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National Implementation of Agenda 21

CHINA

COUNTRY PROFILE

IMPLEMENTATION OF AGENDA 21:
REVIEW OF PROGRESS MADE SINCE THE
UNITED NATIONS CONFERENCE ON
ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT, 1992

Information Provided by the Government of China to the
United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development
Fifth Session
7-25 April 1997
New York

United Nations Department for Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development
Division for Sustainable Development
The Information contained in this Country Profile is also available on the World Wide Web, as follows:
http://www.un.org/dpcsd/earthsummit

CHINA

This country profile has been provided by:

Name of Ministry/Office: The Government of the People's Republic of China

Date: May 20, 1997

Submitted by: Qin Huasun

Title: Permanent Representative to UN

Mailing address:

Telephone:

Telefax:

E-mail:

Note from the Secretariat: An effort has been made to present all country profiles within a common format, with an equal number of pages. However, where Governments have not provided information for the tables appended to Chapters 4 and 17, those tables have been omitted entirely in order to reduce the overall length of the profile and save paper. Consequently, there may be some minor inconsistencies among the formats of the different country profiles.

All statistics are rendered as provided by the respective Governments.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACRONYMS
OVERVIEW
FACT SHEET
AGENDA 21 CHAPTERS
2. International cooperation to accelerate sustainable development in developing countries and related domestic policies
3. Combating poverty
4. Changing consumption patterns
5. Demographic dynamics and sustainability
6. Protecting and promoting human health
7. Promoting sustainable human settlement development
8. Integrating environment and development in decision-making
9. Protection of the atmosphere
10. Integrated approach to the planning and management of land resources
11. Combating deforestation
12. Managing fragile ecosystems: combating desertification and drought
13. Managing fragile ecosystems: sustainable mountain development
14. Promoting sustainable agriculture and rural development
15. Conservation of biological diversity
16. Environmentally sound management of biotechnology
17. Protection of the oceans, all kinds of seas, including enclosed and semi-enclosed seas, and coastal areas and the protection, rational use and development of their living resources
18. Protection of the quality and supply of freshwater resources: application of integrated approaches to the development, management and use of water resources
19. Environmentally sound management of toxic chemicals, including prevention of illegal international traffic in toxic and dangerous products
20. Environmentally sound management of hazardous wastes, including prevention of illegal international traffic in hazardous wastes
21. Environmentally sound management of solid wastes and sewage-related issues
22. Safe and environmentally sound management of radioactive wastes
23-32. Major groups
33. Financial resources and mechanisms
34. Transfer of environmentally sound technology, cooperation and capacity-building
35. Science for sustainable development
36. Promoting education, public awareness and training
37. National mechanisms and international cooperation for capacity-building in developing countries
38. International institutional arrangements
39. International legal instruments and mechanisms
40. Information for decision-making

ACRONYMS

APELL Awareness and Preparedness for Emergencies at Local Level
CFC chlorofluorocarbon
CGIAR Consultative Group on International Agriculture Research
CILSS Permanent Inter-State Committee on Drought Control in the Sahel
EEZ exclusive economic zone
ECA Economic Commission for Africa
ECE Economic Commission for Europe
ECLAC Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean
ELCI Environmental Liaison Centre International
EMINWA environmentally sound management of inland water
ESCAP Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific
ESCWA Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia
FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
GATT General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
GAW Global Atmosphere Watch (WMO)
GEF Global Environment Facility
GEMS Global Environmental Monitoring System (UNEP)
GEMS/WATER Global Water Quality Monitoring Programme
GESAMP Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Pollution
GIPME Global Investigation of Pollution in Marine Environment (UNESCO)
GIS Geographical Information System
GLOBE Global Legislators Organisation for a Balanced Environment
GOS Global Observing System (WMO/WWW)
GRID Global Resource Information Database
GSP generalized system of preferences
HIV human immunodeficiency virus
IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency
IAP-WASAD International Action Programme on Water and Sustainable Agricultural Development
IARC International Agency for Research on Cancer
IBSRAM International Board of Soil Resources and Management
ICCA International Council of Chemical Associations
ICES International Council for the Exploration of the Sea
ICPIC International Cleaner Production Information Clearing House
ICSC International Civil Service Commission
ICSU International Council of Scientific Unions
IEEA Integrated environmental and economic accounting
IFAD International Fund for Agricultural Development
IGADD Intergovernmental Authority for Drought and Development
IGBP International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (ICSU)
IGBP/START International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme/Global Change System for Analysis, Research and Training
ILO International Labour Organisation
IMF International Monetary Fund
IMO International Maritime Organization
INFOTERRA International Environment Information system (UNEP)
IOC Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission
IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
IPCS International Programme on Chemical Safety
IPM integrated pest management
IRPTC International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals
ITC International Tin Council
ITTO International Tropical Timber Organization
IUCN International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources
MARPOL International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships
OECD Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development
PGRFA plant genetic resources for agriculture
PIC prior informed consent procedure
SADCC South African Development Co-ordination Conference
SARD sustainable agriculture and rural development
UNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
UNDP United Nations Development Programme
UNDRO Office of the United Nations Disaster Relief Coordinator
UNEP United Nations Environment Programme
UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
UNFPA United Nations Population Fund
UNICEF United Nations Children's Fund
UNIDO United Nations Industrial Development Organization
UNU United Nations University
WCP World Climate Programme (WMO/UNEP/ICSU/UNESCO)
WFC World Food Council
WHO World Health Organization
WMO World Meteorological Organization
WWF World Wide Fund for Nature (also called World Wildlife Fund)
WWW World Weather Watch (WMO)

OVERVIEW

Since the UNCED held in Rio in 1992, the Government of China has taken a responsible attitude in implementing China's commitments made at UNCED. A comprehensive series of efforts has been implemented to carry out Agenda 21 in the context of the country-specific conditions of China, and the following remarkable progress has been achieved:

The nation's 10-Point Strategy for Sustainable Development was adopted by the Chinese Government in August 1992 to proclaim that China's inevitable choice is to follow the path of sustainable development.

An organisational management system has been established in order to give impetus to the implementation of the nation's sustainable development strategy. The Leading Group of China's Agenda 21, was established by the Chinese Central Government in August of 1992. Its purpose is to guide and coordinate the formulation and implementation of China's Agenda 21. Under the leadership of the State Planning Commission and the State Science and Technology Commission, an administrative office -- the Administrative Centre for China's Agenda 21 -- was also established to address the day-to-day work of implementing China's Agenda 21 and its Priority Programme according to the directives of the Leading Group and its office. Altogether, 21 provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities across the country had set up their local Leading Groups and offices for Agenda 21 by the end of October of 1996.

Sustainable development strategies have been formulated at different levels for the State, departments, and local governments respectively. The Chinese Government finalized and published the sustainable development strategy for China in 1994, "China's Agenda 21 -- White Paper on China's Population, Environment, and Development in the 21st Century" (hereinafter referred to as "China's Agenda 21" ). Guided by China's Agenda 21, many provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities have developed, or are in the process of developing, their respective Agenda 21 or Plans of Action. Also, several ministries have made, or are making, their Agenda 21 or Plans of Action in their specific fields.

The strategy of sustainable development has been incorporated into national economic and social development plans. This is an essential step that will enable China to carry out her national strategy of sustainable development. With support from the UNDP, the relevant departments of the Chinese Government have conducted research and training courses in integrating Agenda 21 into plans for national economic and social development. This has played a positive role in assisting local governments at various levels to work out their Ninth Five-Year Plans and Long-Term Objectives for the Year 2010. In March 17, 1996, the Fourth Session of the Eighth National People's Congress (i.e., the Parliament of China) adopted the "Outline of the Ninth Five-Year Plan for National Social and Economic Development and the Long-Term Objectives for the Year 2010". These documents proclaim sustainable development as an important guiding principle of the nation, and relevant decisions on implementing this strategy in the future have been developed.

The processes of drafting new legislation and improving law enforcement relevant to sustainable development have been accelerated to promote the implementation of the sustainable development strategy. These steps are necessary to ensure a more scientific and systematic implementation of sustainable development into the legal system.

Social groups and the public have been organised and mobilised to participate in implementing the sustainable development strategy. Local governments at different levels in China, as well as social groups have conducted a number of training courses and have made tremendous efforts to disseminate the concept of sustainable development by launching extensive publicity campaigns using the television, radio broadcasting, newspapers, and magazines, thus enhancing the whole nation's awareness of sustainable development. The ideology and strategy of sustainable development has now won extensive support from people of all walks of life, including all social groups in China. Positive progress in spreading the concept of sustainable development has been made due to the participation of women, youth, labour unions, peasants (particularly those from ethnic minorities), as well as science and technology circles.

Proceeding from the spirit of establishing global partnerships, international co-operation has been actively sought in the realm of environment and development. Supported by relevant agencies of the United Nations, international organisations, the governments of many other nations, and the business community, the Chinese Government held the First and Second International High-Level Round-Table Conferences on China's Agenda 21 in 1994 and 1996 respectively. These two conferences helped promote the exchange of experience and gave new impetus to international co-operation in the field of sustainable development.

It has become clear that China has made substantial advances in the area of sustainable development and has developed the capacity to continue doing so. In this way, the Chinese people and Government have shown their commitment to the principles laid down in Agenda 21 and their desire to strive towards a sustainable future.

(Fact Sheet)

CHINA

1. Key National Sustainable Development Coordination Mechanism(s)/Council(s).

Contact point (Name, Title, Office):

Telephone:

Fax:

e-mail:

Mailing address:

2. Membership/Composition/Chairperson

Leading members

State Planning Commission;

State Science and Technology Commission;

Associate leading members

State Economic and Trade Commission;

National Environmental Protection Agency;

2a. List of ministries and agencies involved:

Ministry of Foreign Affairs; State Commission for Restructuring Economy; State Education Commission; State Nationalities Affairs Commission; Ministry of Finance; Ministry of Labour; Ministry of Geology and Mineral Resources; Ministry of Construction; Ministry of Electric Power; Ministry of Coal Industry; Ministry of Railways; Ministry of Communications; Ministry of Machine-Building Industry; Ministry of Electronics Industry; Ministry of Metallurgical Industry; Ministry of Chemical Industry; Ministry of Water Resources; Ministry of Agriculture; Ministry of Forestry; Ministry of Internal Trade; Ministry of Foreign Trade and Economic Co-operation; Ministry of Radio, Film and Television; Ministry of Public Health; State Family Planning Commission; People's Bank of China; Bureau of Legislative Affairs of the State Council; Chinese Academy of Sciences; State Statistical Bureau; State Tourism Administration; State Oceanic Administration; China Meteorological Agency; State Seismological Bureau; State Land Administration; State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine; State Bureau of Nuclear Safety; Xinhua News Agency; People's Daily; China National Council of Light Industry; China National Textile Council; China National Nuclear Corporation; China National Petroleum Corporation; China National Offshore Oil Corporation; China National Nonferrous Metals Industry Corporation; All-China Federation of Trade Union; All-China Women's Federation; Central Committee of the Communist Youth League of China; China Science and Technology Association; National Patriotic Public Health Campaign Committee; The State Council Leading Group Office of Poverty Alleviation and Development; China National Committee for the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction.

2b. Names of para-statal bodies and institutions involved, as well as participation of academic and private sectors:

Chinese Academy of Sciences; Chinese Academy of Agriculture Science; Tsinghua University; Beijing University; etc.

2c. Names of non-governmental organizations:

The Sustainable Development Society; etc.

3. Mandate role of above mechanism/council:

The mission of the Leading Group for China's Agenda 21 is to organize and coordinate the formulation and implementation of China's Agenda 21 and its associated Priority Programme

4. If available, attach a diagram (organization chart) showing national coordination structure and linkages between ministries:

Submitted by

(Name):

Signature:

Title:

Date:

Ministry/Office:

Telephone:

Fax:

e-mail:

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 2: INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION TO ACCELERATE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES AND RELATED DOMESTIC POLICIES (with special emphasis on TRADE)

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: Chapter 2: Strategies and policies for sustainable development.

China is committed to participate in international organizations and strengthen international cooperation. China encourages the establishment of an international trade regime that is fair, stable, non-discriminatory, predictable and takes into account the interests of developing nations. China is committed to take an active part in global environmental protection activities.

Since 1978, China has been experiencing a period of fundamental economic restructuring, involving a gradual transition from a planned economy to a socialist market economy. The Chinese economy has been gradually integrating itself into the global economic system. Dramatic changes have been undertaken in the following:

-- the structure of ownership through the introduction of individual, private and foreign capital ownership,

-- income distribution,

-- economic operations through the combination of planning and market mechanisms,

-- the decentralisation of decision-making.

The ultimate target of economic restructuring is the establishment of a socialist market economy by the end of this century, through, inter alia, the development of markets, a modern enterprise system, and comprehensive reforms of the financial, tax, banking, investment and planning systems.

Proceeding from the spirit of estabishing global partnerships, international co-operation has been actively sought in the realm of environment and development. Supported by relevant agencies of the United Nations, international organisations, the governments of many other nations, and the business community, the Chinese Government held the First and Second International High-Level Round Table Conferences on China's Agenda 21 in 1994 and 1996 respectively. These two conferences helped promote the exchange of experience and gave new impetus to international co-operation in the field of sustainable development.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues:

In order to promote international cooperation on China's Agenda 21 and establish cooperative partnerships on the global environment and development, the Chinese Government has formulated the "Priority Programme for China's Agenda 21". The Priority Programme includes 82 projects covering the following 9 priority areas:

capacity building for sustainable development

sustainable agriculture

cleaner production and environmental protection industry

clean energy and transportation

conservation and sustainable utilisation of natural resources

environmental pollution control

poverty alleviation and regional development

population, health, and human settlements

global climate change and biodiversity conservation

3. Major Groups: No information.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 3: COMBATING POVERTY

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: By the end of 1992, there were 80 million Chinese people still living in poverty. These people (8.8% of the total rural population) live mostly in the rural areas of central and western China or in the remote mountains. In the early 1990s, the Chinese Government declared that it would work to solve the problems of food and clothing supplies for these 80 million poverty-stricken people by the year 2000 and thus enable poor regions to embark on the path of sustainable development early in the next century.

Formulation of the poverty alleviation plan

According to the national poverty alleviation plan (the "Helping Eighty Million People in Seven Years" Plan), the State will do all it can to solve the problems of inadequate food and clothing for the 80 million poverty-stricken rural people in a seven year period from 1994 to 2000. This will be accomplished by concentrating the manpower, material and financial resources of the country and mobilising all the forces of society. After three years of hard work, China's poverty-stricken population had dropped from 80 to 58 million by the end of 1996. In 1995, the net annual per capita income for those counties listed as major alleviation targets by the State had reached RMB 824 yuan and the available per capita grain allocation reached 353.5 kg.

Mobilisation of societal forces participating in poverty alleviation

-- Organising the corresponding central party departments, State departments, enterprises, and institutions to offer direct help

At present, 122 central party departments, State departments, large-scale enterprises, and institutions have established relationships of designated assistance with 330 key poor counties (these account for 56% of the poor counties in the country). In 1995 alone, the above-listed work units made investments worth RMB 947 million yuan in materials and capital and introduced investment worth RMB 990 million yuan into the recipient counties. The various State departments also started scores of departmental or sectoral plans for promoting development in poor regions, such as "Poverty Alleviation through Transportation", "Drinking Water for Both Humans and Livestock", and "Common Prosperity through Development of the Electric Structure".

