The Security Council should make more frequent use of peaceful settlement of disputes and regional arrangements enshrined in the Charter of the United Nations to resolve disputes and maintain global peace, speakers said today, as the 15-member organ continued its open debate on the Organization’s founding document.
Delegates unanimously stressed the importance of upholding the Charter, signed in June 1945 by 50 countries, with Sri Lanka’s Ambassador describing it as “a living document”, containing many principles that form the bedrock of the United Nations.
Indeed, Slovenia’s delegate considers that the Charter prevails in any case of conflicting obligations under other treaties, adding that among the many tools for the maintenance of international peace and security, the Council should consider using Chapter VI on “peaceful settlement of disputes” more often and explore ways to analyse crises and risks as early as possible.
Peru’s delegate said that some countries nevertheless put forward arguments and interpretations that undermine the system of collective security. Going forward, he added, the United Nations, and the Council in particular, must promote dialogue and the peaceful settlement of disputes in accordance with Chapter VI.
Rwanda was also among the proponents of Chapter VI, with its delegate calling on the Council to make a wider and more effective use of means for pacific settlement of disputes under Articles 33 to 38, which make up Chapter VI.
The speaker from the United Arab Emirates proposed that regional and subregional organizations play a greater role in addressing regional tensions and achieving security and stability. The Council can strengthen coordination with the League of Arab States and the African Union based on a framework provided by Chapter VIII on “regional arrangements”, she said.
Heightened geopolitical tensions in the Middle East, Gulf and the Americas also shaped the tone of today’s meeting.
Iraq’s delegate said that regrettable events in recent days represented clear provocative acts against his country, Government and people that endangered its security, breached its sovereignty and territorial integrity, and put it on the threshold of war. Iraq does not want to become an open place for conflict that would destabilize the region, he said, urging all parties to resort to wisdom and reason.
His counterpart from Canada said that evidence suggests Flight PS752 carrying 63 Canadians was shot down by an Iranian surface-to-air missile, but this may very well have been unintentional. Canada remains committed to diplomacy with Iran, he said, adding that “together, and guided by the Charter and with the assistance of the United Nations system, we can act to investigate, provide answers to victims’ families, and prevent another” incident.
Venezuela’s delegate noted that that the Charter is a legally binding document for 193 Member States, governs international relations and serves as the code of conduct for the entire membership. He warned against indiscriminate bombings, extrajudicial killings, economic terrorism and threats to destroy cultural heritage by a State that believes it is above the law. “There is no better alternative to the Charter,” he emphasized.
The role of the International Court of Justice was also discussed, with Uruguay’s delegate emphasizing the need to foster closer ties with it, the highest judicial body for settling disputes, as it can provide legal solutions when negotiations and mediations do not bear fruit.
The speaker from the International Committee of the Red Cross said that one purpose of the United Nations is to solve international problems of a humanitarian character, as outlined in the Charter. To this end, he advocated redoubled Council efforts to prevent war, and when it breaks out, to do its utmost so that the parties, and those supporting them, respect international humanitarian law.
Fiji’s representative spotlighted the link between climate change and international peace and security, saying that the climate crisis has all the intrinsic features of war as its consequences are fuelling internal and inter-State conflict as well as terrorism and extremism. “And we are losing this war”, he warned, urging Member States to recommit to the Charter, lift their climate ambitions and rekindle the multilateral spirit to fight “the battle of our lives”.
Also speaking today were the representatives of Kuwait, Kazakhstan, Yemen, Cuba, Spain, Saudi Arabia, Netherlands, Costa Rica, Ireland, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan (also speaking for the Non-Aligned Movement), Cambodia, Georgia, Trinidad and Tobago, Tajikistan, Jordan, Oman, Croatia, Bangladesh, Portugal, Greece and Myanmar.
The meeting began at 10:02 a.m. and ended at 1:10 p.m.
DARJA BAVDAŽ KURET (Slovenia) said that the entire legal order regulating international relations and its security structure is built on the United Nations Charter principles that are broad enough to cover new challenges and are just as relevant as when the Organization was established. His delegation believes that the Charter of the United Nations prevails in any case of conflicting obligations under other treaties. The Charter must always be respected and implemented, and never undermined. All States are obliged to ensure respect for the Charter, with Article 1 and 2 serving as the basis for their behaviour in the international arena. The Council should be more proactive in preventing conflicts instead of reacting to them, he said, encouraging the 15-member organ to use Chapter VI more often and to explore ways to analyse crises and risks as early as possible.
