2015 UN-Water Annual International Zaragoza Conference. Water and Sustainable Development: From Vision to Action. 15-17 January 2015


This section provides access to some of the cases discussed at the Conference.

Risk Management

>> Anheuser-Busch InBev
By Bert Share, Anheuser-Busch InBev.

This case will explore the tools used to integrate water stewardship into standard business activities at Anheuser-Busch InBev and build internal and external capacity to take actions to scale at the watershed level and reduce climate and water-related risks, both for the company’s breweries and its barley supply chain.  This includes water risk assessment, goal setting and cascading systems, project management and reporting systems and company management systems.

>> CDP corporate stewardship
By Cate Lamb, CDP.

CDP is an international not-for-profit organization providing the only global environmental disclosure system. These insights enable investors, companies and governments to mitigate risks from the use of energy and natural resources and identify opportunities from taking a responsible approach to the environment. In 2014, CDP’s water program was used by 573 investors, with USD 60 trillion in assets and 14 multinational companies. By inviting companies to disclose to CDP, we aim to lead them on a journey towards effective corporate water stewardship. We pose key questions to corporations about their risk and response to water challenges through the CDP platform enabling greater understanding of the private sector’s impact on water resources worldwide, while driving transparency of water issues, facilitating informed decision making and encouraging action to mitigate water risks and impacts.

>> Strategic Program for Climate Resilience in the Jamaican Sugarcane Industry
By Katalin Solymosi, IDB.

In line with Jamaica’s national Strategic Program for Climate Resilience (SPCR) to safeguard water resources, IDB’s Structured and Corporate Finance Department has started an initiative to promote water efficiency measures and technologies among small farmers in the company’s supply chain through a loan to a private sector client in the sugar industry. Some of the potential investments identified by the IDB are drip-irrigation and fertilization practices and mechanized harvest on state and third-party suppliers’ land; wastewater treatment investments at processing plant level; training/capacity building to create more employment opportunities for youth and women as well as to avoid illicit cane burning; and financial literacy and agribusiness management practices to enable the participation of all types of farmers. To overcome the risks derived from long payback periods and lack of farmer’s financial capacity and knowledge, SCF is considering the use of blended concessional funds as an incentive for investment.

>> Flood early warning systems
By Lydia Cumiskey, Water Youth Network.

This case presents the “Mobile Services for flood early warning in Bangladesh” project  conducted by a multi stakeholder consortium including government institutions (Flood forecasting and Warning Centre and the Regional Integrated Multi Hazard Early Warning System), research institutions (Deltares and HKV consultants) and NGO partners (Cordaid Netherlands, Concern Universal Bangladesh, Practical Action Bangladesh and MMS). This project develops a people-centred early warning system comprised of four key elements: knowledge of the risks; monitoring, analysis and forecasting of the hazards; communication or dissemination of alerts and warnings; and local capabilities to respond to the warnings received (Basher, 2006) 1. The communication and dissemination component has being recognized as the least developed one, with a huge gap between the information produced by national level forecasting agencies and that received and acted upon by the flood affected communities. Thus, in view of the recognition of the important role of young actors in flood risk reduction given by the 3rd UN World Congress for Disaster Risk Reduction (3WCDRR), the Children and Youth Blast, 3WCDRR is to be held in Sendai in 2015 and will give young people the opportunity to influence decision makers, display their unique abilities, make commitments, co-educate and plan actions to reduce the risks our communities face to disasters.

>> ICPDR Strategy on Adaptation to Climate Change
By Raimund Mair, International Commission for the Protection of the Danube River (ICPDR).

In view of the warnings raised by the most recent IPCC technical reports on predictable risks to water quality and availability, the International Commission for the Protection of the Danube River (ICPDR) was asked by the Ministers of the Danube countries in 2010 to prepare the first transboundary Climate Change Adaptation Strategy for the whole basin. The Strategy was finalised and adopted in December 2012 2, and is based on a scientific research study which summarises all relevant information on climate change and expected impacts on water for the Danube River Basin.

The Strategy is currently under implementation, whereas the most important tools for taking the required adaptation measures are the international Danube River Basin Management and Danube Flood Risk Management Plans. Drafts for both plans are currently in public consultation and will be finalised and adopted in December 2015.

>> Democratic Policy of Civil Society in Risk Management for Universal Access of Safe Drinking Water, Sanitation and Hygiene in Pakistan
By Muhammad Wasif Bashir Babar, University of Punjab, Pakistan.

The city of Lahore, Pakistan, faced critical drinking water, sanitation & hygiene conditions exacerbated by high levels of poverty, lack of political will/interest, environmental and groundwater pollution, worse socioeconomic status, lack of education, poor hygiene, high rates of water-born diseases. As a result, a common initiative of Faisalabad’s civil society and the Government of Punjab to develop WASH services and effective water risk management in the community with a high participatory and youth engagement component has been developed. The study presented in this case was carried out in 2014 to assess and analyse the effective role of civil society and youth in WASH Development and risk management, along with the process of community partnership and flexible strategies for community development. An innovative bottom-up and participatory approach was applied, engaging young women, educational institutions, religious leaders and children. It concluded that engaging communities and youth in development activities can play an essential role in developing local community ownership and ensure project and ecological sustainability, and partnerships including youth, media, women, educational institutions and civil society should be promoted.

>> Monitoring and Evaluation in Water and its relation to the Millennium Development Goals
By Mohamed Elrawady, CEDARE

The monitoring and evaluation (M&E) of the water sector have been considered the weakest link in progress towards achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in Africa, as it faces several challenges on the national and regional levels. Accordingly, it is required to build and develop capacities of governments and non-governmental agencies in North African States to cope with the challenges of data collection, analysis, monitoring, evaluation and reporting. Hence, human resources development and institutional capacity building could become one of the major areas of investment in Africa over the following years.
The Monitoring and Evaluation of the Water Sector in North Africa (MEWINA) project has been launched in November 2011 to influence decision makers, governments, scientific community, development agencies, and general public in North Africa. Its overall goal is to report regularly on the State of the Water through a set of institutional, technical, environmental, socio-economic and governance indicators.

>> Sustainable Water Management Project (SWMP) in Salamieh District
By Ali Al-Zein, Aga Khan Foundation, Syria

The Sustainable Water Management Project (SWMP) in Salamieh District aimed to alleviate negative impacts of water shortage such as poor yields, low incomes, high unemployment rate, which collectively lead to poverty and migration. It included multiple interventions in order to help farmers and create incentives for them to work collectively on scientific irrigation scheduling, water harvesting, supplemental irrigation, deficit irrigation and modernizing irrigation systems. The project interventions during the period 2005–2010 have resulted in several achievements, including minimized water consumption, yield improvements, increased water use efficiency and higher incomes, along with groundwater table stabilization in most of the villages.
All the dimensions of sustainability were addressed throughout the project phases:
From the social point of view, farmers producing vegetables and fruits – who apply traditional irrigation techniques using water from private owned wells – from 120 villages were targeted. Some farmers were trained to be facilitators of the introduction, promotion and maintenance of drip irrigation networks among the farmer communities. Meanwhile, several workshops and campaigns aimed at behavior changing, awareness raising and promotion of collective work and community participation and mobilization on water management and conservation were conducted.
Regarding economics, an economic assessment showed that the first season’s income could cover the cost of the network, which had a lifespan of at least 5 years. Encouraging formation of groups in villages in order to maximize cost saving and widen participation was also a vital part of the project.
From the environmental point of view, minimum intervention on water resources and maximum reservation for the environment were achieved. Materials used for the network were collected and recycled by farmers and biodiversity was considered during the whole project.

>> Projet d’appui a la protection de l’oasis de Bidi dans le Sahel au Burkina Faso
By Illias Sawadogo, Youth Network for Water and Sustainable Development (YNWSD)

Burkina Faso is a sahelian country of West Africa with very few water resources. This country constantl faces water deficit, which does not allow meeting the various needs in water. The existing water resources are also under a threat of degradation and even disappearance because of human activities and climate change: animal and human pressure, advance of the desert, silting, lack of awareness or negligence of the Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM). The latest issue affects the oasis of Bidi, a natural water source in the Sahel region of Burkina. That source is precisely located in Oudalan province where there are also important dams such as the Oursi pond, a Ramsar site. That province which chief area is Gorom-Gorom has an area of 9.797 square kilometers with a population of 197.240 people.

In view of that situation, young people involved in the Youth Network for Water and Sustainable Development (YNWSD / REJEDD in French) are willing to contribute to solving the problem through this support project for the protection of the oasis of Bidi in the Sahel of Burkina: “Let’s save both the oasis and the people of Bidi”.