-- Organising aid from the developed regions to under-developed regions

Early in 1995, the State initiated the "Projects for Cooperation between the Township Enterprises in East and West China" with the aim of encouraging the development of township and village enterprises in the poor central and western parts of the country and promoting the growth of the rural economy. One hundred pilot areas for TVE cooperation will be set up in central and western China by the year 2000, with 1000 industrial pilot projects started, 1000 mature new technologies and products disseminated, and 100 sister counties (cities) of bilateral cooperation matched, in order to utilise regional advantages between the eastern and western regions, promote common prosperity, and narrow the regional disparity. In 1996 the State Council drew up a poverty-alleviation programme which required that six provinces and three municipalities directly under central administration, and four cities of independent economic planning along the coast help ten provinces and autonomous regions in the west. This programme has proceeded smoothly.

Arrangements for resettlement

The Government has organised voluntary resettlement for those who are willing to leave those hometowns which are poor in natural conditions and resources. By moving out of these towns, nearly one million people have managed to find better food and clothing supplies. For example over 600,000 people have moved out of the desolate areas in the poorest regions of Dingxi Prefecture of Gansu Province and Xi-Hai-Gu Region of the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region.

Improvement of infrastructure in poor areas

By 1995, the poor counties, with major governmental support, had expanded the acreage of their basic farmland by 269,000 hectares. Also, drinking water was newly channelled to 7.56 million people and 6.09 million livestock. More than 30,000 kilometres of new highways had been constructed, so that 98.3% of the towns in the countryside are now connected by highways, more than 31,000 kilometres of electric transmission lines had been constructed (88.4% of the villages were powered by the grid network), and there were substantial improvements in cultural life, education, and sanitary conditions in the poor regions.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The State Council Leading Group Office of Poverty Alleviation and Development is the main governmental organisation responsible for the issues related to poverty alleviation.

An Office of Poverty Alleviation and Development in Poverty-stricken Areas was also established.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues:

Building capacity for self-development in poor regions

The officials and the public in poor regions, with the support of the Government, are encouraged to alleviate poverty through self-reliance, hard work, scientific and technological progress, market-oriented production, developing and utilising local resources, increasing commodity production, and solving the supply problems of food and clothing. In this way, we hope to alleviate poverty.

Development of the economy and intelligence at the same time, application of science and technology to poverty alleviation, and raising the competence level of working people and managers in poverty-stricken regions.

In the implementation of the Spark Programme, the "Food and Clothing" Project was started in order to strengthen the technical training of the poverty-stricken population. Its objective is that each poor household will be able to apply one or two technologies. In 1995, this type of training was offered to 15 million people, thus broadly disseminating the applicable farming techniques and technologies, pushing ahead the "Food and Clothing Project" on alleviating poverty through science and technology, and improving the practices of farmers in a continuous fashion. Under the "Food and Clothing Project", the 1995 grain yield registered an average increase of 2,385 kg per hectare on the 630,606 hectares of arable land in the poor regions. This project managed to provide adequate food and clothing to approximately 10 million poor people that year.

3. Major Groups: Major Groups, such as Chinese Women's Organisations, Youth Organisations, Labour Unions, etc. have played a very important role in alleviating poverty in China.

4. Finance: In 1995, RMB 9.85 billion yuan from the central Government and RMB 2.1 billion yuan from local governments were invested in poverty alleviation. In addition, in 1994 and 1995 the central Government transferred part of the credit fund originally allocated to six provinces with faster economic development to the poorest regions in the southwest and northeast. In 1996, the central Government appropriated RMB 10.8 billion yuan as a special poverty alleviation fund.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: Pursuit of international support

The World Bank has provided a US$ 250 million loan to the first phase of the "Southwestern China Poverty Alleviation Project". This project has been fully implemented in 35 key poor counties in Guizhou, Yunnan, and Guangxi Provinces. After the completion of the project, 3.5 million people will enjoy stable food and clothing supplies. The preparatory work for implementing the second phase of the poverty alleviation project has almost been completed. The next phase of the project, once again sponsored by the World Bank, will take place in the mountainous areas of Shaanxi and Sichuan in early 1997. Other projects of resource development are being carried out with support from the UNDP and various other NGOs. Smooth progress has been recorded in a project for improving basic education in the poor areas. This project is being run by the State Education Commission and financed by a US$ 320 million loan from the World Bank.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1985
1990
1992
1995
Unemployment (%) 1.8b 2.5b 2.3b 3%
Population living in absolute poverty (million person) 250a 80 65
Public spending on social sector %
a 1978 b urban area

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 4: CHANGING CONSUMPTION PATTERNS

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: Chapter 7: Population, Consumption and Social Services of China's Agenda 21 contains the programme area Establishment of Sustainable Consumption Patterns. Consumption trends in China are not always appropriate, but, on the whole, consumption by the Chinese people is still at a low level.

National policy objectives/focus

National targets

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information.

3. Major Groups: No information.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1985
1990
1992
Latest 1995
GDP per capita (current US$) 276 326 378 574a
Real GDP growth (%) 12.1 6.7 12.8 9.7b
Annual energy consumption per capita (Kg. of oil equivalent per capita) 556c 552 583 10.6ced
Motor vehicles in use per 1000 inhabitants 0.3 0.4 0.59 0.85

a 1989 a 1995 b 1995 c 1989 d 1994

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 5: DEMOGRAPHIC DYNAMICS AND SUSTAINABILITY

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: China's population reached 1.224 billion at the end of 1996 (not including the populations of Macao, Hong Kong, and Taiwan). This huge population, although constituting a gigantic manpower supply for sustainable social and economic development, exerts a heavy pressure on resources and the environment. China faces its third baby boom in the 1990s. It is estimated that the population will grow to 1.3 billion by the year 2000 and to 1.5-1.6 billion by the middle of the next century. Therefore, controlling population growth and improving the standards of living are important strategic tasks for China's sustainable development.

Family planning is an important strategic task for realising sustainable development

As early as 1982, the Chinese Government put family planning, population control, and improvement in the quality of lifestyle in its basic state policy and included these in the long-term plans for national economic and social development. In the 1990s, especially since the UNCED, the Chinese Government has, based on China's national conditions, constantly improved policies and plans on family planning, adopted integrated approaches for addressing population issues, and made great efforts to reduce the birth rate. Meanwhile, family planning was combined with development, poverty alleviation, educational promotion, women's status elevation, woman and infant medical care, social security development, rational development and utilisation of resources, and harmonious family establishment. The Government also offers guidance and services to families, especially poor families who are willing to follow the family planning programs, in order to develop and improve production, increase income, and improve living standards.

Effective control of the rapid population growth

In 1996, the national human fertility was 1.698%, a reduction of 0.408% compared with 2.106% in 1990. The natural population growth rate was 1.042%in 1996, a reduction of 0.397% compared with 1.439% in 1990. The total fertility rate of child-bearing age women has dropped to 2. According to data from the United Nations, China's fertility is noticeably lower than the average of other developing countries.

General improvement of the people's education level

--Complete implementation of 9-year compulsory education

The enrolment rate of school age children in China has increased greatly. The 1996 enrolment rate of school-aged children soared to 98.8%, the enrolment rate of middle-school aged children rose to 82.4%, and the percentage of illiterate and semi-illiterate people dropped from 22.27% in 1990 to 16.48% in 1996.

--Active development of vocational education

In the past ten years, China has seen rapid development in vocational education. By 1996, there were 10.1 million students attending various vocational schools of the high-school level, and there were more middle-school graduates attending vocational schools than high-schools. In recent years, more than 50 million people have received vocational technical training each year.

--Moderate development of higher education

China has established a complete higher education system for both youths and adults. By 1996, there were over 2,170 institutions of higher education (1,032 for youth, 1,138 for adults) with 5.675 million registered students. This was a 52.2% increase from the 3.729 million students registered in 1990.

Gradual establishment of a comprehensive old-age pension system and guarantees of women's rights and interests

In order to solve the problems caused by an aging population, the Chinese Government is accelerating establishment of an endowment and medical insurance system for elderly people which is characterised by social provision, support from their children, self-reliance, and mutual supplement. Meanwhile, laws have been formulated and promulgated to foster the social custom of respecting older people. Services of many kinds are rendered to seniors, including the establishment of senior-aid institutions, such as elderly community service networks and apartments for the elderly. The "Law of the People's Republic of China Concerning the Guarantee of the Rights and Interests of Women " has been put into effect so as to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests of women in education, employment, social participation, marriage, and family matters. In 1995, the average Chinese urban female adult enjoyed an average of 9.97 years of schooling. Their illiteracy and semi-literacy rate was only 2.07%. Among the women living in rural areas, 8.91% have a high school education, 26.62% have attended middle-school, and 27.91% have only attended primary school. The illiteracy and semi-literacy rate for rural women is 36.58%.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure:

Family Planning Commissions were established at different levels and they associate the major responsibility for population issues in China.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues:

China has taken an active step to strengthen the capacity of Chinese people by improving people's education level.

The Comprehensive old-age pension system has also been gradually established to solve the problems caused by an aging population.

3. Major Groups:

Chinese Women's Organisations, Youth Organisation, and Labour Unions have been fully involved in the process of formulating and implementing population policies.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1990
1993
1995
Population (Thousands) mid-year estimates 1,143,330a 1,185,170a 1,211,210
Annual rate of increase (1990-1993) 1.439% 1.145% 1.055%
Surface area (Km2) 9,600,600 9,600,000 9,600,000
Population density (people/Km2) 119 123 126
Other data

a estimates at the end of the year

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 6: PROTECTING AND PROMOTING HUMAN HEALTH

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

Adequately safeguarding the legitimate rights and interests of women and children

The Chinese Government pays great attention to the people's rights of reproduction and their reproductive health, and has worked to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests of women and children through legislation. Educational activities are carried out throughout the country on such topics as contraception, sterilisation, good bearing and upbringing, and reproductive care. Efforts have been made to improve the quality of reproductive medical services. Demonstrations on offering high-quality family planning service have been performed in some regions so that people of child-bearing age may choose contraception or sterilisation measures on an informed basis and in a responsible manner. By 1996, more than 200 million child-bearing age people had taken contraception measures. The integrated contraception rate among married women is more than 80%.

Improvement in urban residents' health

A medical service and family planning network has been developed in China. In 1991, China begun to reform its medical insurance system for urban workers by combining social management with individual accounting. At the same time, a cooperative medical system has been developed. At present, the average life expectancy of Chinese people is 70, the infant mortality has dropped below 3.14%, the pregnant and lying-in women mortality is 0.0619%, and the planned children vaccination rate is 85% (using towns as the statistical unit). All the above statistics serve to illustrate that some major indices of people's sanitation and health of China are advanced in comparison to other countries at a similar economic development level.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure:

The Ministry of Public Health is the governmental agency responsible for issues related to human health.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information.

3. Major Groups: No information.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
1994
Life expectancy at birth

Male

Female

65.5

66.2

68.0

70.9

68

(M+F)
Infant mortality (per 1000 live births) 42 32 35
Maternal mortality rate (per 100000 live births) 50a 95b
Access to safe drinking water (% of population)
Access to sanitation services (% of population)
a 1982 b 1980/91

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 7: PROMOTING SUSTAINABLE HUMAN SETTLEMENT DEVELOPMENT

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

From 1990 to 1996, China accelerated its urbanisation process. In 1990, the size of the urban population was 301.91 million, and it increased to 359.50 million by 1996. The urbanisation ratio rose from 26.41% in 1990 to 29.4% in 1996. Compared with the rapid growth of the industrial production and the urban population, the development of infrastructure lags behind. As a result, environmental pollution and insufficient housing are the two major obstacles to sustainable urban development. In light of this, the Chinese Government has listed urban environment control and human settlement construction as major area for development fields.

Overall urban planning and urban function re-definition

By the end of 1996, 666 cities and 17,770 towns had drawn up overall municipal or township plans. These plans incorporated items such as protection and improvement of the urban ecological environment, use of land resources in an economic and rational way, and prevention and control of urban pollution. As stated in these plans, the reconstruction of the old quarters and the development of new districts in the cities must be done in line with the requirements that define the functions of certain city quarters. Also included are designs for adjusting the industrial layout, strengthening the prevention and control of industrial pollution, changing the location of factories adjacent to residential buildings, and controlling the urban environment hazards in both industrial production and living consumption. The aim of these plans is the creation of residential districts with reasonable layouts and a complete range of social services.

Building infrastructure for municipal public services and urban environmental protection

In 1996, the national daily municipal water supply capacity increased to 185.168 million cubic metres and the tap water supply rate reached 95% of the urban population. In the same year, the centralised treatment rate of urban sewage was 23.62%, non-hazardous treatment rate of garbage and excrement was 49.06%, the municipal gas supply rose to 73.27% of urban households, a 123,000 km-long urban road network (with 7.58 square metres of road surface per urban inhabitant) was constructed, and forest cover of 24.4% (with 5.8 m2 of forest cover per person) was achieved in city districts. Some cities suffering from water shortages have built water diversion channels to ease their water demand problem. The tap water supply has been extended to 32% of the towns and villages, benefiting 318 million people.

Quantitative examination system for comprehensive urban environmental control

Since 1989, the quantitative examination system for comprehensive urban environmental control has been advocated nation-wide by the Chinese Government. The central and provincial governments have performed quantitative checks in over 37 key cities and another 330 cities. By 1996, China had delineated an area of 14,085 square kilometres for smoke control and an area of 2,185 square kilometres for noise control. Several rivers that cut through cities have undergone large-scale overall re-embankment and dredging in order to improve the aquatic environment of the urban areas, e.g. Zhongdong River in Hangzhou, Funan River in Chengdu, Haihe River in Tianjin, Suzhou River in Shanghai, Qinhuai River in Nanjing, and Haohe River in Nantong. On the basis of this examination system, the Chinese Government established a number of model cities for environmental protection, such as Zhangjiagang in Jiangsu Province which became a model city in July of 1996.

Promotion of the national housing project and acceleration of housing construction progress

From 1991 to 1995, there was a total investment of RMB 841.67 billion yuan in the municipal and township housing construction of the nation. New housing totalling 1.033 billion square metres of floor space was completed, thus resolving housing shortages for 5 million households. In 1995, the average per capita dwelling area was 7.9 square metres in urban areas and 16.9 square metres in rural areas. Rural housing has increased by 3.07 billion square metres over the last five years. 1995 was also the first year of the new housing project envisaged by the Chinese Government:

STATUS REPORT:(cont'd)

165 pilot cities received a total of RMB 15 billion yuan in loans from the Chinese Government and RMB 22.5 billion yuan from the local authorities (23.771 million m2 have already been built). China has made gratifying achievements in human settlements development, a fact that has been proven by the granting of the UN "Human Settlements Award" to several Chinese projects: the reconstruction of Tangshan after the earthquake, the building of the new residential quarters in Shenzhen, the rebuilding of the outmoded residential areas at Ju'er (chrysanthemum) Alley in Beijing, and the "Combating Difficulty" Housing Project in Shanghai.

