, values, sensitivities and priorities of ecology in sustainable development.

Balanced socio-economic development, reduction of differences between the so-called "developed" and "problematic" regions or between centre and periphery.

Decentralisation of activities and population.

Improvement and development of potentials of peripheral regions and survival of small towns and rural centres.

Mitigation and reversion of the trends of migration and urbanisation.

Preparation of the National Cadastre.

Reinforcement of the economic, social and cultural development of remote areas.

Reshapement of the local government's services and responsibilities.

Energy planning towards renewable energies.

Enhancement of the social cohesion and the environmental and cultural identity of urban centres and minor settlements.

Conservation of the balance, harmony and diversity of the Greek nature and ecosystems.

Rational and integrated management, control and protection of water resources.

Abatement of coastal and marine pollution.

Improvement of the urban environment and living conditions (reduction of atmospheric and noise pollution in large urban centres, integrated and rational waste management).

Mitigation of unemployment problems and improvement of working and safety conditions.

Education, training and awareness raising for sustainable living patterns.

Promotion of international cooperation and implementation of international conventions.

Enhancement of the participation of major groups.

FACT SHEET

GREECE

1. Name of Key National Sustainable Development Coordination Mechanism(s)/Council(s).

Contact point (Name, Title, Office): Elpida Politi, Ministry for the Environment, Physical Planning and Public Works

Telephone: 30 1 6435740

Fax: 30 1 6434470

e-mail:

Mailing address: Hellenic Republic, Ministry for the Environment, Physical Planning and Public Works, Department of International Relations and E.U. Affairs, 17, Amaliados str., 11523 Athens, Greece

2. Membership/Composition/Chairperson:

2a. List of ministries and agencies involved:

2b. Names of para-statal bodies and institutions involved, as well as participating of academic and private sector bodies:

2c. Names of non-governmental organizations involved:

3. Mandate role of above mechanism/council:

4. If available, attach a diagram (organization chart) showing national coordination structure and linkages between ministries:

Submitted by (Name): M. Kritikou

Title: Head of the Department

Date: 13 January 1997

Ministry/Office: Hellenic Republic, Ministry for the Environment Physical Planning and Public Works, Department of International Relations and E.U. Affairs

Telephone: 30 1 6411717

Fax: 30 1 6434470

e-mail:

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 2: INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION TO ACCELERATE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES AND RELATED DOMESTIC POLICIES (with special emphasis on TRADE)

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: No information available.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information available.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information available.

3. Major Groups: No information available.

4. Finance: GRANTING AID FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

In granting aid, Greece has severe constrains, both because of limited resources and for budgetary reasons. Today, roughly 75% of Greek aid is channelled through multilateral programmes of International Organisations and the European Union. The remaining 25% concerns bilateral aid granted by ministries and other state institutions as well as through NGOs.

Due to the necessity of a drastic reduction of the deficit of the governmental budget, funds are severely limited at the moment. Greece does not have the necessary resources to finance large scale programmes and has to be selective both for the nature of the projects and for their geographic distribution. Long term programmes have tended to be the exception in the past though this is gradually changing. Short term projects are very often the response to emergencies. Therefore planning in this respect tends to be done in general terms, leaving a lot of leeway for adjustments to current needs while taking into account existing priorities.

This ad hoc way of responding to the needs of third countries is particularly visible in the case of emergency humanitarian aid. Greece responds to appeals by international organisations or foreign governments in order to alleviate the suffering caused by natural or man-made disasters. We also contribute to the financing of humanitarian aid programmes initiated by NGOs, when these are in agreement with our general priorities.

Scholarships are granted either in accordance with the relevant provisions of bilateral cultural agreements or through our own initiative.

Technical assistance is also granted in accordance with relevant provisions of bilateral, technical and scientific agreements, at the request of a foreign government, on our own initiative or through the financing of an NGOs programme of technical assistance. Other forms of aid are usually given as a result of state initiative.

Increasing the stability of neighbouring countries and allaying the economic problems of their population are our priorities. Tackling the poverty of the population of developing countries and supporting their development efforts is also one of our priorities, while the environmental impact of our aid programmes is not forgotten. Supporting regional peace efforts is also a very important parameter in the planning of our aid programmes.

Aid has been increasing in the last few years as a response to existing challenges. It is planned to continue to increase aid and all our projections show that the percentage of the gross national product devoted to aid will greatly increase. In the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Department of Development Cooperation is responsible for the coordination of all foreign aid. (see also tables from chapter 3, Greek National Report 1996, pages 10-18)

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information available.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 3: COMBATING POVERTY

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

Focus of national strategy

In Greece there is no official or commonly accepted definition of an absolute poverty line. However, the country has adopted the definition of relative poverty accepted by EU countries.

Associated with matters related to poverty are problems of "social exclusion". The latter is defined as alienation from one or more of the following mechanisms: the labour market, social or other informal support networks, state unemployment benefits, retraining programmes, etc. Social exclusion is considered a limited phenomenon in Greece, on the one hand because the processes of economic restructuring and modernisation are occurring at a slow pace and, on the other, because the informal support networks, mainly family networks, are functioning satisfactorily.

Highlight activities aimed at the poor and linkages to the environment

The competent authorities (Ministry for the Environment, Physical Planning and Public Works / Directorate of Shelter, Policy and Housing, Ministry of Foreign Affairs/ National Foundation of Emigrants, Ministry of Health and Welfare and the Workers' Housing Organisation) have implemented the following activities concerning the housing problem of impoverished groups:

housing programmes for the homeless and poor, for gypsies, minorities and emigrants;

remodelling of low quality habitation areas.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: Legislative degree 57/1973 addresses "Measures for the social protection of economically needy people". Also, legislation on minimum pensions and mixed social pensions has been issued.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information available.

3. Major Groups: No information available.

4. Finance: No information available.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information available.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1985
1990
1992
1995
Unemployment (%) 7.8 7.0 8.7 10.0
Population living in absolute poverty
Public spending on social sector %
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 4: CHANGING CONSUMPTION PATTERNS

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

National policy objectives/focus

In accordance with the European Union's 5th Environmental Action Programme (Towards Sustainability), Greece aims to adjust its policies in order to avoid abuse and exhaustion of natural resources. Policies address issues of waste reduction, the use of water, traffic and transportation issues and energy consumption. A national and sectoral review on consumption and production patterns was held to identify possibilities for waste reduction. National awareness programmes have been initiated on consumption and production issues.

The Hellenic Action Plan for the Abatement of CO2 and other Greenhouse Gas Emissions is based on a drastic energy conservation policy in all sectors of final consumption (industry, transport, commercial and domestic sector), as well as on the use of natural gas in the national energy system and the promotion of renewable energy sources.

The Energy Programme (1994-1999) launched by the Ministry for Development promotes energy efficiency, rational use of energy, use of renewable energy sources and the use of natural gas (total budget: 566,300 kECU).

The introduction of natural gas in the national energy system is a major infrastructure project. According to the programme of the Public Gas Corporation, the total absorption of natural gas will reach 3.5 billion Nm3 by the year 2005 (1.5 billion Nm3 for electricity generation, 1.0 billion Nm3 for industrial uses and 1.0 billion Nm3 for the needs of domestic and other sectors).

The Energy Operational Programme of the Ministry for Development is mainly orientated towards financing of energy efficiency projects. Financing methods are now under legal regulation, such as Technology Performance Financing or Third Party Financing, and are expected to facilitate even more energy production and energy efficiency as well as transfer and introduction of environmentally-friendly technologies.

The Public Power Corporation is applying specific policies for environmental protection and improvement of energy efficiency:

commission of natural gas generating units

development of the country's hydropotential

exploitation of renewable energy sources (wind, geothermal and solar energy)

energy conservation and improvement of the efficiency of existing installations

new combustion technologies are being examined

awareness raising programme for energy saving and rational use of energy

The National Action Plan for Energy Conservation in the Built Environment, named Energy 2001, carried out by the Ministry for the Environment, Physical Planning and Public Works, intends to change the existing production and consumption patterns, through the promotion of building construction techniques and services aiming at energy conservation and the integration of renewable energy technologies.

The Action Plan is to be applied through a specific legislation, concerning an incentive policy for energy saving measures in the existing buildings (heating, cooling, DHW and lighting) as well as policies, policy instruments, measures and new standards concerning new buildings.

The Ministry for the Environment, Physical Planning and Public Works/ Directorate of Shelter Policy and Housing promotes pilot programmes aiming at the rational use and management of natural resources, energy conservation, and sustainable development of human settlements by:

1. Construction of a model settlement for civil servants in Santorini island, according to bioclimatic house construction principles.

STATUS REPORT (cont'd):

2. Co-funding of the photovoltaic systems programme of solar energy transformation in electric energy at Donousa and Sifnos islands.

3. Funding of the First (model) Ecological-Bioclimatic Building.

Our country has harmonized with the European Community regulation 880/92 which introduced an Eco-Label Award Scheme, by the Joint Ministerial Resolution 86644/2482/1993. The Ministerial Resolution established a Supreme Board for Awarding Ecological Labels within the Ministry for the Environment, Physical Planning and Public Works. This Supreme Board, named ASAOS, provides information to the business community and consumers, organises international meetings and has undertaken the task to establish criteria, with the support of the Commission of the European Communities, for the following:

1. Greece is the lead-country for the establishment of criteria concerning the product group bed mattresses for the European Eco-Label, in cooperation with France.

2. Greece runs a pilot project concerning Touristic Services for the European Eco-Label with the cooperation of France. The project includes the definition of the product/service group and the setting of specific criteria.

3. Greece developed a Communication Strategy Programme to inform the industry, consumers, business and interested groups about the performance of the Eco-Label Scheme in Greece.

ASAOS organised the third General Assembly of the Global Eco-Label Network which took place in the island of Skyros, Greece, on the 6th and 7th of July 1995.

National targets

According to the Energy Programme (1994-1999), the expected annual energy saving at the end of the programme is 700 kTOE (energy efficiency, use of natural gas) and the expected substitution of primary energy at the end of the programme is 200kTOE (renewable energy sources).

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: Law 2244/94 enables independent aside from the self-sufficient producers to use renewables for the generation of electricity, improves the rate at which the KWH is purchased by the Public Power Corporation and ensures long term contracts for the independent and self-sufficient producers. Ministerial Decision YBET 8295/95 regulates the issue of the corresponding licenses.

Law 2234/94 promotes operational industry projects, where energy efficiency is included in the target investments. According to Law 1512/85 which provides incentives for energy conservation, the Greek legislation is currently being harmonised with the European Directive SAVE (93/76/EC) for the stabilisation of CO2 emissions and energy efficiency of buildings.

The Ministry for the Environment, Physical Planning and Public Works promotes: the new Building Regulation which is being harmonised with the Law for the Protection of the Environment and the Law for the Promotion of Renewable Energy Sources.

The harmonisation of the Planning Law with the principles of sustainable development.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: Training and information dissemination programmes are being carried out in the framework of the legislation for energy conservation in the Built Environment promoted by the Ministry for the Environment:

Organisation of seminars, meetings etc. aiming at the information and training of specially interested groups (public, engineers, technicians etc.).

Participation in environmental education programmes such as the programme "Ecological Schools". Provision of scientific support, printed material, implementation of pilot projects.

Cross-Sectoral Issues (cont'd)

Dissemination of the environmental policy principles aiming at raising awareness and promoting participation of interested groups and the public, e.g. voluntary employment of young people in projects using traditional construction materials and techniques in different regions of Greece.

3. Major Groups:

1. The National Action Plan for Energy Conservation was carried out with the participation of recognised bodies, representatives of Greek universities and research centres.

2. Several major groups, industry organizations, unions, NGOs and consumer groups, participate in the Supreme Board for Awarding Ecological Labels.

4. Finance: No information available.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: Greece cooperates with the other EU member states in the dissemination and promotion of renewable energy sources as well as in energy efficiency projects. The Ministry for Development tries to incorporate and promote the EU programmes such as ALTENER, SAVE, JOULE-THERMIE, SYNERGY, TACIS, PHARE, Research and Development Programmes and new policies like MEDA or the Energy Charter Treaty.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1985 1990 1992 1995
GDP per capita (current US$) 3,366 6,568 7,537 8,762
Real GDP growth (%) 3.1 -0.1 0.9
Annual energy consumption per capita (Kg. of oil equivalent per capita) 2,209a 2,160 2,269
Motor vehicles in use per 1000 inhabitants 189.5 249.7 272.4b
a 1989 b 1993

Government policies affecting consumption and production.

1. Goals and Agents (Stakeholders)

Indicate with a (X) those agents which your Governments policies are meant most to influence.

Agents

Goals

Producers
Local
authorities
Central
Government
Households
Civil society
Material efficiency
X
X
Energy efficiency:
X
X
X
Transport
X
X
Housing
X
X
X
Other
X
Waste:
Reduce
X
X
Reuse
X
X
Recycle
X
X

Comments:

2. Means & Measures and Agents (Stakeholders)

Indicate with an (R) those agents who assume primary responsibility for any of the policy measures indicated; indicate with an (I) the agents for which the impact is expected to be especially significant.

Agents

Means & Measures

Producers
Local
authorities
Central
Government
House-
holds
Civil
Society
Improving understanding and analysis
Information and education (e.g., radio/TV/press)
R
R
I
R
Research
R
Evaluating environmental claims
R
R
Form partnerships
R
R
R
Applying tools for modifying behaviour
Community based strategies
R
I
I
Social incentives/disincentives (e.g., ecolabelling)
I
R
Regulatory instruments
I
R
I
Economic incentives/disincentives
I
R
I
I
Voluntary agreements of producer responsibility for

aspects of product life cycle

R
R
R
Provision of enabling facilities and infrastructure

(e.g., transportation alternatives, recycling)

R
R
I
Procurement policy
I
R
I
I
Monitoring, evaluating and reviewing performance
Action campaign
R
R
I
Other (specify)

Comments:

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 5: DEMOGRAPHIC DYNAMICS AND SUSTAINABILITY

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: Information was provided to the Conference on Population and Development in Cairo. A national debate has been held on linkages between population and environment at the national level. Women's organizations and the media have been included.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The Ministry of National Economy, especially the Department of Population and Employment and the Department of Social Policy, is responsible for demographic issues. The National Statistical Service and the Ministry of Health, Welfare and Social Security are also involved.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information available.

3. Major Groups: Steps have been taken to involve women in decision-making. The "law for equality" promotes women's participation.

4. Finance: No information available.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: Greece has participated in international conferences held by the European Union, the European Council and OECD.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1990 1993
1995
Population (Thousands) mid-year estimates 10,161 10,379 10,454
Annual rate of increase (1990-1993) 0.6 0.3
Surface area (Km2) 131,957
Population density (people/Km2) 78 79

OTHER DATA
1971
1981
1991
1993
1994
Sex distribution (%)

Male

Female

48.89

51.11

49.07

50.93

49.27

50.73

49.37

50.63

49.38

50.62
Major age-groups

0-14

15-64

>64

25.36

63.72

10.92

23.69

63.58

12.73

19.25

67.06

13.69

17.84

67.37

14.79

17.34

67.49

15.17

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 6: PROTECTING AND PROMOTING HUMAN HEALTH

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: The Government of Greece targets for fulfilling basic health care needs and for balancing regional inequalities in social health services. Special emphasis is given to the development of telemedicine, the development of computer science in hospitals, cardiology, the operation of a National Blood Donation Centre and the modernisation of the blood donation services.

A public awareness campaign was carried out concerning the recommendations of the European Code against Cancer, which aims at reducing deaths from cancer by 15 % by the year 2000.

The Ministry of Health and Welfare implements a dealuminisation programme, in order to reduce the exposure of people to aluminium and reduce renal diseases.

In order to develop control of contagious diseases, the following activities have been proposed:

- the promotion of hepatitis-B-vaccination,

- the implementation of an anti-malaria programme,

- a measles vaccination programme,

- a tuberculosis vaccination programme, and

- raising awareness on HIV/AIDS and increasing funds for the rehabilitation of patients.

All types of primary health care are offered free of charge to all citizens. Provision is made, inter alia, for social care, school health, dental health and family planning.

The Ministry for the Environment, Physical Planning and Public Works has initiated controls on the use of building materials, in order to mitigate the syndrome of "unhealthy buildings". Levels of pollutant' emissions are being set and environmentally friendly construction materials are being promoted.

The Operational Environmental Programme of Greece (see chapter 8) recognises the close link between health and environment.

Action programme 2.4 aims at protecting the human, anthropogenic and natural environment from industrial accidents. Upon its completion, the requirements of the SEVESO Directive will be fully met. It should be mentioned that the aim of the programme is also to make the residents in the nearby areas aware of the operational plans for the management of environmental hazards once these occur. The overall budget for action programme 2.4 is 5 MECU.

Specific actions:

Development of mobile stations for the monitoring of dangerous substances

Public awareness campaigns

Programmes for the implementation of the SEVESO Directive Action Plans in the event of an accident, technical

support to the local and regional authorities, etc.

Promotion of the "eco-audit" scheme

Land use planning in the vicinity of industrial areas

Specialised equipment for the Fire Services

Creation of a training unit for major industrial accidents

Action programme 2.6 of the Operational Environmental Programme of Greece is two fold. It aims on the one hand to improve the environmental conditions in major energy production units in Greece, especially with respect to atmospheric pollution. On the other hand the programme aims at promoting the Charter "Health Cities" through pilot programmes and technical interventions at the urban scale. The overall budget for action programme 2.6 is 9 MECU.

A programme, aiming at reducing urban noise and related health risks, is being implemented. The noise abatement programme in major Greek cities attempts to reduce noise through such actions as periodic inspections for motor vehicles/motorcycles and major industrial installations with respect to their noise levels, the construction of noise protective barriers along major highways, the promotion of noise insulation materials in buildings and the promotion of the so-called "quiet products". Pilot projects have been implemented and research projects on the psycho-social issues of noise are being carried out.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The Ministry of Health and Welfare is responsible for the implementation of this chapter. The Ministry for the Environment is also involved. Several laws have been enacted to reduce health risks from smoking.

Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: The programmes "Europe against cancer" and "Greece against cancer" have contributed to inform the public about cancer, to create awareness and to improve health personnel training. Research on cancer is being promoted and encouraged. Health training is provided inter alia to young parents, and teachers and students of all grades.

3. Major Groups: No information available.

4. Finance: No information available.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information available.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980 1990 1995
Life expectancy at birth

Male

Female

72.2

76.6

74.6

79.4

75.0

80.2

Infant mortality (per 1000 live births) 18 10 8
Maternal mortality rate (per 100000 live births) 18 1 0
Access to safe drinking water and sanitation (% of population)a 87.2b 96.4c
a National Report of Greece to the CSD 1995 b 1981 c 1991

All population in Greece has access to primary health care.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 7: PROMOTING SUSTAINABLE HUMAN SETTLEMENT DEVELOPMENT

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: The National Action Plan for Cities and Housing (1996-2000) aims fundamentally at the fullest possible positive response of Greece to two main objectives: the creation of cities which provide safe, healthy, equal and sustainable living conditions and the guarantee of adequate housing for all. The National Action Plan sets the following sectors for action which refer to the above mentioned objectives:

a) Rational land use management in accordance with the principles of sustainability.

Priority is given to peri-urban and coastal areas with a strong cultural identity.

b) Upgrading the urban environment.

Regulation of development in peri-urban space and control of unauthorised development through the regulatory framework of the zones of controlled settlement. Traffic regulations in city centres. Free space and space for public use for recreation-related functions, in densely populated inner urban zones. Participation in EU programmes for combating poverty and social exclusion in particularly problematic urban areas is encouraged. Strict control measures to combat air pollution.

c) Balanced development of settlements in rural areas.

Administrative and functional grouping together of small rural settlements, on the "open town" model, so that they may constitute sustainable units, with population thresholds capable of supporting the provision of basic social services.

d) Provision of technical urban infrastructure for healthy living conditions.

Water quality controls, water sufficiency measures for islands, works for securing sufficient water supply in large urban areas. Strict controls regarding enforcement of sanitary regulations for the disposal of urban and industrial wastes.

e) Provision of social infrastructure, basic services and facilities.

Completion of infrastructure for social health, social welfare and education services. Improvement of the welfare conditions for groups with special needs and for women.

f) Development of Transport and Communication Systems.

Major communication works are in progress aiming at the expansion of the closed national road network, by-pass of large cities, and improvement and expansion of ports and airports. Local traffic-management is being promoted. The Hellenic Telecommunications Organisation plans to expand and upgrade the services provided.

g) Prevention of disasters and preparedness to deal with the effects of natural disasters.

Completion and implementation of an updated regulatory framework for the protection of settlements from earthquakes, floods and fires. Re-examination of the programme to relocate landslide-prone settlements.

h) Rational use and conservation of energy.

Support of energy conservation programmes in urban subsystems and bioclimatic planning in buildings and city-planning works.

STATUS REPORT (cont'd)

i) Preservation and revival of historical and cultural heritage.

Protection, renewal and highlighting of traditional settlements, historic city centres or quarters, monuments and other spaces of a cultural nature.

j) Securing adequate supply of land and housing.

The three priority policies in the housing supply sector are: to increase the credit system's supply potential, the enlargement of the sector of modernisation and remodelling of older stock and a rationally planned manner of supply of properly equipped land for housing on urban fringes.

Adequate supply of land equipped with the appropriate urban technical infrastructure for proper functioning of the land market is being continued and promoted through the extension of city plans and their implementation through the Town-Planning Reorganisation Operation.

k) Strengthening financial sources for housing.

1. Increase of the role of loans for housing.

2. Endeavours to reduce the cost of construction and improvement of the technical quality of housing by promoting applied research on new building materials and technologies.

3. Modernisation of the General Building Regulations and other regulations with reference to construction of new buildings.

l) Support of social groups in acquiring shelter.

State welfare to support special population groups for acquiring shelter is expressed through programmes to subsidise interest rates on loans for acquisition of first houses, through certain tax exemptions as well as through special programmes of subsidies and/or direct public provision of shelter wherever required.

Policies and measures are promoting:

the reorganisation of the system of housing subsidies

dealing with the problem of social and economic integration and housing for refugees and economic immigrants

projects for community development and upgrading according to the model introduced by the EU pilot programmes to combat poverty

provision of housing for special disadvantaged categories of people.

The Action programmes and the special programmes included in the Operational Environmental Programme of Greece (for details see ch.8) relevant to this chapter are the following:

1. Action programme 4.2 aims at the definition of urban plans for cities which lack relevant plans, as well as for the improvement of existing urban plans in light of modifications in the urban structure and the operations in the city. Considerable emphasis is given to the development of urban plans for estates located in ecologically sensitive areas, coastal zones and islands. The overall budget for action programme 4.2 is 24.5 MECU.

STATUS REPORT (cont'd)

2. Action programme 4.3 aims at improving the urban conditions in selected Greek cities, traditional settlements and tourist sites, in order to improve the quality of life and living and working conditions. The overall budget of action programme 4.3 is 35 MECU; in addition this action programme is part of a wider national programme for the restoration of the urban environment in selected Greek cities (see Special Programmes).

Specific actions

Restoration of traditional city centers

Restoration of the landscape in areas of large technical works

Reduction of aestheric pollution, with emphasis given to tourist sites

3. Special Programmes

a) ATTICA - SOS

The programme - which has as a theme "Athens, a sustainable city" - aims at improving the environmental conditions in the Attica region where Athens resides. The programme includes interventions at the local and regional scales in the thematic areas: air, water, waste, traffic, noise, land planning, urban development, environmental awareness and legislation. To this end, a major intervention recently implemented (April 1996) was the full banning of traffic in the commercial center of Athens.

The programme also includes the improvement of the State operated public transportation system with such actions as the renewal of buses and the expansion of the subway system. Finally a substantial part of the programme is attributed to the construction of peripheral ("ring") avenues which will allow the avoidance of the central neighbourhoods of Athens.

The total cost of the programme ATTICA - SOS accounts for 3.5 billion ECUs (including the cost for the expansion of the subway system).

b) THESSALONIKI - SOS

A relevant programme to that for the Attica region is also designed and implemented for Thessaloniki, the second largest city of Greece. The Programme aims at protecting the natural and urban environment in Thessaloniki through interventions at the local scale in such thematic areas as: air, water, waste, traffic, noise, land planning, urban development, environmental awareness and legislation.

The programme is complemented by the construction of a major sewage treatment facility for Thessaloniki as well as a subway system. The overall cost of the programme accounts for 1 billion ECUs for the period 1995-2000.

c) Urban restoration programme in Greek cities and settlements (excluding Athens, Attica and Thessaloniki)

The programme complements specific action 4.3. It aims at improving the urban conditions in selected Greek cities, traditional settlements and tourist sites, by means of such interventions as: restoration of traditional buildings, improvement of common and open spaces, development of green areas, development of cultural centers and recreational facilities, and soft interventions for the improvement of living conditions. The overall budget of the programme accounts for 240 MECU, out of which 138 MECU reflect national funding.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The Ministry for the Environment, Physical Planning and Public Works is mainly responsible for the implementation of this chapter. Urban planning is mainly based on legislation from the early 1980s. The Law on Urban Development (1983) introduced "urban controlled zones" to direct urban development, safeguard sensitive areas and stop unplanned construction. The Regional Plans of Counties (1984) provide for land-use organisation, infrastructure planning and environmental protection. Master Plans were developed for metropolitan areas. Special Regional Studies have been carried out in areas with environmental problems to address gaps in the legislative framework. Provision is made for relevant reform of town-planning legislation - according to sustainable development principles - for the development of newly built up areas and the improvement of the institutional framework and procedures. Modernisation of the General Building Regulation. The regulatory framework on energy-efficient design of buildings is being updated. Bioclimatic-energy design of buildings and settlements is being promoted, as well as the use of renewable energy sources. Legislative instruments encourage technology and methods for energy and water conservation. Legislative and administrative measures have been adopted for the protection of people living in disaster-prone industrial areas.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: In cooperation with the UN Committee of Human Settlements a Colloquium on Urban Management was held in 1995. In the same year a seminar was held on Sustainable Development of Human Settlements.

Open dialogue between agencies and the public and information dissemination through professional journals, the press and informative leaflets for the preparation of the National Report submitted to Habitat II. Nationwide competition "for models of policy and programme implementation for improving the quality of the local urban environment and housing through specific projects" as a method of publicising the activity of the National Committee and prepare the country's participation in the Habitat II Conference.

Training of local government officials and mobilisation of the interest of the local population in promoting the National Action Plan.

3. Major Groups: Involvement of local groups and organisations in supporting the sector of social and cultural services and welfare on the level of the local community. Encouragement of local government's initiatives for the improvement of social infrastructure and transport systems. Support for relevant local initiatives by non-governmental bodies for the implementation of the National Action Plan. Special programmes for loans to employees of the State, local government and public organisations. Special programmes of the Workers' Housing Organisation for the provision of subsidised housing for low and middle-income workers. Special housing programmes for housing of immigrants of Greek origin from the former Soviet Union. Special assistance will be given for housing of families with more than three children.

4. Finance: The priorities for housing policy is to reform the system of subsidies and to support innovative efforts to reduce the cost of new housing. Reform of the system of financing (public investment, subsidies, local taxes) for carrying out infrastructure works and securing public spaces in newly built-up areas. Financial incentives to promote new technologies and systems of application of soft forms of energy.

Cross-Sectoral Issues (cont'd)

5. Regional/International Cooperation:

Participation in structures and programmes of the EU, in OECD working groups and in committees and working groups of the UN, i.e. the Centre for Human Settlements and the Committee for Housing, Building and Planning of the Economic Commission for Europe.

Participation in the Habitat II Conference (June 1996). Set up by the Ministry for the Environment, a Greek National Committee prepared the National Report submitted to the Conference.

Participation in the European Ministerial Conference "Sustainable Building - Sustainable Cities" (Copenhagen)

Participation in the European Architectural Competition Programme (EUROPAN) which has as a theme the current problems of urban areas and the promotion of sustainable solutions

Participation in the proceedings of the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives (ICLEI) and the two European Conferences for Sustainable Cities and Towns. Greece has signed the "Aalborg Charter" for the implementation of Local Agenda 21

The Organisation for Planning and Environmental Protection of Athens is an associate member of "Metropolis", the "World Association of the Major Metropolises".

The same organisation is a member of the "European Metropolitan Regions Network -METREX's Interim Management Committee"

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1981 1991
Urban population in % of total population 58.1 58.8
Annual rate of growth of urban population (%) 1.019 1.006
Largest city population (in % of total population) 31.2 30.0
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 8: INTEGRATING ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT IN DECISION-MAKING

(See pages vii and viii at the beginning of the profile)

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: Greece is in the process of setting up a National Coordination Mechanism for Sustainable Development. To date, the Ministry for the Environment, Physical Planning and Public Works is in charge of sustainable development coordination.

Principles of Sustainable Development have been established by the case law of the 5th Section of the Supreme Administrative Court (Council of State), having jurisdiction on environmental matters, among them the principles of sustainability, of carrying capacity of man-made systems and ecosystems, of sustainable land development, of management of fragile ecosystems, biodiversity and others.

In 1986, Law 1650 for the Environment was passed, establishing a framework of sanctions and liabilities for the protection of the environment. In 1990, a joint ministerial resolution introduced environmental impact assessments for certain production facilities and activities.

Since 1994, the Ministry for the Environment, Physical Planning and Public Works has elaborated an integrated National Action Programme for Climate Change. The Action Programme is based on a drastic energy conservation policy in all sectors of final consumption (industry, transport, commercial and domestic sector), the use of natural gas and the promotion of renewable energy sources.

The Environmental Programme of Greece for the period 1994-2000 aims at addressing the major environmental problems of Greece as well as at creating the infrastructures for the efficient management of the Greek environment in the 21st century. In addition, the Programme reflects the commitment as well as the efforts of the Greek Government to link development to environment, in a manner which will support the uninterrupted implementation of the development policy of Greece, while at the same time safeguarding the environment and the physical resources.

The Operational Environmental Programme of Greece (hereinafter referred to as OEP) is supported by both national and community funding. National funding stems from the country's budget and is also complemented by a special levy which is applied on gas. Income from the levy is invested in projects with potential to rectify the environment, or to allow the study of environmental problems for which no immediate answers can be provided. Community funding comes from the Structural Funds as well as from the Cohesion Funds.

The legal framework of the Operational Programme of Greece are the National Law 1650/86 for the protection of the environment, the EC environmental regulations and directives and the obligations of Greece with respect to international environmental agreements and conventions. The programme is based upon the sustainability principle, the polluter pays principle and the precautionary principle and the principle of joint responsibility.

OEP consists of seven subprogrammes: six of the subprogrammes reflect respective environmental action areas, while the remaining programme aims at the provision of technical assistance in selected thematic areas. Each subprogramme is further divided in action programmes which aim at resolving specific environmental problems as depicted from a thorough assessment of the state of environment in Greece. Part of OEP aims at developing the National Environmental Informatics Network, the Greek contribution to the EIONET of the European Environment Agency (EEA).

The first six subprogrammes are:

Development of the infrastructure to respond to the needs of the European Environment Agency, to monitor the environment and to comply with environmental standards. Funding 47 MECU.

Management of anthropogenic environment and control of atmospheric pollution in Athens. Funding 138.2 MECU

Management and protection of the natural environment. Funding 53 MECU

Urban planning. Funding 74 MECU

National Cadastral Programme. Funding 172 MECU

Integrated Environmental Actions. Funding 7.3 MECU

STATUS REPORT (cont'd)

The remaining programme includes:

The Environmental Programme of Greece includes specific - thematically or geographically oriented - programmes, aiming at resolving major environmental problems. These programmes are funded by both community and national funding, the latter stemming from the special environmental levy applied to gas. The Special Programmes consist of:

a) ATTICA-SOS (see chapter 7)

b) THESSALONIKI-SOS (see chapter 7)

c) National Programme for Waste Management (excluding the Attica region and Thessaloniki; see chapter 21)

d) Noise abatement programme in major Greek cities (see chapter 6)

e) Urban restoration programme in Greek cities and settlements (excluding Athens, Attica, Thessaloniki; see chapter 7)

f) HYDROSCOPE (see chapter 18)

The Operational Environmental Programme of Greece (Action programme 1.3) aims at promoting the implementation of the environmental standards as these relate to the construction and operation of private and public works. Taken that Greece lacks a wide and comprehensive inspectorate system, the main aim of the action programme is to firstly define the legal framework and the technical terms of reference of such system and to thereafter provide for the required infrastructure. It should be mentioned that the inspectorate system is expected to operate under the auspices of the Central Government. Finally the overall budget for action programme 1.3 is 10 MECU.

Specific actions

Development of an Environmental Inspectorate System

Special Programme for the Implementation of the Community Directive Integrated Pollution Prevention Control (IPPC)

Definition of the requirements for environmental impact assessments for selected industrial fields

Programme for the promotion of EMAS (Environmental Management System)

Development of a programme for the estimation of economic impacts resulting from environmental degradation - development of economic tools (not initiated)

Programme for environmental education and awareness (not initiated)

(also see ANNEX I)

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure (please also refer to the fact sheet): The Ministry for the Environment, Physical Planning and Public Works is in the process of setting up a National Coordination Mechanism for Sustainable Development.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information available.

3. Major Groups: Reforms in the local government and new mechanisms for participation and social awareness in the process of planning have played an important role in activating major groups and the public.

4. Finance: See STATUS REPORT.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: Greek policy is seeking to fully exploit the opportunities for cooperation created by the policies and instruments of the EU. Greece also tries to promote collaboration and exchange of experiences among the countries of the European South and examine the potential needs and prospects of collaboration with the neighbouring countries.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 9: PROTECTION OF THE ATMOSPHERE

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

The Montreal Protocol was ratified in 1988, the London Amendment in 1992 and the Copenhagen Amendment in 1994. The latest report to the Montreal Protocol Secretariat was prepared in 1996.

The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change was ratified in 1994, the latest report to the UNFCCC Secretariat was submitted in 1995.

Additional comments relevant to this chapter

Action programme 1.2 of the Operational Environmental Programme of Greece (see also chapter 8) aims at the development of the infrastructure for the continuous monitoring of the atmospheric environment (including air emissions) of Greece, with emphasis given to large urban centers and to areas with significant energy production units. The overall budget for action programme 1.2 is 19 MECU.

Specific actions

National monitoring network of the atmospheric environment

Inspectorate for air pollution

Operational Centre for the monitoring of atmospheric pollution and the implementation of rectification measures in the

wider Athens area

Development of a station for monitoring of meteorological parameters in the tropospheric region of Athens

Development of a mobile station for the teledetection of air pollutants with the use of lidars

On-line connection of the Operational Center and the National Network to the National Meteorological Center

Development of an inventory system for VOC and other non-conventional pollutants in Athens

Development of a countrywide inventory for industrial emissions

Assessment of the impact of greenhouse gases to the Greek climatic conditions and development of a network for the

assessment of climatic variations

Installation of Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) stations and stations for sea level monitoring

Programme for the compliance of Greece to the requirements of the Montreal Protocol (and subsequent amendments)

Improvement of the calibration system of the automatic air pollution instruments

System for the monitoring of air pollution in museums

Monitoring network for urban noise

Assessment and mapping of noise pollution from traffic

Definition of noise zones for the wider Athens and Thessaloniki industrial areas

Action programme 2.3 of the Operational Environmental Programme of Greece aims at improving the air quality in the urban area of Athens. The programme consists of major interventions for the reduction of emissions from motor vehicles, domestic heating devices and industrial units. It is expected that with the completion of the programme air quality will be improved substantially, especially in the center of Athens. The overall budget for action programme 2.3 is 32.6 MECU.