>> Flooding Analysis in San Rafael Neighbourhood, Ciudad del Este, Paraguay
By Pedro Domaniczky, Itaipu Binacional

San Rafael neighbourhood is a coastal district that is located in the city Ciudad del Este, Paraguay. It is vulnerable to suffer flooding because its location and the sudden change in level of the stream running through it, called Acaray Mi.

This work aim is the determination of flood polygons of the Acaray Mi Stream, a tributary of the Paraná River, and the related costs of the events in the coastal neighbourhood San Rafael. To achieve the aim of this work were used free software developed by the Corps of Engineers of the United States: HEC-RAS for calculating the hydraulic component, and HEC-GeoRAS as a facilitator in the interconnection of hydraulic and geographic components.

>> Applications of Earth observations in monitoring the Water SDG
By Richard Lawford, Morgan State University, US

The United Nations Open Working Group’s (OWG) 2014 report on Sustainable Development Goals includes a water goal. Effective monitoring of this goal needs to be action-oriented, measuring progress objectively, and guiding global investments. Recently, as part of the UN Global Expanded Monitoring Initiative (GEMI), a Task Team on Earth observations (EOTT) has explored the potential role of Earth observations (EO) for indicator monitoring.

Earth observations, which include both satellite and in-situ data, can provide robust monitoring for indicators because of their geospatial consistency, accessibility, repeatability, and global coverage. EO data are being used to derive population density maps that support monitoring and could assist in monitoring Waste Water and Water Quality Management (WWQM) indicators. Geographical Information System (GIS) platforms enable EO data to be combined with socioeconomic and survey data for more complex indicators. Water Resources Management (WRM) indicators lend themselves to the use of water cycle data used in routine water management purposes. Emerging integration capabilities such as land data assimilation systems and the University of Tokyo’s Water Cycle Integrator can also track WRM indicators. In addition, the present and future role of novel data, including new “Big Data” sources and citizen science will also play a significant role. Two avenues for addressing sustainable development monitoring are being considered. The first avenue integrates Earth observations into the current monitoring framework through the recommended design of a more open system. The second avenue explores how a different approach to sustainable development could enable Earth observations to inform a near-real time monitoring and adaptive management system that would direct resources to resolving non-sustainable practices and emergencies.

Water Resources Management and Scarcity

>> Integrated Water Resources Management in Myanmar
By Htung Lwin Oo, By Htung Lwin Oo, Ministry of Transport of Myanmar

Though Myanmar only uses 5% of the potential water resources, 89% of them going to the agricultural sector, it is also subject to water related risks like floods and scarcity due to the uneven distribution of rainfall over the country and seasons. The rise of urban and rural water demands due to the increasing development is bringing the need for controlled management of surface and groundwater extractions to ensure future sustainability, together with an enhancement of water conservation initiatives, such as rain water harvesting, strategic planning for water resources development and related infrastructure investment ahead of time.
For social inclusion, some water user groups have been mobilized to take part in such activities; however, capacity building is still needed to further involve local communities in the water management decision making process at all levels.
In this context, Myanmar established National Water Resources Committee (NWRC), an APEX body that promotes coordination and cooperation among water related Ministries and Organizations, and constitutes a consolidated coordination mechanism that oversees, monitors, directs and supports all water related activities leading to inclusive water governance. The intellectual and technical support has been provided by the Expert Group of the NWRC that consisted of long standing Myanmar water professionals from various water related fields with the experience of 25 to 40 years, with additional support of the Dutch government.

>> Application of the Alliance for Water Stewardship (AWS) International Water Stewardship Standard in Australia
By Michael Spencer, Alliance for Water Stewardship (AWS).

This case study considers development and early stage application of the AWS’s International Water Stewardship Standard. AWS has been developing the concept of water stewardship in a way that it can be used in a variety of settings to deal with problems of water scarcity, poor water quality, threats to and loss of important ecosystems and cultural places and unequal access to water.  Water stewardship requires collaboration between business and industry, farmers, communities, governments (and their various agencies) and, civil society organizations. 
In this case study, the system has been applied in the supply chains of major retailers in Africa and Latin America and in the supply chain of food producers in Australia.  Each case has involved the larger business (retailers or producers) engaging farmers in examining their water use in the context of the Standard.  It adopts a six step process to achieve four outcomes; (1) sustainable water balance, (2) good water quality, (3) healthy important water related areas and, (4) good water governance. A universal outcome evident in all cases was the extent to which the system encouraged collaboration between stakeholders who may not have collaborated previously. Another important outcome was the extent to which implementers were required to look ‘outside their gate’ to the catchment in which they operated and the water challenges in that catchment.  This fostered a common understanding of the issues and the role each participant could play in resolving those issues. This collaboration will continue to develop as new implementers are engaged within the catchments. As a critical mass of implementers is achieved catchment indicators will provide evidence of improvement.

>> Financial sustainability to support the long term management of water resources in Ecuador: the case of FONAG
By Pablo Lloret, FONAG, Ecuador

The Fund is a financial mechanism, with the legal1 figure of a private mercantile trust, under the Securities Market Law of2 Ecuador. The FONAG is a heritage fund with a useful life of 80 years. Operating 3 as a private mercantile trust fund and legally regulated by Ecuador’s stock market law, its revenues will be used to co-finance environmental activities in favour of water conservation.
During the process of creation of the FONAG, the use of the water basins was defined as unit of analysis under three criteria: importance for the maintenance of biodiversity, intensity of the threats and a favourable socio-political and institutional context for the execution of actions.

The resources invested by FONAG allow the development of research, land tilting, surveillance and a control program, valuation of environmental services, sustainable productive systems, education and training, and monitoring and evaluation programs. The initiative to consider a water conservation mechanism was the result of an analysis in reference to the depletion of water sources near the capital city, and the need to turn to water springs on the western Andean range to provide water, as well as to summon the main users whose demand for water resources increases constantly. The initial analysis was promoted by several national and international environmental non-profit organizations who recommended a percentage contribution on the water and sewage bills for the city of Quito.

>> Abengoa experience in seawater desalination in developing countries
By Arturo Buenaventura, Abengoa

This case presents four experiences developed under the framework of Abengoa initiatives in seawater desalination in developing countries.
The study first presents key water facts on a global level are shown with special emphasis on the worldwide population that has no access to improved drinking water. Then, membrane desalination is presented as an excellent water technology to generate alternative resources that provide drinking water at an affordable cost.
The central part includes an explanation of the four experiences - Algeria (with three desalination plants), Ghana, Morocco and India – both in terms of plant characteristics and particular issues that had to be tackled during the development of the different projects. It also presents the Public-Private Partnerships (PPP) in water projects involved and how Project Finance (PF) has proven as the most suitable tool to face global water challenges, especially in developing countries where access to finance sources is not easy.
Finally some conclusions and final thoughts are driven.

>> Green bonds
By Justine Leigh-Bell, Climate Bonds

Green bonds have emerged in recent years as a new financial mechanism that offers investors an opportunity to support climate friendly investments. Projects funded by green bonds have been located across the globe and focused on a variety of goals, from increasing the resilience of water systems to boosting energy efficiency. The involvement of multilateral development banks has expanded the interest in green bonds, with governmental agencies, municipalities and, more recently, utilities and corporations finding ways to use the financial instruments.
Water is expected to be a key investment area for green bonds as the market grows. In the United States alone there will be an estimated $300 billion to $1 trillion invested in clean water infrastructure by 2030. But to keep this growth, new tools need to be at hand for assisting issuers in meeting investor demand for climate-themed bonds; assisting investors in recognising such bonds; and assisting governments in supporting investments in such bonds. Certified Climate Bonds will provide integrity and reduce reputational risks for all those involved in participating in a new asset class. Meanwhile, developing a robust framework for bond issuances in the water sector is critical, as it will help to create awareness about the opportunity within the industry, and give investors the confidence that the funds are being used to deliver credible climate change solutions.

>> The Audimod Tool
By Elena López Gunn, Leeds University

We present the results of a study undertaken on behalf of FAO and then further developed for a Spanish river basin agency to look at whether irrigation modernization projects are effective measures as part of the implementation of catchment plans to help improve the status of water bodies. The tool developed is called AudiMod and was tested for two specific sites.

>> Drought Management Plans
By Luis Garrote, Technical University of Madrid

The case study deals with the preparation and implementation of drought management plans. It is based on the MEDROPLAN project, carried out between 2007 and 2010. The objective of the project was to provide Mediterranean countries with a framework. The project produced a set of Drought Management Guidelines for effective and systematic approach to prevent and/or minimize the impacts of drought on people, which were published in 2010 in six languages. The Guidelines outline both long term and short term measures that are to be used to prevent and mitigate the effects of drought. The Guidelines provide an integrated approach to face droughts from a risk management perspective and therefore minimizing the impacts of drought in the population and resources. The integrated drought planning concept addresses the planning framework and four specific components: the organizational, methodological, operational and public review components.