Application of science and technology to housing construction and promotion of the modernisation of the housing industry

Starting in 1994, the State Science and Technology Commission, the Ministry of Construction, and other state departments have jointly organised and implemented the "Industrial Project of Science and Technology for 'Well-Off' Urban Housing to the Year 2000". The project is designed to accelerate the modernisation of China's housing construction industry by promoting the transfer and application of achievements in housing technology research, improving the functions and quality of buildings, and bettering the housing environment. In parallel with the overall development of scientific and technological research, a series of comprehensive demonstration projects on "Well-Off" housing have also been established.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The Ministry of Construction is the governmental agency responsible for sustainable development of human settlements.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues:

China has published and enforced the "Law of the People's Republic of China on Municipal Planning", the "Administrative Law of the People's Republic of China Concerning Urban Real Estate", the "Regulations Governing the Developmental Planning for Villages and Towns", the "Regulations on Water Supply in Cities", the "Regulations Governing the Appearance and General Sanitation of Cities", the "Regulations on Afforestation in Urban Areas", and the "Regulations Governing Roads in Urban Areas", so that urban and rural planning, construction, and management systems are regulated by legal mechanisms and the development of urban and rural settlements is ensured.

There is a National Research Centre for Building Engineering and Technology. Significant research related to sustainable human settlement have been conducted with the support of the State Science and Technology Commission.

3. Major Groups: No information.

4. Finance: See Status Report.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: UNDP helped to produce a TV documentary about the achievements in environment and development in Benxi City.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1990
1995
Urban population in % of total population 26.4 29.04
Annual rate of growth of urban population (%) 2.2 2.5
Largest city population (in % of total population) 1.2 1.2
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 8: INTEGRATING ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT IN DECISION-MAKING

(See pages vii and viii at the beginning of the profile)

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: In 1992 and 1993 China developed a National Agenda 21 -- White Paper on China's Population, Environment and Development in the 21st Century. China's Agenda 21 was approved by the State Council in March 1994. In 1994, the State Council also issued a directive calling on government institutions at all levels, to consider China's Agenda 21 as an overarching strategic guideline for the formulation of economic and social development plans, and particularly to integrate it into the Five Year Plan (1996-2000), plans for the year 2010, and into day-to-day management.

1. Formulation of the national social and economic development plans with the guidance of the concept of sustainable development

In order to adequately manage the implementation of China's Agenda 21 at the macro level, the State Planning Commission and the State Science and Technology Commission, by the request of the State Council, gave priority to the incorporation of China's Agenda 21 into state planning. In July of 1994, with the support of the UNDP, the "Research and Training Programme on Incorporation of China's Agenda 21 into the National Economy and Social Development Plan" was undertaken for two years. This programme, taking into consideration the overall development strategy and in view of the Ninth Five-Year Plan and Long-Term Objectives for the Year 2010, puts forth the following counter-measures and suggestions:

--Actively promote shifts in the economic development model and make economic efficiency the core of economic activity. Establish a sound production mechanism, by means of reforming the economic structure, in order to utilise resources, reduce energy consumption, and increase production efficiency. Favourable prices, taxation, and preferential loan policies should be adopted in fields that are conducive to society and environment, such as pollution control, clean energy development, utilisation of waste material, and natural resources protection.

--Emphasise the importance of science and technology, and re-invigorate the country through science and technology, thus laying a better foundation for sustainable development. Great efforts should be made to integrate rational use of resources with environmental protection, and to develop expertise and products that can economise on resources and minimise pollution.

--Establish and improve economic policies, regulations, and financial and taxation systems with the aim of bringing them into line with the sustainable development strategy. Great importance should be attached to research and formulation of measures and action plans concerning sustainable development, to its education, publicity, related personnel training, law enforcement, and supervision .

--Protect resources and the environment through economic instruments. Compensatory mechanisms for natural resources exploitation and environment taxation policies should be formulated, so as to strengthen state administration of natural resources and their reasonable allocation, and improve the related utilisation system so that it can better utilise and protect resources. Pricing systems of resources should also be reformed so as to promote sustainable utilisation of resources, and implementation of related policies that are conducive to transforming waste into useful resources.

STATUS REPORT: (Cont'd)

--Persist in the coordinated development of the regional economy and environment, and bring regional advantage into full play so as to gradually reduce disparity regional development. Favourable policies conducive to narrowing the regional development gaps should be formulated, and attention should also be paid to promote the development of China's interior and western areas. Models of urbanisation should also be adjusted to suit China's national conditions.

--Emphasise sustainable development education so as to enhance public consciousness and promote public participation. Full advantage should be taken of mass media such as radio, TV, and newspapers. In addition, various schools, institutions and universities should be mobilised to spread knowledge about sustainable development, especially among women and children. A national strategy should be developed to establish related mechanisms for public participation and to maximise the role of public participation in sustainable development.

--Evaluate economic and social development policies from the perspective of sustainable development.

--Integrate the sustainable development strategy into national, local, and enterprise development plans. The sustainable development strategy should be embodied in industrial policies and regional planning. In the "Report on China's National Economy and Social Development", the part of sustainable development was also expanded and amended so as to incorporate China's Agenda 21 into the planning programmes of government authorities at various levels in a phased and comprehensive way.

2. Specific manifestations of sustainable development in the national social and economic development plans

Taking China's Agenda 21 as a guiding document in the drafting of the "Ninth Five-Year Plan

Long-Term Objectives for the Year 2010", the State Planning Commission, and various departments and bureaus

under its jurisdiction, embarked on related research programmes and personnel training. Due consideration was also given to suggestions and plans from related fields and departments.

Concurrently, government authorities under the State Council begun to engage in formulation of various sectoral Agenda 21 and plans of action which were suited to their own area of specific requirement. For example, the Ministry of Forestry formulated the "Forestry Action Plan for China's Agenda 21" which deals with sustainable development in forestry. The State Oceanic Administration drafted "China's Ocean Agenda 21", China's National Environment Protection Agency formulated "China's Agenda 21 for Environmental Protection", the Ministry of Water Resources drafted "China's Agenda 21 on Water Resources", etc. Other government authorities have also formulated programmes of action according to their specific conditions and in line with the country's Ninth Five -Year Plan.

Beijing Municipality, Hubei Province, and Guizhou Province were selected at local levels to integrate, on an experimental basis, China's Agenda 21 into their economic and social development planning. As a result, specific suggestions were made from the perspective of laws, policies, arrangements, finance and operation mechanisms, etc. so that a sustainable development strategy which can be implemented at local levels can be developed.

3.Attaching Importance to Environmental Protection and Promotion of Sustainable Development

In July of 1996, the State Council held the Fourth National Conference on Environmental Protection in order to promote the implementation of a sustainable development strategy. Subsequently, the "Decision of the State Council on Issues Related to Environmental Protection" was drafted, and a specific sectoral 5-year national plan for China's environment protection was ratified.

STATUS REPORT: (Cont'd)

The objectives of this sectoral 5-year plan concerning environmental protection are:

--By the year 2000, establish a relatively complete environmental management and related law systems in line with the socialist market economy. Efforts should be made to bring the trend of increasing environment pollution and deterioration of the ecological environment under control, and to improve the quality of the environment in several cities and regions with grave pollution problems. This will promote the emergence of some model cities and regions that enjoy both rapid economic development and a sound environment.

--By the year 2010, further improve the implementation of the strategy of sustainable development. This means that environmental law systems should be well established and the whole country's ecological deterioration should be brought under control, so that a clear improvement of environment quality in urban and rural areas can be achieved.

In order to implement the sections in the "Ninth Five-Year Plan and the Long-Term Objectives for the Year 2010" relating to environment protection, China formulated the "Programme on Controlling the Total Amount of Major Pollutants during the Ninth Five-Year Plan" and "China's Trans-Century Green Project".

--"The Programme for Controlling the Total Amount of Main Pollutants during the Ninth Five-Year Plan" states that, in order to meet the environmental goals set in the Ninth Five-Year Plan, strict regulations should be made for control of the total amount of 12 main pollutants.

--The "China Trans-Century Green Project" is specifically targeted on areas with critical pollution problems, river basins, and some fundamental environmental problems. Its primary focus is on the water pollution of three rivers (Huaihe River, Haihe River, and Liaohe River), three lakes (Taihu Lake, Dianchi Lake, and Chaohu Lake), and acid rain in southwestern, central, southern, and eastern China, as well as air pollution in 20 key cities.

--"The Ninth Five-Year Plan and the Long-Term Objectives for the Year 2010 on Land and Water Conservation" attaches great importance to the land and water conservation projects of the seven largest river valleys. In 33 key areas, land and water conservation projects of national level should be established to halt increasing land erosion, and efforts should be made to preserve an additional 650 thousand square kilometres of land by curbing soil erosion, by the year 2010.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure (please also refer to the fact sheet):

A Leading Group co-chaired by a deputy minister of the State Science and Technology Commission and a deputy minister of the State Planning Commission was established in August 1992. The terms of reference for the leading group were to organise and coordinate the formulation and implementation of China's Agenda 21.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues:

China has established six environmental laws, eight resources management laws, more than thirty administrative regulations, and three hundred and sixty environmental standards. Further laws have been established on education, health, culture and social security. Further improvements and adjustments are considered necessary, e.g. the strengthening of local legislation. By the year 2000, the basis for a system of legislation governing sustainable development should be in place.

The Administrative Centre for China's Agenda 21 (ACCA 21) is the bridge between domestic and international partners for the implementation of the Priority Programme for China's Agenda 21. It provides information on sustainable development, consultancy services for projects, training and public awareness material.

China's International Training Centre for Sustainable Development (CITCSD) was established in 1993 in order to

- provide capacity building,

- provide training for administrative personnel, and

- promote public awareness.

3. Major Groups: Major Groups, including women, children and the youth, minority nationalities and minority nationality districts, workers and labour unions, science and technology institutes, have been involved in the process of decision-making.

4. Finance:

5. Regional/International Cooperation: International cooperation is encouraged, especially in the area of training. Many international organisations and national governments have expressed interest and support for the implementation of China's Agenda 21 including the following: UNDP, UNIDO, UNEP, FAO, IFAD, the EU, the World Bank, ADB, the US, Canada, New Zealand, Norway, Australia, Germany, Sweden, France, and the Netherlands. In 1995, UNDP supported a seminar on sectoral integration of China's Agenda 21. China sent delegations to several countries to exchange experiences on the implementation of sustainable development.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 9: PROTECTION OF THE ATMOSPHERE

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

The Montreal Protocol and the London Amendment were ratified in 1991. The latest report to the Montreal Protocol Secretariat was prepared in 1996.

The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change was ratified in 1993.

Additional comments relevant to this chapter

With the rapid expansion of the economic scale and the development of urbanisation, China is challenged with the serious task of controlling urban atmospheric pollution. The rapid development of urban transportation makes vehicle exhaust emissions the most serious difficult problem concerning urban air pollution control. Moreover, acid rain and the production of greenhouse gases and ozone layer-depleting substances are of great concern to the Chinese Government.

In January of 1993, the Chinese Government approved the "National Programme of China for Phasing Out of Ozone Layer-Depleting Substances" and drafted an action plan. Specific measures for gradually eliminating designated materials have been taken in 9 industries: air-dissolved rubber, foamed plastics, household refrigeration, industrial and commercial refrigeration, Halon fire-fighting, tobacco, and electronic cleaning. This plan has been carried out in all enterprises.

In 1995, China promulgated the "Law of the People's Republic of China on the Prevention and Control of Atmospheric Pollution". Some seriously polluted cities have adopted a permit system for air-polluting material production and an experimental charge system for sulphur dioxide exhaust so as to control smoke and limit the emission of sulphur dioxide. The country has clearly defined acid rain and sulphur dioxide control areas and adopted stricter standards for exhaustion of sulphur dioxide from industrial pits and furnaces. In some seriously polluted cities of southwestern China (such as Nanchong, Yibin, Chongqing, and Zunyi), smoke pollution and acid rain problems have been eased to some degree. In order to control sulphur dioxide pollution, clean coal and clean combustion technologies have been introduced. Newly-built coal mines with high sulphur and lime content are accompanied by coal washeries. For smoke control, measures have been made to eliminate smoke, promote boiler innovation, and encourage central heating, all of which have proved to be effective. In 1996, the smoke-elimination rate of waste gas from coal combustion of industry reached 90% and the purification rate of waste gas from production technology reached 74.9%.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest

1995

CO2 emissions (eq. million tons)
SOx "
NOx "
CH4 "
Consumption of ozone depleting substances (Tons)
Expenditure on air pollution abatement in US$ equivalents (million)
Other data

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues:

Establishment of climate change monitoring, forecasting, and service system

With the cooperative support from the World Meteorology Organisation of the United Nations (UNWMO) and the Global Environment Fund, a World Atmosphere Background Data Observatory was built in Wali Guanshan in 1994. This observatory has filled a gap in China's atmosphere background data observation. It is the first continental data observatory in Asia's heartland and an important component of the global atmosphere background observation network. China has also set up the National Climate Centre which began research and service work in January of 1995. This centre gives monthly, seasonal, and yearly flood forecasts. In order to improve the capabilities of forecasting short-term climate change and assessing the influence of climate change, China is vigorously organising the construction of a systematic engineering system for short-term climate forecast.

Research on climate change

The Chinese Government is greatly concerned with global climate change and has activity organised research on this topic. With the cooperation of international organisations, some institutes have conducted research on "China's Greenhouse Gas Resources and Reducing Strategy" and "The Climate Change Caused by the Greenhouse Effect and Its Influence on China". During the Ninth Five-Year Plan, China will emphasise the research on the "Assessment of Influence of Climate Change on China's Regional Environment" and "The Influence of Greenhouse Gas Exhaustion on Climate Change and its Counter-Measures".

3. Major Groups: No information.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: Difficulties have encountered in implementing the Montreal Protocol:

diverse competing interests, lack of funding, lack of technology and further economic and technical difficulties. China participates in the Global Ozone Observation Network and plans to establish a network of ozone observation stations. China will participate in international research and scientific and technological cooperation and will seek investment from the international community for projects which assist in the slowing of climate change. The US Department of Energy supports China's country study on climate change.

By the end of 1995, 156 projects had been approved by the Executive Committee of the Ozone Preservation Multilateral Fund and 4 of them had been completed. These efforts reduced emissions of controlled material by 6,000 tons (as calculated by the ozone layer-depleting potential value). Three CFC substitution centres in the rubber-dissolving industry have been constructed. This lays a solid foundation for the final achievement of complete substitution. By July of 1996, China had been granted than 170 projects from Montreal Multilateral Fund. These projects have been successfully implemented.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 10: INTEGRATED APPROACH TO THE PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT OF LAND RESOURCES

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: The per capita usable land resources of China are very low and will continue to decrease in quantity and quality. Due to increasing population, industrialisation, and urbanisation, the demand for land resources has increased. A shortage in land resources has become a major limitation to the sustainable economic and social development of China.

Establishment of basic farmland reserves

Since 1989, basic farmland reserves have been established in China. By the end of 1996, 2,100 counties had finished the work and 65% of the farmland is under effective protection. The problem of farmland misuse has been resolved to a certain degree.

Establishment of compensation systems for farmland loss

In some areas, experiments have been developed to compensate peasants for valuable farmland lost to non-agricultural purposes. Under the premise of guaranteeing the original quantity and quality of the basic farmland reserves, new farmland with equivalent quality and quantity should be reclaimed to compensate for occupied farmland. In cases without reclamation conditions, a cultivation fee is required according to the regulations. This will result in a better utilization of the total amount of farmland.