STATUS REPORT (Cont'd)

Specific actions

Programme of interventions to improve traffic in urban centers

Development of a coordinated mass transit system

Measures for noise reduction in major roadways

Programme for the abatement of noise in tourist areas

Expansion of dedicated bus lanes in the urban center of Athens

Extended system for the inspection of emissions from motor vehicles

"Park and Drive" Programme

(also see ANNEX I)

2. In the Energy sector the national energy programme comprises four subprogrammes.

The Energy Saving Subprogramme is primarily oriented towards the industrial and tertiary sectors. Investments for co-generation and the use of the new-coming natural gas in the industrial and tertiary sectors are considered to be of special importance. Voluntary agreements, third party financing and demonstration projects of new energy efficient technologies are also under consideration.

The Public Power Corporation (PPC) is committed to pursue a variety of measures to ensure that all implemented projects meet environmentally acceptable standards. The PPC is applying specific policies for the environmental protection that include the following measures:

commission of natural gas generating units

development of the country's hydropotential

exploitation of renewable energy sources (wind, geothermal, solar)

energy conservation and the improvement of the efficiency of existing installations

new combustion technologies are examined during the design of new projects, such as fluidised bed and Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC)

The National Action Plan for Energy Conservation in the Built Environment intends to restrict the use of conservative energy systems and to increase energy efficiency.

3. The National Action Plan for the Abatement of CO2 and other Greenhouse Gas Emissions was elaborated under the responsibility and supervision of the Ministry for the Environment, Physical Planning and Public Works. The Action Plan is based on drastic energy conservation policy in all sectors of final consumption (industry, transport, domestic/tertiary) aimed at rationalizing energy consumption without affecting the population's standard of living and a bold investment policy in order to promote new energy generation means (natural gas, renewable energy sources) in an aim to substitute conventional fuels. In Greece, a "spontaneous" course of events (in the absence, in other words, of abatement measures) would lead to an increase in emissions in the order of 27% CO2 by the year 2000. As stated in the National Action Plans, the Greek Government, after taking into consideration both economic and social parameters, accepted that a realistic objective for Greece is the restriction of the overall increase of CO2 emissions to 153% during the 1990-2000 period.

4. All automobiles require, among others, a periodical gases check at the already established regional Centres of Vehicles' Technological Check (one in each Prefecture). Besides, Greece has already harmonized EU directives concerning the upmost permitted limits for CO and oxygen surplus emissions. In 11 prefectures of Greece, including the prefecture of Attika, there has been established the Gases Check Card System; according to this private use automobiles are obliged, once annually, to be checked and to be supplied with the appropriate card. Furthermore, mobile checking stations of the Ministry for the Environment and the Ministry of Transportation perform random emission checks on cars.

STATUS REPORT (Cont'd)

5. A research programme "Environmental Energy Map for the Housing Sector" is being elaborated by the Ministry for the Environment. Elaboration of a software model for an energy conservation data bank and monitoring of energy conservation measures.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The Ministry for the Environment, Physical Planning and Public Works is the primarily responsible authority. Law 2244/94 on autoproduction, co-generation and creation of Public Power Corporation's affiliate companies. For the implementation of the law: Ministerial Decision YBET/8295/95 which regulates the issues of the corresponding licences and Ministerial Decision 8907/96 (Ministry of Development) which regulates the issues of co-generation of electricity with heat or cooling.

Legislation on Environmental Impact Assessment study requirement in all related sectors. Legislative and administrative measures for response mechanisms for pollution resulting from industrial accidents.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information available.

3. Major Groups: The Scientific Community has undertaken studies on health effects resulting from air pollution and depletion of the ozone layer.

4. Finance: See ANNEX I.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: The Laboratory of Atmospheric Physics at the Physics Department of Aristotle University, Salonika, hosts the WMO World Ozone Mapping Centre (in 1995 it had 4 observation stations). Greece has acceded to regional/ international conventions regarding transboundary air pollution (EMEP, ECE Conventions).

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980 1990
1993
CO2 emissions (eq. million tons) 82.78 86.17
SOx "
NOx " 0.359 0.361
CH4 " 0.35 0.36
Consumption of ozone depleting substances (Tons)
Expenditure on air pollution abatement in US$ equivalents (million)
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 10: INTEGRATED APPROACH TO THE PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT OF LAND RESOURCES

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: Spatial planning is being promoted for the protection of resources from exhaustion, destruction and pollution, along with their rational use, by expanding current programmes for special planning studies and their institutionalisation. The objective is to define the regulatory framework for the protection of vital zones of park and forest land, coastal areas, important agricultural land, water reserves, etc., along with zones for development in environmentally sensitive areas facing pressures from tourism, urban expansion and second homes; priority is given to peri-urban and coastal areas, islands and areas with a strong cultural identity.

A substantial pillar of the Operational Environmental Programme of Greece, Action programme 4.1 "Land Use Planning", aims at supporting the sustainable development of Greece, defining activities by site or region, and reducing pressures onto the natural or human environment. The overall budget for action programme 4.1 is 14.5 MECU.

Specific actions:

Promotion of special land use planning schemes for:

coastal areas

small islands

settlements and urban areas

Definition of areas for controlled exploitation of natural resources

Development of an Observatory for Land Use Planning

(also see ANNEX I)

Action programme 3.3 of the Operational Environmental Programme of Greece reflects a new spirit in the environmental programme of Greece, as it is the first time that significant amounts are being invested for the protection of natural sites. The programme is expected to support protection measures for 100 (25%) Greek biotopes which are included in the NATURA 2000 list. The overall budget for action programme 3.3 is 30 MECU.

Specific actions:

Programme for the protection and management of wetlands

Programme for the protection and management of forest ecosystems

Programme for the protection of biotopes through the development of ecotouristic activities

Anti-erosion measures at selected sites

A significant measure in sustainable land resources management is the creation of the National Cadastre, a project which has already begun.

Cadastre for ecologically sensitive areas

Action programme 5.1 of the Operational Environmental Programme of Greece aims at developing a special cadastre for ecologically sensitive areas which protect forest areas from destruction, as well as from land use modifications which usually take place at the expense of forests. The programme will also support the agricultural policy of Greece, and the protection of owners' rights for both public and private entities. The programme, which will built on the existing CORINE programme and will also include the cadastre for archaeological monuments and sites, reflects 15,000 km2 of ecologically sensitive areas in the vicinities of municipalities. The overall budget for action programme 5.1 is 51 MECU.

STATUS REPORT (cont'd)

Cadastre for urban areas

Action programme 5.2 of the Operational Environmental Programme of Greece has a central role in the development policy of Greece. It is expected that the programme will support upon its completion the land use planning efforts of the Ministry of Environment for urban sites, with special emphasis given to the protection of open and green spaces in urban sites. The programme, which also includes the National System for Earth Information, that is a major data base with the geographic or property limits of landfills, refers to 200 municipalities with a total urban area of 5,000 km2. The overall budget for action programme 5.2 is 70 MECU.

Cadastre for agricultural areas

Action programme 5.3 of the Operational Environmental Programme of Greece aims at supporting the agricultural policy of Greece as well as the protection of the environment from agricultural activities. It is expected that the Programme once completed will allow the Central Government to implement an integrated economic policy for agriculture. The total agricultural area to be registered is 15,000 km2 in the administrative limits of 300 municipalities. The overall budget for action programme 5.3 is 51.0 MECU. (See also Annex I)

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: Within the Ministry for the Environment, Physical Planning and Public Works, the Directorate of Regional Planning and the Directorate of Environmental Planning are responsible for the planning and management of land resources. The administrative machinery for controlling the spatial location of activities which produce pollution and disruption, is strengthened and expanded through environmental impact assessments. In addition, the regulatory framework regarding determination of the ability of the environment to withstand the burden of specific human activities is strengthened.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: Data collection and the organization of information systems has been initiated. Education and training in the integrated approach and strengthening of institutions and technological capacity have been initiated. Pilot projects are planned. Under the EU ENVIREG program, study groups have been established and GIS-mapping was introduced. Under the EU LIFE-program, environmentally friendly technologies and materials are being introduced.

3. Major Groups: Reforms in the local government and new mechanisms for the participation and social awareness have activated major groups and the public.

4. Finance: See Annex I.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: Cooperation is in progress with UN and EU bodies. Greece participates in the Mediterranean Blue Plan of UNEP and in the LIFE and ENVIREG programs of the EU. International cooperation could be improved through better coordination, better legislation, the promotion of information systems and public participation.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 11: COMBATING DEFORESTATION

NATIONAL PRIORITY: medium national priority
STATUS REPORT: A strategy plan for forestry was established in 1986 and a development programme in 1989. Greece favours the implementation of the forest principles adopted by UNCED as well as the provisions of Agenda 21. A forest inventory terminated in 1992 covers forest distribution and characteristics, volume and quality of the growing stock and the increment and natural mortality of the forest.

Forest fires are the most serious cause of deforestation destroying on average 300km2 of forest annually even though intensive efforts managed to reduce substantially their effects. Encroaching urbanisation is a rather moderate cause of deforestation while the effects from logging and the need for fuel-wood have had a light impact. Land ownership patterns, grazing rights on public lands and land speculation are the main obstacles to effective reforestation.

Various activities in the fields of seed technology, tree breeding, torrent control, erosion restrain and desertification impel are helping to fight against deforestation while others like national part improvement, grazing population and eco-tourism are demonstrating the social values of the forest.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The General Secretariat of Forests and Natural Environment, an integral part of the Ministry of Agriculture, is responsible for all forestry issues. Research in the field is undertaken by the National Agricultural Research Foundation through its two forestry related institutes in Athens and Thessaloniki. A new law bill destined to update the existing legislation was recently announced.

The Central Forest Service is responsible for planning, coordination and assurance of appropriate financial resources. The regional services are in charge for forest management, protection, improvement, engineering works and production.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: The General Secretariat of Forests and Natural Environment had 484 staff members in 1980, 770 staff members in 1990 and 816 staff members in 1994. Professional staff of the Forest Research Institute of Athens increased from 14 in 1980 to 21 in 1990 and 26 in 1994. Professional staff of the Forest Research Institute of Thessaloniki increased from 13 in 1980 to 23 in 1990. Since 1990 the staff number has remained unchanged.

3. Major Groups: Major groups are ad hoc participants in decision-making on forestry matters at all level. The concept of sustainable forestry is well followed in forest management since the beginning of scientific development of forestry.

4. Finance: Forest expenditures were 0.68% of the national budget in 1988, 0.47% in 1990 and 0.34% in 1992. At the same time, budgets of forest institutions increased during the last years. The budget of the General Secretariat of Forests and Natural Environment was US$ 166 million in 1990 and increased to US$ 182 million in 1994. The budget of the Forest Research Institutes of Athens increased from US$ 630,855 in 1990 to US$ 1,733,333 in 1994. The budget of the Forest Research Institutes of Thessaloniki decreased in the same period from US$ 1,222,654 to US$ 986,612.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: Greece participated in the Ministerial Conferences of Strasbourg (1990) and Helsinki (1993) on protection and sustainable development of forests in Europe, supports the ITTA and takes active part in the IRF.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS*
1980 1990 1992
Forest Area (Km2) 65,130
Protected forest area (Km2) 1,180
Roundwood production (solid volume of roundwood without bark in mill m3)
Deforestation/Afforestation rate (Km2/annum)
Reforestation rate (Km2/annum) 47.3 46.6 46.5
Number of people earning their living from forestry sector 47,365 33,151
National income from forestry sector (US$eq.) 56,252,798 35,352,973
Number of professionals involved in research 44 84 118
National income from forestry sector in % of GNP 0.15% 0.07%
Income from export of forest products in US$ eq. (all from timber to processed) 84,951,442 94,852,190 130,615,919
Import of forest products in US$ eq. (all from timber to processed) 388,710,649 819,420,654 745,519,986
* Statistical information on forest matters is derived from the National Report of Greece to the CSD 1995. Due to different definitions, the national information in some cases does not correspond with international figures. The UN Statistical Yearbook (38th issue) gives a total forest area of 26,200 km2; the national report mentions a forest area of more than 65,000 km2. The national definition of "forest" includes an area of at least 0.5 ha or a strip of land 30 m wide with at least 10% tree coverage and maquis type vegetation. As Greece carried out a forest inventory in 1992, the national information is presented here.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 12: MANAGING FRAGILE ECOSYSTEMS: COMBATING DESERTIFICATION AND DROUGHT

NATIONAL PRIORITY: Medium
STATUS REPORT:

The International Convention to Combat Desertification in Countries Experiencing Drought and/or Desertification

Particularly in Africa was signed in 1994.

Additional comments relevant to this chapter

Areas in danger of desertification can be found in the southern and central mainland, on the Aegean Islands and in Crete. An area of about 15,000 km2 is affected. In 1990, about 810,000 people lived in these areas. The main source of income is agriculture and tourism.

Natural causes and forest fires have the most serious impact on desertification. The impact of grazing and improper farming and land use is considered moderate. Fuel wood collection has only a modest impact on desertification. The main obstacles to combating desertification and drought are land ownership, grazing rights on public land and land speculation.

Since UNCED the issues "early warning information to decision makers" and "drought preparedness and relief schemes" have been addressed in part.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The General Secretariat of Forests and Natural Environment is in charge of desertification issues. The following legislation is related to desertification and drought:

- Law 998/79 "On the protection of forests",

- Law 1734/87 "Grazing lands...",

- Law 1845/89 "On the organization of the Agricultural Research".

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: Professional staff of the General Secretariat of Forests and Natural Environment increased from 484 members in 1980 to 770 members in 1990 and to 816 members in 1995. The central planning level is properly staffed; at the district level, the staffing situation is adequate; and at the field level it is rated poor. There is a lack of early-warning, trained extension and research staff. Lack of management skills is also mentioned.

Meteorological and hydrological monitoring of areas in danger of desertification is rated "poor". The assessment of soil and land degradation is rated "adequate".

3. Major Groups: Major groups (NGOs, women groups and youth organizations) are adhoc participants at all planning levels.

4. Finance: The budget of the General Secretariat of Forests and Natural Environment increased from US$ 106 million in 1980 to US$ 167 million in 1990 and to US$ 183 million in 1995.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information available.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 199_
Land affected by desertification (Km2) 15,233
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 13: MANAGING FRAGILE ECOSYSTEMS: SUSTAINABLE MOUNTAIN DEVELOPMENT

NATIONAL PRIORITY: high national priority
STATUS REPORT: The program for mountain development focuses on improvements in the transport infrastructure and on the extension of water and electricity supply. In all mountain areas, measures have been taken for the conservation, regeneration and expansion of forests. Measures have also been taken to induce the local population, especially the young, to remain, by promoting alternative livelihood opportunities through:

- the promotion and development of eco-tourism, especially of mountain tourism and agro-tourism,

- the promotion of the use of local resources, e.g. mineral resources.

Traditional local employment schemes are being strengthened and rural production is being improved through the development of the agricultural water supply network and the promotion of ecological products (without chemicals and pesticides). Eco-labels are provided for these products.

Attica's Mountain Region Protection and Management

The mountain regions of Attica constitute one of the area's most important environmental resources. Their significance is owed not only to their ecosystemic, aesthetic and recreational value but most importantly to the indispensable role they play in the area's climatic conditions, air pollution abatement, storm flooding alleviation, etc. The Organisation for Planning and Environmental Protection of Athens has undertaken the development of a comprehensive programme which:

creates various-degree protection zones and delineates the physical boundaries of each zone,

establishes land use allocations and building restrictions in accordance to the desired degree of protection for each zone,

provides the framework for restoration and management of the mountain region.

Each mountain region is examined separately in accordance to its physical, historical and man-made characteristics and the specific protection and management proposals are legislated by means of Presidential Decrees. Legislation for the mountains of Penteli and Hymettus has already been enacted while pending are Presidential Decrees for the mountains of Aigaleo and Lavreotiki. The mountain Parnitha and mountain regions in western Attica are currently under study.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The Ministry of National Economy has included in its policy the sustainable management of mountain areas. Law 1892/90, which was amended by Law 2234/94, aims to encourage the economy and development of mountain areas. The law covers and supports the productive process. The Ministry for the Environment and the Ministry of Agriculture are also involved in the sustainable management of mountain areas.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: International conference on the protection of mountain areas of Greece entitled "From Pindos to Olympus" carried out by the Ministry for the Environment and "Mountain Wilderness" (Greek Branch).

3. Major Groups: No information available.

4. Finance: No information available.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information available.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 14: PROMOTING SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT

NATIONAL PRIORITY: high national priority
STATUS REPORT: Greek agricultural policy today follows the spirit and the objectives of Agenda 21. In the framework of the Common Agricultural Policy of the EU and the policy for the protection of the environment, Greece applies a series of policies and regulations within the lines of Agenda 21 on sustainable agriculture and rural development. Most activities recommended under this chapter in Agenda 21 have been completed.

