Peacekeeping operations have had mandates ranging from traditional methods of resolving disputes peacefully under Chapter VI, such as promoting reconciliation, assisting with the implementation of a peace agreement, or performing mediation and good offices, and more forceful action as authorized under Chapter VII which can authorize a range of measures including the use of force under Article 42 of the Charter. Below is a list of all sixty-two peacekeeping operations as well as three advance or observer missions established by the Security Council, with a short description on the basis of the content of the Repertoire as well as links to the sections covering them in the Repertoire. They are organized by region, and then under relevant areas or subregions, placed chronologically starting with those established most recently. Studies on the thematic agenda items relating to peacekeeping can be found here. For general information on peacekeeping operations, please visit the official Department of Peacekeeping website.
The United Nations Observer Mission in Angola (MONUA) was established on 30 June 1997 to assist the Angolan parties in consolidating peace and national reconciliation, enhancing confidence-building and creating an environment conducive to long-term stability, democratic development and rehabilitation of the country. MONUA was terminated on 26 February 1999 as it was concluded that the conditions for maintaining a UN presence in Angola had ceased to exist.
The United Nations Angola Verification Mission (UNAVEM III) was established on 8 February 1995 to assist the Government of Angola and the União Nacional para a Independência Total de Angola (UNITA) in restoring peace and achieving national reconciliation.
The United Nations Angola Verification Mission (UNAVEM II) was established on 30 May 1991 to verify the arrangements agreed by the Angolan parties for the monitoring of the cease-fire between the Government and UNITA and of the Angolan police during the cease-fire period and to observe and verify the elections in that country.
The United Nations Angola Verification Mission (UNAVEM I) was established on 20 December 1988 to monitor the withdrawal of Cuban troops and equipment from Angola in accordance with a timetable agreed between the Governments of Angola and Cuba that was completed by 25 May 1991.
The United Nations Aouzou Strip Observer Group (UNASOG) was established in 1994, to monitor and certify the withdrawal of the Libyan administration and forces from the Aouzou Strip in accordance with the ruling of the International Court of Justice. UNASOG was terminated in 1994 following the completion of its task.
The United Nations Operation in Burundi (ONUB) was established on 21 May 2004, in order to support and help to implement the efforts undertaken by Burundians to restore lasting peace and bring about national reconciliation, as provided under the Arusha Agreement of 28 August 2000. ONUB successfully completed its mandate on 31 December 2006. It was succeeded by the United Nations Integrated Office in Burundi (BINUB)
The United Nations Mission in the Central African Republic (MINURCA) was established in March 1998 to assist in maintaining and enhancing security and stability in Bangui and the vicinity; monitor the disposition of weapons retrieved in disarmament exercises, assist in capacity-building of national police and provide support for legislative elections. The Mission ended on 15 February 2000.
United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in the Central Africa Republic (MINUSCA)
In 2014, the Security Council authorized by resolution 2149 (2014) the deployment of the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in the Central African Republic (MINUSCA) with the protection of civilians as its utmost priority. Other initial priority tasks include support for the transition process, facilitating humanitarian assistance, promotion and protection of human rights; support for justice and the rule of law, and disarmament, demobilization, reintegration and repatriation processes.
The United Nations Mission in the Central African Republic and Chad (MINURCAT) was established on 25 September 2007 in order to contribute to the protection of civilians, promote human rights and the rule of law and promote regional peace amongst Chad and the Central African Republic. On 14 January 2009, the Council authorized the deployment of a military component of MINURCAT to follow up the European Union military force, known as EUFOR. The Mission completed its mandate on 31 December 2010, in accordance with resolution 1923 (2010) and at the request of the Chadian Government, which had pledged full responsibility for protecting civilians on its territory.
The United Nations Operation in Côte d’Ivoire (UNOCI) was established by the Security Council on 4 April 2004 through the adoption of resolution 1528 (2004). In accordance with resolution 1528 (2004), UNOCI took over from the forces of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) and the United Nations Mission in Côte d’Ivoire (MINUCI), a political mission set up by the Security Council in May 2003. By its resolution 2284 (2016) of 28 April 2016, the Security Council extended the mandate of UNOCI for a final period until 30 June 2017. After 13 years of deployment in Côte d’Ivoire, UNOCI was terminated on 30 June 2017.