MANSOUR AYYAD SH. A. ALOTAIBI (Kuwait) expressed concern at the grave escalation of tension in the Gulf and agreed with the Secretary-General’s call for restraint. Respect for the Charter and international law is extremely important for all States, he said, adding that the liberation of his country in 1991 demonstrated how the international community can act under United Nations auspices. Reflecting on Kuwait’s experience as a non-permanent Council member for 2018-2019, he said the organ can be more effective if it makes better use of the instruments and tools provided by the Charter, including Chapter VI on the pacific settlement of disputes. He also called for more cooperation between the Council and regional and subregional organizations, including the League of Arab States. Success, however, depends on the Council’s ability to demonstrate unity, he added.
KAIRAT UMAROV (Kazakhstan) said the Charter was written with the blood of millions of victims from world war and armed conflict. Any violation of its articles — especially those related to sovereignty and territorial integrity — could trigger a repeat of past mistakes. With world powers on the verge of full scale military standoffs, he emphasized the important role of international law in preventing and resolving global conflict. He called for observing the 1970 Declaration on Principles of International Law Concerning Friendly Relations and Cooperation among States, and the 1975 Final Act of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe, stressing that the current global context reveals that some countries ignore their provisions. He called for convening a high-level United Nations conference to reaffirm the basic principles of international law, stressing that the Charter offers the Council an important tool to maintain peace through the use of regional bodies. Strengthening such cooperation, including with preventive diplomacy bodies, is important for upholding the Charter, he added.
ABDULLAH ALI FADHEL AL-SAADI (Yemen) said his was among the first countries that signed the Charter, committing to the maintenance of international peace and security. Noting that special political missions serve to help resolve conflicts through preventive diplomacy, mediation, and good offices, he thanked the Secretary-General and his envoy for their efforts to reach a comprehensive political settlement to the war waged by the Houthis and supported by the Iranian regime. Yemen seeks to achieve a peaceful settlement based on the Gulf Cooperation Council Initiative, national dialogue and Security Council resolutions. He called on the Security Council to exert further pressure on the Houthis and help reach a comprehensive settlement that meets the aspiration of Yemeni people.
ANA SILVIA RODRÍGUEZ ABASCAL (Cuba) welcomed the holding of today’s debate on the Charter and reiterated her country’s commitment to uphold it. Breaches of the Charter, such as attempts to undermine sovereignty, aggression and interference, continue to occur daily. Hegemony, selected association of leaders and unilateral coercive measures, and all forms of pressure are attacks on multilateralism. The Security Council must perform its duties, based on the power bestowed upon it by the Charter without double standards. She condemned the United States for imposing an illegal economic blockade against her country for six decades.
NÉSTOR POPOLIZIO (Peru) said that international peace and security cannot be maintained without the rule of law and more inclusive societies. Some countries nevertheless put forward arguments and interpretations that undermine the system of collective security. Going forward, the United Nations, and the Council in particular, must promote dialogue and the peaceful settlement of disputes in accordance with Chapter VI of the Charter. Greater efforts must also be made to ensure that the United Nations is more robust so that it can facilitate peace, social inclusion and prosperity for all.
AGUSTÍN SANTOS MARAVER (Spain), pointing to the dangerous situation in the Middle East and the Gulf, said that international peace and security means prioritizing political action, more effective peacekeeping and enhancing the three pillars of the United Nations. The Council should improve its methods of work by institutionalizing monthly stock-taking meetings and ensuring a more equitable distribution of its workload among its elected and permanent members. Council mandates must be realistic, substantial, flexible and adequately funded if they are to have a real impact for the victims of conflict. He also called for greater cooperation between the United Nations, the European Union and the African Union on security and crisis management.