Sustainable agriculture' principles are implemented through the following actions:

a) "quantitative conservation": conservation and protection of high productivity agricultural land

b) "quality conservation and protection": prevention of the quality degradation of agricultural land (erosion, pollution from

heavy metals etc.)

c) protection of the quality of surface and underground waters through:

abatement of nitropollution, emanating from fertilizers and cattle-breeding wastes

reduction of the use of nitrofertilizers

usage of biological means in fighting production's diseases

setting and improvement of monitoring stations which measure the quantity of surface and underground waters

d) assessment of the definition and implementation of agro-environmental indicators (quantitative and qualitative impact on the

environment)

e) inventory and assessment of the agricultural sources of greenhouse gases

f) assessment of the impact of atmospheric pollution and greenhouse effect on cultivations, and research on pollution resistant

cultivations

g) economic incentives to farmers for the conservation of endangered species of flora and fauna

h) protection and conservation of ecologically sensitive areas (NATURA 2000, RAMSAR)

i) environmental impact studies for all rural works

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The Ministry of Agriculture is responsible for sustainable agriculture. Law 402/1988 was on the "Organization of the Ministry of Agriculture". Several legislative regulations have been published on specific issues of agriculture, cattle-raising, fishery and forestry. Legislation is being amended and reviewed in accordance with EU regulations.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: Raising awareness and training programmes for producers on environment friendly farming methods.

3. Major Groups: No information available.

4. Finance: No information available.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: The agricultural sector is being developed in the context of the framework given by the European Union. The EU participated in reviewing national strategies and provided additional post Rio funding.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1985 1990 Latest 199_
Agricultural land (Km2) 91,950 91,890
Agricultural land as % of total land area 69.7 69.6
Agricultural land (m2 per capita) 9,256 9,107
Agricultural populationa 1,108,000b 889,000
Agriculture sector output (% of GNP)a 14.5b 13.0
1989/90 1992/93 Latest 199_
Consumption of fertilizers per (kg/Km2 of agricultural land as of 1990) 7,483 5,556
a National Report of Greece to the CSD 1995

b 1980

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 15: CONSERVATION OF BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

The Convention on Biological Diversity was signed in 1992 and ratified in 1994.

The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora was ratified in 1992.

Additional comments relevant to this chapter

In Greece 5,500 species of flora and 900 species of fauna have been recognised. Action programme 3.1 of the Operational Environmental Programme aims at providing the knowledge and the facilities for monitoring, protecting and managing the flora and fauna species. The overall budget of action programme 3.1 is 3 MECU.

Specific actions:

Completion of national lists of flora and fauna species in danger

Development of specific programmes for the protection of endangered flora and fauna species

Definition of special management measures for selected fauna species, including the definition of a hunting code

Inventory of fish stocks in ecologically sensitive areas

Management schemes for fish stocks

(also see ANNEX I)

108 areas are under protection for nature conservation. Among these areas, 25 are given priority concerning management. They comprise forests, wetlands, coasts and biotopes of sea turtles, mediterranean monkseals and vulnerable birds. An additional number of 167 sites have been proposed by the Ministry for the Environment and are being examined for inclusion in the "NATURA 2000" network of the European Union. It is estimated that 80% of the country's habitat types and most of the endemic species will be present within the boundaries of the sites of the new protected areas network. The new sites are raising the percentage of protected areas to 15% of the country's surface, excluding the marine surface. Action programme 3.2 of the Operational Environmental Programme of Greece aims at providing the facilities and technical means for the protection, guarding and management of the most important biotopes in Greece. The programme will build upon the existing knowledge on these areas as acquired from the assessment of the state of environment as well as from their mapping. The overall budget for action programme 3.2 is 20 MECU.

National Greek inventories include: The Red Data Book of Threatened Vertebrates of Greece (1992), Inventory of Greek Wetlands as Natural Resources (1994), the Red Data Book of Rare and Threatened Plants of Greece (1995) and the National Preliminary Biodiversity Assessment (to be published in 1997).

The Greek Biotope Wetland Centre carried out the following activities under the EU "LIFE" programme:

Inventory, evaluation and mapping of Greek biotopes and flora and fauna species. Inventory of 296 sites for inclusion in NATURA 2000 network,

Management plans for ten sites which are candidates for inclusion in the "NATURA 2000" network,

Pilot programme for the monitoring of such sites,

Information campaigns in 4 sites.

Greece is represented in the "European Topic Centre on Nature Conservation" by the Greek Biotope Wetland Centre, which has been designated National Focal Point of Nature Conservation for Greece and Southeast Mediterranean. The Greek Biotope Wetland Centre carried out the following:

Compilation of the Greek legislation on the conservation of natural environment

Preliminary evaluation of the Greek ecosystems

Pilot projects in the Mediterranean area (Southeast and Greece)

STATUS REPORT (cont'd):

Environmental Impact Assessment for many types of projects is legally binding since 1990 whereas the National Strategy and Action Plan for Biodiversity Conservation are under preparation.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: Implementation of EU Directives (92/43/EC).

The Ministry for the Environment, Physical Planning and Public Works, General Directorate for the Environment is the coordination body. The Ministry of Agriculture and other ministries are collaborating in the fields of their competence. Within the University of Athens, School of Biological Sciences, a supporting unit has been created for the elaboration of a draft national strategy for biodiversity.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: Awareness raising and information campaigns for local authorities and NGO's for Environmental European Policy Promotion (Biotope Wetland Centre - Ministry for the Environment). Dissemination of information through media. Information campaigns and organisation of environmental education meetings under the MedWet programme (Lake Kerkini).

The National Environmental Information Network, now running its pilot phase is based at the Ministry for the Environment and will be connecting all the Environmental Services of the country. Emphasis is given to the training of people for the management of protected areas.

3. Major Groups: Pilot project for local authorities' and NGOs' cooperation on the issue of sustainable management of natural resources (Greek Biotope Wetland Centre - Ministry for the Environment). Establishment of an information network. National and Regional Administration, Scientific Community, NGOs, Private Sector (Agriculture, Tourism, Energy).

4. Finance: Permanent funds mainly comprise more than 50% (US$100,000,000) of the total annual budget of the Forestry Service. However, there are financial provisions for the years 1995-1999 by the Ministry for the Environment at about US$6,400,000 (European Community Support Framework) and US$2,000,000 (Specific National Environment Fund).

5. Regional/International Cooperation: Participation in meetings and working groups of the European Topic Centre on Nature Conservation.

A high priority is given to issues of cooperation and capacity building at a Mediterranean scale, through the Mediterranean Action Plan. Moreover agreements on the use of shared rivers such as Nestos River, between Greece and Bulgaria are expected to have a positive impact on biodiversity conservation.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1992
1996
Protected area as % of total land area 0.6 appr. 2.0
1990
1996
Number of threatened species 552 518
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 16: ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT OF BIOTECHNOLOGY

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: In accordance with Community legislation, national regulations exist concerning the placing on the market of genetically modified organisms, research and development as well as the use of genetically modified microorganisms.

Specific subjects such as placing on the market of plant protection biotechnology products are also implemented via the European Union Legislation. Regulations on novel foods involving biotechnological products are in preparation.

Placing on the market of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) is exclusive responsibility of the E.C. Research and development as well as the use of genetically modified micro-organisms are regulated by EC Directives but their implementation in Greece lies under the responsibility of the Greek State.

Environmental impact assessment of such products is currently being undertaken by the Ministry of Environment in cooperation with the University of Crete and the University of Thessaloniki. The Ministry of Development, General Secretariat for Energy and Technology is providing funds to relevant research institutions.

The Ministry for the Environment, Physical Planning and Public Works, General Directorate for Environment is the competent authority for the implementation of the EC Directives and is also the coordinating body of a National Committee working on the subject.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: Ministry for the Environment, Physical Planning and Public Works, General Directorate for Environment is the competent authority and the coordinating body for the implementation of the relevant EC Directives. This authority is supported by a group of experts and civil servants representing other ministries which are members of a National Committee.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: Training of concerned authorities on implementing the relevant regulation on biotechnology is foreseen for 1997. An effort is also being made to create a data base including all biotechnology notifications.

3. Major Groups: National and Regional Administration, Scientific Community, NGOs, Private Sector.

4. Finance: State annual allowances for biotechnology:

1993: 15,928,000 USD From General Secretariat for Research to Agricultural Research Institute

1994: 17,044,000 USD for research purposes

1995: 19,076,000 USD

1997: 2,020,000 USD From General Directorate for Environment for various activities

1998: 1,120,000 USD

1999: 1,120,000 USD

5. Regional/International Cooperation: Placing on the market of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) is exclusive responsibility of the European Union. Research and development as well as the use of genetically modified micro-organisms are regulated by EC Directives but their implementation in Greece lies under the responsibility of the Greek State.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 17: PROTECTION OF THE OCEANS, ALL KINDS OF SEAS, INCLUDING ENCLOSED AND SEMI-ENCLOSED SEAS, AND COASTAL AREAS AND THE PROTECTION, RATIONAL USE AND DEVELOPMENT OF THEIR LIVING RESOURCES

NATIONAL PRIORITY: High Priority
STATUS REPORT:

The UN Convention on the Law of the Sea was signed in 1982 and ratified in 1995.

International Conventions ratified by Greece:

Convention MARPOL 73/78

Convention CLC 1969 "Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage" and its Protocols of 1976 and 1992

Convention FUND 1971 and the Protocols of 1976 and 1992

Convention London 1971

Convention of Barcelona 1976 and Protocols of 1980 and 1982

Convention for "Oil Preparedness for response to and cooperation", 1990

Greece has a coastline of more than 15,000 km and about 3,000 islands. The Ministry for the Environment, Physical Planning and Public Works is coordinating and financing two major programmes for the monitoring of marine environmental quality (MEDPOL, bathing water quality).

Action programme 2.2 of the Operational Environmental Programme of Greece aims at developing the needed infrastructure capacities for the treatment of oil spills in ports and marine areas. The programme is considered essential for the protection of the extended seas of Greece as well as of the 16,000 km of coastal zones. The overall budget for action programme 2.2 is 10.1 MECU.

Specific actions

Infrastructure and equipment (aerial, land and marine) for the control of marine pollution from oil spills

Development of installations for the reception of oil and chemical residues from ships

(also see ANNEX I)

The programme Attica's Coastline Protection and Management Programme currently under study by the Organisation for Planning and Environmental Protection of Athens aims at the preservation and intensification of the coastal ecosystem within the framework of sustainability and the establishment of a Coastline Management Organisation.

In the framework of ENVIREG (EU), waste water processing thresholds are being established in a large number of coastal towns. Environmental Impact Assessment studies apply to marine and coastal activities. The Ministry of Merchant Marine controls waste dumping in the ship from ships and aircrafts. Inspection of ships is taking place and phenomena of sea-colour change or incidents of fish deaths are examined.

Fishing activities is compatible with integrated environmental management. The Ministry of Aegean prepared the Integrated Operational Plan for the development of the Aegean aiming at the sustainable development of the islands of the Aegean.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The framework of the overall national legislation is Law 743/77 "protection of the marine environment etc." modified with laws 1147/81 and 2252/94. The law provides certain preventive and pollution combating measures and describes the obligations for both ships and onshore installations. According to its provisions, sanctions are imposed to the violators of the Law (penal sanctions, administrative fines, disciplinary penalties). The polluter pays principle is applied for the restoration of damages caused by pollution. The Ministry for the Environment has primary responsibility for integrated planning and management of coastal areas. Fishing legislation is based on Law 420/70. EC Regulations complement the national legal network.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: The Ministry of Merchant Marine organises on a continuous basis educational seminars for the Port Authorities personnel, universities, local authorities, army authorities and the public.

International meeting of experts in Santorini island to design a policy for sustainable development of coastal areas in the Mediterranean (Ministry for the Environment, University of Aegean, MAP/UNEP).

3. Major Groups: Universities and other institutions undertake research projects. The National Centre of Marine Research, in cooperation with the Institute of Marine Biology of Crete are participating in the Topic Centre of the European Environment Agency for the marine and coastal environment.

4. Finance: see Annex I

5. Regional/International Cooperation: In the framework of international instruments to which Greece is party i.e. MARPOL 73/78, London Convention 1972, Basel Convention, Barcelona Convention 1976, OPRC Convention, Paris Memorandum of Understanding on Port State Control (MOU). International cooperative scientific programmes UNEP/MAP, MEDPOL, POEM, MEDRAP, FAO, OECD, EIFAC, CINCS (EU), METROMED (EU), PELAGOS (EU), MARE (EU), ELNA (EU). Cooperation agreement between the Greek Republic and the Italian Republic of 1979 "for the protection of Ionian sea marine environment and its coastal zones".

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
1995
Catches of marine species (metric tons) 89,484 130,549 139,000
Population in coastal areas
Population served by waste water treatment (% of country's

total population)

10
Discharges of oil into coastal waters (metric tons)
Releases of phosphate into coastal waters (metric tons)
Releases of nitrate into coastal waters (metric tons)
Other data

Chapter 17 (Oceans) Continued:

Check the boxes in the column below left: Check the boxes in the column below right:
For level of importance use: For level of implementation use:
*** = very important *** = fully covered
** = important ** = well covered- gaps being addressed
* = not important * = poorly covered
N = not relevant O = not covered; N = not relevant

TABLE I. THE FOLLOWING ACTIVITIES HAVE BEEN CONSIDERED BY THE APPROPRIATE COORDINATING MECHANISM FOR INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF COASTAL AND MARINE AREAS AND THEIR RESOURCES.

LEVEL OF
IMPORTANCE
ACTIVITY AS DESCRIBED IN AGENDA 21
LEVEL OF
IMPLEMENTATION
***
a. Preparation and implementation of land and water use and siting policies.
**
***
b. Implementation of integrated coastal and marine management and sustainable development plans and programmes at appropriate levels.
**
***
c. Preparation of coastal profiles identifying critical areas including eroded zones, physical processes, development patterns, user conflicts and specific priorities for management.
*
***
d. Prior environmental impact assessment, systematic observation and follow-up of major projects, including systematic incorporation of results in decision-making.
**
***
e. Contingency plans for human induced and natural disasters.
**
***
f. Improvement of coastal human settlements, especially in housing, drinking water and treatment and disposal of sewage, solid wastes and industrial effluents.
**
**
g. Periodic assessment of the impacts of external factors and phenomena to ensure that the objectives of integrated management and sustainable development of coastal areas and marine environment are met.
**
***
h. Conservation and restoration of altered critical habitats.
**
**
I. Integration of sectoral programmes on sustainable development for settlements, agriculture, tourism, fishing, ports and industries affecting the coastal areas.
*
***
J. Infrastructure adaptation and alternative employment.
**
***
K. Human resource development and training.
**
***
L. Public education, awareness and information programmes.
**
**
M. Promoting environmentally sound technology and sustainable practices.
*
***
N. Development and simultaneous implementation of environmental quality criteria.
***

TABLE II. TECHNOLOGY (MARINE ENVIRONMENT)

LEVEL OF
IMPORTANCE
ACTIVITY AS DESCRIBED IN AGENDA 21
LEVEL OF
IMPLEMENTATION
***
A. Apply preventive, precautionary and anticipatory approaches so as to avoid degradation of the marine environment, as well as to reduce the risk of long-term or irreversible adverse effects upon it.
**
***
B. Ensure prior assessment of activities that may have significant adverse impacts upon the marine environment.
***
***
C. Integrate protection of the marine environment into relevant general environmental, social and economic development policies.
**
***
D. Develop economic incentives, where appropriate, to apply clean technologies and other means consistent with the internalization of environmental costs, such as the polluter pays principle, so as to avoid degradation of the marine environment.
**
***
E. Improve the living standards of coastal populations, particularly in developing countries, so as to contribute to reducing the degradation of the coastal and marine environment.
N
***
F. Effective monitoring and surveillance within the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of fish harvesting and transportation of toxic and other hazardous materials.
***

TABLE III. SEWAGE RELATED ISSUES

LEVEL OF
IMPORTANCE
ACTIVITY AS DESCRIBED IN AGENDA 21
LEVEL OF
IMPLEMENTATION
***
A. Sewage related problems are considered when formulating or reviewing coastal development plans, including human development plans.
***
***
B. Sewage treatment facilities are built in accordance with national policies.
***
***
C. Coastal outfalls are located so as to maintain acceptable level of environmental quality and to avoid exposing shell fisheries, water intakes and bathing areas to pathogens.
***
***
D. The Government promotes primary treatment of municipal sewage discharged to rivers, estuaries and the sea, or other solutions appropriate to specific sites.
***
***
E. The Government supports the establishment and improvement of local, national, subregional and regional, as necessary, regulatory and monitoring programmes to control effluent discharge. Minimum sewage effluent guidelines and water quality criteria are in use.
***

TABLE IV. OTHER SOURCES OF MARINE POLLUTION, THE GOVERNMENT HAS:

LEVEL OF
IMPORTANCE
ACTIVITY AS DESCRIBED IN AGENDA 21
LEVEL OF
IMPLEMENTATION
**
A. Established or improved upon, as necessary, regulatory and monitoring programmes to control emissions, including recycling technologies.
**
***
B. Promoted risk and environmental impact assessments to help ensure an acceptable level of environmental quality.
***
***
C. Promoted assessment and cooperation at the regional level, where appropriate, with respect to the input of point source pollutants from the marine environment.
***
***
D. Taken steps to eliminate emissions or discharges of organohalogen compounds from the marine environment.
**
***
E. Taken steps to eliminate/reduce emissions or discharges or other synthetic organic compounds from the marine environment.
**
***
F. Promoted controls over anthropogenic inputs of nitrogen and phosphorous that enter coastal waters where such problems as eutrophication threaten the marine environment or its resources.
**
***
G. Taken steps to develop and implement environmentally sound land-use techniques and practices to reduce run-off to water courses and estuaries which would cause pollution or degradation of the marine environment.
**
N
H. Promoted the use of environmentally less harmful pesticides and fertilizers and alternative methods for pest control, and considered the prohibition of those found to be environmentally unsound.
**
I. Adopted new initiatives at national, subregional and regional levels for controlling the input of non-point source pollutants which require broad changes in sewage and waste management, agricultural practices, mining, construction and transportation.
**
**
J. Taken steps to control and prevent coastal erosion and siltation due to anthropogenic factors related to, inter alia, land-use and construction techniques and practices.
**

TABLE V. ADDRESSING CRITICAL UNCERTAINTIES FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT AND CLIMATE CHANGE. IN ORDER TO IMPLEMENT THIS PROGRAMME AREA THE GOVERNMENT IS CARRYING OUT THE FOLLOWING ACTIVITIES:

LEVEL OF
IMPORTANCE
ACTIVITY AS DESCRIBED IN AGENDA 21
LEVEL OF
IMPLEMENTATION
***
A. Coordinating national and regional observation programmes for coastal and near-shore phenomena related to climate change and for research parameters essential for marine and coastal management in all regions.
***
***
B. Providing improved forecasts of marine conditions for the safety of inhabitants of coastal areas and for the efficiency of marine operations.
**
**
C. Adopting special measures to cope with and adapt to potential climate change and sea-level rise.
0
**
D. Participating in coastal vulnerability assessment, modelling and response strategies particularly for priority areas, such as small islands and low-lying and critical coastal areas.
**
**
E. Identifying ongoing and planned programmes of systematic observation of the marine environment, with a view to integrating activities and establishing priorities to address critical uncertainties for oceans and all seas.
**
**
F. Research to determine the marine biological effects of increased levels of ultraviolet rays due to the depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer.
*
**
G. Carrying out analysis, assessments and systematic observation of the role of oceans as a carbon sink.
*

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 18: PROTECTION OF THE QUALITY AND SUPPLY OF FRESHWATER RESOURCES: APPLICATION OF INTEGRATED APPROACHES TO THE DEVELOPMENT, MANAGEMENT AND USE OF WATER RESOURCES

NATIONAL PRIORITY: High Priority
STATUS REPORT: Projects that might influence the quality of water are subject to environmental impact studies. Maximum levels for toxic substances have been defined to protect groundwater from pollution, e.g. through PCB and heavy metals. Standards are available for the disposal of industrial waste and waste water. Near Athens, water protection zones have been determined to protect the city's water supply. Water management also includes monitoring of water quality, institutional and organisational measures, cleaning measures and control of pollution sources.

