Date on which the narrative summary became available on the Committee's website: 
29 October 2014
Date(s) on which the narrative summary was updated: 
5 December 2016
Reason for listing: 

Frank Kakolele Bwambale was listed on 1 November 2005 pursuant to the criteria set out in paragraph 4 of resolution 2078 (2012).

Additional information: 

Frank Kakolele Bwambale was the RCD-ML leader, exercising influence over policies and maintaining command and control over the activities of RCD-ML forces, one of the armed groups and militias referred to in paragraph 20 of Res. 1493 (2003), responsible for trafficking of arms, in violation of the arms embargo. He left the CNDP in January 2008. Starting in 2010, Kakolele was involved in activities apparently on behalf of the DRC government’s Programme de Stabilisation et Reconstruction des Zones Sortant des Conflits Armés (STAREC), including participation in a STAREC mission to Goma and Beni in March 2011.

He left the DRC and lived in Kenya for some time before being called back by the DRC Government to assist with the situation in the Territory of Beni. He was arrested in October 2015 near Mambasa for allegedly supporting a Mai Mai group, but no charges were brought. As of June 2016, Kakolele lived in Kinshasa.