The United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUSCO) was established by the Security Council on 28 May 2010 through the adoption of resolution 1925 (2010), to succeed the United Nations Organization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUC). MONUSCO has been authorized to use all necessary means to carry out its mandate relating, among other things, to the protection of civilians, humanitarian personnel and human rights defenders under imminent threat of physical violence and to support the Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo in its stabilization and peace consolidation efforts.
The United Nations Organization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUC) was established by the Security Council on 30 November 1999 through the adoption of resolution 1279 (1999), following the signing of the Lusaka Ceasefire Agreement in July 1999 between the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and five regional States. The Mission was initially tasked with the observation of the ceasefire, the disengagement of forces and liaising with all parties to the Ceasefire Agreement. Later, in a series of resolutions, the Council expanded the mandate of MONUC to the supervision of the implementation of the Ceasefire Agreement and other additional tasks.
The United Nations Force in the Congo (ONUC) was established in July 1960 to ensure the withdrawal of Belgian forces, to assist the Government of the Republic of the Congo in maintaining law and order and to provide technical assistance. The function of ONUC was subsequently modified to include maintaining the territorial integrity and political independence of the Congo, preventing the occurrence of civil war and securing the removal of all foreign military, paramilitary and advisory personnel not under the United Nations Command, and all mercenaries.
The United Nations Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea (UNMEE) was established by the Security Council on 31 July 2000 through the adoption of resolution 1312 (2000), to maintain the ceasefire between Ethiopia and Eritrea following their border conflict, liaison with the parties, and to help ensure the observance of security commitments. In accordance with resolution 1827 (2008) of 30 July 2008, the Mission was terminated on 31 July 2008.
The United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNMIL) was established by the Security Council on 19 September 2003 through the adoption of resolution 1509 (2003), under Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations, to support the implementation of the ceasefire agreement and the peace process and security reform following the Second Civil War in Liberia. By resolution 2333 (2016), the mandate of UNMIL was extended for a final period until 30 March 2018.
The United Nations Observer Mission in Liberia (UNOMIL) was established on 22 September 1993 to exercise good offices in support of the efforts of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) and the Liberian National Transitional Government: to implement peace agreements; investigate alleged ceasefire violations; assist in maintenance of assembly sites and demobilization of combatants; support humanitarian assistance; investigate human rights violations and assist local human rights groups; observe and verify elections. UNOMIL was superseded by the United Nations Peacebuilding Support Office in Liberia (UNOL) in 1997.
The United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (MINUSMA) was established by resolution 2100 (2013) to stabilize key population centres and support the reestablishment of State authority and political processes in the country. Further to the Agreement on Peace and Reconciliation in Mali in 2015, the mandate of the mission was adjusted to focus on tasks related to the ceasefire, the support to the implementation of the Agreement, good offices and reconciliation.
The United Nations Operation in Mozambique (ONUMOZ) was established in 1992 to help implement the General Peace Agreement, signed by the President of the Republic of Mozambique and the President of the Resistência Nacional Moçambicana. The mandate included facilitating the implementation of the Agreement; monitoring the ceasefire; monitoring the withdrawal of foreign forces and providing security in the transport corridors; providing technical assistance and monitoring the entire electoral process.
The United Nations Transition Assistance Group (UNTAG) was established pursuant to resolutions 435 (1978) and 629 (1989) to implement the settlement plan for the independence of Namibia from South Africa, through free elections under the supervision and control of the United Nations. UNTAG was terminated with the accession of Namibia to independence on 21 March 1990.
The United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR) was originally established to help implement the Arusha Peace Agreement signed by the Rwandese parties on 4 August 1993. UNAMIR's mandate and strength were adjusted on a number of occasions in the face of the tragic events of the genocide and the changing situation in the country. UNAMIR's mandate came to an end on 8 March 1996.
The United Nations Observer Mission Uganda-Rwanda (UNOMUR) was established on 22 June 1993, to monitor the border between Uganda and Rwanda and verify that no military assistance was being provided to Rwanda. UNOMUR was officially closed on 21 September 1994.
The United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL) was established on 22 October 1999, to cooperate with the Government and the other parties in implementing the Lome Peace Agreement and to assist in the implementation of the disarmament, demobilization and reintegration of former combatants. UNAMSIL successfully completed its mandate in December 2005 and was succeeded by the United Nations Integrated Office for Sierra Leone (UNIOSIL).