It has been necessary to carry out studies on the disposal of liquid and solid waste from bird and cattle breeding and their effects on soils and groundwater, and on the effects on fish breeding on the water ecosystem.

The Operational Environmental Programme of Greece (Action programme 1.1) aims to monitor the quality of inland waters through the development of a national network for surface, underground and coastal waters. The programme is complemented by a special action for the monitoring of the pollution loads to the water environment. The overall budget for action programme 1.1 is 9 MECU.

Specific actions

Development of the National Monitoring Network for the quality of waters consisting of monitoring networks

for surface waters

for underground waters

for waters in transboundary rivers

for drinking water

for bathing waters

as well as of a central laboratory for the calibration and co-ordination of regional laboratories involved in the monitoring networks.

National monitoring system for urban and industrial wastes

Assessment of sensitive regions with respect to the treatment of liquid wastes

(see also ANNEX I)

Action programme 2.1 aims at developing the infrastructure for the management of the quality - in connection to the quantity - of waters at the national scale. The programme provides considerable weight to the treatment of liquid wastes at the national scale with the construction of waste treatment facilities in settlements larger than 15,000 inhabitants. The overall budget for action programme 2.1 is 40.5 MECU.

Specific actions

Master Plan for the management of the quality and quantity of inland waters

Programme for the management of water resources associated with drinking facilities

Development of national management scheme for urban and industrial liquid wastes

Development of Support Centers for the Operation of Waste Treatment Facilities

Development of pilot studies for the reuse of treated wastes

Construction of waste treatment facilities (3rd phase) in sensitive regions

Implementation of innovative and adjusted technologies for the treatment of urban liquid wastes in selected areas

Construction of facilities for the treatment of industrial wastes

Programme for the integration of clean technologies in industrial practices

Programme for the recycling of industrial waste

(see also ANNEX I)

STATUS REPORT (Cont'd)

Programme HYDROSCOPE

Programme HYDROSPOPE complements Action Programme 2.1. It aims at providing the needed environmental information for the development of the Master Plan for the inland waters in Greece, as well as for the specific - region oriented - management plans. The programme refers to a major environmental network and data base consisting of hydrological and meteorological information at the national scale. The overall budget of the programme accounts for 5 MECU for 3 years.

The Ministry of Public Health and Social Welfare carries out a two-year monitoring programme for embottled water.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The Ministry of Environment, the Ministry of Health and Welfare and the Ministry of Agriculture are primarily responsible for the management of water resources. Local bodies are responsible for the water supply of cities.

Law 1739/87 established the institutional framework for the management of water resources. Several resolutions have been enacted to supplement this law, in accordance with EU directives.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: Studies have been carried out on the water management of the Louros-Arachthos basin and the Hepirus and the lagoons of Kavala, Xanthi, Rodope, Arta and Preveza.

A national network of regional laboratories has been organised in order to get more reliable data on water quality. The network also aims to improve monitoring of the quality of transboundary rivers and other surface waters and of drinking water. Control stations have been established at the entry positions of transboundary rivers from other countries. An annual report on the quality of surface waters intended for drinking is being published and forwarded to the EU.

3. Major Groups: No information available.

4. Finance: see ANNEX I

5. Regional/International Cooperation: The national network for the monitoring of water quality is supported by the EU.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 199-
Fresh water availability (total domestic/external in million m3)
Annual withdrawal of freshwater as % of available water
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 19: ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT OF TOXIC CHEMICALS, INCLUDING PREVENTION OF ILLEGAL INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN TOXIC AND DANGEROUS PRODUCTS

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: Greece has promoted the application of all relevant EU legislation through a special program of collaboration with the EU. This included

- Directives 67/548 and 92/32 on classification, packaging and labelling of new chemical substances,

- Directive 93/67 on the assessment of the hazards of new chemical substances,

- Regulation 793/93 on the assessment of hazards of existing chemical substances,

- Directive 88/379 on classification and labelling of preparations,

- Directive 76/769 on restriction of the marketing and use of certain hazardous substances and preparations,

- Regulation 2455/92 on exports and imports of certain hazardous products, and

- Directives 87/18 and 88/320 on the application of Good Laboratory Practice.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: Legislation has been harmonised with EU legislation. Control is carried out in the framework of national and EU programmes.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: Seminars have been held to inform administrative executives and representatives from industry on the consequences of adjusting national legislation to EU legislation. Training was provided on issues of classification. A computerised National Register of Hazardous Substances and Preparations has been established.

3. Major Groups: No information available.

4. Finance: The program to apply EU legislation at the country level amounted up to 700,000 ECU.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: See under STATUS. Also the National Chemical Laboratory of the State is the focal point for the EU Committee on International Harmonisation of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 20: ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT OF HAZARDOUS WASTES, INCLUDING PREVENTION OF ILLEGAL INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN HAZARDOUS WASTES

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal was signed in 1989 and ratified in 1994.

Additional comments relevant to this chapter

National legislation provides for planning of the management of toxic and dangerous waste, procedures for the transport of dangerous waste, special permits for the disposal and storage of dangerous waste and measures for building facilities for toxic residues at ports. The EU Eco-Label Award Scheme has been implemented at the national level with a view to minimizing certain waste products.

Activities producing dangerous waste and facilities for disposal of dangerous waste require an environmental impact study and special permit. Controls are in place. Planning on the management of hospital waste has been completed. Regulations on the collection and disposal of batteries and accumulators are being established. Two facilities are under construction for the controlled storage of solid toxic waste and mud.

EU legislation has been adopted concerning the supervision and monitoring of transboundary movement of hazardous waste.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: Joint Ministerial Resolution 72751/3054/85 on toxic and dangerous waste, issued in compliance with EU Directive 78/319, provides measures for the prevention of said waste, recycling and reuse. Further directives in this area are being incorporated into national legislation.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information available.

3. Major Groups: No information available.

4. Finance: No information available.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information available.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 199-
Generation of hazardous waste (t)
Import of hazardous wastes (t)
Export of hazardous wastes (t)
Area of land contaminated by hazardous waste (km2)
Expenditure on hazardous waste treatment (US$)
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 21: ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT OF SOLID WASTES AND SEWAGE-RELATED ISSUES

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: Activities were initiated to promote waste prevention and recycling. Recycling programs are being implemented for paper, glass and aluminium. Awareness campaigns are being carried out. Responsibility for waste management has been delegated to local authorities. At the national level, technical specifications for the safe handling of waste are being determined. A system of permits was introduced for the collection and transport of solid waste. The EU eco-labelling scheme was introduced at the national level. Legislation has been issued aimed at reducing air pollution from waste incineration plants. Threshold values have been established for heavy metals in sewage sludge used in agriculture. Programs are being introduced for the reduction of weight and volume of packaging material. In accordance with EU Directive 91/156 the establishment of an integrated network of waste disposal is being planned.

Action programme 2.5 of the Operational Environmental Programme of Greece aims at resolving one of the major environmental problems of Greece, namely the management (collection, treatment, disposal) of solid and toxic wastes. The programme aims at promoting the needed actions for the implementation of the new directive for landfills, and gives considerable weight to the cleaning of coastal areas and swimming sites. The overall budget for action programme 2.5 is 41 MECU.

Specific actions

Development of an integrated national programme for waste management

Restoration of abandoned landfill sites

Construction of new landfills

Extended recycling programme

Construction of composting plant

Implementation of innovative techniques for the collection, treatment and disposal of waste

Study for the implementation of packaging directive

Coastal zone cleaning, with emphasis to tourist sites

(also see ANNEX I)

National Programme for Waste Management (excluding the Attica region and Thessaloniki)

The National Programme for Waste Management aims at improving the existing waste management system at national scale. The Programme is supported by both community (Structural Funds and Cohesion Funds) and national funding, with an overall budget of 115 MECU (see accompanying Table and Figure).

The Programme includes local and regional waste management programmes, construction of new landfills, construction of composting unit, construction of waste transfer stations, restoration of old landfills, recycling programmes, equipment, coastal zone cleaning programmes, construction of sites for the disposal/treatment of agricultural products, hazardous wastes and hospital wastes.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: National legislation has been harmonised through the last years with EU regulations on waste management.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information available.

3. Major Groups: Schools are involved in recycling programs. Encouragement is given to initiatives by local government organisations to collaborate in collection, disposal and recycling in specific autonomous geographic units (e.g. islands).

4. Finance: No information available.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: The EU supports Greece's efforts in the area of waste management.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 199-
Generation of industrial and municipal waste (t)
Waste disposed(Kg/capita)
Expenditure on waste collection and treatment (US$)
Waste recycling rates (%)
Municipal waste disposal (Kg/capita)
Waste reduction rates per unit of GDP (t/year)
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 22: SAFE AND ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: No information available.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information available.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information available.

3. Major Groups: No information available.

4. Finance: No information available.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information available.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS

AGENDA 21 CHAPTERS 23-32: MAJOR GROUPS

The role of major groups are also covered under the various chapters of Agenda 21. The following is a summary of main objectives outlined in Agenda 21. Please check the appropriate boxes and describe briefly any important steps or obstacles.

STATUS REPORT ON PARTICIPATION BY MAJOR GROUPS AT THE
NATIONAL AND LOCAL LEVELS
Ch. 24: GLOBAL ACTION FOR WOMEN TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND EQUITABLE DEVELOPMENT.

The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women was signed on 2 March 1982 and ratified on 7 June 1983.

24.a Increasing the proportion of women decision makers.

No information available.

24.b assessing, reviewing, revising and implementing curricula and other educational material with a view to promoting dissemination of gender-relevant knowledge.

Curricula and educational material

No information available.

24.c and 24.d formulating and implementing policies, guidelines, strategies and plans for achievement of equality in all aspects of society including issuing a strategy by year 2000 to eliminate obstacles to full participation of women in sustainable development. Policies/strategies etc.

No information available.

24.e establishing mechanisms by 1995 to assess implementation and impact of development and environment policies and programmes on women

No information available.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page):

The Government has developed women agricultural and tourist or artisanal cooperatives in order to create employment alternatives for women in isolated areas.

Aegean Women Cooperatives

Women in boundary areas face particular employment difficulties and limited possibilities. Work potential on the small Aegean islands is limited and there are few employment perspectives. Most women are part-time employed in agriculture or for assistance or jobs where it is possible. This is the main reason why such efforts as creating and operating women agricultural and tourist or artisanal cooperatives are worth to be promoted. They can offer alternative solutions for women's employment in isolated regions and they help to increase women's income. For some years, several women agricultural tourist cooperatives have been operating at the Aegean islands. Their activities focus on providing comfortable housing in rented rooms or apartments, family restaurants, local traditional cuisine, organising cultural events, manufacturing local food products etc.

STATUS REPORT ON PARTICIPATION BY MAJOR GROUPS AT THE
NATIONAL AND LOCAL LEVELS
Ch. 25: CHILDREN AND YOUTH IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT.

25.a establishing processes that promote dialogue between the youth and government at all levels and mechanisms that permit youth access to information and opportunity to present their views on implementing A21.

No information available.

Describe their role in the national process:

25.b reducing youth unemployment

No information available.

25.c ensuring that by year 2000 more than 50% of youth -- gender balanced -- have access to appropriate secondary education or vocational training.

No information available.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page):

No information available.

Ch. 26: RECOGNIZING AND STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF INDIGENOUS PEOPLE AND THEIR COMMUNITIES.

26.a establishing a process to empower indigenous people and their communities -- through policies and legal instruments:

No information available.

26.b strengthening arrangements for active participation in national policies

No information available.

26.c involving indigenous people in resource management strategies and programmes at the national and local level.

No information available.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page):

No information available.

STATUS REPORT ON PARTICIPATION BY MAJOR GROUPS AT THE
NATIONAL AND LOCAL LEVELS

Ch. 27: STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS: PARTNERS FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT.

27.a developing mechanisms that allow NGOs to play their partnership role responsibly and effectively.

27.b reviewing formal procedures and mechanisms to involve NGOs in decision making and implementation.

27.c promoting and allowing NGOs to participate in the conception, establishment and evaluation of official mechanisms to review Agenda 21 implementation.

No information available.

27.d establishing a mutually productive dialogue by 1995 at the national level between NGOs and governments.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page):

Support is provided by different ministries and different budget lines to various NGOs. The following data concerns assistance from the Ministry for the Environment, Physical Planning and Public Works, under its programme for the European Nature Conservation Year (1995).

Name and type of major group Total disbursement and type of disbursement

1. Greek non-governmental organisations US $ eq 187,500

2. Greek non-governmental organisations,

youth, local authorities, scientific and

technological communities US $ eq 646,000

STATUS REPORT ON PARTICIPATION BY MAJOR GROUPS AT THE
NATIONAL AND LOCAL LEVELS
Ch. 28: LOCAL AUTHORITIES' INITIATIVES IN SUPPORT OF AGENDA 21.

28.a encouraging local authorities to implement and monitor programmes that aim to ensure participation of women and youth in local decision making.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page):

The European Union and the Ministry for the Environment are supporting local authorities in implementing projects promoting the aims of Local Agenda 21.

Ch. 29: STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF WORKERS AND THEIR TRADE UNIONS.

29.a full participation of workers in implementation and evaluation of A21.

29.b (By year 2000, (a) promoting ratification of ILO conventions; (b) establishing bipartite and tripartite mechanism on safety, health and sustainable development; (c) increasing number of environmental collective agreements; (d) reducing occupational accidents and injuries; (e) increasing workers' education and training efforts.

No information available.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page):

No information available.

30: STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY.

30.a increasing the efficiency of resource use, including reuse, recycling, and reduction of waste per unit of economic output.

No information available.

30.b encouraging the concept of stewardship in management and use of natural resources by entrepreneurs.

No information available.

List any actions taken in this area:

No information available.

30.c increasing number of enterprises that subscribe to and implement sustainable development policies.

No information available.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page):

No information available.

STATUS REPORT ON PARTICIPATION BY MAJOR GROUPS AT THE
NATIONAL AND LOCAL LEVELS
Ch. 31: SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL COMMUNITY.

31.a improving exchange of knowledge and concerns between s&t community and the general public.

Scientific community has already established ways in which to address the general public and deal with

sustainable development.

No information available.

31.b developing, improving and promoting international acceptance of codes of practice and guidelines related to science and technology and its role in reconciling environment and development.

No information available.

Brief comments on this chapter not already described in chapter 35 (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page):

No information available.

Ch. 32: STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF FARMERS.

32.a promoting and encouraging sustainable farming practices and technologies.

No information available.

32.b developing a policy framework that provides incentives and motivation among farmers for sustainable and efficient farming practices.

No information available.

32.c enhancing participation of organizations of farmers in design and implementation of sustainable development policies.

No information available.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page):

No information available.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 33: FINANCIAL RESOURCES AND MECHANISMS

Financial resources and mechanisms are also covered under each sectoral chapter of Agenda 21 where relevant. This summary highlights broader national financial policies, domestic and external (including ODA)

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

CHANGES IN NATIONAL BUDGET TO ADDRESS SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT:

NEW ECONOMIC INSTRUMENTS: From the revenue of the special purchase tax on petrol and diesel (par. 1, art 18 of Law 2052/1992), an amount of five drachmas per litre is given to the Ministry for the Environment, Physical Planning and Public Works. This tax was imposed on January 1st 1992. Part of the revenue is used for projects and public works that contribute to the reduction of smog as well as land purchases for the aforementioned public works.

ELIMINATION OF ENVIRONMENTALLY UNFRIENDLY SUBSIDIES:

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
ODA funding provided (Total US$million)
1993
1994
1995
1996
Bilateral ODA 15.1 20.0 26.9 24.1
Multilateral ODA 75.4 102.0 125.4 144.2
Total ODA 90.5 122.0 152.3 168.3
ODA as % of GNP 0.10 0.12 0.13 0.14
Other Official Bilateral Flows
Loans 15.1
Official Export Credits 2.0
Total Official Bilateral Flows 17.1
Grand Total of Official Flows 90.5 139.2 173.6 183.2
Other data

ODA policy issues

Greece is a donor country.