ABDALLAH Y. AL-MOUALLIMI (Saudi Arabia) said that the world is facing more crises and conflict than ever before, especially in the Middle East and the Gulf region. He called on all Member States to commit to the Charter and for the international community to carry out its responsibility, including ending the Israeli occupation of Palestine and other Arab territories. The international community must also compel Iran to respect international law and stop trying to destabilize the region and the world, he said, emphasizing that his country will always support Iraq against attempts to destabilize it and its Government. He drew attention to Saudi Arabia’s diplomatic initiatives in Yemen and between Eritrea and Ethiopia, and called for the Charter to be amended to take twenty-first century developments into consideration.
KSHENUKA DHIRENI SENEWIRATNE (Sri Lanka), associating herself with the statement to be delivered by the Non-Aligned Movement, stressed the need for increased and concerted efforts to reinvigorate collective measures to maintain international peace and security. The preamble of the Charter remains etched in collective memory. It is a living document, containing many principles that form the bedrock of the United Nations. It is timely to rededicating to collective commitment to address numerous challenges of today, including the spread of terrorism, radicalization, environmental degradation, and mass migration, because no country is immune to those. Sri Lanka upholds the rules-based international order firmly enshrined in the Charter.
CARLOS AMORÍN (Uruguay) recalled that the Security Council was entrusted with the responsibility to maintain international peace and security. One core element is refrainment from the use of force on territory integrity. It is also necessary to foster closer ties with the International Court of Justice, the highest judicial body for settling disputes. When negotiations and mediations do not bear fruit, the Court can provide legal solutions. While stressing the importance of preventive measures, he also underscored the importance of promoting international criminal law and prosecution of human rights violations. The International Criminal Court must review referrals of atrocity crimes and fight impunity by assigning criminal responsibility to perpetrators.
RICHARD ARBEITER (Canada), recalling his grandmother’s escape from persecution in Poland during the Second World War and her life in labour and displaced persons camps and post-war move to Montreal, said the Charter has touched the lives of many as the United Nations leverages cooperation to solve a range of global challenges. In an era of resurging authoritarianism, anti-Semitism and hatred, the Charter’s values remain timeless and universal, with the best homage being paid by respecting and revitalizing its principles. For instance, Article 99 can be creatively used to support conflict prevention, and Article 41 should let the Council determine the form and scope of potential non-military measures mentioned therein. For its part, Canada has consistently called for safeguarding the rules-based international order, with the Council playing a critical role. As the Secretary-General noted and his grandmother personally experienced, civilians pay the highest price for conflict. As Canada mourns the deaths of 176 people, including 63 Canadians, in the crash of Flight PS752 in Tehran, he said evidence suggests the airplane was shot down by an Iranian surface-to-air missile, but this may very well have been unintentional. Canada remains committed to diplomacy with Iran and has requested Iranian cooperation to allow Canadian experts to assist with the identification and recovery of victims, he said, adding that: “together, and guided by the Charter and with the assistance of the United Nations system, we can act to investigate, provide answers to victims’ families, and prevent another” incident.
MARK ZELLENRATH (Netherlands), associating himself with the European Union, said the multilateral system is under pressure and that it falls on all Member States to maintain and strengthen it. He underscored the Netherlands’ contributions in the areas of conflict prevention and ensuring accountability for those responsible for gross human rights violations. He urged States that have not yet done so to join efforts — led by his country — to conclude a convention on international cooperation in the investigation and prosecution of genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes, also known as the Mutual Legal Assistance initiative.
ROBERT MARDINI, International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), recalled that the Charter includes rules on initiating war — jus ad bellum — and that international humanitarian law applies during war — jus in bello. These distinct bodies of law complement each other to prevent war, on the one hand, and better protect people in the case of war, on the other. Most critically, under international humanitarian law, civilians must be protected against attack, and parties are obliged to take precautions during attack to spare them. An attack must be cancelled if it becomes apparent that it is prohibited. One purpose of the United Nations is to solve international problems of a humanitarian character, as outlined in the Charter, and to this end, he advocated redoubled Council efforts to prevent war, and when it breaks out, to do its utmost so that the parties, and those supporting them, respect international humanitarian law.
