The Security Council, its Counter-Terrorism Committee, and the Committee’s Executive Directorate (CTED) have been paying increasing attention to the issue of gender and the integration of the agendas on women, peace, and security, counter-terrorism, and countering violent extremism (CVE). Including a gender perspective in countering terrorism and violent extremism requires focus on (i) women and girls as victims of terrorism, (ii) women as perpetrators, facilitators, and supporters of terrorism, (iii) women as agents in preventing and countering terrorism and violent extremism, and (iv) the differential impact of counter-terrorism strategies on women and women’s rights. It is also important to highlight that a gender perspective not only includes the role of women but also men and masculinities.
Women and girls experience particular vulnerabilities as victims of terrorism and therefore have specific protection needs. This includes safeguarding women’s human rights in conflict situations, displacement contexts, and other circumstances in which they are subjected to the effects of extremist violence. A particular focus in this respect has been sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV), as well as the nexus between SGBV and trafficking in the context of terrorism, as highlighted by Security Council resolutions 2331 (2016) and 2388 (2017). It is important to remember that a gender-sensitive approach must also include the experiences of male victims in this regard.
Women can act as perpetrators, facilitators, and supporters of terrorism. While this is not a new phenomenon, increasing attention is being paid to this aspect in the context of female foreign terrorist fighters (FTFs) travelling to, and returning and relocating from, conflict zones. The drivers of female radicalization are still understudied. This is problematic given that an understanding of such drivers is essential for devising an effective response. A gender-sensitive approach should also take into account notions of masculinity and gender stereotypes in the mobilization and recruitment of men.
It is increasingly recognised that women have an important role to play in countering terrorism and violent extremism, both on- and off-line. Women can act as early warning and de-radicalization agents in their communities and families. However, they also have essential roles to play in policy-making, the security sector, and law enforcement services. The inclusion of women in the delivery of security is not only important from a gender equality perspective, but often enhances the effectiveness of law enforcement efforts. Women diversify the perspectives and expertise that inform policies and responses, can engage a broader range of stakeholders and enter spaces that may be restricted by cultural and religious sensitivities. Enhancing women’s participation in law enforcement can increase the effectiveness of early warning and identification of threats, as well as improve community engagement initiatives.
As requested by resolutions 2242 (2015) and 2395 (2017), it is important to assess the differential impact of counter-terrorism strategies on women and women’s human rights. Women’s groups can be affected differently by certain counter-terrorism policies and practices (e.g. research has demonstrated that counter-terrorism financing laws affect women differently in places where their access to the formal banking sector is limited and they rely on alternative remittance systems).
In accordance with resolution 2242 (2015), CTED continues to increase its focus on the gender dimensions of its efforts to assist Member States to counter terrorism, including with respect to prevention, interdiction and response, prosecution, rehabilitation, and reintegration. In its interactions with Governments and civil society, CTED continues to integrate the gender perspective, including by inquiring into engagement by States with women and girls in aspects of the implementation of resolutions 1373 (2001), 1624 (2005), and 2178 (2014) and into good practices and technical assistance needs, in the knowledge that women and girls can contribute an expanded range of insights, expertise, and experience. CTED further integrates the gender perspective into its country assessment activities conducted on behalf of the Committee. In some cases, this has been done through the participation of UN Women in the assessment team. CTED also co-chairs the Counter-Terrorism Implementation Task Force (CTITF) Interagency Working Group on Gender.
CTED’s Technical guide to the implementation of Security Council resolution 1373 (2001) and other relevant resolutions reflects the ongoing work of CTED to strengthen efforts to integrate the gender dimension into counter-terrorism measures, as highlighted in resolutions 2122 (2013), 2242 (2015), and 2354 (2017).
On 9 September 2015, the Committee held its first open briefing on the role of women in countering terrorism and violent extremism. On 18 July 2018, CTED and UN Women co-hosted a symposium on gender-sensitive research and the collection of data on factors underlying the radicalization of women to terrorism.