From 1992 to 1995, Greece provided aid to developing countries amounting to US$ 30 to 33 million annually, primarily for ad hoc assistance after disasters and in situations of war, starvation and pest (see attached tables). A small amount only refers to development projects.

Greece also contributes annually to international organisations such as UNIDO, OECD, a.o.. Since 1994, Greece has been participating in the GEF.

Today, Greece, with the level of economic development it has achieved and the economic policy that has been applied in recent years, has become an industrialized country. As a result of these greatly changed circumstances, Greece has stopped receiving development assistance many years ago. Since then, Greece has found itself in a position to be able to grant official development assistance with the view of deepening relations of friendship and trust with development countries.

In 1996, Greece prepared a memorandum under the heading "The Aid Programme of Greece" which included:

a) the Aid Programme of Greece (1993-1996) for multilateral and bilateral Official Development Assistance (ODA)

b) the Medium Term Plan (1997-2001) of the Bilateral Development Cooperation.

Greece submitted this memorandum in order to become a member of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC) of the OECD.

The current level of multilateral ODA granted by Greece amounts to 0.1% of GNP while that of bilateral ODA is 0.02% of GNP (see Table A).

According to the Five Year Plan (1997-2001), bilateral ODA will amount to 0.1% of GNP at the end of the five years (i.e. total increase of 90,000,000 in five years for bilateral ODA).

This increase was approved by Cabinet, by its decision No.265, August 29, 1996, which also provides for a specific line in the ordinary state budget for the necessary funds, with the aim that the total multilateral and bilateral assistance amount to at least 0.2% of GNP in the year 2001.

Several International Fora are being attended by the Ministry of National Economy, including the Framework Convention on Climate Change and its related working groups as well as the Conferences of Globe on the subject of "Responding to climate change". The Directorate of Foreign Trade Policies is attending on matters related to "Trade and Environment" in the framework of the World Trade Organisation, while the Directorate of Social Policy is attending the Congress on Population.

For 1995 and 1996, Greece paid US$2,500,000 as the first two instalments to the GEF. The third instalment (US$1,250,000) has been approved.

MINISTRY OF NATIONAL ECONOMY: GREEK HUMANE ASSISTANCE TO THIRD COUNTRIES - 1994

KIND OF ASSISTANCE/AMOUNT IN DRH (1 IS $ = 238,670 DRH - fixing value of 6.2.95)

COUNTRIES SCHOLARSHIP TECHNOLOGICAL

ASSISTANCE

RESEARCH

PROGRAMMES

EDUCATIONAL

PROGRAMMES

TOTAL
Azerbaizan 15.000.000 15.000.000
Egypt 2.489.652 2.489.000
Ethiopia 3.361.032 3.361.032
Cote d'Ivoire 1.618.272 13.500.000 15.118.272
Albania 809.136 40.000.000 3.800.000 15.000.000 59.609.136
Armenia 606.852 606.852
Bulgaria 97.500.000 97.500.000
Georgia 25.000.000 25.000.000
Zaire 5.793.624 5.793.624
Jordan 9.019.803 9.019.803
Israel 9.280.040 9.280.040
Cameroon 2.427.408 2.427.408
Kenya 1.618.272 1.618.272
China 4.356.900 4.356.900
Congo 6.535.332 6.535.332
Korea
202.284
202.284
Lebanon
12.131.856
12.131.856
Morocco
1.680.514
1.680.514
Moldavia
25.000.000
25.000.000
Nigeria
809.136
809.136
Hungary
11.250.000
5.000.000
16.250.000
Ukraine
404.568
11.500.000
11.904.568
3.029.076
3.029.076
Poland
202.284
11.250.000
11.452.284
Rwanda
871.380
871.380
Romania
121.500.000
121.500.000
Russia
404.568
18.000.000
18.404.568
Czech Republic
11.250.000
11.250.000
Slovac Republic
11.250.000
11.250.000
Sudan
1.680.516
1.680.516
Syrian Arab Rep.
7.064.388
7.064.388
Tunisia
606.852
606.852
Total
77.003.745
85.000.000
3.800.000
347.000.000
512.803.745

TABLE BDESTINATION OF THE OFFICIAL BILATERAL DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE BY KIND AND GEOGRAPHICAL AREASA. ALLOCATED ASSISTANCE
GEOGRAPHIC AREA KIND of

AID

DISBURSEMENTS COMMITMENTS
1993 1994 1995 1996
I EUROPE Financial Assist. 1.4 26.4% 0.1 2.3% 0.9 11.5% 7.2 52.2%
Food Aid 1.5 28.0% 1.9 35.0% 0.9 12.1% 5.3 38.5%
Technical co-op. 1.8 32.7% 1.8 34.3% 1.9 25.9% 0.4 3.2%
Emergency ass. 0.7 12.8% 1.5 28.4% 3.8 50.4% 0.8 6.1%
TOTAL 5.5 100.0% 5.3 100.0% 7.5 100.0% 13.8 100.0%
II AFRICA Financial Assist. 0.0% 0.0 0.3% 0.1 44.1%
Food Aid 1.0 42.9% 3.4 83.9% 3.7 78.4%
Technical co-op. 0.4 17.8% 0.3 7.6% 0.3 6.9% 0.1 55.9%
Emergency ass. 1.0 39.3% 0.3 8.1% 0.7 14.7%
TOTAL 2.4 100.0% 4.1 100.0% 4.8 100.0% 0.2 100.0%
III AMERICA Technical coop. 0.1 100.0% 0.0 100.0% 0.0 100.0% 0.0 100.0%
TOTAL 0.1 100.0% 0.0 100.0% 0.0 100.0% 0.0 100.0%
IV ASIA Financial Assist. 0.0 0.8% 0.0% 0.4 6.8% 3.1 92.8%
Food Aid 0.0 0.2% 1.3 38.8% 4.2 65.6%
Technical co-op. 0.4 31.1% 0.4 11.8% 0.5 7.8% 0.2 5.2%
Emergency ass. 0.9 67.9% 1.7 49.4% 1.3 19.8% 0.1 2.0%
TOTAL 1.3 100.0% 3.4 100.0% 6.4 100.0% 3.3 100.0%

B. NON ALLOCATED ASSISTANCE

KIND OF AID YEAR
1993 1994 1995 1996
Scholarships 5.4 5.8 6.8 5.8
Other (operational cost, flying means) 0.5 1.4 1.3 0.9
GRAND TOTAL 15.1 20.0 26.9 24.1

FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE :

Grants to the National Palestine Authority for: budgetarian purposes, development purposes, to combat Brucelloses disease

Grants to Bosnia for reconstruction after the civil war

Urban and civil construction works in several countries

Grants for the construction works of the Hospital in

Tirana - Albania (1995 and 1996) and in South Africa

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 34: TRANSFER OF ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND TECHNOLOGY, COOPERATION AND CAPACITY-BUILDING

Transfer of environmentally sound technology, cooperation and capacity-building is also covered under each sectoral chapter of Agenda 21 where relevant. This summary highlights broader national policies and actions relating to chapter 34.

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT ON LINKS BETWEEN NATIONAL, REGIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL INFORMATION NETWORKS/SYSTEMS: The Centre for Renewable Energy Sources (CRES), which is supervised by the Ministry of Development, operates a data base with information on projects carried out in Greece concerning organisations and scientists active in the fields of renewable energy sources and rational use of energy. It is connected with the Commission of the European Communities' data bases SESAME and CORDIS via HELLASPAC and ARIADNET.

MEANS OF IMPLEMENTATION:The General Secretariat of Research and Technology carried out a study on "Environmentally sound technologies in Greece: Progress of research and technology, economic and social impacts".

The Ministry of Industry, Energy and Technology plans to establish a "Center for New Energy Technologies" to promote innovative environmentally sound energy technologies, to support transfer of technology, to improve the capacity for the development and management of technologies and to develop networks with other organizations at the national and international levels. Lack of human capacity, information and financial resources are considered the main obstacles towards the transfer of environmentally sound technologies.

The Energy Programme of the European Community Support Framework promotes the policy for the reinforcement of renewable energy sources related investments. Law 2244/7.10.94, which regulates the matters referring to production of electric energy, promotes relatively large investments by offering more incentives for "self-production" of energy by renewable energy sources and by ensuring long-term contacts.

The Centre of Renewable Energy Sources is a member of the Organisation for Promotion of Energy Technologies (OPET). The contribution of the OPET network in promoting energy technologies is quite significant. The OPET network was created in the framework of the THERMIE programme of the Commission of the European Communities (Directorate - General for Energy, DGXVII). Its target is the promotion of innovative energy efficient technologies for environmental protection. Its fields of application are:

- Renewable Energy Sources

- Rational Use of Energy

- Solid Fuels

- Hydrocarbons

Specifically, the activities of the Division for Renewable Energy Sources and Rational Use of Energy are:

- European Seminars

- Campaigns

- Market Studies

- Data bases with the addresses for dispatching information material

- Collaboration with General Directorates I and XVI in the programmes PHARE (technical support to the developing countries) and regional development respectively for exchange of experience and transfer of know-how

- Combination of local and sectoral characteristics and specific measures for energy saving

The Public Power Corporation (PPC) is applying specific policies for environmental protection and improvement of energy efficiency, in particular in the development of the country's hydropotential and exploitation of Renewable Energy Sources. Hydropower contributed 3,764 GWh in 1995, an increase of 25% since 1994. According to Public Power Corporation's expansion plan, 0.8 GW large-scale hydro capacity should be added to the existing 2.5 GW hydro capacity by the year 2000.

MEANS OF IMPLEMENTATION (cont'd)

As far as the exploitation of wind energy is concerned, the Public Power Corporation was the only agency to plan important wind farm installations. Due to the specific legal framework, until recently in effect, the contribution of the private sector was limited to the installation of a limited number of wind generators in order to meet specific private requirements. Wind energy is expected to increase considerably, though still at a marginal level. This increase will be quite substantial in the country's insular regions where power generation costs from conventional fuels are particularly high.

As for geothermal energy, the exploitation of the substantially high enthalpy potential has come to a halt following the serious errors committed in the past in an experimental unit which triggered a general feeling of apprehension amongst the population. Since research in geothermal energy sources started in 1970 by the Public Power Corporation with the aid of foreign experts, and since it has been estimated that there is a high potential especially in the islands, the Public Power Corporation plans to exploit the most important geothermal energy sources in the country.

Describe any work being undertaken at the national or local levels regarding efforts to promote clean production processes and/or the concepts of eco-efficiency. These processes may include training, preferential financial arrangements, information dissemination and changes in legal or regulatory frameworks.

In 1994, the Ministry of Industry, Energy and Technology launched three programs that contain, inter alia, measures and actions to promote the dissemination and development of clean production technologies. These are five-year programs (1994-1999) that provide primary policy goals in the areas of industry, energy, research and technology. The Industry Program aims to create a system for product quality through standardization and certification and for the technological modernization of enterprises. The Energy Program promotes energy efficiency, the rational use of energy and the use of renewable energy sources, and seeks to integrate environmental issues into all energy policies. This program also promotes the use of natural gas. The Research and Technology Program provides measures to promote environmentally friendly technologies and forms of energy, improved materials and new production and manufacturing methods. The program also promotes cooperation between research and production institutes.

The composed Energy Investments Guide in the framework of the Energy Operational Programme adopted by the European Union extends to investments on biofuels, energetic plantations and promotion of bioclimatic buildings financing as well as applications of environmentally sound technologies for the reduction of CO2 and NOx emissions in industrial, professional and commercial installations, under the guidelines of sustainable development.

At last, Greece participates actively in the efforts in the European Union for the dissemination and promotion of renewable energy sources as well as in energy efficiency projects and the Ministry of Development tries to incorporate and promote the corresponding European Union Policies within the European Union or abroad; ALTENER, SAVE, JOULE-THERMIE, TACIS, PHARE, Research and Development Programmes, and new policies like MEDA or the Energy Charter Treaties.

The national quantitative targets for RES in primary energy/electricity up to year 2000 are as follows: hydro 733 ktos, wind 68 ktos, solar 156 ktos, geothermal heat 20 ktos.

Provide information on the adoption of environmental management systems. National reaction to environmental management system standards such as the ISO 14000 Series and others. Please note efforts made at the national level to promote their adoption and the creation of certification infrastructure in order to facilitate access to these standards to local industry.

Basic criteria and general guidelines that may be useful in assessing technology options are being developed in the 2nd Community Support Framework of the European Union, for the creation of the relative infrastructure in order to introduce the IPPC (Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control) Directive to the Greek legislation (creation of a data bank for Clean Technologies and financing display works).

There have been no other national environmental management systems before the introduction of EMAS (Eco-Management Audit Scheme) in Greece. However, Greece has shown a vivid interest from the beginning and has supported the promotion of EMAS at European Community level, and particularly the future implementation of the scheme in small and medium sized enterprises.

The Ministry for the Environment, Physical Planning and Public Works is at the moment promoting the pilot implementation of EMAS in public enterprises in the industrial sector, but intends to expand the scheme to small and medium sized enterprises in the near future.

There are also several related activities under way. For instance, the Chamber of Commerce and Industry has already published a guide for industries on the implementation of EMAS (the guide is also available as software). The Hellenic Organisation of Small and Medium Sized Enterprises is financing the implementation of pilot projects in small and medium sized enterprises and will soon publish a series of guideline books by industrial category.

Under the Operational Environmental Programme of Greece a Communication Strategy aiming at public awareness raising for the promotion of EMAS is being developed. LIFE is also financing a communication strategy programme that includes a series of seminars and meetings for the concerned parties. The Hellenic Industrial Association, the Industrial Association of Northern Greece, as well as other sectoral associations and private bodies are also organising presentations of EMAS.

The Hellenic Accreditation Council will operate within the Ministry of Development. It will be responsible for the Accreditation of Environmental Verifiers and will also organise seminars for their training.

It is estimated that out of the approx. 200 enterprises currently applying ISO 9000, 100 will adopt ISO 14000. It is also quite possible that a lot of these enterprises will adopt EMAS through the ISO procedure. This leads Greece to view the EMAS and the ISO scheme as complementary and not competitive.

Fiveteen companies have already shown interest in joining the system, and there has been considerable interest from several municipalities and hotels. Furthermore, several companies have already initiated their internal audits and intend to resort to verifiers accreditated in another EU member state to validate their environmental statement.

List and describe programs or work under way to facilitate the transfer of ESTs to small and medium sized enterprises. Please note efforts to facilitate access to financial resources and other transfer strategies.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 35: SCIENCE FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT ON NATIONAL SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE, RESEARCH NEEDS AND PRIORITIES:

The Ministry of Education is responsible for the Science Sector, Framework Law 1566/85 provides legislation for this sector.

In the context of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme a National Interdisciplinary Scientific Committee has embarked upon research on problems of global change under the authority of the National Academy of Science of Greece.

STEPS TAKEN TO ENHANCE SCIENTIFIC UNDERSTANDING, IMPROVE LONG TERM SCIENTIFIC ASSESSMENT, BUILDING OF CAPACITY AND CAPABILITY:

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
Year
Number of scientists, engineers and technicians engaged in research and experimental development # 1.022 1986
Total expenditure for research and experimental development (US$eq.) $ 19--
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 36: PROMOTING EDUCATION, PUBLIC AWARENESS AND TRAINING

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: The Ministry of Education is responsible for this chapter, Framework Law 1566/85 provides legislation for this sector. Also, Laws 1892/90 & 1946/91 provide for environmental education in schools of primary and secondary education. The above mentioned laws furthermore establish the control of those responsible for environmental education programmes all over the country, aiming at the development of environmental programmes and of a decentralised network of local environmental education promotion units.

Furthermore environmental education operates in the framework of Ministerial Decrees and circulars that are published by the education directorates of the Ministry of Education, concern the cooperation with other bodies, the coordination of the work of those responsible for environmental education programmes and aim at the promotion of environmental education.

a) Reorientation of education towards sustainable development

Seven Environmental Education Centres have been established where students participate in special environmental education programmes (Ministerial Decree G2/3219). 1,400 projects on environmental education have been implemented voluntarily in schools of secondary education, and another 1,300 in those of primary education.

b) Increasing public awareness

The Ministry of Education (Environmental Education Office) supported schools:

a) to participate in "days of action" for the European Campaign for the Nature Conservation Year

b) to demonstrate their project in national exhibitions (e.g. Heleco 1995), in TV and radio programmes, and in local community festivals. The Environmental Education Centers undertake short campaigns on local environmental problems in cooperation with local authorities.

Public Awareness is raised through:

a) environmental education programmes, presented at the end of each school year to the public

b) establishment of Centers for Environmental Education, where adult training programmes take place, and where the interested parties get to participate and reach a common action plan, so that local problems, concerning environment and sustainable development, can be confronted efficiently through cooperation with the local active population.

c) Promoting training

The Ministry of Education has a programme for environmental training.

Environmental Education Centres organise special environmental education training programmes for employees, community organisation, teachers etc.

Environmental education is part of the basic education received both at university and in the introductory and continuous education seminars. Training of the kind lasts three months and takes place in the Regional Educational Centers.

ROLE OF MAJOR GROUPS: Systematic cooperation has been established with major environmental groups such as WWF, Goulandri Museum of Natural History, the Hellenic Society for the Protection of Nature, Greenpeace, etc. through special pedagogical environmental education pilot projects.

The Ministry of Education also cooperates with local authorities for both the elaboration of environmental education programmes and the operation of Environmental Education Centers.

The Ministry of Education places great importance in its cooperation with environmental NGOs, who in turn contribute with the presentation of several projects to the public, production of related material etc. Finally, it cooperates with Greenpeace in the framework of the "Green Teams" programme, and with the Greek Society for the Protection of Nature on the "Ecological Schools" programme.