>> Integrated Water Management in Stressed Basins: Segura River Experience
By Miguel Ángel Ródenas, Segura River Basin Authority

The Segura River Basin (south-east Spain) suffers the lowest annual rainfall rate in the continental Europe (365 mm). However, its weather is exceptional for vegetable production. Its main characteristics are: structural water deficit, good climate for crops, millenary irrigation system (260,000 hectares vital to the socioeconomic support of the region) and advanced water infrastructures system. These features, mixed with cyclic droughts and floods, have designed along the history a special relation between the inhabitants of the region and the environment, while bringing the need of an integrated water system that has been implemented for the last hundred years.
This single management system is based on a Previous Hydrological Planning to control all the water resources: surface water, groundwater, transfers and non conventional resources (reuse and desalination). Six main projects made the System possible: Tajo-Segura Transfer, Modern Irrigation System (by large pressure pipelines), Integrated Urban Water Reclamation and Reuse System, Urban Supply System (to 2.5 Million people), Desalination Plants System and Segura River Regulation Plan (flood defence).

>> UNECE Water Convention: from regional to global instrument, and its implementation on the ground
By Minna Hanski, Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry of Finland

The UNECE Water Convention has led to strengthened transboundary water cooperation, peace and security through intersectoral and transboundary coordination and cooperation. The Water Convention and the UN Watercources Convention, which entered into force in 2014, are based on the same principles and they complement each other. The former is focused more on the prevention of adverse transboundary impacts and the latter on the fair and reasonable use of shared water resources among states. The globalization of Conventions brings new opportunities for experience sharing.
Finland has a long tradition in transboundary cooperation and in participating in the development of international water law and in promoting international water conventions. The agreement between Finland and Russia concerning frontier watercourses is already 50 years old. It has a wide coverage, both geographically and in terms of the topics included. It meets the principles of transboundary cooperation: equitable and reasonable use of the water resource, no harm principles and common institutional body.

>> Dealing with scarcity through effective water management and allocation: Civil society as agents for change (Myanmar Case: NWRC and ARBRO et al.)
By Khin Nini Thein, ARBRO, Myanmar

Decades of close door policy and top down decision making system without any consideration for participatory approach, let alone to give room/space for inclusiveness, have severely constrained the ability for people in Myanmar to freely organize themselves and speak up. Since 2011, the Government of Myanmar has taken a new approach that practices relaxation and liberalization towards free trade economy, which has led to begin the process of political and economic reforms. Water is a major driving force and essential ingredient for any economic and social activities. However, due to lack of Integrated Water Resources Management, the more economic activities increase the more water resources suffer. It has reached to the level of urgency that water professionals in Myanmar could no longer keep the silence. At some point the water professionals slowly reached out to decision makers in Myanmar including the President’s Office to address the wáter, development and environment issues through the lens of wáter-energy-food nexus. The Myanmar wáter professionals initiated this process and succeeded in starting up a dialogue with influential and authorised leaders in the water sector in Myanmar.

>> Flood Footprint Accountings
By Dabo Guan, University of East Anglia, UK

We present a new and transformative disaster accounting framework – flood footprint accountings. Flood footprint is a measure of the exclusive total economic impact that is directly and indirectly caused by a flood event to the flooding region and wider economic systems. Flooding in one location can impact the whole EU or world economy, since the effects of the disaster are transferred through the whole supply chain.

For investment in flood risk management options, it is critical to identify the ‘blind-spots’ in critical infrastructure and vulnerable sectors along with the economic supply chains and social networks. This in turn allows for sufficient adaptation to the damage that is transferred from the current event to future events. Adaption to flood risk is not limited to the area which suffers the direct damage. It also extends to entire socioeconomic networks and this must be considered in order to minimise the magnitude and probability of cascading damage to the regions not flooded.

We are developing this new tool under EU FP7 project – BASE, UK EPSRC funded projects of Sesame and Blue Green Cities.

>> “Cultivando Agua Boa”
By Nelton Friedrich, Itaipu Binacional

The “Cultivando Agua Boa” program has the aim to protect natural resources and fight against poverty in the region. It thus works on social and environmental problems, promoting a new vision of water resources use through the participation of all stakeholders involved. It represents a new way to substitute the old habits by sustainable and participative practices focused on those territories where natural resources are threatened.

This is a systemic program based on civil society participation where water is used as the backbone for a series of actions, with the objective to fight poverty and climate change. It works with an awareness plan composed of 60 actions, which to date has enabled the following main achievements: recuperation of 200 micro-basins in the region, upgraded water quantity and quality, reduced soil erosion, improved life quality and social insertion of local people, reforestation of riversides, increased nature conservation and a participative water management promoting water stewardship and sustainable land management.

>> The ”Building Capacity in the Apparel Sector on Reducing and Managing he Water Footprint” project
By Ruth Mathews, Water Footprint Network

Improving environmental performance in the apparel supply chain is critical for the long-term viability of the sector as well as the sustainability of ecosystems and communities. Water is a key natural resource for the apparel sector: the production of cotton and other fibers is dependent upon water resources but also impacts water quality through the use of fertilizers, pesticides and tillage practices; washing, dyeing, finishing (WDF) of fabrics and other textiles uses water and releases effluents that contain residual chemicals used in the processes. The Water Footprint Network has a strategic partnership with the clothing retailer C&A calculating the water footprint of its supply chain, assessing its sustainability and formulating responses to improve its sustainability. In the project: ”Building Capacity in the Apparel Sector on Reducing and Managing he Water Footprint” data was collected from 702 cotton farms from 3 states in India using three agricultural practices: conventional, REEL and organic. The green, blue and grey water footprint was calculated and analysed against the practice types to identify where significant water footprint savings can be realized. A guidance document on agricultural practices relative to the water footprint and training materials for farmers are developed for dissemination.

Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH)

>> Costs, Benefits and Financing of Post-2015 WASH Targets
By Guy Hutton, World Bank.

It is expected that basic water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) will be part of a future water sustainable development goal (SDG). A study is ongoing to estimate the global costs, benefits and financing to meet the proposed target of reaching universal basic WASH access by 2030. The study estimates costs based on the incremental costs of extending services to the unserved as well as the costs of maintaining coverage for the already served. Costs and benefits are estimated for income quintiles separately. Public financing required to extend services to reach universal access is estimated based on what proportion of investment costs should be covered by public (or donor) finances, by income quintile. These values are compared to existing financial allocations. This study provides some key evidence for discussions that will be held at global as well as country level on how universal WASH access can be provided for households.

>> Monitoring Household Water Quality, SHIP Water Laboratory, Zambia
By Shauna Curry, Centre for Affordable Water and Sanitation Technology (CAWST).

The Centre for Affordable Water and Sanitation Technology (CAWST) and its network of Water Expertise and Training (WET) Centres, which work on closing the capacity gap in the WASH sector at the local scale, have worked to build local capacity to carry out effective drinking water quality testing. A study of this work will contribute greatly to the WASH sector’s renewed focus on this area.

The study focuses on CAWST’s WET Centre partner in Zambia, Seeds of Hope International Partnerships (SHIP), which in 2009 expressed their need for water quality testing training. This training allowed WET Centre field workers to offer a wide range of water testing services, providing a record of successes, challenges and solutions, with an appropriate focus on skills and knowledge alongside technology and infrastructure. CAWST has also supported SHIP in its establishment of two laboratory facilities in Ndola and Lusaka, Zambia, servicing a range of government, non-government, individual and private sector stakeholders.

>> Improvement of Services in the Republic of Korea
By Jong Ho Ahn, Government Repúblic of Korea.

With the rapid economic growth that began in the early 1960s, Korea has made great strides in improving and constructing the infrastructure and service enhancement of waterworks and sanitation.  Waterworks service is now provided to almost all regions in the country except for some vulnerable rural areas. Meanwhile, more than 90% of sewage generated is collected and treated properly. The key factors for a successful water service system included the government-initiated financial investment, executed in a timely manner to deal with the steeply acceleration on water demands, and the adequate preparation of a water resource management system for various fields of waterworks and sewage services. At present, the maintenance of existing facilities and improvement of service quality are our biggest challenges, rather than the quantitative expansion of infrastructure. Some of the major outstanding issues include the low operation efficiency of existing facilities; challenges in consolidated operation management, as the quantity and quality of water are managed separately by different departments; structural financial problems; and additional fund requirements to address climate change challenges.  To address these issues, the government is trying to shift the presently local based water management system to a waterworks/sewage total operation system and encourage the participation of private companies in water service provision. However, as of now some additional pending challenges remain, including the reformation of laws and a sustainable financial operation system, before the goal of establishing a total water management system that ensures better access to high quality water for leisure, tourism and exercise is achieved.