Strengthening public supervision of land management

In 1996, the State Land Administration Bureau engaged, for the first time, a number of inspectors for land management supervision and set up a social supervision system, an important measure towards strengthening the supervision of land law implementation.

Great progress in soil and water conservation through legislation

In recent years, the Chinese Government promulgated and enforced the "Law of the People's Republic of China on Water and Soil Conservation" and the "Regulations on the Enforcement of Law of the People's Republic of China on Water and Soil Conservation". The "National Programme for Water and Soil Conservation" was also formulated. All of these have encouraged the control of soil and water loss. Twenty-five major soil erosion controlled areas have been established at the national level. Soil and water conservation projects have been carried out in the seven large river basins. The accumulated eroded soil area under control is 67 million hectares. The integrated soil erosion control area in the Loess Plateau is 15 million hectares, putting 30% of the eroded soil area under control to some extent and decreasing the annual discharge of silt to the Yellow River by more than 300 million tons.

Significant achievements in comprehensive management of small river basins

Farmers have been mobilised to carry out comprehensive management of mountains, rivers, farmland, forests, and roads in the key 10,000 small river basins with serious soil erosion. From 1991 to 1995, 30,000 square km of soil erosion area and 10,000 square km of wind erosion area were brought under control each year. The Government has formulated the encouraging policy of "those who control the area, get the benefit" and carried out family contracting, corporate sharing, leasing, and auctioning of the usage rights of the land, as well as other kinds of control measures. These steps have protected the legitimate rights of farmers and aroused their enthusiasm to harness bare mountains and land. As a result of their efforts farmers have gained profits.

Land rehabilitation and augmentation of usable land

Since 1988 when the Chinese Government promulgated the "Regulations on Reclamation of Land", great progress has been made in the rehabilitation of abandoned land. According to statistics, 163,300 hectares of abandoned land have been rehabilitated or reused, 75% of which have been used for farmland or other agricultural purposes. In 1995, the State Coal Industry Ministry arranged 10 key demonstration projects such as the project in the area at the conjunction of Shanxi, Shaanxi, and Inner Mongolia which rehabilitates 4,500 hectares of land annually (this being 22.5% of the total subsided area caused by coal mining in that year). Moreover, 1,770 hectares of slag hills were rehabilitated in opencut coal mine areas (amounting to 33% of the total slag hill area created that year). Since the early 1990s, Huaibei City of Anhui Province has made great efforts in the rehabilitation of the subsided land caused by coal mining. The accumulated rehabilitated area was 4,700 hectares, a rehabilitation rate of over 50%.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure:

State Land Administration is a governmental agency responsible for overall management of the land use in China.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues:

Establishment and improvement of regulations and relevant systems for land management

The following laws and regulations have been issued by the Chinese Government: the "Land Administration Law of the People's Republic of China", the "Regulations on the Implementation of Law on Land Management", the "Regulations on Protection of Basic Farmland", the "Regulations on the Rehabilitation of Land", the "Provisional Regulations of the People's Republic of China on Land Appreciation Tax", the "Administration Measures on Land Use for Construction", etc. Moreover, illegal land use was included in the revised "Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China" (issued in 1997). Land management monitoring and inspection systems have been gradually established and completed, thus bringing land management onto the realm of legal administration.

Enhancement of macro-adjustment and land use control

The macro-adjustment and control system has been established with the main contents of the overall plan for land use, the five-year plan for land use, and the annual plan for land use. The Government has set up a primary system of basic land zoning in order to protect farmland and is establishing a management system for land use. It has also drawn up the utilisation and management control system which provides rational regulations on the location and scale of the land for urban and other kinds of construction. In addition to these steps, the Chinese Government has managed construction planning so that construction projects will utilise areas which are not useful for agricultural purposes.

Standardisation and enhancement of the micro-management of land use

The construction land management method, which focuses on land scales and allocation of projects, has been established. Examination and approval systems for all kinds of land use have been adopted. The management system, which focuses on the identification of ownership, registration, and granting of certification, has been established for the rural collective land ownership, reclamation, and development.

3. Major Groups: No information.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: The Canadian Government supports the Sustainable Resource Development Project in the Tarim Region.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 11: COMBATING DEFORESTATION

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: China has very limited forest resources. At present forests cover an area of 130 million hectares, which is only 3-4% of the total forest area of the world. The national forest cover is less than 14%. The available per capita forest area is only 0.11 hectares and the total stored bush is 860 million cubic metres, which is 11.7% and 12.6% of the world average, respectively. This situation presents major environmental problems, such as soil erosion and land desertification as well as the increasing frequency of natural disasters such as drought, floods, and high winds. All these environmental problems are closely linked with the shortage of forest, their unbalanced distribution, and their low functional utility.

Formulation of strategies for sustainable forest resource development

China attaches great importance to the development of forest resources and has drawn up the "Forestry Action Plan for China's Agenda 21", the "Programme Outline of China's Ecological Environment Construction", the "Key Points of the Programme for Comprehensive Development of Forests in Mountain Areas", etc. The Government has put forward a number of general strategic objectives and countermeasures: strengthening breeding, protecting and managing of forest resources, enlarging forest areas, and improving the forest quality. The past five years have seen the planting of large-scale shelter forests, implementation of ecological system projects, and voluntary afforestation activities through the "plant trees everywhere and make the country green" programmes.

Acceleration of the construction of forest ecological systems

In order to preserve the environment of fragile ecological areas, China has successfully carried out five ecological forest projects:

--The "Three Northern Regions" (northeastern, northwestern, and northern China) shelter forest system project

This project started in 1978 and involves 551 counties from 13 provinces. The total area is 4.06 million square km (42.4% of the land territory of China). By 2050, the planned afforestation area will be 30.58 million hectares, of which 18.51 million hectares of afforestation has been completed, thus transforming 1.3 million hectares of sandy land into farmland and pasture, bringing 12% of the deserted land under control, and protecting 11 million hectares of farmland with shelter forests.

--The middle and upper reaches of the Yangtze River shelter forest project

This project relates to 271 counties from 11 provinces. According to the project plan, from 1989 to 2000, there will be an increase of 6.67 million hectares of forests (thus raising the forest cover from 19.9% to about 40%). After 7 years of implementation, 6 million hectares will be afforested.

--Coastal shelter forest system

This project involves 195 counties from 11 provinces. The planned afforestation area is 3.56 million hectares. By 1996, 2.06 million hectares will be afforested, 11,000 kilometres of primary shelter forest belt will be built (being 90% of the coastal potential afforestation area), and 18,000 km of coastal forest belt will generally been completed. The regional forest cover will be raised from 21.7% in 1987 to the present 29.1%.

--The Taihang Mountains Afforestation Project

This project involves 110 counties from Beijing, Hebei, Henan, and Shanxi Provinces. It was planned that 3.56 million hectares of forests would be planted by 2050. Since 1993, 1.31 million hectares have been afforested.

--Farmland shelter forest projects

The combination of "shelter belt, forest network, and forested area" with plain farmland shelter projects focuses on farmland shelter forests and focuses on implementing shelter belts, inter-cropping crops and trees, and planting trees around the farmland (or in tracks) as the main components. At present, the farmland surrounded by forest networks is 34.2 million hectares and 84% of plain counties have met the national afforestation standard.

--Other ecological forestry projects

In addition to the five major projects mentioned above, in 1995, some new projects were started in the Huaihe River Basin, Taihu Basin, Zhujiang River Basin, Liaohe River Basin, and the middle reaches of the Yellow River. These shelter forest projects involve 609 counties from 16 provinces and the planned afforestation area is 6.6 million hectares.

STATUS REPORT (Cont'd)

Great progress in integrated forestry development of mountain areas

While protecting and making use of forest resources, the Government has made vigorous efforts to develop forest resources in mountain areas and develop forestry and fruit-growing as the backbone industries of the regional economy in order to encourage social and economic development in poverty-stricken areas. For example, in Liuzhou, Guilin, and Hechi Prefectures of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region and the 18 poor counties from five prefectures of Guizhou Province (which is known as the "Ninety Thousand Mountain" area) through forest resources development, industrial structure adjustment, and developing the backbone industries of forestry and fruits, the forest cover of the area has been raised to 37.61% and the per capita income has been increased by RMB 367 yuan.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The Ministry of Forestry is a governmental agency responsible for the issues in this field in China.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: Guided by the strategy of promoting afforestation through the application of science and technology, the Chinese Government has promulgated a series of afforestation technology regulations and set up scientific and technological systems, information networks for scientific research, and extended technological supervision, thus promoting the advanced scientific and technological achievements and practical technology to improve the quality of forest planting and breeding. Since 1990, man-made afforestation has covered 24.7 million hectares, plane sowing afforestation has seeded 12.74 million hectares, the afforested area in the enclosed hills and mountains has reached 26.26 million hectares, and the national forest cover has been increased from 12.98% to 13.92%. An significant crease of forest area and storage has been achieved and the trend of long-term decrease in forest storage has been basically reversed. Now there are only a few uncovered afforestable mountains or lands in twelve provinces.

3. Major Groups: Women, Children and Youth, minority nationality districts, workers and Labour Unions, science and technology circles have been deeply involved in the activities of planting trees and combating deforestation.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1985
1990
1996
Forest Area (Km2)
1,297,650
1,265,150
1,300,000
Protected forest area
Roundwood production (solid volume of roundwood without bark in mill m3) 265.3 280.0
Deforestation rate (Km2/annum)
Reforestation rate (Km2/annum)
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 12: MANAGING FRAGILE ECOSYSTEMS: COMBATING DESERTIFICATION AND DROUGHT

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

The International Convention to Combat Desertification in Countries Experiencing Drought and/or Desertification

Particularly in Africa was ratified on 18 February 1997.

Additional comments relevant to this chapter

The Chinese Government attaches great importance to preventing and combating desertification, and has formulated and started implementing her national ten-year Anti-Desertification Programme before the negotiation of the Convention. China has included this Programme in China's Agenda 21.

Following the signing of the Convention, the Chinese Government set up China's Executive Committee on the UN Convention on the Prevention of Desertification in preparation for implementation of the Convention, and also established the nation's Desertification Monitoring Centre to obtain timely macro-information on desertification in China. The Executive Committee has organised the formulation of the "National Action Plan for Combating Desertification", and the "Law of the People's Republic of China on Combating Desertification" is now being formulated. With a view to enhancing the awareness of government personnel at all levels over the issue of desertification and the Convention, China has held three High-Level Workshops on the UN Convention on the Prevention of Desertification during the past two years.

In combating desertification, China is still faced with great difficulties because desertification affects a vast amount of land in a number of different regions of the country. Although the Chinese Government has allocated financial and material resources to deal with the problem, the resources still fall far short of the actual needs. In this connection, China needs financial and technological support from the international community, especially from the developed countries, to better address desertification and achieve sustainable development in ecologically fragile areas so as to make her contribution to the global effort at combating desertification and protecting the ecological environment.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
1994
Land affected by desertification (ha) 224,700,000
Other data

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: In 1993, "The Regulations regarding Law on Water and Soil Conservation in the People's Republic of China" was put into effect. A comprehensive system of administrative agencies for water and soil conservation ranging from the central Government to local authorities was established.

The Government has established the National Coordination Panel for Desertification Control and has approved the inclusion of the desertification control projects in the national economic and social development plans.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: Since 1990, the Chinese Government has taken a series of steps to control desertification. It has formulated the "National Planning Programme for the Control of Desertification in 1991-2000" and the "National Action Plan for the Control of Desertification of China". It has also established the Chinese Research and Development Centre for the Control of Desertification, as well as several training and monitoring centres. It has promulgated the "Principle Technology Programme for Monitoring Desertification". The Chinese Government has also promulgated the "Comments on Several Policies and Measures for the Control of Desertification", which gives preferential low interest loans for desertification control. To counter different types of desertification, the Government focused on 20 major counties and established 9 experiment areas and 22 experiment and demonstration bases. From 1991 to 1995, 4.29 million hectares were brought under control, of which 1.22 million hectares were subject to sandy land enclosure, afforestation, and grass planting. Another 470,000 hectares were subject to sandy land control, cultivation, and low-yield farmland transformation.

3. Major Groups: Major groups have been involved in the activities for combating desertification.

4. Finance: In combating desertification, China is still faced with great difficulties because desertification affects a vast amount of land in a number of different regions of the country. Although the Chinese Government has allocated financial and material resources to deal with the problem, the resources still fall far short of the actual needs. In this connection, China needs financial and technological support from the international community, especially from the developed countries, to better address desertification and achieve sustainable development in ecologically fragile areas so as to make her contribution to the global effort at combating desertification and protecting the ecological environment.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: The Chinese Government had sent delegations to participate in all negotiations on the Convention between 1993 and 1994, and has played a constructive role during the negotiations process. In October of 1994, the Chinese Government signed this Convention.

In order to enhance the awareness of government personnel at all levels concerning desertification, China has held three High-Level Workshops on the UN Convention on the Prevention of Desertification during the past two years. Moreover, in order to strengthen international cooperation in combating desertification, China, in collaboration with Japan and the UN Special Coordinator's Office for Africa and the Least Developed Countries, hosted the Asia-Africa Anti-Desertification Seminar (1996, Beijing), at which twenty countries from Asia and Africa exchanged experience in combating desertification, explored possible activities of cooperation, and adopted the Asia-Africa Action Framework on the Prevention of Desertification.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 13: MANAGING FRAGILE ECOSYSTEMS: SUSTAINABLE MOUNTAIN DEVELOPMENT

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: No information.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information.

3. Major Groups: No information.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 14: PROMOTING SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: The Chinese Government has consistently paid special attention to the development of agriculture and rural areas, and has made substantial headway in ensuring food self-sufficiency and development of the rural economy. However, the Chinese Government is well aware of the great challenges confronting China's agriculture including the large population, agricultural resources scarcity on a per capita basis, and outdated agricultural infrastructure. The development of sustainable agriculture is not only an important component of China's overall sustainable development strategy, but also a major task for China to ensure its food security and social stability.

Promotion of integrated agricultural development and improvement of food production capacity

--The amelioration of medium- and low-yield fields

Some medium- and low-yield fields have been ameliorated by improving irrigation and drainage facilities, levelling farmland, and transforming hillsides into terraced fields. From 1991 to 1995, China ameliorated a total of 8 million hectares of medium- and low-yield fields. With these improvements, the unit grain output has increased considerably on the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain.

--The control of water and soil erosion and improvement of agricultural production conditions

Through water and soil conservation, 11 million hectares of farmland have been protected by building terraced fields and flatlands and by transforming sandy lands into farmlands. In this way, lands that once suffered water, soil, and mineral erosion have been turned into farmland of high and steady yield, and both the land productivity and land utilisation rate have increased.

--Constant construction of water conservation projects for farmland

By 1995, China's irrigated farmlands increased to 50.41 million hectares with a 400 billion cubic metre irrigation capacity. This capacity has facilitated the fighting and preventing some fire disasters.