FINANCING AND COST EVALUATION OF THE LABOUR ACTIVITIES:

The programmes of environmental education carried out in primary education schools during the school year 1995-1996 were financed with 63,210,000 drachmas while those for secondary education were financed with 212,000,000 drachmas for the same year.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980 1990 Latest 199-
Adult literacy rate (%) Male 97.7a
Adult literacy rate (%) Female 93.0a
% of primary school children reaching grade 5 (1986-93) 99
Mean number of years of schooling
% of GNP spent on education 2.2b 3.1c
Females per 100 males in secondary school 85.2 92.3c
Women per 100 men in the labour force
a 1991 b 1979 c 1989

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 37: NATIONAL MECHANISMS AND INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION FOR CAPACITY-BUILDING IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

National capacity building is also covered under sectoral chapters.

Donors: You may wish to describe here how Agenda 21 has influenced your ODA policies in this area.

Developing countries: You may wish to describe any new national mechanisms for capacity building - and any changes in technical cooperation.

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT ON NATIONAL ENDOGENOUS CAPACITY BUILDING:

The Five Year Plan (1997-2001) of Bilateral Development Cooperation has the following main goals:

1. Economic well being: reduction of poverty

2. Social development: progress in education, gender equality, basic health services

3. Environmental sustainability

4. Reinforcement of locally planned development strategies by financing public expenditure through the budget of developing countries and economies in transition.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 38: INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS

Ch. 38: Brief summary of any particular UN System response affecting this country/state:

No information available.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 39: INTERNATIONAL LEGAL INSTRUMENTS AND MECHANISMS

Ch. 39: International Legal Instruments are covered under the relevant sectoral chapters. This is a listing of major agreements/conventions (not already covered) entered into and relevant to Agenda 21:

No information available.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 40: INFORMATION FOR DECISION-MAKING

This chapter is also covered under sectoral and other chapters of this profile. The matrix below gives an overview of how national authorities rate the available information for decision making.

Rating of available data and information suitable for decision-making

Agenda 21 Chapters
Very
good
Good
Some good
data but
many gaps
Poor
Remarks
2. International cooperation and trade
X
3. Combating poverty
X
4. Changing consumption patterns
X
5. Demographic dynamics and sustainability
X
6. Human health
X
7. Human settlements
X
8. Integrating E & D in decision-making
X
9. Protection of the atmosphere
X
10. Integrated planning and management of land resources
X
11. Combating deforestation
X
12. Combating desertification and drought
X
13. Sustainable mountain development
X
14. Sustainable agriculture and rural development
X
15. Conservation of biological diversity
X
16. Biotechnology
X
17. Oceans, seas, coastal areas and their living resources
X
18. Freshwater resources
X
19. Toxic chemicals
X
20. Hazardous wastes
X
21. Solid wastes
X
22. Radioactive wastes
X
24. Women in sustainable development
X
25. Children and youth
X
26. Indigenous people
X
27. Non-governmental organizations
X
28. Local authorities
X
29. Workers and trade unions
X
30. Business and industry
X
31. Scientific and technological community
X
32. Farmers
X
33. Financial resources and mechanisms
X
34. Technology, cooperation and capacity-building
X
35. Science for sustainable development
X
36. Education, public awareness and training
X
37. International cooperation for capacity-building
X
38. International institutional arrangements
X
39. International legal instruments
X
40. Information for decision-making
X

Additional Comments

The Ministry of National Economy and the National Statistical Service are responsible for information on sustainable development. Both the Ministry of Environment and the Aegean University are collecting information on waste management and on the expenses for environmental protection. Information on sustainable development issues is needed at all levels and from all kinds of user groups. Main sources of information are universities and decision-makers at the national level. Information is also received from EUROSTAT and OECD.

More information and indicators are especially needed in the fields of climate change, ozone depletion, eutrophism, acid rain, quality of the urban environment, land use and biodiversity, waste, water, forests, soils and fishing. A computer network is available with access to international data banks. Problems have been found in the distribution of information and in data security. There is also a lack of trained personnel in this field.

The Ministry of Agriculture plans a review of agricultural statistics. This would include the use of remote sensing data. To date, there is no capacity for accessing remote sensing data.

Since 1993 Greece is a member of the European Environment Agency which was launched by the EU in 1993, in order to provide information at the European level to support policy makers and to better inform the public about the environment. The European Environment Information and Observation Network built by the Agency consists of several thematic and national layers. Among them are National Focal Points and national reference centres to undertake technical coordination in different countries and specialised topic centres.

The first seven topic centres cover island waters, marine and coastal environment, air quality, nature conservation, land cover, air emissions and a catalogue of data sources. Greece has appointed the Ministry for the Environment, Physical Planning and Public Works as National Focal Point and the National Network of Environmental Information as main instrument for the exchange of information.

Greece has the vice-chairmanship of the Scientific Committee of the European Environment Agency. Our country contributes to the work of the topic centres as follows:

The National Centre of Marine Research and the Institute of Marine Biology of Crete are participating in the topic centre for marine and coastal environment.

The Greek Biotope-Wetland Centre, in Salonica, has been appointed, inter alia, responsible for the ecosystems of South-East Europe, and is participating in the topic centre for nature conservation.

The National Observatory of Athens is a member of the Steering Committee which will conduct the work of the topic centre for air quality.

The National Research Centre "Democritos" participates in the topic centre for air emissions

The Aegean University participates in the nature conservation issue through the Dutch European Centre for the Conservation of Nature.

National Environmental Information Network

Action programme 1.4 of the Operational Environmental Programme of Greece aims at developing the required infrastructure for recording, categorisation, assimilation and assessment of environmental information at the national scale. Such information is expected to assist the development of environmental policies at local, regional and national levels. The same action programme will also cover the requirements of the European Environment Agency with respect to the provision of environmental information. The overall budget for action programme 1.4 is 9 MECU.

Additional Comments (Cont'd)

Specific actions

Completion of the National Environmental Information Network to all prefectures and regions of Greece

Connection of the National Environmental Information Network with the Greek Statistical Service, the European Environment Agency, and the European Commission

Programme for the collection of collateral information, such as regional or local activities, natural characteristics, wetlands, etc.

(also see ANNEX I)

Recently (1995), a new bureau was established in the Division of Environmental Planning, namely the "Bureau for National Environmental Information Network and European Environmental Agency" (hereinafter referred to the Bureau). The Bureau has two major aims:

to co-ordinate the National Environmental Network and its connection with the European Network (EIONET);

to co-ordinate and operate the Greek National Focal Point (NFP) of the European Environmental Agency (EEA).

The first aim is being supported by the National Environmental Information Network (EDPP), to be completed in four years. The pilot phase of EDPP has been completed, including five prefectures and three districts. Presently, a feasibility study for the expansion of EDPP at the national scale is being executed by the University of Athens in co-operation with the Bureau.

The second aim was initially accomplished through administrative actions such as staffing and budget allocations. Recently the Ministry of Environment, Physical Planning and Public Works initiated a co-operation with the University of Athens, in order to be technically and scientifically supported in the activities of the National Focal Point.

National Environmental Information System

The Operational Programme for the Environment includes Subprogram 2 entitled "Development of the infrastructure to respond to the needs of the EEA, to monitor the environment and to comply with environmental standards". Subprogramme 2 includes the action programme for the development of the National Environmental Information Network (EDPP), as well as, at a second phase, the creation of a National Environmental Agency which specifically aims at the co-ordination of the National Network and the operation of the EDPP .

EDPP is currently under implementation, with part of it being already operational; EDPP will be the basis of the national network and will link to EIONET.

The goal of the National Environmental Information Network is to improve the reliability of environmental information and its dissemination in order to implement environmental policy according to the national law and Community regulation and directives.

EDPP once completed will improve the technological capacities of Greece in the field of environmental monitoring and assessment. EDPP will furthermore provide the means for continuous communication between all connected sites in the country to sites in the wider European Area.

The initial design of the network was performed in 1992 during the pilot phase of the network which extended geographically in the regions of Central Macedonia (Thessaloniki), Thessaly (Larisa), Crete (Iraklion) and the Prefectures of Kilkis, Kavala, Kozani, Lesvos and Magnisia.

Additional Comments (Cont'd)

According to current plans, the next phase aims at the improvement, the extension and the completion of the full information system. This phase will be directed towards:

the provision to the system with existing environmental information, maps and cartographic background, etc.;

the improvement of the system using sound technology and communication standards in line with European requirements;

the development of data processing routines for the evaluation, illustration, communication and exchange of environmental information;

the extension of the network over the entire country (regions and probably prefectures);

the connection with the national environmental monitoring system and the main environmental institutions;

the connection with the EIONET of the European Environment Agency;

the dissemination of information and actions via INTERNET.

Environmental information in the network relate to air quality, inland waters, nature, air emissions, energy sources and fuels, noise, environmental legislation and all activities requiring environmental impact assessments.

The design and the specifications of the system have been already completed, whereas its realisation will be promoted in the following months.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1989
1993
Latest 199-
Number of telephones in use per 100 inhabitants 37.7 45.7 49.4
Other data

ANNEX I

APPROVED PROJECTS, 2ND COMMUNITY FRAMEWORK

Agenda 21 - Local Level

PROJECT BUDGET in drachmas
Waste Management
Construction of incineration unit for hospital waste at A. Liosia

landfill site

2.000.000.000
Waste treatment plant of Sikionos (Kiato) 220.000.000
Waste treatment plant of Argostoli 715.000.000
Waste treatment plant of Thira 215.000.000
Waste treatment plant of Maritson 100.000.000
Waste treatment plant of Lindos 415.000.000
Waste treatment plant of Serifos 125.000.000
Waste treatment plant of Rethimnon 925.000.000
Waste treatment plant of Lixouri 105.000.000
Waste treatment plant of Evia (Aliveri) 330.000.000
Waste treatment plant of Empona 120.000.000
Waste treatment plant of Lefkimi 800.000.000
Waste treatment plant of Oinofita Shimatariou 510.000.000
Waste treatment plant of Polychrono 530.000.000
Waste treatment plant of Markopoulo 225.000.000
Waste treatment plant of Zakinthos 330.000.000
Waste treatment plant of Lipsa 90.000.000
Construction of new landfill site in Arta 580.000.000
Construction of new landfill site in Sitia 350.000.000
Rehabilitation of the old landfill site in Serres 335.000.000
Extension of separation-at-source project in Salonica 445.000.000
Recycling Centre in Patra 415.000.000
Coastal Areas
Rehabilitation of Skopelos beach 330.000.000
Physical & Urban Planning
Creation of environmental park and children playground in Kleidos area

in Omiroupolis, Hios

155.000.000
Rehabilitation of coastal avenue and public areas of Itea 100.000.000
Development of coastal zone of Balkos str, Theofanous str and

Court square in Preveza

185.000.000

PROJECTS PROPOSED

as part of the implementation of Agenda 21
(sustainable development) in Greece
and awaiting final approval from European Community

Agenda 21 - National Level

PROJECT BUDGET

in drachmas

Water Management
Creation of monitoring network for toxic substances in ground-level waters 165.000.000
Completion of infrastructure building for national network on groundwater quality - data collection & assessment800.000.000
Monitoring programme for sea water quality 485.000.000
Transboundary stations 235.000.000
Systematical monitoring of the quality of bathing waters 950.000.000
Creation of monitoring network for underground water 140.000.000
Creation of monitoring network for drinking water quality 250.000.000
Laboratory for calibration and monitoring of regional laboratories 90.000.000
Establishment of GAW stations and monitoring stations for sea level rise measurements 125.000.000
Master Plan of quality and quantity management of water resources 320.000.000
Protection of Sea Environment 850.000.000
Waste Management
Assessment of more or less sensitive areas as regards

the treatment of municipal waste

100.000.000
Inventory of municipal and industrial liquid waste at national level 320.000.000
Planning & implementation projects of waste management (studies, works, supplies) 5.000.000.000
Study -Works for the rehabilitation of old landfills & disposal areas for municipal & industrial waste 1.500.000.000
Site selection, environmental impact assessment for a Central Incineration Unit for hazardous hospital waste, construction of Unit 40.000.000
Waste Recycling (equipment, supply, studies) 2.000.000.000
study & construction of treatment & disposal Unit of hazardous waste at national level 2.500.000.000
Construction of hospital waste incinerator 2.000.000.000
Coastal Areas
Cleaning of touristic coastal areas (equipment, supply, study) 3.000.000.000
National directive on coastal areas 65.000.000
Habitat Protection
Determination of limits and protection measures for landscapes of particular beauty 45.000.000
Protection of habitats (works, studies, supplies) 200.000.000
Centre for the nursing & preservation of species 225.000.000
Atmospheric Pollution
Acquisition of equipment, material & technical support for the control of atmospheric pollution 135.000.000
Creation of mobile station for the telemonitoring of atmospheric pollutants with state of the art technology (LIDAR) 425.000.000
Assessment of the effects of CO2 emissions and other greenhouse gas emissions in climate change 165.000.000
Modernisation of calibration system of automatic measuring equipment for atmospheric pollution with teletransmittance 250.000.000
National compliance with international obligations concerning ozone depleting substances 100.000.000
Direct linkage of Centre of National Monitoring Network for the atmospheric environment with National Meteorological Service 120.000.000
Monitoring system for VOC concentrations and other non conventional pollutants 925.000.000
Special programme for the inventory of industrial sources of atmospheric pollution at national level and evaluation of emitted pollutant loads 570.000.000
National monitoring network for atmospheric environment 1.690.000.000
Operational Centre for the monitoring of atmospheric pollution and enforcement of emergency measures in the greater Athens region 570.000.000
Atmospheric emissions from road transport, central heating and industry inventory system 590.000.000
Creation of monitoring station of meteorological parameters of the troposphere in the centre of Athens and equipment supply of automatic monitoring stations of atmospheric pollution of the national network with measuring equipment of meteorological parameters 265.000.000
Noise Pollution
Inventory and mapping of road transport noise pollution 290.000.000
Noise areas (zones) for the control of industries, mapping of greater Athens and greater Salonica area 100.000.000
Programme of noise abatement applications in tourist areas 235.000.000
Monitoring of urban noise 170.000.000
Centres of noise protection for highways and "free" avenues 2.500.000.000
Works for the abatement of noise pollution from road and rail infrastructures Creation of a national centre for the verification of buildings' noise protection 430.000.000
Environmental Management and Auditing Systems
Infrastructure building for the auditing/control of compliance with the environmental standards in national projects, activities (INSPECTORATE) 1.500.000.000
Inventory of requirements and special planning for the implementation of the IPPC (Integrated Pollution Prevention & Control) Directive 425.000.000
Drawing up specific standards and obligations for the Environmental Impact Assessments for each industrial activity category 95.000.000
Programme for the promotion of EMAS (Environmental Managing and Auditing System) scheme 95.000.000
Contingency plans for major industrial accidents and development of safe management of hazardous industrial sites 635.000.000
Mechanical Equipment for responding to technological & industrial accidents 710.000.000
Environmental Information
Development of national network for environmental information 2.450.000.000
Renovation of traditional building of Villa Kazouli and surrounding area as National Environmental Network Centre 730.000.000
Project on Information System Network 80.000.000
Project on the exchange of digital data 20.000.000
Transport
Operation of an integrated system for environmental management of transportation 810.000.000
Special transport environmental impact assessment and relevant regulations 100.000.000
Implementation of programmes on road vehicles in urban centres on the basis of "Attica - SOS" measures 1.180.000.000
Fuels
Implementation of programmes on reducing fuels atmospheric emissions on the basis of "Attica - SOS" measures 1.020.000.000
National Cadastre
General
Draft Law for the National Cadastre 60.000.000
Monitoring & Control study for the quality of the cadastre 60.000.000
Control of the geodesic reference network 60.000.000
Environmentally Sensitive Areas
Feasibility study for the National Cadastre 35.000.000
Organisational study for special cadastres 40.000.000
Equipment for cadastre diagrams formation 200.000.000
Urban Areas
Drawing up of Technical standards 30.000.000
Air-photographing 120.000.000
Agricultural Areas
Public awareness, film showing 350.000.000
Public awareness, film showing to the local authorities 55.000.000
Physical & Urban Planning
Special physical planning high priority studies 95.000.000
Mechanism of continuous monitoring of physical planning 170.000.000
Physical planning projects for regions 425.000.000
Data base formation, informing all levels on existing & legally binding land uses, digital mapping of sub levels supply 270.000.000
Physical planning impact assessment of the works funded by the Community Frameworks, other E.U. projects & policies & new technologies, international networks and other national level infrastructure works 395.000.000
Design & creation of physical planning observatory 90.000.000
Physical planning study of urban network 45.000.000
Summer houses in Greece: ways of production, development capabilities 55.000.000
Development & prospects of agricultural areas, physical planning effects of WTO community policies 90.000.000
Land policy study for Greece 90.000.000
Analysis of needs, planning, drawing up standards, mechanical & software equipment of informatics system for physical planning, supply of proper equipment (hardware, software) 275.000.000
Physical planning at regional & local level 795.000.000
New studies and studies for the modification of general urban plans 200.000.000
Packaging
Study on the packaging in Greece 40.000.000

