Some of the greatest challenges to peace and security are crimes which, while committed on national territory, permeate national borders and affect entire regions and ultimately the international community as a whole. This is an evolving challenge for the rule of law and the protection of human rights and illustrates well the strong linkages with peace and security.

Terrorism brings violence and instability, can limit freedom of movement and access to employment and educational opportunities, degrades the quality of life and threatens the basic rights of people, including the right to life and security. Terrorism represents a threat to security and stability and can undermine economic and social development. Similarly, transnational organized crime in diverse areas threatens peace and security and undermines the economic and social development of societies around the world. The General Assembly and the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime and Protocols Thereto have stressed the negative impact that transnational organized crime has on human rights and the rule of law. In this context, international cooperation, based on the principles of shared responsibility and in accordance with international law, is key in order to dismantle illicit networks, including drug trafficking and trafficking in persons .

Acts of piracy threaten maritime security by endangering, in particular, the welfare of seafarers and the security of navigation and commerce. Pirate attacks can have widespread ramifications, including preventing humanitarian assistance and increasing the costs of future shipments to the affected areas, and undermine the rule of law. The 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea provides the framework for the repression of piracy under international law.