RODRIGO A. CARAZO (Costa Rica) said the seventy-fifth anniversary of the Charter’s adoption must be a call to action, to move from words to deeds and to consolidate the role of the United Nations as the heart of global governance. The Council must shoulder its responsibilities, take human rights into consideration in its action and improve its work in conflict prevention. When Governments fail to fulfil their responsibility to protect their citizens, it falls on the international community, including the Council, to step in with preventative diplomacy, good offices and mediation. The Council must act before it is too late, or rather ensure that it does not fail to act. He warned against attempts by some States to manipulate the principles and purposes of the Charter through the use of their Council veto. Wielding the veto, especially in cases involving the most atrocious crimes, betrays the trust of millions who are putting their hope in the Organization, he said.
BRIAN PATRICK FLYNN (Ireland) said the Organization has made significant progress in saving humanity from the scourge of war through the establishment of peacekeeping operations in 1948. The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the Paris Agreement on climate change also demonstrate the international community’s capacity to put its faith in multilateralism. However, the Council is failing to meet its responsibilities, he said, noting that it is divided on many issues with some permanent members vetoing resolutions aimed at relieving suffering. Ireland supports the efforts of elected Council members to overcome such divisions, he said, adding that his country will work in that vein if it is elected to the organ for the 2021-2022 term.
GHASAQ YOUSIF ABDALLA SHAHEEN (United Arab Emirates) said the increasing instances of non-compliance with the provisions of the Charter led to more frustration and chaos in the Middle East. She recommended that the Security Council consult and coordinate with the concerned countries to be able to deal with the cases on its agenda more effectively, and that regional and subregional organizations play a greater role in addressing regional tensions and achieving security and stability. The Council can strengthen coordination with the League of Arab States and the African Union based on a framework provided by Chapter VIII. Her country will host the Dubai Expo 2020 under the theme “connecting minds, creating the future”. The objective is to build partnerships and present innovative ideas that will forge the world of tomorrow.
BAKHTIYOR IBRAGIMOV (Uzbekistan) cited an unprecedented new alignment of power at both the global and regional levels, with the world becoming less predictable and more unstable. Noting that Article 1 of the Charter underlines multilateralism as an essential prerequisite for safeguarding international peace and stability, he said that the aggravation of terrorist threats — coupled with ignorance, intolerance and extremism — pose serious challenges across the globe. The most important task is to fight for the hearts and minds of people, especially young people, on whom the future of humanity and the planet depend. Calling for the establishment of a barrier against the spreading virus of violent ideology, he reiterated Uzbekistan’s proposed initiative to develop a United Nations Convention on the Rights of Youth aimed at stepping up global, regional and country-level efforts to meet young people’s needs, build their capacity and expand their rights and freedoms around the world.
YASHAR T. ALIYEV (Azerbaijan), speaking for the Non-Aligned Movement, expressed the bloc’s support for multilateralism, with the United Nations at its core. Strengthening the values of international cooperation, which underpins the Charter, is fundamental to supporting the United Nations, and he recalled the Movement’s eighteenth summit in October 2001, where Heads of State and Government reaffirmed the validity of the Charter principles in promoting peace, the rule of law, economic development, social progress and human rights. He called for renewed efforts to resolve the impasse to achieving nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation, stressing that the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any State violates international law and the Charter. He reaffirmed the Movement’s commitment to promote peaceful dispute settlement and urged the Council and the Assembly to make greater use of the International Court of Justice in that context.
Speaking in his national capacity, he said the Charter rests on the goal of friendly relations among nations based on respect for sovereignty and territorial integrity, without pursuing policies of expansionism. Armenia’s claims regarding the right to self-determination have nothing in common with that principle. The mandate of the ongoing peace process mediated by the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) Minsk Group is based on Council resolutions 822 (1993), 853 (1993), 874 (1993) and 884 (1993). He said Armenia must immediately, completely and unconditionally withdraw its forces from Nagorno-Karabakh and seven adjacent occupied territories in order to restore Azerbaijan’s territorial integrity within its internationally recognized borders, which is a basic premise for settling the conflict.
SOVANN KE (Cambodia), aligning himself with the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and the Non-Aligned Movement, highlighted several ways to safeguard the United Nations three pillars. At the outset, the collective whole must ensure that the United Nations is more responsive, transparent and accountable for the future, with the Council acting decisively in a cooperative manner. One way the Council can promote effective peace and security action is through strengthening its peacekeeping engagement, including through providing clear, focused mandates. As a troop-contributing country, Cambodia’s experience shows that clear mandates, alongside political, logistical and financial support, are key to safeguarding and protecting the most vulnerable civilian populations in conflict situations. Meanwhile, the international community must focus its efforts on peacefully settling disputes, with conflict prevention at the centre. Promoting socioeconomic development must be a focus area, with purposeful cooperation among all Member States, he said, adding that regional organizations such as ASEAN have helped to further promote Charter principles.