The United Nations Observer Mission in Sierra Leone (UNOMSIL) was established on 13 July 1998 to monitor and advise efforts to disarm combatants and restructure Sierra Leone’s security forces after the civil war with the Revolutionary United Front (RUF). On 13 December 1999, the mandate of UNOMSIL officially ended and was succeeded by the larger mission, the United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL).
The United Nations Operation in Somalia (UNOSOM I) was established on 24 April 1992 to monitor the cease-fire in Mogadishu, Somalia and to provide protection and security for United Nations personnel, equipment and supplies at the seaports and airports in Mogadishu and escort deliveries of humanitarian supplies from there to distribution centres in the city and its immediate environs.
The United Nations Operation in Somalia (UNOSOM II) was established in March 1993 to take appropriate action, including enforcement measures, to establish throughout Somalia a secure environment for humanitarian assistance. To that end, UNOSOM II was to complete, through disarmament and reconciliation, the task begun by the Unified Task Force, the multinational force authorized by the Security Council, for the restoration of peace, stability, law and order. UNOSOM II was withdrawn in early March 1995.
The United Nations Observer Mission in South Africa (UNOMSA) was established in 1992 in order to help quell violence in South Africa in coordination with the structures set up under the National Peace Accord signed on 14 September 1991 as well as to create conditions for negotiations leading to the establishment of a democratic, non-racial and united South Africa. UNOMSA was terminated effective 27 June 1994.
The United Nations Interim Security Force for Abyei (UNISFA) was established on 27 June 2011 to monitor and verify the redeployment of any Sudan Armed Forces, Sudan People’s Liberation Army or its successor from the Abyei area as well as facilitate the delivery of humanitarian aid and the free movement of relief workers in and around Abyei.
The African Union-United Nations Hybrid Operation in Darfur (UNAMID) was established by the Security Council on 31 July 2007 through the adoption of resolution 1769 (2007), in support of the early and effective implementation of the Darfur Peace Agreement and the outcome of negotiations between the Government of Sudan, the United Nations Special Envoy for Darfur and the African Union Special Envoy for Darfur. UNAMID formally took over from African Union Mission in the Sudan (AMIS) on 31 December 2007.
The United Nations Mission in the Sudan (UNMIS) was established on 24 March 2005 to support implementation of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement signed by the Government of Sudan and the Sudan People's Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A) on 9 January 2005 and to perform certain functions relating to humanitarian assistance, and protection and promotion of human rights. On 11 July 2011, UNMIS terminated its operations with the completion of the interim period agreed on by the Government of Sudan and Sudan People’s Liberation Movement in the Comprehensive Peace Agreement.
The United Nations Advance Mission in the Sudan (UNAMIS) was established in 11 June 2004 to build on the momentum of the progress made in the peace process under the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) between the Government of the Sudan and the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement/Army and to prepare for the introduction of an envisaged peace support operation following the signing of a comprehensive peace agreement. On 24 March 2005, the Council requested that all functions performed by UNAMIS transfer to the United Nations Mission in the Sudan (UNMIS).
The United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara (MINURSO) was established by the Security Council on 29 April 1991 through the adoption of resolution 690 (1991), in accordance with the settlement proposals accepted on 30 August 1988 by Morocco and the Frente Popular para la Liberación de Saguia el-Hamra y de Río de Oro (Frente POLISARIO). The Mission was initially tasked with organizing a free and fair referendum on independence for Western Sahara and to monitor the ceasefire between Morocco and the Frente POLISARIO.
The United Nations Good Offices Mission in Afghanistan and Pakistan (UNGOMAP) was established on 15 May 1988 to support the implementation of the Geneva Accords between Afghanistan and Pakistan and to investigate and report possible violations of any of the provisions of the Agreements. UNGOMAP was mandated to monitor non-interference and non-intervention by the parties in each other's affairs; the withdrawal of Soviet troops from Afghanistan; and the voluntary return of refugees. Having fulfilled its tasks, UNGOMAP ceased operations on 15 March 1990.
The United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC) was established on 28 February 1992, with the mandate to ensure the implementation of the Paris Agreements of 23 October 1991, including those relating to the conduct of free and fair elections and the relevant aspects of the administration of Cambodia.
The United Nations Advance Mission in Cambodia (UNAMIC) was established on 16 October 1991, with the mandate to assist the four Cambodian parties to maintain their ceasefire during the period prior to the establishment and deployment of the United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC); and to initiate mine-awareness training of civilian populations. UNAMIC was absorbed by UNTAC in March 1992.