Agenda 21 - Local Level

PROJECT BUDGET
Waste Management
Centres for the support of waste treatment plants 200.000.000
Establishment of operation and maintenance centre for waste treatment plants of N. Halkidiki 190.000.000
Recycling (reusing) treated waste of waste treatment centre of Halkida 560.000.000
Waste treatment plant of Lefkes 100.000.000
Construction of new landfill site in Rhodes 900.000.000
Works & supplies in the new landfill site in Xanthi 305.000.000
Construction of new landfill site & rehabilitation of the old one in the municipality of Komotini & the greater Rodopi area 650.000.000
Construction of new landfill site & rehabilitation of the old one in Lamia 700.000.000
Construction of new landfill site & rehabilitation of the old one in Pilio 800.000.000
Construction of new landfill site & rehabilitation of the old one in Astipalaia 50.000.000
Construction of new landfill site & rehabilitation of the old one in Nisiros 50.000.000
Construction of new landfill site & rehabilitation of the old one in Agathonisi 35.000.000
Construction of new landfill site & rehabilitation of the old one in Leipsi 30.000.000
Construction of new landfill site & rehabilitation of the old one in Kasos 60.000.000
Construction of new landfill site & rehabilitation of the old one in Megisti 55.000.000
Construction of new landfill site & rehabilitation of the old one in Ag. Efstratios 35.000.000
Construction of new landfill site & rehabilitation of the old one in Fournoi 55.000.000
Construction of new landfill site & rehabilitation of the old one in Psara 40.000.000
Construction of new landfill site & rehabilitation of the old one in Oinouses 50.000.000
Construction of new landfill site & rehabilitation of the old one in Folegandros 50.000.000
Construction of new landfill site & rehabilitation of the old one in Anafi 40.000.000
Construction of new landfill site & rehabilitation of the old one in Kimolos 25.000.000
Construction of new landfill site & rehabilitation of the old one in Tilos 60.000.000
Rehabilitation of the old landfill site in Irakleion 500.000.000
Rehabilitation of the old landfill site in Thermi, Salonica 340.000.000
Completion of composting unit from waste in Kalamata 1.100.000.000
Foundation of Recycling Centre in Zakinthos 255.000.000
Water Management
Conservation of water resources by reducing the leakages of water supply networks of N. Kazantzakis municipality (N. Irakleion) 250.000.000
Noise Pollution
Centres of protection against noise pollution from highways and "free avenues" of Haidari municipality 140.000.000
Centres of protection against noise pollution from highways and "free avenues" of Ag. Ioannis Rentis 85.000.000
Centres of protection against noise pollution from highways and "free avenues" of Ag. Anargiroi 45.000.000
Centres of protection against noise pollution from highways and "free avenues" of N. Philadelphia 45.000.000
Centres of protection against noise pollution from highways and "free avenues" of Perama municipality 45.000.000
Centres of protection against noise pollution from highways and "free avenues" of N. Erithrea municipality 45.000.000
Study & construction of noise barriers in the municipality of Evosmos, Salonica 125.000.000
Study & construction of noise barrier in the municipality of Moshato, Attica 45.000.000
Study & construction of noise barriers in the municipality of Rethimnon, Crete 125.000.000
Study & construction of noise barrier in the municipality of Stavroupoli, Salonica 95.000.000
Study & construction of noise barrier in the municipality of Menemeni, Salonica 160.000.000
National Cadastre
Urban Areas 21.140.000.000
Local Authority of Salonica 595.000.000
Local Authority of Kozani 250.000.000
Local Authority of Aitoloakarnania 535.000.000
Local Authority of Viotia 325.000.000
Local Authority of East Attica 690.000.000
Local Authority of West Attica 315.000.000
Local Authority of Athens 560.000.000
Local Authority of Piraeus 165.000.000
Local Authority of Argolida 295.000.000
Local Authority of Hios 195.000.000
Local Authority of Lasithi 110.000.000
Local Authority of Magnesia 170.000.000
Environmentally Sensitive Areas 15.402.000.000
Local Authority of Drama 335.000.000
Local Authority of Halkidiki 440.000.000
Local Authority of Florina 235.000.000
Local Authority of Magnesia 300.000.000
Local Authority of Lefkada 195.000.000
Local Authority of Zakinthos 245.000.000
Local Authority of Ilia 270.000.000
Local Authority of Cyclades 595.000.000
Local Authority of Dodekanisa 195.000.000
Local Authority of Evros 100.000.000
Local Authority of Rodopi 480.000.000
Local Authority of Pieria 135.000.000
Local Authority of Drama 190.000.000
Agricultural Areas 15.402.000.000
Local Authority of Kavala 690.000.000
Local Authority of Kilkis 230.000.000
Local Authority of Preveza 160.000.000
Local Authority of Arta 105.000.000
Local Authority of Thesprotia 210.000.000
Local Authority of Karditsa 130.000.000
Local Authority of Trikala 100.000.000
Local Authority of Fthiotida 400.000.000
Local Authority of Arcadia 390.000.000
Local Authority of Rethymnon 195.000.000
Local Authority of Xanthi 170.000.000
Local Authority of Lefkada 170.000.000
Coastal Areas
Cleaning & restoration project for the coasts of the island of Kos 180.000.000
Cleaning & restoration project for the coasts of the island of Kefalonia 245.000.000
Cleaning & restoration project for the coasts of Pieria 190.000.000
Cleaning & restoration project for the coasts of Evia 250.000.000
Cleaning & restoration project for the coasts of the island of Corfu 125.000.000
Cleaning & restoration project for the coasts of the islands of N. Sporades 120.000.000
Cleaning & restoration project for the coasts of the island of Samos 120.000.000
Cleaning & restoration project for the coasts of Ahaia 170.000.000
Cleaning & restoration project for the coasts of Ilia 85.000.000
Cleaning & restoration project for the coasts of the Cyclades islands 290.000.000
Cleaning & restoration project for the coasts of the island of Hios 85.000.000
Cleaning & restoration project for the coasts of Aitoloakarnania 125.000.000
Cleaning & restoration project for the coasts of the island of Lesvos 200.000.000
Cleaning & restoration project for the coasts of Rethymnon 140.000.000
Cleaning & restoration project for the coasts of Preveza 120.000.000
Cleaning & restoration project for the coasts of Hania 150.000.000
Habitat Protection
Project for the protection of the adder habitat in Milos 80.000.000
Management of the habitats of lakes Volvi & Lagada (studies, works, supplies, implementation of management measures) 465.000.000
Management of the habitat of Amvrakikos (studies, works, supplies, implementation of management measures) 390.000.000
Management of the habitat of Mesologi, Aitolikos (studies, works, supplies, implementation of management measures) 455.000.000
Management of the sea park of Laganas, Zakinthos (studies, works, supplies, implementation of management measures) 490.000.000
Management of the sea park in Northern Sporades (studies, works, supplies, implementation of management measures) 855.000.000
Management of the National Forest in Prespes (studies, works, supplies, implementation of management measures) 290.000.000
Management of the habitat of lake Mitrikou (studies, works, supplies, implementation of management measures) 150.000.000
Management of the habitat of Dadia forest (studies, works, supplies, implementation of management measures) 170.000.000
Management of the habitats of lake Vistonida & Porto Lagos (studies, works, supplies, implementation of management measures) 245.000.000
Management of the habitats of the Delta of Aliakmonas, Loudias, Axios (studies, works, supplies, implementation of management measures) 505.000.000
Management of the habitat of lake Kerkini (studies, works, supplies, implementation of management measures) 220.000.000
Management of the habitat of the Delta of Nestos river (studies, works, supplies, implementation of management measures) 220.000.000
Management of the habitat of Kotihi-Strofilia (studies, works, supplies, implementation of management measures) 285.000.000
Management of the habitat of the Delta of Evros river (studies, works, supplies, implementation of management measures) 285.000.000
Management of the habitat of the National forest in Pindos (studies, works, supplies, implementation of management measures) 500.000.000
Restoration and utilisation of the Koutavos lagoon in Kefalonia 355.000.000
Environmental & archaeological park of Yuhta in Irakleion 420.000.000
Environmental park of Parnonas in Arcadia, management study and infrastructure works for the protection & development of the mountain 570.000.000
Protection & management of the lake Plastiras area in Karditsa 255.000.000
Protection & management of Aherontas 300.000.000
Preservation & development of wetlands of Stena & Delta of Kalamas & lake Kalodiki 315.000.000
Restoration of Mavrouda lake 215.000.000
Protection & management of the mountains of Rodopi 275.000.000
Protection & management of Vravronas - Schoinias 260.000.000
Protection & management of Hortarolimni - Aliki lake wetlands in Limnos 145.000.000
Protection & management of Aliki lagoon wetland in Naxos 85.000.000
Protection & management of Kalloni bay wetland in Lesvos 160.000.000
Protection & management of Vourinos mountain 155.000.000
Integrated programme for the protection and management of the coastal zone of Kiparissia 300.000.000
Protection & management of Dimosari ravine and wider area 550.000.000
Protection & management of Psalidi coast & wetland in Kos 255.000.000
Protection & management of Aspropotamos-koziaka mountain ecosystem 205.000.000
Protection & management & mild tourist development of Taigetos 215.000.000
Protection & management of Psifta Troizina wetland and wider area 240.000.000
Soil protection from corrosion in three island areas (Leros, Arhangelos & Profilia) 255.000.000
Protection & management of Enipea ravine in Olimpos 375.000.000
Physical & Urban Planning
Environmental Impact assessment from extractive industry activities in central & northern Evia, study & construction of restoration works for old extraction sites 255.000.000
Restoration of public market in Karditsa 475.000.000
Development of public space in front of the second constitutional assembly site in Astros, Arcadia 50.000.000
Development of special outdoors area of historical preserved buildings of Kapodistria's army quarters in Argos 205.000.000
Development of central square in urban area of N. Artaki, Evia 40.000.000
Restoration and development of historical centre in Corfu 330.000.000
Rehabilitation of historical centre in Amaliada, Ilia 115.000.000
Rehabilitation of historical urban area of Varousi and development of Lithaios river in Trikala 250.000.000
Rehabilitation of urban centre in Ag. Nikolas, Lasithi 215.000.000
Development of surrounding area of the monastery of Ag. Ioannis Prodromos in Analipsi, Trichonida 20.000.000
Rehabilitation/ development of urban centre of Sofades, Karditsa 105.000.000
Development of urban/port area in Paroikia, Paros & Naxos 140.000.000
Development of open theatre in windmills site & rehabilitation of mills area in Ios 115.000.000
Rehabilitation of connecting section of historical centre in Leipsoi 75.000.000
Planning & implementation of strategic interventions for dealing with the effects on the walls of the medieval city of Rhodes from underground network construction 110.000.000
Development/ rehabilitation of Liberty square in Irakleion 330.000.000
Rehabilitation/ development of open areas in Delphoi, Fokida 85.000.000
Rehabilitation ofcoastal square in Ithaki 95.000.000
Physical planning organisation, rehabilitation, development of the historical centre of Vergina 175.000.000
Rehabilitation works in the municipalitiy of Ag. Barbara 80.000.000
Rehabilitation works in the municipality of Petroupoli 60.000.000
Rehabilitation works in the municipality of Perama 400.000.000
Rehabilitation of Lixouri beach in Kefalonia 190.000.000
Rehabilitation of beach and urban web in Mastichochori, Antimacheia, Kos 350.000.000
Rehabilitation of Baroutadiko area in Aigaleo 95.000.000
Rehabilitation of Makronisos concentration camp 175.000.000
Development/ rehabilitation of Irini park in Kamateros 250.000.000
Rehabilitation of natural environment in Penteli ravine in Halandri 445.000.000
Rehabilitation of Andrianos hill area aquaduct & Yampourla ravine, N. Ionia 215.000.000
Protection & development of natural and monastery environment of Evangelismos monastery in Ormylia, Halkidiki 180.000.000
Rehabilitation of historical location of Kaisariani shooting area 235.000.000
Rehabilitation of Kastro area in Lamia 95.000.000
Rehabilitation of Attica park in Athens 905.000.000
Rehabilitation of Marathonas beach 65.000.000
Development of historical starting point of the Marathon, in Marathonas 305.000.000
Restoration of preserved building of baths in Kalithea 395.000.000
Rehabilitation/ development of urban area centre in Naoussa 255.000.000
Rehabilitation, restoration of municipal preserved building in Edessa 305.000.000
Protection & development of preserved areas of Barbouta-Kiriotissa in Veroia 315.000.000
Rehabilitation, restoration of historical centre of Thassos 525.000.000
Rehabilitation of fountain area in Ag. Barbara, Drama 500.000.000
Development, rehabilitation of palm tree forest in Lavrion 140.000.000
Rehabilitation, interventions in the historical centre of Kozani 190.000.000
Rehabilitation of Salamina's coasts 105.000.000
Rehabilitation of urban area of Thiva, Voiotia 115.000.000
Rehabilitation of the historical centre of Kavala 270.000.000
Rehabilitation of the historical centre of Florina 120.000.000
Rehabilitation of Aitolikos island 200.000.000
Rehabilitation of the historical centre in Vonitsa 150.000.000
Protection and development of the historical centre of Halkida 80.000.000
Study for the urban planning of Dilesi, Viotia 320.000.000
Study for the urban planning of Panagioude, Lesvos 45.000.000
Study for the urban planning of N. Artaki, Evia 240.000.000
Study for the urban planning of Marathos area, Magnesia 35.000.000
Study for the urban planning of Vergas beach, Messinia 115.000.000
Study for the urban planning of Mikri Mantineia, Messinia 95.000.000
Study for the urban planning of Sigri area in Lesvos 25.000.000
Study for the urban planning of Skala Kalonis in Lesvos 20.000.000
Study for the urban planning of Velika - Sotiritsa in Larisa 70.000.000
Study for the urban planning of Ag. Georgios in Magnesia 45.000.000
Study for the urban planning of Ag. Kampos - Sotiritsa in Larisa 110.000.000
Study for the urban planning of Lassis area in Argostoli, Kefallonia 65.000.000
Study for the urban planning of Nopigia coastal settlement in Hania 20.000.000
Study for the urban planning of Limia, Limnos 45.000.000
Study for the urban planning of Mesoggi coastal settlement in Corfu 25.000.000
Study for the urban planning of Karros coastal settlement in Hania 40.000.000
Study for the urban planning of Perigiali coastal settlement in Lefkada 40.000.000
Study for the urban planning of Ipsos coastal settlement in Corfu 135.000.000
Study for the urban planning of Aktaio coastal settlement in Ahaia 114.000.000
Study for the urban planning of Krioneri coastal settlement in Aitoloakarnania 20.000.000
Study for the urban planning of Ag. Vassilios coastal settlement in Ahaia 117.000.000
Study for the urban planning of Krithana area, N. Aghialos in Magnesia 40.000.000
Study for the urban planning of Antikiros in Viotia 25.000.000
Study for the urban planning of Paliampela, Salamina in Attica 10.000.000
Study for the urban planning of Sarantapotamos in Elefsina, Attica 65.000.000
Study for the urban planning of Troparia in Kalivia, Attica 75.000.000
Study for the urban planning of Andravida in Ilia 105.000.000
Study for the urban planning of Traganos in Ilia 95.000.000
Study for the urban planning of Kokkino Limanaki in Rafina, Attica 45.000.000
Study for the urban planning of Kalamos in Attica 80.000.000
Study for the urban planning of Agrileza, Skala Oropou in attica 30.000.000
Study for the urban planning of Kolonelos, Sitia in Lasithi 20.000.000
Study for the urban planning of Ag. Kirikos in Samos 150.000.000
Study for the urban planning of Fanari-Therma in ag. Kirikos, Samos 55.000.000
Study for the urban planning of Ag. Efstratios in Lesvos 35.000.000
Study for the urban planning of Faros in Evia 85.000.000
Study for the urban planning of Vassilikos in Evia 80.000.000
Study for the urban planning of N. Stira in Evia 105.000.000
Study for the urban planning of Megali Sipiada - Hronia in Evia 85.000.000
Study for the urban planning of Ag. Vassileiou in Viotia 25.000.000
Study for the urban planning of Paralia Politikon in Evia 135.000.000
Study for the urban planning of Vathi in Evia 115.000.000
Study for the urban planning of Avlida beach in Evia 285.000.000
Study for the urban planning of Plaka, dilesi in Viotia 350.000.000
Study for the urban planning of Galaxidi in Fokida 50.000.000
Study for the urban planning of Vathi in Ithaki 75.000.000
Study for the urban planning of Agiasos in Lesvos 25.000.000
Study for the urban planning of Polihnitos in Lesvos 40.000.000
Study for the cadastral inventory of Karpenisi area in Evritania 45.000.000
Study for the cadastral inventory of Ermoupoli in Cyclades 75.000.000
Study for the cadastral inventory of Simi in Dodekanisa 65.000.000
Study for the cadastral inventory of Nafpaktos in Aitoloakarnania 45.000.000
Study for the cadastral inventory of old city of Hania area 30.000.000
Study for the cadastral inventory of the historical centre of Athens 25.000.000
Study for the urban planning of N. Iraklia in Ag. Pavlos, Halkidiki 305.000.000
Study for the urban planning of N. Sozopoli, N.Silata, Halkidiki 255.000.000
Study for the urban planning of N. Zihni in Serres 105.000.000
Study for the urban planning of N. Kallikrateia in Halkidiki 1.615.000.000
Study for the urban planning of Ag. Athanasios in Drama 65.000.000
Study for the urban planning of Makrohori in Imathia 120.000.000
Study for the urban planning of Toroni in Halkidiki 65.000.000
Study for the urban planning of Porto Koufo in Halkidiki 35.000.000
Study for the urban planning of Ammouliani in Halkidiki 35.000.000
Study for the urban planning of N. Panteleimon in Pieria 80.000.000
Study for the urban planning of Skotina in Pieria 100.000.000
Study for the urban planning of Platamonas in Pieria 205.000.000
Study for the urban planning of Lakka area in Anavissos, Attica 50.000.000
Study for the urban planning of Markopoulo in Attica 175.000.000
Study for the urban planning of Marathonas in Attica 195.000.000
Study for the urban planning of Koinira in Theologo, Kavala 95.000.000
Study for the urban planning of Poto-Pefkario in Thassos 115.000.000
Study for the urban planning of Davlia area in Viotia 5.000.000
Study for the urban planning of Anavatos coastal settlement in Omiroupolis, Hios 1.000.000

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Last updated 1 November 1997