--Comprehensive development and control of regional agriculture

The key projects for comprehensive development and control in the period of 1991-1995 (which focused on the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain, Song-Nen Plain, Sanjiang Plain, Liaohe River Delta Plain, Taihu Lake Plain, Jianghan Plain, and Chengdu Plain) have achieved preliminary success. The "Mountain, River and Lake Project" of Jiangxi Province focuses on comprehensive sustainable agricultural development and control of mountains, rivers, and lakes and is a large drainage area control project. With the comprehensive planning, development, and control of over 160,000 square kilometres, over 2 million farmers have been brought out of poverty. Water and soil erosion, ecological deterioration, environmental pollution, and endemic diseases have been effectively controlled. Clearly, a solid basis for future sustainable development has been created in the mountain, river, and lake areas.

Progress in ecological agriculture construction

Ecological agriculture is an important approach for China's achievement of sustainable agriculture. Some Chinese researchers began to study ecological agriculture as early as the first half of the 1980s. Relevant government departments have organised programmes of different scales across the country for developing, demonstrating, and disseminating such techniques. Since 1994, the Government has established pilot projects for ecological agriculture across the country, including experiments of 50 state-level pilot counties, 100 demonstration areas, 100 provincial-level pilot counties, and more than 2000 pilot townships and villages. The development of ecological agriculture has reinforced the foundation for future agricultural development, reduced the impacts of natural disaster, and brought ecological, economic, and social benefits. According to a survey, the pilot units of ecological agriculture enjoy an average grain output increase of 15% and a 12% per capita income surplus over the non-pilot areas. For example, in 1995 alone, within 105 pilot units in Hubei Province, the farmers' per capita income was 32% higher than the provincial average.

STATUS REPORT (cont'd)

Acceleration of rural social development

--Establishment of a rural social insurance system

The central and local governments have increased their input disaster mitigation and prevention efforts. In 1995, the Disaster Relief Fund allocated RMB 2.35 billion yuan to disaster victims. More than 10 million people were safely transported from disaster areas and housed, and 40 million people received disaster mitigation and prevention relief in the form of food, clothing, housing, and medical care. Reform of the disaster mitigation and prevention management system has advanced. The local government accounted for 19.1% of the total expenditure for disaster mitigation and prevention. Societal relief and poverty alleviation were developed in tandem. In 1995, 31.528 million poor people benefited from the relief supplied by the State, and the civil affairs departments assisted 6.963 million families. Within the year, 1.938 million families had escaped poverty, a success rate of 27.8%. The policy of the "Five Guarantees" (guaranteeing food, shelter, clothing, medical care, and funeral services for the elderly, handicapped, orphans, and widows) has been implemented. In 1995, there were a total of 2.415 million "Five Guarantees" people receiving relief from collectives and the money raised for this purpose was RMB 1.86 billion yuan. Great progress has also been registered in rural elderly social insurance. In 1995, this work was carried out in more than 1,600 counties within 28 provinces and municipalities all over China. There were more than 51.428 million people participating in the old-age pension programmes. The network for rural social insurance has been expanded. By the end of 1995, the rural social insurance network had been established in 15,377 townships, accounting for 33% of China's total townships. Over 63.2% of the townships had old-age homes and there were 197,000 disaster mitigation and prevention fund associations with a total accumulated capital of RMB 3.71 billion yuan.

-- Improvement of rural sanitary conditions

By the end of 1995, the water purification coverage rate reached 86.7%. The total benefiting population was nearly 800 million, and 49.8% of rural residents could use tap water. In 1991, the Chinese Government established a special fund for the construction and reform of township clinics. In the past four years, the total investment for completed projects reached RMB 6.79 billion yuan. By the end of 1996, there were 51,277 township clinics and 806,162 village clinics, which over 89.1% of the total administrated villages of China.

-- Accelerating transformation of labour employment

Rural employment growth is an important symbol and the embodiment of rural social development. There are two major trends in China's rural employment: the growth of aquaculture and livestock-growing has decreased the number of labourers in agriculture; and the trend of rural labourers going to cities for work has led to an annual increase in employment of 10%. At present, China's employment structure is undergoing major restructuring. The absolute size of the agricultural labour force has clearly decreased. From 1992 to 1994, the number of agricultural labourers decreased by 15.69 million. The total size of non-agricultural employment is approaching that of agricultural employment. The Government has carried out the project of putting the trans-regional flow of rural surplus labour in order. The uncontrolled flow of surplus labour has begun to change. The occupational changes occurring among rural labourers has increased the income of rural families, promoted the development of the rural economy, and resulted in the improvement of people's living standards.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The Ministry of Agriculture is a governmental agency responsible for agriculture and rural development in China.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues:

Formulation of strategies for sustainable agriculture development and perfection of agricultural policies, laws, and regulations

Since 1992, the Chinese Government has, in line with the strategic overview on sustainable agriculture development, drafted and revised a series of agricultural laws and regulations, and successively enacted the "Basic Law on Agriculture of the People's Republic of China", the "Land Administration Law of the People's Republic of China", the "Law of the People's Republic of China on Water and Soil Conservation", the "Law on Popularisation of Agro-Technology", etc. It has also created China's strategy for sustainable agriculture development and set objectives for sustainable development so as to ensure the steady growth of agriculture and the rural economy. In recent years, agricultural production, particularly the production of grains, cotton, and oil-bearing plants, has stabilised since the fluctuating state of the early 1990s. The output of grains and other main products is growing and the rural economy is developing in a steady and healthy way. In 1996, the national grain output reached 490 million tons, 8.9% higher than that of 1990.

Capacity building for food transportation security

"The National Information System on Grain Storage" and the "Expert Consultation System on Grain Storage" have been established in order to offer consulting services to farmers for safe and scientific grain storage. Key technologies have been developed for streamlining bulk loading, unloading, storage, and transportation of grains, and some demonstrations have been implemented in the World Bank supported grain circulation areas, such as the Northeastern Corridor, Yangtze River corridor, and Southwestern Corridor. The results of these demonstrations show that expenses have been reduced, losses from the circulation process have been reduced, and "virtual farmland" has been created. All of these activities promote agricultural development by science and education, and enhancement of capacity for sustainable rural development

Implementation of the "Seed Project"

--A system has been instituted for breeding, introducing, processing, selling, and popularising superior varieties of seeds.

--Emphasis on the transformation of research achievements into practical applications, development of important technologies for agricultural production, and the popularisation of these research achievements

--The main effort is directed towards some major applicable agricultural technologies, including selection of superior breeds, dry-land seedling, sparse growing, toss planting of rice, land-covering, comprehensive prevention and control of diseases and pests, scientific application of fertiliser and water-saving irrigation, etc. On the basis of the traditional intensive and indigenous farming, new technologies - e.g. the use of organic fertiliser to conserve the nutritious elements in the soil - are applied and, as a result, a technological system for sustainable agriculture techniques has been established.

Enhancement of vocational technical training

A three-tiered network for disseminating agricultural technology in a county-township-village frame has been formed. Support and assistance is given to the private professional technological organisations in various forms. It is in this manner that a service system is taking shape for disseminating agricultural technologies, with mutual support between state, collective, and private technological organisations have provided rational and orderly grain circulation.

3. Major Groups: Major groups play a very important role for sustainable agriculture and rural development.

4. Finance: See Status Report.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No additional information.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1985
1990
1995
Agricultural land (Km2)
968,463
956,729
949,709
Agricultural land as % of total land area
10.1
9.97
9.89
Agricultural land (m2 per capita)
914.9
836.8
784.1
1989/90
1992/93
199_
Consumption of fertilizers per (kg/Km2 of agricultural land as of 1990)
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 15: CONSERVATION OF BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

The Convention on Biological Diversity was ratified in 1993. The latest report was submitted in 1994.

The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora was ratified in 1981.

Additional comments relevant to this chapter

China is a large country with a biodiversity of global significance. For a long time the protection of biodiversity has been facing serious challenges due to the rapid population growth and changes in the biological environment.

Formulation of the Action Plan of Biodiversity and implementation of bilateral and multilateral international cooperation

In order to fulfil the UN Convention on Biodiversity, the Chinese Government has formulated "China's Biodiversity Conservation Action Plan" and the "Country Study Report on Biodiversity in China", carried out comprehensive assessments of its biodiversity, indexed endangered animals and plants, and put forward policy suggestions regarding the strengthening of national capacity for biodiversity protection and the sustainable utilisation of biological resources.

Construction of nature reserves

China's nature reserves network has been greatly developed. This has effectively protected most of the representative and scientifically valuable ecosystems, and endangered rare species. By the end of 1996, there were 799 nature reserves (including 106 state-owned) which were designed for the conservation of a variety of species. The area of these nature reserves totals 71.85 million hectares, accounting for 7.2% of China's land area. Twelve of these reserves have joined the Man and Biosphere International Protection Zone Network. China has also set up 752 forest parks with a total area of more than 6.6 million hectares. These have become important places for the protection of ecosystems and local species.

Implementation of the "Rescue Project for Endangered Species"

The Chinese Government has carried out a series of rescue projects for endangered animals that have led to the restoration of many species. By the end of 1995, China had established 175 animal parks and animal exhibition zones in the parks, and 227 breeding centres for wild animals. The project for the protection of giant pandas and their habitats has been carried out with 28 panda protection zones already established or still under preparation. There are currently a total of 1,000 giant pandas from several different species. The population in each of the species is stable. Nipponia birds were an endangered species world-wide with only 7 in China in 1981 upon their rediscovery. Now, there are more than 60 in China due to the rescue project. The artificial breeding of Yangtze crocodiles has been a success, with a current population of more than 4,000. The population of Hainan deer has increased to more than 500 from the initial 50. In order to rescue and breed endangered or rare plants, China has successively set up more than 400 stations for rare plants protection and breeding, and more than 120 botanical gardens and tree gardens. These measures have protected 1,800 species, enabled 90% of the wild plants under national protection to be moved (and thus protected), and enabled nearly 1,000 rare plants to be protected and bred. The artificial breeding of the Chinese unique cathy fir, metasequoia, and Chinese parasol has been remarkably successful. The Chinese sturgeon has also been well protected in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River. Seven protection stations, one protection zone, and one rescue centre for the Chinese sturgeon have been established. Every year, over 300,000 young Chinese sturgeons are put into the Yangtze River. This keeps the population of the Chinese sturgeon stable in the Yangtze River.

STATUS REPORT (cont'd:

Establishment of genetic resources bases

The Chinese Government attaches importance to the collection and protection of agricultural species resources and the genetic resources of domestic fowl and livestock. At present, China has established a preliminary protection system for agricultural species with one state-level long-term seeds storage room and duplication room, 23 local mid-term warehouses, and 25 state-level seed fields. This protection system has stored more than 300,000 agricultural species samples and protected most of the agricultural species resources. A gene base of the herbage species has been established for the domestic fowl and livestock. Priority protection programs have been carried out for some endangered and sharply decreasing domestic fowl and livestock species. An aquatic resources base has also been established. The Department of Fisheries has established 32 natural aquatic species sites, 218 superior species sites, and 1062 sites for breeding fish with a total capacity of breeding more than 200 billion fish from a number of species each year. A total of 379 types of aquatic species has been put on the "List of Species Resources for Protection" and given priority for research and protection.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The National Environmental Protection Agency (NEPA) is the lead organization for the protection of biodiversity. The Ministry of Forestry, the Ministry of Agriculture, the State Administration of Oceanography and the Ministry of Construction are responsible for providing management in their respective areas. The State Planning Commission and the State Science and Technology Commission also have responsibilities for the conservation of biodiversity. The Standing Committee of the National People's Congress has established a Committee for Environmental and Resource Protection within its framework.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues:

Formulating and promulgating laws and regulations

China has successively formulated and promulgated laws and regulations such as the "Forest Law of the People's Republic of China", the "Law of Fishing of the People's Republic of China", the "Wildlife Protection Law of the People's Republic of China", the "Management Regulation of Natural Reserves", the "Regulation of the People's Republic of China Concerning Continental Wild Animals", the "Regulations for the Protection of Aquatic and Wild Animals of the People's Republic of China", the "Regulations on Wild Flora Conservation", the "Regulations on Management of Forest and Wildlife Nature Reserves", the "Provisions Governing Hunting Guns and Bullets of the People's Republic of China", the "List of Key Protected Wildlife of National Importance", and the "National List of Rare and Endangered Plants". The various provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities directly under the central Government have formulated and issued corresponding local laws and executive regulations. The Environmental Protection Committee (under the National People's Congress) and the State Council have inspected the enforcement of environmental protection in fishery and forestry departments, and strictly prosecuted those offenders who have seriously destroyed the wild fauna and flora resources (such as excessive hunting and smuggling).

Strengthening scientific studies and management

China has set up management offices and scientific committees for the import and export of endangered species. Management institutions for wild animals and plants, as well as the nature reserves, have been established in 25 provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities directly under the central Government. Research institutions for the study of endangered animals and plants have been set up in northeastern, northwestern, and southern China. In Sichuan, Hunan, Guangdong, and Guangxi Provinces, 19 protection and breeding centres have been established for endangered wild animals and plants such as the Northeast tiger, elk, wild horse, high-nose antelope, nipponia bird, Chinese sturgeon, Yangtze alligator, golden-striped tortoise, etc. Across China, there are over 300 artificial breeding farms for wild animals and plants, one national bird centre, fifty bird stations, and five white-flag dolphin protection stations.

Cross-Sectoral Issues (cont'd)

Establishing the biodiversity information and monitoring systems

The Chinese Government has set up several special biodiversity information systems. The Chinese Academy of Sciences alone has established a relatively complete biodiversity information system which includes 5 subject branches, 25 data sources, and more than 30 databases. A species and products resource database system for agriculture has been established by the agricultural departments, including 15 agricultural products, 270,000 seeds samples, and 12,590,000 data entries. The National Environmental Protection Agency has set up a database for nature reserves across the country. An ecosystem and biodiversity study and monitoring network, composed of 78 ecological stations, has been established in China.

Compiling the Red Books of Plants and Animals in China based on investigation, research, and scientific results of more than ten years' work

China started the compilation of the "Red Book of Plants in China" and the "Red Book of Animals in China". These books will have 8 volumes, 3 of which are already finished. China also published the "List of Ecosystems under Priority Protection", the "List of Animals under Priority Protection", and the "List of Wild Plants under Priority Protection ".

Mobilising public participation for biodiversity protection

China has disseminated laws and regulations, such as the "Regulations for the Protection of Aquatic and Wild Animals", and popularised the scientific knowledge of wild flora and fauna through various media and activities such as "Bird-Loving Week", "Biodiversity Day", "Publicity Month for the Protection of Wild Animals", public lectures, exhibits, etc. Each year for the past ten years, the organisations for wildlife administration and environmental protection at national and local levels have held quiz games, composition contests, and summer camp activities about wild animal and plants for primary and middle school students. Such special programmes as "Animal World" and "Humans and Nature" on CCTV (China Central Television) have become popular programmes with great influence.

3. Major Groups: Local governments have agencies similar to those in the central Government, which have been established to address local issues in the conservation of biodiversity.

NGOs, such as the Chinese Society of Environmental Sciences, the Chinese Ecological Society, the Chinese Society of Forestry, the Chinese Society of Agronomy, the Chinese Society of Oceanography, the Chinese Society of Botany, the Chinese Society of Zoology and the Chinese Association of Wildlife Conservation, play an active role in biodiversity conservation in coordination with the governmental agencies.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: Ten nature reserves have been included in the International Network of Biosphere Reserves by UNESCO. Six nature reserves have been listed in the List of International Important Wetlands.