>> Sustainable Approaches for Drinking Water in Rural Area, Mea Moh District, Lampang Province, Thailand
By Noppawan Boontham, Maejo University, Thailand

The Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT) was established over 30 years ago. A Power Plant and Mae Moh mine, 13 Stream Power Plants, use lignite as fuel for electricity generation, causing air and water pollution and adverse effects on the health of nearby populations.
Water resource problems for community consumption in terms of quality and quantity are important obstacles for quality of life in nearby communities. The project took place in the upper zone of Ban Dong Sub-District, Mea Moh District, Lampang Province of Northern Thailand. The main objectives were: to co-investigate the current situation of water problems for consumers in terms of quality and quantity; to develop mechanisms to supply drinking water through community participation and to design an appropriate model for sustainable water management. At present villagers face not only water shortages but also water quality-related problems. The water shortage is rather caused by the lack of effective community participation to manage integrated solutions from the raw water preparation and to distribute water throughout the community. These problems are lessened where the community in upper zone has been mindful about forest preservation and regulation around the Mae Moh water basin. The pilot projects were launched to initiate the working group, which assembled volunteers led by the village leader and representatives. The result helped the community to understand the issues and self-created solutions for reducing costs and improving sustainability, including developing the use of a slow sand filtering system for drinking water and maintaining the village water supply system. Participatory activities could be passed on to other villages around Mae Moh District so that villagers can develop sustainability mainly through their own self-supported work.

>> Regional Integration for Better Water and Sanitation Services
By Diego Fernandez, Valle de Colombia University, Colombia

Since 2004, the Government of Colombia4 adopted a policy known as Departmental Water and Sanitation Plans (PDA), designed to regionalize the delivery of drinking water supply and sanitation services by concentrating it in the hands of major specialized operators with technical and operational capacities to improve coverage, efficiency and quality of service, funded by the municipal authorities benefiting from the plan, the departments and the nation.
As a result of the implementation of Departmental Water and Sanitation Plans, the municipalities’ mayors received support to develop proposals for business scheme transformation and for institutional strengthening. Likewise, there was an effort to engage the social and political stakeholders of each of the municipalities, so that each municipal council could approve the allocation of resources from the General System for Participation (transferred by the national government), for several years to subsidize the most vulnerable population.

>> Public policies and institutional frameworks in the water and sanitation sector in Latin America and the Caribbean
By Franz Rojas, Independent Consultant, Bolivia

The case study describes public policies in drinking water and sanitation in 22 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean: its regulatory frameworks, existing institutions, planning instruments, investments and corporate/organizational models for each water and sanitation provider. It also describes best practices for each country, although extrapolation requires analysis and adjustments as necessary depending on the context of each country.
When contrasting with the public policy guidelines that are usually recommended for drinking water and sanitation services, it is concluded that the separation of functions and roles is partially fulfilled; the autonomy of providers is insufficient; and that although sectoral plans are ambitious this can become a cause of failure and discouragement. There is also a large number of small providers (specially in suburban and rural areas) with structural operational problems that do not have appropriate technical support, or monitoring and control systems.

>> Provision of drinking water supply and sanitation services in rural areas
By William Carrasco, Independent Consultant, Colombia

This case study analyses public policies for the provision of drinking water and sanitation services in rural areas. To this end, the following content is covered: the characterization of rural areas from the perspective of a qualitative and quantitative approach; the situation of drinking water supply and sanitation services for rural communities in the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean; and a comparative analysis of public policies in this field in Colombia and Peru.
Rural drinking water supply and sanitation services reflect very different features and conditions from those in urban areas, and require countries to develop public policies specific to each case.
Public policy recommendations for drinking water supply and sanitation for rural populations will be presented, with the caveat that in every case and for every reality measures should reflect local conditions as much as possible. The experience of Colombia with the Cooperative Public Administrations (APC) model for providing services in small municipalities and the Departmental Water and Sanitation Plans (PDA), will be highlighted.

>> The cost of not having drinking water supply services in Nicaragua
By Carlos Narváez, University of Nicaragua, Nicaragua

In Nicaragua there are 17 departments and a total of 6 million Nicaraguans. Almost 65% of households have water through the public networks, however in rural areas only 25% of households have water services. People without access to water pay the equivalent of 15 dollars a month and consume about 2 cubic meters per household per month. On the other hand, a customer with access to water services through the ENACAL network with a consumption of 15 cubic meters pays only 3 dollars per month. These inequalities should be addressed and a new tariff structure is required.
This case study shows, in monetary terms, the importance of water and the social benefits it provides have when accessed through a reliable network.

>> AWHHE action on WASH
By Emma Anakhasyan, AWHHE

In the last years, the topic of water and sanitation has become the main priority of the NGO Armenian Women for Health and Healthy Environment (AWHHE). Since 1999, AWHHE has implemented more than 90 projects on promotion of sustainable sanitation, improvement of water supply, monitoring of the state implemented project, involvement of local people in the projects and strengthening their participation in decision making processes, etc.
Between 1992 and 2010, Armenia reported 104 waterborne outbreaks with almost half of them in rural areas. Of the 915 communities, 560 are historically self-supplied through local springs and other sources. Being outside of the service areas of large water supply companies, these communities cannot benefit from national projects. Some of the most urgent water related challenges Armenia is facing are: deteriorated drinking water supply system; lack of sanitation supply system in rural areas; lack of proper management of drinking water supply and sanitation systems; lack of awareness in dangers of inadequately managed systems and related health risks; weak communication to policy makers; and deteriorated basins and pumps.
The AWHHE projects are designed to help address water and sanitation related challenges in rural communities in Armenia.

>> Implementation of the Water Quality Legal Framework in Portugal
By Luis Simas, ERSAR

The implementation in Portugal of the drinking water quality legal framework 20 years ago could only guarantee 50% of safe water, which meant that the other 50% were not controlled or were not complying with the national standards. After a decade, the levels of safe water increased to 84%.
However Portugal was very far from the 99% of safe water internationally considered as the level of excellent drinking water quality. Pursuing this goal, a new regulatory model for drinking water quality was established taking into account the European Drinking Water Directive 98/83/CE and, 10 years after its implementation, the safe water is now on 98%. Meanwhile, new tools, like water safety plans approach, are being implemented to reach the 99%. It is important to highlight that one of the decisions that made a difference in this evolution was the creation of an independent regulatory framework for the water sector (ERSAR).

>> The UPGro program: increasing groundwater access for the poor
By John Chilton, International Association of Hydrogeologists

The “Unlocking the Potential of Groundwater for the Poor” (UPGro) programme, is a seven-year international research programme jointly funded by the UK’s Department for International Development (DFID), Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) and the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC). It focuses on improving the evidence base around groundwater availability and management in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) to enable developing countries and partners in SSA to use groundwater in a sustainable way in order to benefit the poor. UPGro projects are interdisciplinary, linking the social and natural sciences to address this challenge.
There is increasing, but often anecdotal, evidence that substantial numbers of rural water supplies in SSA based on boreholes with handpumps are failing within a short time of their installation. The work in our project was aimed at developing a methodology for unravelling the complex and often interlinked technical, institutional and social reasons for this high level of failure.  Working in two districts in eastern Uganda, the project team has undertaken fieldwork comprising community surveys and detailed technical examinations of pumps and boreholes.  The results of this pilot study have shown that, in this area, symptoms in the field resulting from poor siting and construction can be traced back to underlying conditions and root causes at programme level.

>> Achievements on WASH of the National Strategy for Poverty Reduction in Niger
By Sarah Reng-Ochekpe, Ministry of Water Resources, Nigeria

Niger, 17.8 Million inhabitants (2013), is one of the world’s poorest countries, with an average income of US$ 413/Hab/y. Like other West African countries, Niger pledged to meet the Millenium Development Goals (MDGs), and adopted a National Strategy on Poverty Reduction in January 2002 (SRP), aiming at reducing poverty from 63% to less than 50% by on 2015. In terms of the access to water, the goal was to increase the water supply coverage from less than 31% in 2001 to 59% in 2013. In particular, in the urban sector the goal was to reach 75% of the population through private connections or public standpipe. The Government is in charge of the water policy, management and tariff setting. The Société de Patrimoine des Eaux du Niger (SPEN) is the state-owned asset holding company which outsourced the operations for 10-years to the Société d’Exploitation des Eaux du Niger (SEEN), through a affermage-type contract associated with performance indicators (KPI).
The SEEN installed 115,000 connections (threefold), of which 58,000 social connections and 530 standpipes, to provide access to water to people under the poverty-line, their connections works being totally subsidized (except state taxes). For the social connections, the water is charged at 127 F/m3 for the first 10 m3, about half the price of the cost at standpipes or of supply by water vendors.