The United Nations India-Pakistan Observation Mission (UNIPOM) was established on 20 September 1965, to supervise the ceasefire along the India-Pakistan border except in the States of Jammu and Kashmir, where the United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP) operated, and the withdrawal of all armed personnel to the positions held by them before 5 August 1965. After the withdrawal of the troops by India and Pakistan had been completed on 25 February 1966, UNIPOM was terminated on 22 March 1966.
The United Nations Military Observer Group for India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP) was established by the Security Council on 21 April 1948 through the adoption of resolution 47 (1948). The first group of United Nations military observers to supervise the ceasefire between India and Pakistan in the State of Jammu and Kashmir arrived in the mission area on 24 January of 1949. These observers, under the command of the Military Adviser appointed by the Secretary-General, formed the nucleus of UNMOGIP. Following the renewed hostilities of 1971, UNMOGIP has remained in the area to observe developments pertaining to the strict observance of the ceasefire of 17 December 1971.
The United Nations Mission of Observers in Tajikistan (UNMOT) was originally established in 1994 to monitor the ceasefire agreement between the Government of Tajikistan and the United Tajik Opposition. Following the signing of the 1997 general peace agreement, UNMOT's mandate was expanded to include peace agreement monitoring. The Mission successfully accomplished the assigned tasks and was terminated on 15 May 2000.
The United Nations Mission in Timor-Leste (UNMIT) was established by the Security Council on 25 August 2006 through the adoption of resolution 1704 (2006), as a follow-on mission to the United Nations Office in Timor-Leste (UNOTIL) in the wake of a major political, humanitarian and security crisis which erupted in Timor-Leste in April-May 2006. UNMIT represents the latest in a series of United Nations operations or missions deployed in Timor-Leste since 1999, and its mandate included providing support to the Government in consolidating stability and facilitating political dialogue towards national reconciliation, providing technical and logistical support for the 2007 presidential and parliamentary elections, and ensuring the restoration and maintenance of public security through a United Nations police presence.
The United Nations Mission of Support in East Timor (UNMISET) was established on 20 May 2002 to provide assistance to East Timor over a period of two years until all operational responsibilities were fully devolved to the East Timor authorities. Subsequently, UNMISET was extended for another year to permit the new nation, which had changed its name to Timor-Leste, to attain self-sufficiency. UNMISET successfully completed its mandate on 20 May 2005.
The United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor (UNTAET) was established on 25 October 1999 to administer the Territory of East Timor, exercise legislative and executive authority during the transition period and support capacity-building for self-government. East Timor became an independent country from Indonesia on 20 May 2002 when termination of UNTAET took place with the establishment of a successor mission, the United Nations Mission of Support in East Timor (UNMISET).
The United Nations Observer Group in Central America (ONUCA) was established in November 1989 to verify compliance by the Governments of Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua with their undertaking to cease aid to irregular forces and insurrectionist movements in the region and not to allow their territory to be used for attacks on other States. In addition, ONUCA played a part in the voluntary demobilization of the Nicaraguan Resistance and monitored a ceasefire and the separation of forces agreed by the Nicaraguan parties as part of the demobilization process. The mandate of the Mission was terminated in January 1992.
The United Nations Observer Mission in El Salvador (ONUSAL) was established in July 1991 to verify implementation of all agreements between the Government of El Salvador and the Frente Farabundo Marti para la Liberacion Nacional, including a ceasefire and related measures, reform and reduction of the armed forces, creation of a new police force, reform of the judicial and electoral systems, human rights, land tenure and other economic and social issues. ONUSAL was terminated on 30 April 1995.
The United Nations Verification Mission in Guatemala (MINUGUA) was established in January 1997 to verify the Agreement on the Definitive Ceasefire signed on 4 December 1996 between the Government of Guatemala and the Unidad Revolucionaria Nacional Guatemalteca concluding the Guatemalan Civil War. MINUGUA was successfully concluded in May 1997.
In resolution 2350 (2017), following the termination of the mandate of MINUSTAH, the Security Council established a follow-on United Nations Mission for Justice Support in Haiti (MINUJUSTH) with the mandate to assist the Government of Haiti to strengthen rule of law institutions in Haiti. By resolution 2466 (2019), the Council extended the mandate of MINUJUSTH for a final period until 15 October 2019.