The US-based McCarther Foundation supports the project Forest Resources Management and Biodiversity Protection in the Gaoli Gongshan Natural Reserve.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1992
Latest 1995
Protected area as % of total land area 7.2%
1994
Latest 199_
Number of threatened species 1431

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 16: ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT OF BIOTECHNOLOGY

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: No information.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information.

3. Major Groups: No information.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 17: PROTECTION OF THE OCEANS, ALL KINDS OF SEAS, INCLUDING ENCLOSED AND SEMI-ENCLOSED SEAS, AND COASTAL AREAS AND THE PROTECTION, RATIONAL USE AND DEVELOPMENT OF THEIR LIVING RESOURCES

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

The UN Convention on the Law of the Sea was ratified in 1996.

China has a vast maritime space, a long coastal line, and rich marine resources. At present, the marine industry has become a new area of growth for the coastal regions economic development. According to available information, the total annual output of China's marine industry is over RMB 220 billion yuan. Therefore, China considers rational utilisation of marine resources and the protection of marine environment as inseparable and has taken steps to develop and strengthen marine resource management and marine environmental protection.

Formulation of China's Ocean Agenda 21 and its Action Plan

Early in 1995, a common understanding on the principal strategy, objectives, and countermeasures of China's maritime work in the 21st Century was reached after several discussions organised by State Oceanic Administration (the government agency responsible for the maritime affairs of China) and attended by local governments in the coastal areas, ministries in charge of foreign exploration and management, and marine research specialists. After more than one year's efforts, the State Oceanic Administration formally released "China's Ocean Agenda 21" in May of 1996 and formulated an Action Plan. These became the guidelines and action framework for the exploration and protection of maritime resources, the improvement of the polluted marine environment, and the implementation of sustainable development.

Integrated survey of the country's sea islands and experiments for sea island development

In 1989 China began to conduct a survey of sea islands. After eight years, it came to a successful end in 1996 with a primary understanding of the quantity of the country's sea islands and the marine resources on and near these islands, as well as the environmental, social, and economic conditions of the islands and surrounding areas. These steps have laid the foundation for rational exploration and utilisation of China's sea islands. Since 1993, China has approved six sea islands national comprehensive experimental development areas (Changdao Island of Shandong Province, Zhoushan Liuheng Island of Zhejiang Province, Haitan Island of Fujian Province, Changhai Island of Liaoning Province, Nan'ao Island of Guangdong Province, and Weizhou Island of Guangxi Province.) After more than three years of construction, outstanding benefits have been achieved. For example, in the experimental area of Liaoning's Changhai Island, people made great efforts in the development and promotion of seven floating-raft aquaculture projects and seabed sowing technology, including those for shrimp and scallops. The ratio of input to output is 1:3.5. The total annual economic profit of these projects is more than RMB 340 million yuan.

Research on key technology of coastal resource utilisation and environment, and establishment of demonstrations on coastal development

In order to strengthen the comprehensive management capability of coastal areas, China has listed some key technology research areas in the Ninth Five-Year Plan for intensive scientific and technological attention. They include: "research on key technologies for utilisation of coastal resources and environment", "research on key technologies for comprehensive utilisation of sea water resources", "research on key technologies for oceanic energy generation", and "research on key technologies for membranes". In 1996, China started to implement a program to develop the ocean through application of science and technology, and to promote economic development in coastal areas.

Active protection of biological marine resources and continuous construction of marine nature reserves

In recent years, the Chinese fishery department has clearly stipulated that fishery fallowing must be carried out in the East China Sea and Yellow Sea in July and August of every year. This has achieved good results in the protection of maritime fishery resources. Since the early 1990s, 25 nature preserves have been set up, covering a total area of 660,000 hectares. Also, a special ocean environment preserve is planned to effectively protect typical ocean ecosystems and endangered species.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: A mechanism and a legal system for the management and conservation of marine resources has been established. The State Oceanic Administration is the governmental agency responsible for China's ocean policy making and overall management. The State Science and Technology Commission, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and the Ministry of Agriculture are also major governmental agencies involved in coordination of domestic oceanic affairs.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues:

Improvement of the legal system for protection of marine resources and environment, and establishment of a comprehensive management system

On the basis of the existing laws concerning marine environmental protection, China is drafting the "Exclusive Economic Law on the Continental Shelf of the People's Republic of China" and the "Law on Maritime Resource Utilisation Management". China is emphasizing the creation of domestic law consistent with the international maritime laws. It has formulated an oceanic zoning system and national and regional plans for oceanic exploration. It has also created a licensing system for waste discharge into the sea. During the past few years, China has designated 38 areas for waste discharge. Through strengthening law enforcement and monitoring, the Government effectively stopped illegal discharge of wastes into seas. For the control of maritime petroleum exploration, the Government strictly requires that exploring department be furnished with sewage disposal facilities, and emergency and monitoring facilities for oil-spilling to monitor and control pollution from oil spills. In 1993, the Xiamen coastal area was chosen as one of the three demonstration areas for "Maritime Pollution Prevention and Control Project in South Asian Maritime Space" by the UNDP, the Global Environment Facility, and the International Maritime Affairs Organisation. Through research and practice, the control work of Xiamen coastal area has entered into a stage of programming, coordinated management, joint law enforcement, and rational exploration. This has provided examples for the entire country in the management of coastal areas, especially in the prevention of sea pollution.

Establishment and perfection of networks for marine ecological monitoring, marine information, and forecasting and service systems

China has set up a national maritime environment monitoring network and made improvements in the national maritime information service system and the maritime environment forecast system. At present, the maritime monitoring force is composed of planes, ships, land stations, and buoys. It is responsible for monitoring and supervising the sea environment. The maritime information system and the maritime forecast system have begun to form. People can get timely information on changes in trends of the maritime environment and the daily forecast is broadcast through the central and local radio, and TV stations. This system also provides warnings to prevent disasters due to sudden storms. China has also set up an information-sharing mechanism with nearly 100 institutions in more than 60 countries. China is actively promoting the implementation of the global ocean monitoring system program and participating in the Northeast Asia Ocean Monitoring System Programme. China also formulated a national Oceanic Eco-Environment Monitoring Network Plan.

3. Major Groups: No additional information.

4. Finance: No additional information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: China is involved in cooperation on international marine legislation, marine living resources in high seas, sea bed mineral resources, marine scientific research, marine environmental protection, polar exploration and peaceful use, and marine affairs cooperation and exchange in the Asia-Pacific Region.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest
199-
Catches of marine species (metric tons)
Population in coastal areas
Population served by waste water treatment (% of country's

total population)

Discharges of oil into coastal waters (metric tons)
Releases of phosphate into coastal waters (metric tons)
Releases of nitrate into coastal waters (metric tons)
Other data

Chapter 17 (Oceans) Continued:

Check the boxes in the column below left: Check the boxes in the column below right:
For level of importance use: For level of implementation use:
*** = very important *** = fully covered
** = important ** = well covered- gaps being addressed
* = not important * = poorly covered
N = not relevant O = not covered; N = not relevant

TABLE I. THE FOLLOWING ACTIVITIES HAVE BEEN CONSIDERED BY THE APPROPRIATE COORDINATING MECHANISM FOR INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF COASTAL AND MARINE AREAS AND THEIR RESOURCES.

LEVEL OF
IMPORTANCE
ACTIVITY AS DESCRIBED IN AGENDA 21
LEVEL OF
IMPLEMENTATION
***
a. Preparation and implementation of land and water use and siting policies.
***
b. Implementation of integrated coastal and marine management and sustainable development plans and programmes at appropriate levels.
***
c. Preparation of coastal profiles identifying critical areas including eroded zones, physical processes, development patterns, user conflicts and specific priorities for management.
***
d. Prior environmental impact assessment, systematic observation and follow-up of major projects, including systematic incorporation of results in decision-making.
***
e. Contingency plans for human induced and natural disasters.
***
f. Improvement of coastal human settlements, especially in housing, drinking water and treatment and disposal of sewage, solid wastes and industrial effluents.
***
g. Periodic assessment of the impacts of external factors and phenomena to ensure that the objectives of integrated management and sustainable development of coastal areas and marine environment are met.
***
h. Conservation and restoration of altered critical habitats.
***
I. Integration of sectoral programmes on sustainable development for settlements, agriculture, tourism, fishing, ports and industries affecting the coastal areas.
***
J. Infrastructure adaptation and alternative employment.
***
K. Human resource development and training.
***
L. Public education, awareness and information programmes.
***
M. Promoting environmentally sound technology and sustainable practices.
***
N. Development and simultaneous implementation of environmental quality criteria.

TABLE II. TECHNOLOGY (MARINE ENVIRONMENT)

LEVEL OF
IMPORTANCE
ACTIVITY AS DESCRIBED IN AGENDA 21
LEVEL OF
IMPLEMENTATION
***
A. Apply preventive, precautionary and anticipatory approaches so as to avoid degradation of the marine environment, as well as to reduce the risk of long-term or irreversible adverse effects upon it.
***
B. Ensure prior assessment of activities that may have significant adverse impacts upon the marine environment.
***
C. Integrate protection of the marine environment into relevant general environmental, social and economic development policies.
***
D. Develop economic incentives, where appropriate, to apply clean technologies and other means consistent with the internalization of environmental costs, such as the polluter pays principle, so as to avoid degradation of the marine environment.
***
E. Improve the living standards of coastal populations, particularly in developing countries, so as to contribute to reducing the degradation of the coastal and marine environment.
***
F. Effective monitoring and surveillance within the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of fish harvesting and transportation of toxic and other hazardous materials.

TABLE III. SEWAGE RELATED ISSUES

LEVEL OF
IMPORTANCE
ACTIVITY AS DESCRIBED IN AGENDA 21
LEVEL OF
IMPLEMENTATION
***
A. Sewage related problems are considered when formulating or reviewing coastal development plans, including human development plans.
***
B. Sewage treatment facilities are built in accordance with national policies.
**
C. Coastal outfalls are located so as to maintain acceptable level of environmental quality and to avoid exposing shell fisheries, water intakes and bathing areas to pathogens.
***
D. The Government promotes primary treatment of municipal sewage discharged to rivers, estuaries and the sea, or other solutions appropriate to specific sites.
***
E. The Government supports the establishment and improvement of local, national, subregional and regional, as necessary, regulatory and monitoring programmes to control effluent discharge. Minimum sewage effluent guidelines and water quality criteria are in use.

TABLE IV. OTHER SOURCES OF MARINE POLLUTION, THE GOVERNMENT HAS:

LEVEL OF
IMPORTANCE
ACTIVITY AS DESCRIBED IN AGENDA 21
LEVEL OF
IMPLEMENTATION
***
A. Established or improved upon, as necessary, regulatory and monitoring programmes to control emissions, including recycling technologies.
***
B. Promoted risk and environmental impact assessments to help ensure an acceptable level of environmental quality.
***
C. Promoted assessment and cooperation at the regional level, where appropriate, with respect to the input of point source pollutants from the marine environment.
***
D. Taken steps to eliminate emissions or discharges of organohalogen compounds from the marine environment.
***
E. Taken steps to eliminate/reduce emissions or discharges or other synthetic organic compounds from the marine environment.
***
F. Promoted controls over anthropogenic inputs of nitrogen and phosphorous that enter coastal waters where such problems as eutrophication threaten the marine environment or its resources.
***
G. Taken steps to develop and implement environmentally sound land-use techniques and practices to reduce run-off to water courses and estuaries which would cause pollution or degradation of the marine environment.
***
H. Promoted the use of environmentally less harmful pesticides and fertilizers and alternative methods for pest control, and considered the prohibition of those found to be environmentally unsound.
**
I. Adopted new initiatives at national, subregional and regional levels for controlling the input of non-point source pollutants which require broad changes in sewage and waste management, agricultural practices, mining, construction and transportation.
***
J. Taken steps to control and prevent coastal erosion and siltation due to anthropogenic factors related to, inter alia, land-use and construction techniques and practices.

TABLE V. ADDRESSING CRITICAL UNCERTAINTIES FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT AND CLIMATE CHANGE. IN ORDER TO IMPLEMENT THIS PROGRAMME AREA THE GOVERNMENT IS CARRYING OUT THE FOLLOWING ACTIVITIES:

LEVEL OF
IMPORTANCE
ACTIVITY AS DESCRIBED IN AGENDA 21
LEVEL OF
IMPLEMENTATION
**
A. Coordinating national and regional observation programmes for coastal and near-shore phenomena related to climate change and for research parameters essential for marine and coastal management in all regions.
***
B. Providing improved forecasts of marine conditions for the safety of inhabitants of coastal areas and for the efficiency of marine operations.
**
C. Adopting special measures to cope with and adapt to potential climate change and sea-level rise.
**
D. Participating in coastal vulnerability assessment, modelling and response strategies particularly for priority areas, such as small islands and low-lying and critical coastal areas.
**
E. Identifying ongoing and planned programmes of systematic observation of the marine environment, with a view to integrating activities and establishing priorities to address critical uncertainties for oceans and all seas.
**
F. Research to determine the marine biological effects of increased levels of ultraviolet rays due to the depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer.
**
G. Carrying out analysis, assessments and systematic observation of the role of oceans as a carbon sink.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 18: PROTECTION OF THE QUALITY AND SUPPLY OF FRESHWATER RESOURCES: APPLICATION OF INTEGRATED APPROACHES TO THE DEVELOPMENT, MANAGEMENT AND USE OF WATER RESOURCES

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: In China, freshwater resources are inadequate and unevenly distributed. China's per capita water resources is only one-fourth of the world average. With the growth of the population and economic development, serious water shortages have appeared not only in the arid and semi-arid areas, but also in many cities of northern China. This has become a limitation to economic development. Moreover, all the river basins of the country have been polluted to various degrees, resulting in a further decrease of water resources utility. Therefore, it is important to implement sustainable development in order to rationally use and protect water resources.

Significant achievements in the management and development of major rivers and lakes

During the past five years, the Chinese Government has strengthened the integrated development and management of major rivers and lakes. The main objective of this programme is to prevent flooding disasters by heightening and reinforcing major dams, building flood-division areas, and realigning river courses in major rivers and lakes such as the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, the lower reaches of the Yellow River, Huaihe River, Haihe River, Songhuajiang River, Liaohe River, and Taihu Lake. A group of important large-scale water conservation projects have been developed to allow more effective control and bring comprehensive benefits. In order to solve the problem of water shortages in northern China, the Chinese Government has vigorously organised the planning and construction of trans-basin water-transferring projects, conducted a scientific feasibility study of transferring water from the south to the north in the central, eastern, and western parts of China, and made preliminary preparations for the project.

Increased water pollution control in major river basins

In order to bring water pollution under effective control and protect the aquatic environment, beginning in 1994 the Chinese Government carried out the "Three Rivers and Three Lakes" water pollution control project (Huaihe River, Haihe River, Liaohe River, Taihu Lake, Dianchi Lake, and Chaohu Lake). In 1995, the "Interim Regulations on the Protection against Water Pollution in the Huaihe River Basin" was issued and the "Programme and Ninth Five-Year Plan of Water Pollution Control in the Huaihe Basin" was formulated by the Government. It also defined the targets for controlling the total amount of water pollutants discharged into river basins, as well as the maximum permissible discharge amount for major cities, towns, and discharge points. Meanwhile, a deadline was set for closure or production changes in those small-sized paper mills whose production capacity was less than 5,000 tons in the Huaihe Basin. By June 30th of 1996, 1,111 small paper mills in four provinces along the Huaihe River had been closed, reducing COD discharge by 346, 000 tons, and achieving the objective of a 15% reduction in pollutants for that year.