>> Veolia Water Initiatives: 24/7 water supply services in Nagpur, India
By Dominique Gatel, Veolia

The City of Nagpur decided to provide 24/7 water supply to every home of the 2.7 million inhabitants, including the 800,000 slum dwellers. This ambition sharply contrasts with the initial situation, as some inhabitants had access to water only 30 minutes a day. To achieve this goal, the city of Nagpur decided to upgrade/develop the assets and implement volumetric tariffs, in the frame of a PPP, which was awarded to Veolia-India for 25 years, starting in 2012. A special purpose entity, Orange City Water (OCW), was created in a joint venture with Vishvaraj Environment Ltd., one of India’s leading civil engineering and services companies.
The upfront benefit is that the 24/7 access to tap-water reduces the costs for households, who no longer need to buy water from street vendors and water tankers. The tariffs setting include social tariffs for the vulnerable customers, together with transparent communication and social mediation. Veolia-India is convinced that community engagement is paramount for the success of the project, and created the “Social Welfare Team”, as part of the OCW Customer Services. The project staff work to inform about the 24/7 water supply scheme and pro-actively respond to slum inhabitants’ questions and requests, as well as engage will local bodies, NGOs and other stakeholders.

>> Veolia Water Initiatives: The “Octopus” GIS platform to improve water infrastructure efficiency in Pudong, Shangai
By Dominique Gatel, Veolia

Shanghai is the fastest growing economic region in China and one of the fastest in the world. Since 1992, Shanghai has recorded a double-digit growth almost every year. The total GDP of Shanghai grew from 540 billion Yuan in 2002 to 1.92 trillion Yuan in 2011 – an almost four-fold in less than 10 years.  Pudong, Shanghai’s dynamic financial and commercial hub, had to cater for this extremely rapid development and ensure water services would support the pace of growth. 
One of the main challenges of the Joint-Venture created with Veolia was to overcome the high level of water losses (>35% in early 2000’s). Pudong Veolia has developed and implemented a dedicated information system to manage its network, with an advanced GIS centric integrated platform, collecting reliable real-time data from the field. The data analysis results are shared to all staff and workers through Web and mobile platforms. Because of its architecture, the system has been named “The Octopus”. Pudong massive permanent vertical and horizontal expansion is now supported by good water infrastructures which, amongst other progresses, have already reduced water losses by more than 10%.

>> Application of manual drilling in Africa
By Fabio Fussi, University of Milano-Bicocca

In the framework of the programme for the achievement of MDG (Millenium Development Goals) for water supply, UNICEF is promoting manual drilling throughout Africa with different activities: advocacy, mapping of suitable zones, technical training and institutional support.
Manual drilling refers to those techniques of drilling boreholes for groundwater exploitation using human or animal power (not mechanized equipment). These techniques are well known in countries with large alluvial deposits (India, Nepal, Bangladesh, etc). They are cheaper than mechanized boreholes, easy to implement as the equipment is locally done, able to provide clean water if correctly applied.
But manual drilling is feasible only in areas with suitable hydrogeological conditions (shallow layers not to hard and groundwater not too deep). With the aim to improve the current data analysis methodologies used for area selection, the proposed research has two goals: first, contributing to define an improved methodology for the characterization of shallow geological conditions integrating other sources of indirect data; and second, producing more detailed suitability maps in the selected area, with the goal of supporting the implementation of manual drilling construction program.

>> Application of geospatial and geophysical technologies to identify potential aquifer drilling points
By Mohamed Ahmed Mohamed, United Nations Support Base, United Nations

This case study was undertaken in Mali in support of the peacekeeping mission (MINUSMA) operations. The study used geospatial technologies and geophysical surveys to identify exact drilling points to secure potable water in support of deployment of UN troops and civilian personnel. Both, radar and multispectral satellite imagery was processed, analyzed, and interpreted to map geological features and coupled with spatial/terrain analyses (surface modeling) to identify potential sites for groundwater. Field geophysical surveys were conducted and the collected data was analyzed to model the subsurface. Three-Dimensional models of the aquifers were produced through the integration of the surface and subsurface models. Then drilling points were located in the deepest parts of the aquifers. A very high rate of success was achieved in this drilling campaign (over 90%) and in some areas (e.g. Kidal) historical highest yields were secured.

>> Action plan for delivery of WASH services in Suba and Homa Bay districts
By Ricard Gine, Polytechnic University of Catalonia

In Homa Bay and Suba, access to safe water and improved sanitation remains elusive, which is strongly correlated to the outbreak of water borne diseases such as diarrhoea, typhoid and cholera. Both districts have recurrently been cholera prone. The investment in water and sanitation therefore appears as a key strategy to improve health.
In recognition of this fact, and to support the Districts of Homa Bay and Suba in its efforts to promote regional development and reduce poverty, this case study aims to prepare a strategic plan for the delivery of water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) services to the population. Such plan should contribute to a coordinated and focused implementation of WASH activities. In brief, the plan will achieve sustainable and equitable growth in the sector, being a comprehensive road map on how to increase sustained access to safe water and adequate sanitation as well as to improve hygiene behaviour. It includes: 1. A comprehensive baseline (data collection from waterpoints, households and schools); 2. Analysis of core sector indicators to describe WASH status at local level; 3. Design of simple planning tools for prioritization and targeting support; 4. Development of a WASH action / investment plan.

>> A Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC) biosensor for water quality monitoring in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
By Sharon Velasquez, University of NewCastle

Urbanisation is rapidly occurring across the developing world especially in Africa. Since the majority of the population are using on-site sanitation systems (i.e., latrines and septic tanks), a rise in anthropogenic groundwater pollution through chemicals like nitrate and pathogens has led to a spreading of water pollution related diseases with significant associated costs. Particularly in Dar es Salaam, where this case study is based, in 2011 about four million people lived in densely populated unplanned settlements and waterborne disease outbreaks are usually triggered by the rains. The lack of water quality routine testing results is a major challenge for the management of public health, due to the high costs. This case study aims to tackle this problem by the development of a Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC) biosensor for the continuous monitoring of microbial and nutrient contamination in groundwater used for drinking water. The in situ MFC bio-sensor has been built at a cost of approximately £10 and does not require energy or high maintenance. It is estimated that it would be a suitable device to monitor groundwater pollution continuously.

>> Civil Society pillar - Lead case on WASH, Mweteni Village, Mweteni, Tanzania
By Eliza Mngale, Tgemeo Women Group

The Mweteni Village, located in the Pare mountains in northern Tanzania, has faced acute shortage of safe water for a long time. Sanitation was virtually non-existent, leading to outbursts of water borne diseases and excessive time spent on fetching water with hampering effects on the local economic and social development, particularly for women. The situation worsened when HIV/ aids entered the community.
Not being among the 10 villages included in the Tanzania Water Sector Development Programme (WSDP), Tegemeo Women Group of Mweteni took the initiative to address the challenge of accessing adequate, reliable drinking water for their community themselves. With the support of the Women for Water Partnership, the Tanzania Gender Networking Programme and Aqua for All, TWG engaged the village leadership and district authorities to jointly develop a comprehensive WASH scheme covering the four sub-villages and approximately 12.000 inhabitants. These women have built trust and restored confidence among the Mweteni people, effectively prevented corruption and achieved a financing scheme on the basis of ability to pay to cover costs of maintenance and reparation. The project includes five gravity schemes piping water from perennial springs, rainwater harvesting systems for the hospital and fours schools, sanitation demonstration facilities, hygiene training programmes including train-the-trainers, the establishment of a water user association (COMWE) and local water user committees, and a purpose community centre. Financing has been obtained in phases and from a variety of donors including WfWP, Aqua for All, GETF/RAIN, Marie-Stella-Maris, Retourschip Foundation, Soroptimists of Wassenaar and Delft and various private donations. The Tegemeo Women Group, Mweteni community and Same District contributed in kind.