The United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH) was established by the Security Council on 30 April 2004 through the adoption of resolution 1542 (2004), having determined that the situation in Haiti continued to constitute a threat to international peace and security in the region, and requested that its authority be transferred from the Multinational Interim Force (MIF) deployed in Haiti, which had previously been authorized by the Security Council in February 2004 by resolution 1529 (2004), to MINUSTAH on 1 June 2004 by the Security Council in February 2004. By its resolution 2350 (2017) of 13 April 2017, the Security Council extended the mandate of MINUSTAH for a final six month period. Following the complete withdrawal of the Mission’s military component, MINUSTAH was terminated on 15 October 2017.
The United Nations Civilian Police Mission in Haiti (MIPONUH) was established on 28 November 1997 to assist the Government of Haiti in the professionalization of the National Police, specifically emphasizing assistance at the supervisory level and on training specialized police units. In March 2000, MIPONUH was transitioned to the International Civilian Support Mission in Haiti (MICAH), which was established by the General Assembly.
The United Nations Transition Mission in Haiti (UNTMIH) was established on 30 July 1997 to assist the Government of Haiti by supporting and contributing to the professionalization of the Haitian National Police for a single four-month period ending on 30 November 1997.
The United Nations Support Mission in Haiti (UNSMIH) was established on 28 June 1996 to assist the Government of Haiti in the professionalization of the police and in the maintenance of a secure and stable environment conducive to the success of current efforts to establish and train an effective national police force. UNSMIH was terminated as of 31 July 1997 and succeeded by the United Nations Transition Mission in Haiti (UNTMIH).
The United Nations Mission in Haiti (UNMIH) was established in September 1993 to help implement provisions of the Governors Island Agreement of 3 July 1993. The mandate was later revised to enable the Mission to assist the democratic Government in Haiti to sustain a stable environment, professionalize the armed forces, create a separate police force, and establish an environment conducive to free and fair elections.
The United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP) was established by the Security Council on 4 March 1964 through the adoption of resolution 186 (1964), to prevent further fighting between the Greek Cypriot and Turkish Cypriot communities. After the hostilities of 1974, the Security Council has mandated the Force to perform certain additional functions. In the absence of a political settlement to the Cyprus problem, UNFICYP has remained on the island to supervise ceasefire lines, maintain a buffer zone, undertake humanitarian activities and support the good offices mission of the Secretary-General.
The United Nations Observer Mission in Georgia (UNOMIG) was established by the Security Council through the adoption of resolution 849 (1993) of 9 July 1993, to verify compliance with the ceasefire agreement between the Government of Georgia and the Abkhaz authorities in Georgia. UNOMIG was terminated as of 15 July 2009.
The United Nations Civilian Police Support Group (UNPSG) was established on 19 December 1997 to continue monitoring the performance of the Croatian police in the Danube region, particularly with respect to the return of displaced persons. UNPSG expired on 15 October 1998.
The United Nations Mission of Observers in Prevlaka (UNMOP) was established on 15 January 1996 to succeed the United Nations Confidence Restoration Operation in Croatia (UNCRO) in monitoring the demilitarization of the Prevlaka peninsula, a strategic area disputed by Croatia and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. UNMOP was successfully terminated on 15 December 2002.
United Nations Transitional Administration for Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Sirmium (UNTAES)
The United Nations Transitional Administration for Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Sirmium (UNTAES) was established on 15 January 1996 to supervise demilitarization; monitor the return of refugees; establish a temporary police force; undertake tasks relating to civil administration and public services; and undertake other activities relevant to the Basic Agreement concluded between the Government of the Republic of Croatia and the local Croatian Serb authorities in Eastern Slavonia on 12 November 1995. UNTAES concluded its mandate in January 1998, having accomplished its key objective of peacefully reintegrating Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Sirmium into Croatia.
The United Nations Mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina (UNMIBH) was established on 21 December 1995 to contribute to the establishment of the rule of law in Bosnia and Herzegovina by assisting in reforming and restructuring the local police, assessing the functioning of the existing judicial system and monitoring and auditing the performance of the police and others involved in the maintenance of law and order. Following the successful conclusion of its mandate, UNMIBH was terminated on 31 December 2002 and succeeded by the European Union Police Mission (EUPM).
The United Nations Confidence Restoration Operation in Croatia (UNCRO) was established on 31 March 1995 to replace the United Nations Protection Force in the former Yugoslavia (UNPROFOR). The troops and observers were deployed in Serb-controlled Western Slavonia, the Krajina region and Eastern Slavonia with a mandate to implement the ceasefire agreement, monitor the borders among Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia as well as to monitor the demilitarization of the Prevlaka peninsula. Following the establishment of the United Nations transitional administration, the mandate of UNCRO was terminated on 15 January 1996.