Progress in agricultural water-conserving technology and demonstration project construction

The Chinese Government has organised the compilation of the "China Water-Conserving Development Programme for Irrigation Agriculture", drawn up the technology standards suitable for national conditions for various water-conserving irrigation projects, and formulated the plan for the construction of large-scale water-conserving irrigation demonstrations at the national level. At present, the total area covered by water-conserving irrigation has reached 13.33 million hectares. Some practical water-conserving technologies have been developed and these are being used in the technical preparations for the establishment of 300 demonstration counties for water-conserving irrigation projects during the Ninth Five-Year Plan.

STATUS REPORT: (Cont'd)

Promotion of drinking water projects in poor rural areas

In order to solve the drinking water problems of some poor rural areas, the Chinese Government carried out a drinking water project for those areas in 1990. Since 1991, 145,000 drinking water projects have been built, 470,000 drinking water wells have been dug, 199,000 water-collecting facilities have been established, and 174 million rural people have had the problem of inadequate drinking water resolved. With the cooperation of UNICEF, the Government has carried out the Trinity project (water, environmental hygiene, and health education) and achieved preliminary progress. Moreover, the Government has spread low-cost water supply measures and sanitary toilets, and disseminated health knowledge to farmers. With the implementation of the "Sweet Dew Project", more than 4 million people in Shaanxi Province and 3.8 million herdsmen in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region have achieved adequate drinking water supplies during the past 3 years. A series of drinking water projects have also been carried out in Xinjiang, Gansu, and some other western provinces. All these have eased, to some degree, the difficulties of peasants in water-short areas.

Projects for water resource development in western China

The Chinese Government has greatly promoted the western water resource development plan and carried out a number of utilisation projects that focus on the central and western regions. These projects include the Xinjiang Wuluwati Reservoir project, Tibet Manla Reservoir project, Guizhou Wangerhe Reservoir project, Qinghai Heiquan Reservoir project, Ningxia Fuyanghuang irrigation project, Gansu Changma Reservoir project, etc. These projects will play a very important role in promoting the social and economic development in central and western China, changing the poor and backward situation, improving the eco-environment, and strengthening national solidarity.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The Ministry of Water Resources is the Chinese governmental agency responsible for overall water resources planning and management, major hydro infrastructures, for example, large hydropower generation. The Ministry of Construction is responsible for urban waste water treatment investment, whereas the National Environmental Protection Agency is responsible for waste water legislation and discharge compliance monitoring. However the State Council has its special committee in coordination with water cross sectoral issues to determine its major policy and action, for example during 1996 and 2000, waste water control is focused on three large rivers and three main lakes in China. This committee is chaired by the State Councillor, Mr Son Jian, Chairperson of the State Science and Technology Commission. The State Planning Commission contributes an important role in the major water projects decided in every 5-year national planning, in which the overall budget is approved.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: In order to implement China's Agenda 21 in the area of water conservation, the Chinese Government has formulated "China's Water Conservation Agenda 21" and the "National Plan for Medium- and Long-Term Water Supply and Demand". This agenda has put forward the general objectives for water resource protection and sustainable utilisation. The objectives are:

to implement the policy of rational exploration, utilisation, and comprehensive conservation of water;

to strengthen the management of river basins and lakes;

to improve the management and control of water pollution; and

to vigorously maintain and improve the natural utility of water resources and the ecological environment of basins.

In the Ninth Five Year Plan (1996-2000), the water issue is placed at its importance above all other threatening factors. The main tasks include flood control, irrigation efficiency, hydro power station, drinking water improving in dry regions. In fighting with waste water, China has set up its focus on three large rivers: Huaihe, Haihe and Liaohe, and three main lakes: Taihu, Chaohu and Dianchi as the targets for clear up the water in a limited time period. Small production capacity industry is now met with very restricted regulation to either meet discharge compliance within a limited time or shut down. Developing and introducing suitable waste water treatment technologies and establishing integrated water resources management system are placed in China at high priority in dealing with water challenges.

3. Major Groups: No information.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: UNDP and several national governments are providing support to a development and conservation project for the Yellow River delta and to the Integrated Development and Management Project of the Mountain-River-Lake Region of Jiangxi Province.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
1994
Fresh water availability (total domestic/external in million m3) 300,000
Annual withdrawal of freshwater as % of available water
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 19: ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT OF TOXIC CHEMICALS, INCLUDING PREVENTION OF ILLEGAL INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN TOXIC AND DANGEROUS PRODUCTS

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: As a result of its extensive production pattern, China's industrial solid waste output is about 644 million tons each year, of which 2.4% is considered hazardous (poisonous, reactive, corrosive, explosive, or flammable) waste. Urban domestic trash production amounts to 100 million tons. Therefore, it has become an important task to reduce the amount of solid wastes and render them harmless.

Solid waste registration and experiments on waste exchange

In order to identify the variety, characteristics, quantity, and pollution situation of solid waste (especially the hazardous types), find out major sources of pollution, and to promote waste utilisation and disposal, China has conducted experiments of solid waste registration in 17 cities, including Nantong, Jinan, Shenyang, and Shanghai since 1992. In terms of waste registration, the Government has begun to carry out a permit and manifest system for the centralised utilisation and disposal of wastes. In April of 1993, the National Environmental Protection Agency promulgated the "Implementation Programme of Experiments on Waste Exchange", which defines the waste exchange's basis, type, treatment process, procedure, experiment requirement, etc. Three years of experimental work has laid a solid foundation for waste exchange.

Construction of facilities for urban hazardous waste disposal

In order to safely dispose of hazardous wastes, China has built a standard waste disposal plant in Shenzhen City. Regional centralised waste burning and burying plants are also being built in Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, and Guangzhou. These plants have improved the cities' environment.

Control of hazardous wastes import

In order to control the import of hazardous wastes, in 1991 China promulgated the "Circular on the Strict Control of Transfer of Hazardous Waste into China". After several experiences with hazardous waste import, China promulgated in November of 1995 the "Urgent Circular on Resolute and Strict Control of Transfer of Foreign Waste into China". Also, in March of 1996, the Government promulgated the "Provisional Regulations on Waste Import and Environmental Protection". China is resolutely prosecuting those discovered to have imported hazardous waste. The Government also urged the countries concerned to observe the "Basel Convention on the Control of Trans-Boundary Transfer, Disposal, and Treatment of Hazardous Waste" and has instructed the enterprises concerned to return the waste to the donor country and make compensations for relevant loss.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The Ministry of the Chemical Industry is the responsible national level agency dealing with toxic chemicals overall policy and management. The National Environmental Protection Agency is responsible for legislation of all kinds of solid waste environmental compliance and monitoring, and as well for prevention of illegal international traffic in hazardous wastes, including toxic chemicals. In case of a cross sectoral issue regarding toxic chemicals causing heavy impact to the environmental, like the case of chromic slag pollution, a joint action will be taken from chemical industry, local environmental protection agency and local government to cope with the pollution disaster.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: In October of 1995, China promulgated the "Law of the People's Republic of China on the Prevention and Control of Environmental Pollution by Solid Waste". This law has brought the control of solid waste (especially hazardous waste) into the legal structure. Since 1992, China has promoted waste minimisation in the industrial departments. Efforts have been made to conserve resources, reduce consumption, recycle, and make comprehensive use of wastes. Meanwhile, a series of solid waste storage and disposal facilities have been built. These efforts remarkably reduced the amount of industrial waste from 33.76 million tons in 1991 to 22.42 million tons in 1995. Also, the amount of waste poured directly into rivers, lakes, and seas each year has dropped from 11.81 million tons in 1991 to 6.49 million tons in 1995.

3. Major Groups: No information.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 20: ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT OF HAZARDOUS WASTES, INCLUDING PREVENTION OF ILLEGAL INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN HAZARDOUS WASTES

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal was ratified in 1991.

Additional comments relevant to this chapter

Please refer also to the information provided under chapter 19.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The National Environmental Protection Agency is the Chinese governmental agency responsible for the legislation of Solid Waste Act which comprises the management of hazardous and dangerous wastes disposal. The National Environmental Protection Agency is also responsible for environmental impact assessment concerning projects that generate hazardous products. Environmental inspection for the safe disposal of hazardous waste is a joint effort between NEPA and other relevant ministries.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: China is currently in a pilot phase, introducing legislation of solid waste disposal, landfill and incineration facilities. Due to its large cost, advanced technologies for burial or burning the waste may not be suitable for dissemination until the future. A joint cooperation to develop out suitable technologies based on cost-effective analysis for safe disposal of solid waste is strongly recommended by local governments in China. In some pilot localities, such as Hangzhou and Shengzheng cities, low cost landfills are now under construction.

3. Major Groups: Other than government, the Chinese Research Academy for Environmental Sciences is the national level research body for the technical solution of waste disposal problems. In each province, there are research institutes responsible for developing or adopting safe solid waste methods and technologies.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: In this area, active cooperation with international companies has been carried out. More such cooperation is expected to introduce or jointly develop suitable technologies for China.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
1995
Generation of hazardous waste (t) 15.456 million
Import of hazardous wastes (t)
Export of hazardous wastes (t)
Area of land contaminated by hazardous waste (km2)
Expenditure on hazardous waste treatment (US$)
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 21: ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT OF SOLID WASTES AND SEWAGE-RELATED ISSUES

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

Please refer also to the information provided under chapter 19.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: Please refer also to the information provided under chapter 19.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: The mechanization level for waste collection and treatment is low. Equipment is obsolete and not suitable for the task. The scientific and technological level of waste treatment and disposal is in urgent need of improvement.

3. Major Groups: Please refer also to the information provided under chapter 19.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980 1990
1994
Generation of industrial and municipal waste (t) 7.44 mil.a
Waste disposed(Kg/capita)
Expenditure on waste collection and treatment (US$)
Waste recycling rates (%)
Municipal waste disposal (Kg/capita)
Waste reduction rates per unit of GDP (t/year)
Other data

a annual average

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 22: SAFE AND ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: In 1992, the Chinese Government promulgated "China's Environmental Policy on the Disposal of Middle- and Low-Level Radioactive Waste". Examination of the operation of the Qinshan and Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plants has shown that the land gamma radiation levels around the plants and the radioactive elements in soil, water, air-dissolved rubber, sediment, and biological samples are all within the data scope. A model plant is under construction for the disposal of radioactive wastes from the Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The State Bureau of Nuclear Safety is the Chinese governmental agency responsible for safe management and disposal of radioactive wastes. Under China's governmental structure, the State Bureau of Nuclear Safety is affiliated with the State Science and Technology Commission of China.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information.

3. Major Groups: No information.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTERS 23-32: MAJOR GROUPS

The role of major groups are also covered under the various chapters of Agenda 21. The following is a summary of main objectives outlined in Agenda 21. Please check the appropriate boxes and describe briefly any important steps or obstacles.

STATUS REPORT ON PARTICIPATION BY MAJOR GROUPS AT THE

NATIONAL AND LOCAL LEVELS
Ch. 24: GLOBAL ACTION FOR WOMEN TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND EQUITABLE DEVELOPMENT.

The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women was signed on 17 July 1980 and ratified on 4 November 1980.

24.a Increasing the proportion of women decision makers.

No information.

24.b assessing, reviewing, revising and implementing curricula and other educational material with a view to promoting dissemination of gender-relevant knowledge.

Curricula and educational material already promote gender relevant knowledge.

24.c and 24.d formulating and implementing policies, guidelines, strategies and plans for achievement of equality in all aspects of society including issuing a strategy by year 2000 to eliminate obstacles to full participation of women in sustainable development. Policies/strategies etc. have been drawn up and completed.

24.e establishing mechanisms by 1995 to assess implementation and impact of development and environment policies and programmes on women. These mechanisms are in place.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page): The All China Women's Federation has been involved in the process of formulation and implementation of China's Agenda 21 and its associated priority programmes. In Benxi City a Women's Sustainable Development Centre was set up that disseminates knowledge to rural women and helps urban women to start a new careers. The participation of women in sustainable development is addressed in chapter 20 of China's Agenda 21.

Chinese women have taken an active part in the adoption of sustainable practices with concrete results and Chinese women's organizations have also made substantial contributions to protecting the environment.

STATUS REPORT ON PARTICIPATION BY MAJOR GROUPS AT THE

NATIONAL AND LOCAL LEVELS
Ch. 25: CHILDREN AND YOUTH IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT.

25.a establishing processes that promote dialogue between the youth and government at all levels and mechanisms that permit youth access to information and opportunity to present their views on implementing A21.

Name relevant youth fora (3-4 most important):

1.

2.

3.

4.

Describe their role in the national process: Children and youth fully participate in the national process.

25.b reducing youth unemployment

Urban youth unemployment has increased from 2.988 million in 1992 to 3.102 million in 1995.

25.c ensuring that by year 2000 more than 50% of youth -- gender balanced -- have access to appropriate secondary education or vocational training.

The goal set in Agenda 21 has been reached.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page): Chapter 20 of China's Agenda 21 identifies targets and activities in order to promote the participation of children and youth in sustainable development. An Outline of China's Development Program for Children in the 1990s has been promulgated. Children and Youth have been involved in the process of formulation and implementation of the sustainable development strategy in China.

STATUS REPORT ON PARTICIPATION BY MAJOR GROUPS AT THE

NATIONAL AND LOCAL LEVELS
Ch. 26: RECOGNIZING AND STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF INDIGENOUS PEOPLE AND THEIR COMMUNITIES.

26.a establishing a process to empower indigenous people and their communities -- through policies and legal instruments:

No information.

26.b strengthening arrangements for active participation in national policies

No information.

26.c involving indigenous people in resource management strategies and programmes at the national and local level.

No information.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page):

No information.

Ch. 27: STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS: PARTNERS FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT.

27.a developing mechanisms that allow NGOs to play their partnership role responsibly and effectively.

27.b reviewing formal procedures and mechanisms to involve NGOs in decision making and implementation.

27.c promoting and allowing NGOs to participate in the conception, establishment and evaluation of official mechanisms to review Agenda 21 implementation.

Mechanisms exist already and NGO inputs are important.

27.d establishing a mutually productive dialogue by 1995 at the national level between NGOs and governments.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page):

No further information.

STATUS REPORT ON PARTICIPATION BY MAJOR GROUPS AT THE

NATIONAL AND LOCAL LEVELS
Ch. 28: LOCAL AUTHORITIES' INITIATIVES IN SUPPORT OF AGENDA 21.

28.a encouraging local authorities to implement and monitor programmes that aim to ensure participation of women and youth in local decision making.

The Government supports local agenda 21 initiatives and there are at least 21 local Agendas 21. Women and youth fully participate in local decision-making.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page):

China is a vast country and there are great disparities between the eastern, central, and western parts of the country in terms of natural conditions, economic development, and urbanisation. In view of this, it is essential for China to formulate different action plans for sustainable development which are suited to the local situations and conditions.

By the end of 1996, two-third of the 30 provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities had organised their respective Leading Groups and established working offices to implement their Local Agenda 21. Some provinces have formulated their own Local Agenda 21s and action plans. Some cities have also initiated their Local Agenda 21 works.