>> The CLARA Simplified Planning Tool (SPT)
By Antonia Lorenzo, BioAzul

The FP7 CLARA (Capacity-Linked water supply and sanitation improvement for Africa’s peri-urban and Rural Areas, contract number 265676) project overall objective was to strengthen the local capacity in the water supply and sanitation sector. One of the project activities was the CLARA Simplified Planning Tool (SPT), which aims to provide the missing link for the technical part of the overall planning process by designing a tool that both allows and encourages local planners for the comparison of fundamentally different water and sanitation systems at a very early planning stage. Using the SPT requires a limited amount of effort from the planner thus resulting in minimal cost for the client. Using the tool gives the planner - i.e. consultants and/or municipal planning departments - real costs of various alternative water supply and sanitation systems. Environmental, social and health aspects are not considered explicitly since it is assumed that these aspects are already considered in the framework conditions. However, the tool can be used to compare e.g. water-borne and dry sanitation systems.
The CLARA SPT has been tested and evaluated in five geographical African regions, Ethiopia, South Africa, Burkina Faso, Morocco and Kenya. For all CLARA pilot-communities, a full planning process for water supply and/or sanitation was carried out. As no funding for implementation was available in CLARA, application documents were prepared as a final output and were submitted to donors to seek for funding for further detailed planning and/or implementation.

>> Global Public-Private Partnership for Handwashing (PPPHW)
By Hanna Woodburn, Global Public Private Partnership for Handwashing

Water, sanitation, and hygiene are cornerstones of development. Each of these three areas contribute in significant ways to public health, education, equity, and ultimately the economic prosperity of a country. However, for these benefits to be realized the provision of services alone is not enough. This is particularly true as it relates to hygiene. For proper handwashing to occur, the hardware required for handwashing, such as running water and soap, must be readily available. A handwashing station alone does not result in sustained use or behaviour change, but it can be designed in such a way to trigger handwashing. The significance of the behaviour change component to handwashing is not to be understated, particularly as it relates to the enactment of the Post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals. As such, this session will share success stories of tools for implementation from the frontlines of handwashing behaviour change based on new thinking regarding habits and drivers.
This case explores the role of human-centred design in the development of handwashing stations by focusing on the Water and Sanitation Program’s (WSP) development of the Mrembo handwashing station. The role of habit formation, partnerships, and the private sector will be interwoven throughout the presentation, as these are topics that are essential to improving handwashing behaviour change at scale. Please note, the Global Public-Private Partnership for Handwashing (PPPHW) is a coalition of international stakeholders. The organizations whose interventions we will present are members of our Steering Committee.

>> Civil Society Pillar – Case on Women’s Rights Fund in Tanzania – Women Fund Tanzania (WFT)
By Mary Rusimbi, Women Fund Tanzania

This is a Case on Women Fund Tanzania (WFT), a growing grant making mechanism aimed at accessing funds to women’s initiatives for promoting voice/capacity of marginalized women and visibility of marginalized issues including denied rights in different settings. Its vision is to see a Tanzanian society where women realize their full potential and engage in transformation for empowerment and social justice at grassroots community, district and national levels. At the operational level, WFT functions as an intermediary – which gives out funds it mobilizes as smaller grants to women’s rights initiatives at grassroots level, including those directed at raising awareness/capacities and promoting women’s leadership on water and sanitation issues. In addition to resource mobilization and provision of small-scale grants, the Fund supports capacity strengthening for start up women’s organizations and promotes movement building and strategic alliance building strategies with a special focus on linking grassroots women to national level women’s rights struggles for larger impacts. Within this setting, WFT plays a diverse and complex role in strengthening potentials for women’s capacities and organizing at local levels to demand for their basic rights, including water and sanitation rights and also work towards contributing as active actors in broader women’s movements through funding and capacity enhancement.

>> ECI ‘Right2Water’: Water and sanitation are a human right! Water is a public good, not a commodity!
By Jerry Van Den Berge, EPSU

The European Federation of Public Service Unions (EPSU) took on the challenge of using a European Citizens’ Initiative (ECI) to put the human right to water and sanitation on the European agenda and demand its implementation in European legislation and policies. The ECI is a tool that aims to safeguard water resources for the future by discouraging water services liberalization while fostering their exemption from internal market rules. The ECI’s ‘right2water’ campaign is a powerful tool that has proofed successful in different aspects: first as a democratic tool, allowing citizens to put an issue on the European political agenda; secondly by the fact that the Commission has removed water from the scope of the concessions directive, acknowledging that public interests must prevail over commercial interests; and thirdly by the enormous attention and awareness raising effect generated. It opened eyes and minds of many people to realise the importance of good quality water and sanitation for their and other people’s lives. However, the continuity of this initiative is still uncertain in spite of the large support and signatures received, and much effort is being put to disseminate its potential and ensure its survival.

>> Sustainable community aqueducts and community alliances in Puerto Rico
By Roberto Ramos Pagán, Puerto Rico State Department

In Puerto Rico about 200 thousand people lack access to safe drinking water. It has 247 rural water aqueducts located in 45 of the 78 municipalities of the island. These aqueducts are distributed mostly in the mountains and remote places and managed by small groups of citizens, mostly elderly, poor and poorly educated people. To date the relationship between the government and these communities has been limited to some regulatory and supervision activities, so the citizens see the government with suspicion. Meanwhile, 50% of the community water systems do not provide any treatment or perform water samples and the amount of water provided is limited due to the breakage and lack of maintenance. This situation is exacerbated by the lack of financial resources, the poor organization and the lack of legal identity for most of the systems. Only 8.1% of the systems have an operator and a large number of the users do not pay for the water consumed, causing around 8.1 million gallons of water being daily withdrawn from rivers and wells without any control measures. In view of this problem, the Governor of Puerto Rico has approved an Executive Order to create the State Department Sustainable Community Water Supply Project aimed at organizing, protecting and strengthening the rural water systems in Puerto Rico through a new public investment system based on public community partnerships.

>> Veolia Water Initiatives: Improvement WASH services in Guayaquil, Ecuador
By Sagrario Vicente, Proactiva

Guayaquil is the largest and the most populous city in Ecuador, with around 2,5 Million inhabitants. It is well known for the cultural, commercial, industrial and political activity, and thus considered the economic capital of the country, attracting both internal migration and the construction of informal housing. The Guayaquil Government aimed to improve the services and operating performance of the existing water utilities, especially to underprivileged urban areas that have little access to drinking water. Veolia has been awarded a 30-year concession in 2008 to provide drinking water and sewerage services to Guayaquil, with the explicit objective of increasing the coverage and turning the company into a sustainable water provider. At the beginning of the operation, Interagua had to face 3 main intricate challenges: first, develop access to services (water & sanitation), especially for underprivileged people; second, reach an economic balance; and third, develop the acceptance of delegated management service. Interagua has decided to launch several action plans and technical, social and financial mechanisms to modernize the services rendered and help the disadvantaged people access quality resources at affordable prices. Thus the grievances related to the existing social inequalities in the region are reduced and relationships with users and governments positively influence the image of the company to strengthen its legitimacy.

>> Veolia Water Initiatives: water and wastewater services provision in Morocco
By Mohamed Taki, Veolia Morocco

Morocco is rapidly developing its wastewater collection and treatment assets. In the early 2000’, almost all wastewater in coastal areas was discharged into the sea, directly or via the wadi (intermittent rivers), resulting in an ecological disaster in the marine water environment of coastal cities. Since 2002, important investments are underway to provide the Kingdom with suitable wastewater infrastructures, including 70 wastewater treatment plants. Veolia is in charge of water, wastewater and electricity infrastructures and operations for the cities of Rabat-Salé (including Témara and Skhirate), Tanger and Tetouan (30 and 25 years concessions), representing altogether 850,000 connection for water and wastewater services.

This case-study focuses on the wastewater management: In a decade, Veolia invested 640 Million Euros to bring the collection of liquid effluents close to 100%, and provide appropriate treatment -safe for Salé. Outside the concession, the Tamuday bay resort now also benefits from a comprehensive wastewater management system. As a result, the majority of the population benefits of sanitation and the coastal waters meet the bathing water parametric standards, enhancing the economic potential of the cities as touristic destinations.

Water Quality

>> Brazil National Water Agency Capacity Development
By Antonio Felix Domingues, National Water Agency, Brazil.