The United Nations Preventive Deployment Force in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (UNPREDEP) was established on 31 March 1995 to monitor and report any developments in the border areas which could undermine confidence and stability in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and threaten its territory. UNPREDEP was terminated on 28 February 1999.
The United Nations Protection Force in the former Yugoslavia (UNPROFOR) was established on 21 February 1992, as an “interim arrangement to create the conditions of peace and security required for the negotiation of an overall settlement of the Yugoslav crisis.” Tasks included monitoring the demilitarized zones in Croatia, insuring the protection of civilians and facilitating the return of displaced peoples. UNPROFOR was terminated on 15 December 1995.
The United Nations Emergency Force (UNEF II) in the Middle East was established in October 1973 to supervise the ceasefire between Egyptian and Israeli forces and, following the conclusion of the agreements of 18 January 1974 and 4 September 1975, to supervise the redeployment of Egyptian and Israeli forces and to man and control the buffer zones established under those agreements.
The United Nations Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO) was established by the Security Council on 29 May 1948 through the adoption of resolution 50 (1948), following the end of the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. It was the first ever peacekeeping operation established by the United Nations. Since then, UNTSO military observers have remained in the Middle East and continued to assist and cooperate with the United Nations Disengagement Observer Force (UNDOF) in the Golan Heights and the United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL), in monitoring ceasefires, supervising of armistice agreements and preventing isolated incidents from escalating.
The United Nations Iran-Iraq Military Observer Group (UNIIMOG) was established on August 9 1988 "to verify, confirm and supervise the ceasefire and withdrawal,” of the forces of Iraq and Iran to their internationally recognized boundaries. UNIIMOG was terminated on 28 February 1991.
The United Nations Iraq-Kuwait Observation Mission (UNIKOM) was established on 9 April 1991, following the forced withdrawal of Iraqi forces from Kuwait after the Gulf War. UNIKOM was tasked to monitor the demilitarized zone (DMZ) along the Iraq-Kuwait border, deter border violations and report on any hostile actions. The mandate of UNIKOM was completed on 6 October 2003.
The Observation force was established in 1982, comprised of the United Nations Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO) personnel, to monitor the situation in and around Beirut, Lebanon following the Israeli military action against Lebanon.
The United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL) was established by the Security Council on 19 March 1978 through the adoption of resolution 425 (1978), to confirm Israel’s withdrawal from southern Lebanon, restore international peace and security and assist the Government of Lebanon in restoring its effective authority in the area. In addition to the adjustments of the mandate after the 1982 Israeli-Lebanese war and after the Israeli withdrawal from Lebanon to the Blue Line in 2000, its mandate was again expanded in August 2006 following the Israeli-Hizbullah war. Its tasks included monitoring the cessation of hostilities, accompanying and supporting the Lebanese armed forces as they deployed throughout the south of Lebanon, and extending its assistance to help ensure humanitarian access to civilian populations and the voluntary and safe return of displaced persons.
The Observation Group in Lebanon (UNOGIL) was established on 11 June 1958 as a result of the 1958 Lebanon Crisis serving as an observer force to ensure that there was no illegal infiltration of personnel or supply of arms or other material across the Lebanese borders. After the conflict had been settled, tensions eased and UNOGIL was withdrawn which was completed by 9 December 1958.
The United Nations Disengagement Observer Force (UNDOF) was established by the Security Council on 31 May 1974 through the adoption of resolution 350 (1974), following the 1967 Arab-Israeli War and the subsequent agreed disengagement of the Israeli and Syrian forces in the Golan Heights. Since then, UNDOF has remained in the area to maintain the ceasefire between Israel and Syrian Arab Republic and to supervise the implementation of the disengagement agreement.
The United Nations Supervision Mission in Syria (UNSMIS) was established by resolution 2043 (2012) of 21 April 2012, to monitor the cessation of armed violence and support the implementation of a six-point proposal to end the conflict in Syria. The mission was suspended on 15 June 2012 and terminated 19 August 2012.
The United Nations Yemen Observation Mission (UNYOM) was established in July 1963 to observe and certify the implementation of the disengagement agreement between Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Republic. The mandate of UNYOM ended on 4 September 1964.