Ch. 29: STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF WORKERS AND THEIR TRADE UNIONS.

29.a full participation of workers in implementation and evaluation of A21.

29.b (By year 2000, (a) promoting ratification of ILO conventions; (b) establishing bipartite and tripartite mechanism on safety, health and sustainable development; (c) increasing number of environmental collective agreements; (d) reducing occupational accidents and injuries; (e) increasing workers' education and training efforts.

Workers take full part in National Agenda 21 discussion and implementation.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page): Chapter 20 of China's Agenda 21 identifies targets and activities in order to promote the participation of workers and labour unions in sustainable development. The trade unions of China have the largest membership in the world, with more than 600,000 grassroots organizations and over 100 million members.

STATUS REPORT ON PARTICIPATION BY MAJOR GROUPS AT THE

NATIONAL AND LOCAL LEVELS
30: STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY.

30.a increasing the efficiency of resource use, including reuse, recycling, and reduction of waste per unit of economic output.

There are governmental policies encouraging the above objective.

30.b encouraging the concept of stewardship in management and use of natural resources by entrepreneurs.

List any actions taken in this area:

In 1994, the "Technical and Financial Enhancement" Programme was initiated by the Chinese Government. The aim of this programme is to enhance technical reform investment, accelerate enterprise reform, and set up technical progress mechanisms. In two separate steps more than 3,000 projects within the "Technical and Financial Enhancement" Programme have been arranged, with a total investment of RMB 290 billion yuan. Energy conservation and reduction, comprehensive utilisation of resources, and environmental protection are three of the key priority areas within this programme. There are over 232 projects in the above areas and the total input is RMB 30 billion yuan.

30.c increasing number of enterprises that subscribe to and implement sustainable development policies.

Several big enterprises and a few small and medium sized enterprises have adopted sustainable development policies.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page):

No further information.

STATUS REPORT ON PARTICIPATION BY MAJOR GROUPS AT THE

NATIONAL AND LOCAL LEVELS
Ch. 31: SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL COMMUNITY.

31.a improving exchange of knowledge and concerns between s&t community and the general public.

The scientific community has already established ways in which to address the general public and deal with sustainable development.

31.b developing, improving and promoting international acceptance of codes of practice and guidelines related to science and technology and its role in reconciling environment and development.

Brief comments on this chapter not already described in chapter 35 (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page): Chinese scientists and technologists have taken an active part in implementing sustainable development. The Chinese Science and Technology Society has more than 10,000 branches at the provincial and prefectural levels, about 50,000 township offices, and 2,000 community groups. The people in this circle are all working diligently and conscientiously to gear their endeavours to economic construction and social progress, propagate advanced technologies where applicable to the local conditions, advocate civilised, healthy and scientific ways of living, eliminate feudal superstitions and ignorance, and promote the concept of sustainable development.

Ch. 32: STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF FARMERS.

32.a promoting and encouraging sustainable farming practices and technologies.

32.b developing a policy framework that provides incentives and motivation among farmers for sustainable and efficient farming practices.

32.c enhancing participation of organizations of farmers in design and implementation of sustainable development policies.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page):

Farmers are the main agents of land control and, at the same time, the main beneficiaries of investment in land quality. In the water and soil control projects from 1991 to 1996, farmers provided 70% of the total input and completed work on the prevention of soil erosion in 211,300 square kilometres. Farmer participation is essential for the cost reduction of the country's environmental control projects. Their input enables the Central Government to work on many projects with limited investment. Chinese farmers have developed many new methods in their practice of enhancing the agricultural ecological environment, such as "eco-farming" and "comprehensive control of small drainage areas". In addition, they have been actively studying and practising the application of new technologies in their efforts towards sustainable development. This is illustrated by the fact that over 30 million person-hours have been spent by farmers attending training courses on various applied technologies. The flourishing of township and village enterprises is another major contribution of the Chinese farmers towards the national industrialisation. This sector provides 120 million non-farming job opportunities in the rural areas and has created substantial wealth. These enterprises constitute a strong pillar of China's rural economy, an important part of the national economy, and the majority of the medium- and small-sized enterprises.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 33: FINANCIAL RESOURCES AND MECHANISMS

Financial resources and mechanisms are also covered under each sectoral chapter of Agenda 21 where relevant. This summary highlights broader national financial policies, domestic and external (including ODA)

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

No information.

CHANGES IN NATIONAL BUDGET TO ADDRESS SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT:

NEW ECONOMIC INSTRUMENTS:

ELIMINATION OF ENVIRONMENTALLY UNFRIENDLY SUBSIDIES:

ODA policy issues

China is a recipient country.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
ODA funding provided or received (Total US$million)
Average for 92-93
Average for 94-96
Net flow of external capital from all sources as % of GDP
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 34: TRANSFER OF ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND TECHNOLOGY, COOPERATION AND CAPACITY-BUILDING

Transfer of environmentally sound technology, cooperation and capacity-building is also covered under each sectoral chapter of Agenda 21 where relevant. This summary highlights broader national policies and actions relating to chapter 34.

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT ON LINKS BETWEEN NATIONAL, REGIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL INFORMATION NETWORKS/SYSTEMS: A sustainable development networking programme has been developed in order to improve access to information, and a Local Area Network with interconnection to the internet is being completed. Further development of these networks is planned. The project of Establishment of China's Environmentally Sound Technology Transfer Centre is also underway with the support of the Asian Development Bank. The objective of the centre is to enhance the capacity of China in exchange and acquisition of EST information and in the assessment, introduction, development and application of appropriate ESTs, in order to foster EST transfer, to reduce industrial pollution, and to realise sustainable industrial development.

MEANS OF IMPLEMENTATION: The Administrative Centre for China's Agenda 21 is responsible for exchange of information on all issues related to sustainable development.

The China's Sustainable Development Networking Programme will play an important role in information exchange and sharing.

Describe any work being undertaken at the national or local level regarding efforts to promote clean production processes and/or the concepts of eco-efficiency. These processes may include training, preferential financial arrangements, information dissemination and changes in legal or regulatory frameworks.

No information.

Provide information on the adoption of environmental management systems. National reaction to environmental management system standards such as the ISO 14000 Series and others. Please note efforts made at the national level to promote their adoption and the creation of certification infrastructure in order to facilitate access to these standards to local industry.

No information.

List and describe programs or work under way to facilitate the transfer of ESTs to small and medium sized enterprises. Please note efforts to facilitate access to financial resources and other transfer strategies.

No information.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 35: SCIENCE FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT ON NATIONAL SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE, RESEARCH NEEDS AND PRIORITIES:

China is in the transition period from a highly resource-consuming, low-efficiency, and heavily polluting economic development pattern to a resource-saving, high-efficiency, and less polluting economic development pattern. Therefore, all kinds of sciences and technologies which can promote the transformation of the economic development pattern are given priorities since there is still a shortage of these kinds of sciences and technologies in China.

STEPS TAKEN TO ENHANCE SCIENTIFIC UNDERSTANDING, IMPROVE LONG TERM SCIENTIFIC ASSESSMENT, BUILDING OF CAPACITY AND CAPABILITY:

Revitalizing China through science and education has served as a major strategy in China.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
Year
Number of scientists, engineers and technicians engaged in research and experimental development #19.134a

million

1995
Total expenditure for research and experimental development (US$eq.) $9.265

billion

1995
Other data

a in State-owned organisations

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 36: PROMOTING EDUCATION, PUBLIC AWARENESS AND TRAINING

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

Reorientation of education towards sustainable development

The Chinese Government attaches great importance to education on sustainable development. Under its auspices, several universities have set up new faculties, departments or colleges of environment protection, and preparations are also being made for the establishment of other academic organisations (such as research centres, societies, and research institutes) which specialise in the research of sustainable development. Moreover, environment sections have been added to textbooks for primary and middle schools, with the aim of enhancing the young people's environmental awareness.

Increasing public awareness

The Chinese media has greatly supported training and education for sustainable development. The People's Daily, CCTV, and the Central People's Radio have given broad coverage and introductions to the concept of sustainability and Agenda 21. Beijing TV produced "China's Agenda 21 Is Not A Dream" (a 30-episode series) and "Sustainable Development: A New Start for China". These programs offer a systematic introduction to China's Agenda 21 and the concept of sustainable development. The Central People's Broadcasting Station aired the series "The Road of China's Sustainable Development". Recent years have witnessed extensive coverage of environmental protection activities by the media, massive publication of books and periodicals on sustainable development by publishing agencies, and numerous important meetings on sustainability by the Government at all levels.

To increase public awareness of natural resources, the environmental situation, recycling, and solid and hazardous waste treatment, the State Economic and Trade Commission, the Environment and Resources Committee of the National People's Congress, and the Publicity Department of CPC's Central Committee co-organised a publicity campaign on the topics of sustainable utilisation of natural resources, promotion of the transformation of economic development growth model from extensive to intensive, and promotion of sustainable development. This activity is of great concern to the entire nation. All of the news agencies were mobilised to promote this campaign and thus increase public awareness on these topics. This campaign will be continuously conducted during the Ninth Five-Year Plan period. Additionally, during the Eighth Five-Year Plan, the State Economic and Trade Commission, the State Planning Commission, the State Science and Technology Commission, and other ministries conducted week-long campaigns on the topic of energy conservation across the whole country every October. The Ministry of Natural Resources organises relevant sectors to hold the World Water Day and China's Water Week every year.

Promoting training

Since the UNCED, and particularly after the publication of China's Agenda 21, the Chinese Government, at all levels, has organised numerous training courses in various forms. These were intended to change the out-dated traditional development concepts of the decision-makers and the management of development, and to enrich their understandings of sustainable development. By the end of 1996 these sustainable development training courses had been conducted in over half of the provinces. Six training workshops were devoted to the implementation of China's Agenda 21 into its social and economic development plans with support of UNDP and UNIDO.

ROLE OF MAJOR GROUPS: Chinese women's organizations at different levels play a very important role on the promotion of women's education level in China. Many kinds of training courses and programmes on practical technologies and illiteracy-elimination have been conducted by them.

The China Youth Fund launched and implemented the "Hope Project" which was designed to mobilise the entire society to help the young dropout in the poverty-stricken regions. The Labour Unions give full support to on-the-job training for employees of enterprises.

FINANCING AND COST EVALUATION OF THE LABOUR ACTIVITIES:

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
1995
Adult literacy rate (%) Male
Adult literacy rate (%) Female
% of primary school children reaching grade 5 (1986-97) 93.9%a 97.8%a 98.5%a
Mean number of years of schooling
% of GNP spent on education
Females per 100 males in secondary school
Women per 100 men in the labour force
Other data

a Rate of School-aged Children Enrolment

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 37: NATIONAL MECHANISMS AND INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION FOR CAPACITY-BUILDING IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

National capacity building is also covered under sectoral chapters.

Donors: You may wish to describe here how Agenda 21 has influenced your ODA policies in this area.

Developing countries: You may wish to describe any new national mechanisms for capacity building - and any changes in technical cooperation.

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT ON NATIONAL ENDOGENOUS CAPACITY BUILDING:

China is establishing a sustainable economic and social development system and corresponding environmental and sustainable resources base as an overall objective, in order to bring about economic prosperity, social progress, and ecological security. The main elements of the nation's strategic concept are:

--to actively promote the shift in economic structure and in the mode of economic development, and to constantly improve the quality of development while maintaining economic growth;

--to carry out a strategy of re-invigorating the country by relying on science and technology, and by integrating science, education, and the economy;

--to promote moral ethical development and to strengthen democracy and legal systems, thereby encouraging overall social progress and establishing a social basis for the nation's sustainable development;

--to control population growth and constantly improve the populations competence level;

--to adopt policies that give equal attention to the utilisation and the protection of natural resources;

--to rely on law enforcement in protecting and utilising the nation's natural resources, including land, freshwater, the seas, forests, grassland, biological resources, mineral resources, etc.;

--to enhance efforts implementing the "Help the Poor" programmes with a view to basically eliminate the nation's poverty by the end of the century; and

--to establish, step by step, the nation's policy and legal systems for sustainable development, as well as decision-making and management co-ordination mechanisms that promote sustainable development.

The UNDP-sponsored Capacity 21 Programme has played a catalyst role in promoting sustainable development in China. After the UNCED in 1992, China-UNDP cooperation has been very successful in the area of capacity building for sustainable development. China has formulated and implemented China's Agenda 21 with the support of UNDP. The first goal of the Capacity 21 project executed by the Chinese Government was to formulate and implement China's Agenda 21. The UNDP Capacity 21 Programme has given us a lot of help in the formulation of China's Agenda 21 and the Priority Programme for China's Agenda 21 along with the organization of the First High-Level Round Table Conference on China's Agenda 21. The second goal was to conduct training and research on capacity building for integrating China's Agenda 21 into economic and social development plans. The Chinese Government and UNDP also signed the CSDNP (China's Sustainable Development Networking Project) funded by UNDP on October 1995. In 1997, Capacity 21 Programme will continue to support China in the area of capacity building for local Agenda 21s.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 38: INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS

Ch. 38: Brief summary of any particular UN System response affecting this country/state:

No information.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 39: INTERNATIONAL LEGAL INSTRUMENTS AND MECHANISMS

Ch. 39: International Legal Instruments are covered under the relevant sectoral chapters. This is a listing of major agreements/conventions (not already covered) entered into and relevant to Agenda 21:

No information.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 40: INFORMATION FOR DECISION-MAKING

This chapter is also covered under sectoral and other chapters of this profile. The matrix below gives an overview of how national authorities rate the available information for decision making.

Rating of available data and information suitable for decision-making

Agenda 21 Chapters
Very
good
Good
Some good
data but
many gaps
Poor
Remarks
2. International cooperation and trade
3. Combating poverty
4. Changing consumption patterns
5. Demographic dynamics and sustainability
6. Human health
7. Human settlements
8. Integrating E & D in decision-making
9. Protection of the atmosphere
10. Integrated planning and management of land resources
11. Combating deforestation
12. Combating desertification and drought
13. Sustainable mountain development
14. Sustainable agriculture and rural development
15. Conservation of biological diversity
16. Biotechnology
17. Oceans, seas, coastal areas and their living resources
18. Freshwater resources
19. Toxic chemicals
20. Hazardous wastes
21. Solid wastes
22. Radioactive wastes
24. Women in sustainable development
25. Children and youth
26. Indigenous people
27. Non-governmental organizations
28. Local authorities
29. Workers and trade unions
30. Business and industry
31. Scientific and technological community
32. Farmers
33. Financial resources and mechanisms
34. Technology, cooperation and capacity-building
35. Science for sustainable development
36. Education, public awareness and training
37. International cooperation for capacity-building
38. International institutional arrangements
39. International legal instruments
40. Information for decision-making

Additional Comments

Various government agencies and different localities have established information centres and the State has set up a broad-based information centre. These provide a foundation for the development of an information system for sustainable development. The need for improvements of communication technologies is expressed in Chapter 12: Sustainable Development of Industry, Transportation and Communication in China's Agenda 21. The present capacity in telecommunication is inadequate. Delays in the transfer of information hinders social and economic sustainable development.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1989
1993
Latest 1995
Number of telephones in use per 100 inhabitants 0.91 2.2 4.8
Other data

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Department of Economic and Social Affairs
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Last updated 1 November 1997