Domestic sewage is the main source of pollution of water resources in Brazil, as only 39% of the sewage is treated, leading to the deterioration of water quality in many urban areas with economic and social consequences. Faced with the need to expand and integrate water quality monitoring in Brazil, the National Water Agency introduced in 2010 the National Water Quality Evaluation Program (NWQEP), which aims to increase knowledge about the quality of surface freshwater, so as to guide the design of public policies to restore environmental quality. The NWQEP created the National Water Quality Network, which is composed by state networks, and established binding national standards for water quality monitoring (parameters, frequency, methodology). Today, 17 of the country’s 26 States monitor more than 2,100 sampling points and the goal of NWQEP is to reach more than 4,000 points in all states by 2020. The NWQEP also provides capacity building, technical support and financial resources to States for the implementation of their monitoring networks. The data generated by states is transmitted to the National Water Agency and used to develop the National Water Quality Report. Investments in sanitation in the recent years have resulted in an observed trend to improved water quality in some rivers. The National Sanitation Plan released in 2013 aims to provide domestic sewage collection and treatment for 93% of homes in urban areas by 2033. The implementation of this plan will have significant effects on the improvement of freshwater ecosystems and the monitoring of water quality will be an important issue in order to evaluate its effectiveness and to disseminate the information to society.

>> BASF Water Stewardship
By Brigitte Dittrich-Kraemer, BASF, Germany.

BASF is a German chemical company that uses water as a coolant, solvent and cleaning agent, as well as an input material, while offering its customers solutions to help purify water, use it more efficiently and reduce contamination.

To promote water stewardship and to increase BASF’s resilience against water availability risks, we pursue the goal of establishing sustainable water management at all sites located in water stressed areas by 2020, by applying the European Water Stewardship (EWS) standard. We have already introduced this voluntary industrial standard at nearly all of our sites in Europe. We were awarded the gold-level certification for our extensive application of the EWS standard at our production site in Tarragona (Spain) in 2013 and in Verbund (Ludwigshafen) in 2014.

BASF has also set corporative global 80% reduction goals for emissions to water of organic substances and nitrogen, and 60% for heavy metals, by 2020 compared to 2002 levels.
To avoid unanticipated emissions, BASF reviews the water protection concepts at all production sites. For instance, we are constructing plants for the improvement of wastewater analysis and monitoring systems at our sites in Ludwigshafen, Germany, and Geismar, Louisiana.

With the introduction of sustainable water management, BASF is also making an important contribution to fulfilling its purpose: “We create chemistry for a sustainable future.”

>> Water supply and sanitation systems in Vietnam
By Hung Nguyen, School of Public Health, Hanoi, Vietnam.

Most of the water related programs have focused mainly on the quantitative aspects such as water supply and sanitation coverage, number of water facilities whereas water quality is often not addressed appropriately. Water quality that comprises drinking water, wastewater and sanitation constitutes an important feature for health, well being and the environment. The challenge of water quality management consists of the lack of a comprehensive framework that allows the use of science to assist in development of adequate policy for water quality management and translation of science into action.

A case study on water supply and sanitation system from Vietnam will be used as an example to discuss the above-mentioned topics. We will discuss how the Water Safety Plan (WSP) and the risk analysis framework can be used to integrate science and policy and promote the translation of science into action, applied in water quality domain.

>> Investigative monitoring
By John Fawell, Independent Consultant

Investigative monitoring is needed to understand what important contaminants might be present in a water supply or proposed water supply prior to improvement. For microbiological contaminants investigative monitoring or sampling is a very useful first step in characterizing the quality of a source but continued monitoring is also important for assessing changes in that source over time and for determining whether contamination is occurring after collection of the water and the need for household treatment.  In some cases other analysis is appropriate. Chemical analysis requires more sophisticated equipment and techniques. Investment in the development of new tools and diagnostic approaches would be a huge benefit for relatively little outlay.  The MDGs included microbial indicators and also arsenic and fluoride yet monitoring approaches for application with the SDGs has not been fully developed and are needed.

>> Aguas Andinas Water Cycle management
By Jordi Valls Riera, Aguas Andinas, Santiago de Chile.

Aguas Andinas manages the entire water cycle, from production and distribution of drinking water to collection and treatment of wastewater, in the Metropolitan region of Chile, which includes the Greater Santiago and surrounding areas with an approximate population of 6,5 million inhabitants. The past decade has been marked by a strong rain deficit and several extreme climatic events as a result of global warming.

On the drinking water side, these conditions have generated strong pressures on the availability and quality of water resources, resulting in the need to use low quality water and develop specific pre-treatment techniques (Arsenic, Nitrates); as well as an increase on the turbidity levels in waters coming from the mountains, which are impossible to treat on periods with especially low rainfall. These events have forced to significantly increase artificial water storage in a pond, to re-think the fresh water transport design, to incorporate into the production scheme a fresh water reserve to avoid water withdrawals in periods of high turbidity levels and to start an ambitious efficiency hydraulic plan of the transport and distribution network.

In relation to wastewater disposal, the wastewater treatment plan of the Metropolitan region, and particularly of Greater Santiago, launched in 2001 and accomplished with a final 100% of urban waste water treated by the end of 2012. Since then, the health statistics of the Chilean population have improved in spite of the adverse drought conditions, particularly around the Mapocho river, which received most of the wastewater generated in the region.

>> Analysing water contaminated with pathogens
By Maureen Taylor, University of Pretoria, South Africa

The analysis of waters contaminated with pathogens, should be approached from a multidisciplinary perspective.  Management, economists, technicians, and scientists should be involved with the training and analysis.  In addition, there should be opportunities for continued professional development.

>> South-South Cooperation on the water management and sanitation in indigenous and dispersed rural communities, with a gender perspective and an inter-cultural approach (MDG-F projects on water and sanitation in Panama, Nicaragua, Paraguay)
By María Teresa Gutiérrez, ILO, Nicaragua

This is an initiative developed with the ILO coordinators of the Joint Programmes MDG-F (JP) involved in the formulation and implementation of the water and sanitation projects in Nicaragua, Panama, and Paraguay 3, under the Democratic Economic Governance. The aim of these projects was to strengthen the government’s capacity to manage water provision and water quality, including the poorest and excluded populations. ILO’s technical expertiseto these projects comprised capacity building on labour based techniques4 and rights (Convention 169). 

Each project was in a different level of implementation and a participatory mechanism was needed to share community based experiences and discuss technical issues to incorporate a gender and inter-cultural approach along the project cycle. Panama and Nicaragua had already started the implementation and Paraguay was in the planning stage, consequently, Paraguay would incorporate and develop the lessons learnt from the other two projects under a South-SouthCooperation knowledge sharing scheme.

It focused on three main topics: planning and consultation with Indigenous communities, as a way of communities’ prioritisation and identification of local knowledge on water provision (Paraguay); management and empowerment through the management of water systems and sanitation (Panama); and technical capacity building in construction and maintenance to participate in the local labour market (Nicaragua).

>> Sustainable Wastewater Treatment for Small Villages
By Rosa Huertas, Duero Basin Agency

The Duero Basin Agency has carried out a program called Sustainable Wastewater Treatment for Small Villages. According to the Spanish regulations local councils are responsible for wastewater treatment, but in our basin there are still many villages that do not have any facility for this. We have built different pilot plants as a kind of demonstration of sustainable solutions for small villages. The key is to be able to choose the right technology to each place, regarding climate, orography, population… and how other values can be added in these plants for recreational or educational purpose.

But the main problem we face is not a technical problem but a cultural one, that is, the lack of awareness about water quality, with the local councils preferring to spend the money on sports facilities or festivals rather than in wastewater treatment plants.

That is why another part of our program is focused on raising awareness and giving training and support to small villages through a project called Mayors School, with workshops and field visits to the pilot plants. We are also promoting agreements with other stakeholders and public bodies to engage them in the implementation of the water quality regulations.

>> Management and use of Water and Water Resources in the European Union
By Rosina Girones, University of Barcelona, Spain; European Union; NEED Watershed Coalitions.

The management and use of water and water resources has been the focus of European Union (EU) water policy for many years. Regulations like the Nitrate Directive (91/676/EEC) or the Urban Waste Water Directive (91/14/EEC) to name only two were complemented and integrated latter on by the Water Frame Directive (2000/60/EC) which acted as an umbrella piece of legislation that embraced all the water Directives. These Directives targets the quality of water bodies with the aim of ensuring a sustainable use of water resources protecting the ecosystems and the human health.

It is well known that improperly treated wastewater may lead to the transmission of human viruses that are excreted in feces and urine at high concentrations. Distribution and burden of several infectious diseases may shift and human exposure may differ under the predicted climate change scenarios. Integrated river basin management is a key tool to mitigate the possible impacts of future climate change on the quality of water resources.

