World Summit on Sustainable DevelopmentJohannesburg, South Africa, 26 August-4 September 2002
At the 1992 Earth Summit, the international community adopted Agenda 21, an unprecedented global plan of action for sustainable development. Ten years later, the Johannesburg Summit presented an exciting opportunity for the leaders of the day to adopt concrete steps and identify quantifiable targets for better implementing Agenda 21.
General Assembly 19th special session to review and appraise the implementation of Agenda 21New York, 23-27 June 1997
The Earth Summit review:
- Assessed global progress made in sustainable development since Rio
- Showed that sustainable development works by highlighting stories of successful efforts being made by people around the world
- Identified reasons why goals set in Rio have not always been met and suggest corrective action
- Highlighted special issues -- such as finance and technology transfer, patterns of production and consumption, use of energy and transportation, scarcity of freshwater -- and identify priorities for future action
- Called on Governments, international organizations and major groups to renew their commitment to sustainable development.
United Nations Conference on Environment and DevelopmentRio de Janeiro, 3-14 June 1992
In Rio, 172 Governments -108 represented by heads of State or Government- adopted three major agreements to guide future approaches to development: Agenda 21, a global plan of action to promote sustainable development; the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, a series of principles defining the rights and responsibilities of States; and the Statement of Forest Principles, a set of principles to underpin the sustainable management of forests worldwide. In addition, two legally binding instruments were opened for signature at the Summit: the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Convention on Biological Diversity. Moreover, negotiations began on the Convention to Combat Desertification, which was opened for signature in October 1994 and entered into force in December 1996.