>> Decentralized Waste Water Treatment Plant in Lomas del Pagador, Cochabamba, Bolivia
By Claudia Vargas, Major University of San Andrés, La Paz, Bolivia

Three of Bolivia’s major cities (La Paz, Cochabamba and Santa Cruz) have had an increased growth in their suburban areas, where there are informal settlements that lack water and sewerage networks. Particularly in the peri-urban areas of Cochabamba, migrant population from rural areas are supplied by tank trucks at high prices or drill wells without any quality control.
The human right to water is recognized by Bolivia’s constitution and the population demands access to such right. However, poverty and lack of investments in the sector still pose a great challenge to the provision of water and sanitation services in that area. It is worth mentioning that peri-urban areas have very poor and deficient sanitation services. Wastewater treatment is virtually non-existent, despite the contamination caused by this situation. To reduce the deficit in sanitation services, NGOs and municipal governments have come together to promote sustainable solutions to address such issues. In 2013, a project was completed and a sewage treatment plant was established in Lomas del Pagador in the city of Cochabamba. It is the first decentralized plant in a peri-urban area, with funding from UN Habitat, the Municipal Government and beneficiaries of the plant. This plant is fully operational and is owned by the community with a self-sustainable rate, a model that has begun to be replicated on a larger scale in other cities of Bolivia.

>> Veolia Water Initiatives: Grameen Veolia Water Ltd. development in Bangaldesh
By Dominique Gatel, Veolia

34 to 77 millions of Bangladeshis are drinking arsenic-contaminated water on a regular basis. According to the WHO, this is the “largest poisoning of a population in the history”. Veolia Water and Grameen Health Care Services joined forces in 2008 to create Grameen Veolia Water Ltd., a social business that aims at providing safe drinking water to rural Bangladesh, at an affordable tariff.
Grameen Veolia Water operates and maintains a water treatment plant that provides safe drinking water to 6,000 people in the village of Goalmari, 60 km far from Dhaka. Grameen Veolia Water’s water treatment plant purifies surface water through rigorous and various stages of treatment using world class technology implemented by Veolia Water. Drinking water complying with Bangladeshi and WHO standards is distributed through a dedicated network of standpipes throughout the village with almost 100 water points (public tap points, household and schools connections being set up in different locations in these villages.)
Sales in Goalmari villages were not growing fast enough to ensure self sustainability in a short term. In order to achieve quicker financial balance, Grameen Veolia Water Ltd launched a 5US Gallon “Jar Business” in 2011. The water sold is also treated and bottled in Goalmari plant. The jars are then transported to Dhaka and delivered to offices, schools and other locations. Following the “social business” model, Grameen Veolia Water is a “no-loss, no-dividend” venture. Consequently, profits from this new branch of the social business are reinvested in rural water infrastructure development.

>> River Contract
By Cristina Monge, ECODES

The “River contract” is a management and participation tool born in France around 1990, as a means for river restoration, improvement or conservation through joint actions by users and the public administrations. This tool has proven effective for river management and restoration and thus maintained after the implementation of the Water Framework Directive. It is based on a wide participation process where all stakeholders get engaged and committed. It was first implemented in Spain in the Matarraña basin, which encompasses three Autonomous Regions and 27 municipalities within the Ebro River Basin. In spite of the complex political framework, the inhabitants of the Matarraña river basin are an example of dialogue and water related conflicts solving, making them a perfect pilot experience of a participation process for the improvement and sustainable development of a river.

>> Fundación Solar’s IWRM and participation projects in the rural areas of Guatemala
By Elisa Colom, Eje de Agua de Fundación Solar

Since 1999, Fundación Solar has lead several IWRM projects in the rural areas of Guatemala, where woman and man have been consider as equal, such as the facilitation of gender networks, the use of alternative energy, the adaptation to climate change, among others.
The last one in 2014 consisted of the design and evaluation of a river basin restoration plan, through a participatory process comprising the local government, 9 rural communities and national sectorial representatives. The integrated water resources management approach was adopted as the framework, enabling the approval of a restoration and management plan in October 2014, in the San Luis Jilotepeque, Jalapa, Guatemala, micro basin. Fundación Solar is also a founding member of GWP at the regional (Central America) and national (Guatemala) levels.

By Anja von der Ropp

WIPO GREEN is an interactive marketplace that connects technology and service providers with those seeking innovative solutions. It consists of a freely accessible online database and broad network that brings together a wide range of players in the entire green technology innovation value chain. The fast growing database currently lists around 1800 green technology products, services, IP assets and needs. The purpose of the dynamic network is to connect technology providers and seekers, and provide access to a range of services that facilitate the commercialization, selling, licensing, and joint development of green tech solutions. The database consists of more than 400 technologies and 10 technology needs in the water sector. Many of them are directly related to water purification or management of water quality. Governments can find information on available technologies; contacts to their providers as well as experts who help assess those. WIPO GREEN also provides them with a tool to support their local innovators and to link them to the international innovation system.

>> Sociedad de Energía y Agua de Gabón
Juvenal Awori, SEEG

The national Electricity and water service company of Gabon, the Société d’Energie et d’Eau du Gabon (SEEG), provides electricity to 49 cities (271 399 customers) and water services to 44 Cities (159 customers). Since 1997, SEEG is a concession 51% owned by Veolia. Oyem, 42,900 inhabitants, is the capital-city of Woleu-NTem, the ninth province of Gabon. The Government of Gabon decided to ensure the electricity supply with a local power-plant built in Oyem in 1963, on the local pond shore, despite of the drinking water intake located 9 Km downstream. The power-plant remained in operation until its decommissioning in 2005, when the urban environment development made it no longer possible to keep the plant in operation. The SEEG launched investigations about the water and soil environment of the former plant. It revealed the presence of mineral oils in soils and pond water (volatile hydrocarbons), and heavier oils in the sediments, representing a risk for pond users, riparian and downstream populations, through either direct contact with soils, possible inhalation of volatile fractions and dusts, or finally, groundwater consumption.

With a self-funded investment of 1.4 Million Euros, SEEG cleaned up the old plant site and the lake sediments, to protect the riparian population’s health and the environment. A sports complex is being constructed before handing the site over to the local authorities.

2010, the HEALS study: http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736%2810%2960481-3/abstract


1Basher, R. (2006) Global early warning systems for natural hazards: systematic and people-centred. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A, 364: 2167-2182.

2 Available at http://www.icpdr.org/main/activities-projects/climate-change-adaptation.

3 Nicaragua: "Democratic economic governance in the Water and Sanitation sector in the RAAN and RAAS"; Panama: "Strengthening equity in access to safe drinking water and sanitation by empowering citizens and excluded indigenous groups in rural areas"; Paraguay: "Strengthening the ability to define and apply water and sanitation policies"

4 Technology choice for infrastructure development and employment creation, approach developed by the ILO's Employment Intensive Investment Programme, EIIP

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About the Conference

>> Conveners and partners
>> Objectives and expected outcomes
>> Conference flyerPDF Document
>> AgendaPDF Document
>> StructurePDF Document
>> ParticipantsPDF Document


>> Accommodation
>> Travelling to Zaragoza
>> Your stay in Zaragoza
>> Map

The vision

>> Rio+20
>> Water and sustainable development
>> Global commitments on water
>> A post-2015 global goal for water
>> Water and the Open Working Group (OWG)
>> The role of actors involved

The action

>> Capacity development
>> Financing and economic instruments
>> Governance frameworks
>> Technology

Action on…

>> Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH)
>> Water Resources Management
>> Water Quality
>> Risk management

14 January: Pre-Conference Side events and Technical Visits

>> Technical visit: La Cartuja
>> Technical visit: The Ebro River Basin Authority and its Automatic System for Hydrologic Information (SAIH)
>> Technical visit: Expo + Water Park
>> New sources: Wastewater reuse
>> Local level actions in decentralized water solidarity towards the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals
>> Water Footprint Assessment
>> Technological advances and Water Policy
>> Cultivando Agua Boa Programme
>> CODIA and water and energy in LAC
>> The fulfillment of the human right to water and sanitation

15 January: Setting the scene and the context

>> Achieving sustainable water for all in LAC
>> Achieving water security for Asia and the Pacific
>> Ensuring implementation of the water-related SDGs in Europe
>> Setting the scene

16 January: Whose action?

>> Academia
>> Business
>> Civil society
>> Governments and local authorities
>> Media and Communicators

17 January: Integrating knowledge and the way forward

>> Multi-stakeholder dialogue on tools for implementation


>> Cases
>> Conference daily
>> Conference Communications ReportPDF Document
>> Discussion forum
>> Information briefs on Water and Sustainable Development
>> Interviewing conference participants
>> Overview Papers
>> Presentations from participants
>> Session Reports
>> Tool Papers
>> Toolbox
>> Twitter Activity Report
>> Video recording of sessions
>> Video interviews with conference participants

Promotional materials

>> Conference banners
>> Conference posterPDF document