ELENE AGLADZE (Georgia) said that the Charter principles of sovereign equality of States, the non-use of force and non-interference in internal affairs are presently violated on a daily basis, with multilateralism and the rules-based order under attack. Sharing worrisome experiences from her own country, she said one permanent Council member plays a destructive role in the region and launched a full-scale military aggression against Georgia 12 years ago, resulting in the illegal occupation of 20 per cent of the latter’s territory. “A few years later, Ukraine fell to the very same aggressor,” she said, also recalling that the mandate of the United Nations Observer Mission in Georgia was brazenly terminated by a veto cast by Moscow – itself a party to the conflict – thereby creating a total vacuum of security presence in Georgia’s occupied area when it was most needed. Describing those actions as a massive blow to European security and the entire international order, she said Georgia remains committed to peaceful conflict resolution - including the de-occupation of its territory – but voiced concern that its efforts are met with resistance from the occupying Power.
PENNELOPE ALTHEA BECKLES (Trinidad and Tobago) expressed regret that the United Nations is nearing its seventy-fifth anniversary at a time of escalating tensions and threats to peace and security in many parts of the world. Calling for more multilateral approaches rather than unilateral ones, she said peace and security should be a priority for all States and all should act in line with the purposes of the Charter. Emphasizing the vulnerability of women and girls in situations of armed conflict, she said they must be equal partners in collaborative efforts to build peaceful and sustainable societies and promote human rights. Trinidad and Tobago remains a strong supporter of the Arms Trade Treaty, which represents a significant achievement in the global fight to eliminate the diversion of conventional arms to the illicit market, and which contributes to the reduction of suffering among women and girls. She also spotlighted the International Criminal Court’s role, urging the international community to further strengthen it and bring to justice those accused of committing the most serious crimes.
SAMUEL MONCADA (Venezuela) noted that that the Charter is a legally binding document for 193 Member States, governs international relations, and serves as the code of conduct for the entire membership. Both large and small countries must abide by the Charter as a whole, not selectively. Sovereign equality, non-interference, and the right to self-determination are among the essential principles in the maintenance of international peace and security, he said, warning against indiscriminate bombings, extrajudicial killings, economic terrorism, and threats to destroy cultural heritage by a State that believes it is above the law and aims to achieve global dominance. There is no better alternative to the Charter. Non-compliance is a betrayal to succeeding generations. The dissolution of the League of Nations led to the Second World War. Venezuela supports the establishment of the Group of Friends of Upholding the Charter.
MAHMADAMIN MAHMADAMINOV (Tajikistan) said current global challenges require all countries to take more robust actions and make firm commitments through regional cooperation and based on fair, effective and mutually beneficial economic relations. He called on those involved in conflicts — particularly in the Middle East — to maximize efforts to reach a full and speedy settlement of their disputes, also highlighting the United Nations crucial role. Tajikistan has its own history with the death, pain and devastation of conflict, including a five-year-long civil war that caused numerous casualties and displaced a million people. Hailing the country’s peacebuilding process and the success it brought, he said one of the major lessons learned was that evil forces and global threats can only be combated through cooperation and joint action. Today, Ashgabat, Turkmenistan, is home to the United Nations Regional Centre for Preventive Diplomacy for Central Asia, which promotes dialogue between States of the region to find solutions on emerging threats to peace and security, he said.
SATYENDRA PRASAD (Fiji) said the world is facing a new war, namely climate change, which represents a grave threat to Pacific island States. The consequences of the climate crisis are fuelling internal and inter-State conflict as well as terrorism and extremism. There are no front lines or safe areas in the climate crisis, which over time can turn stable States into fragile ones. This is felt no more intensely than in small States. He said the climate crisis has all the intrinsic features of war “and we are losing this war”. It is time for Member States to recommit to the Charter, lift their climate ambitions and rekindle the multilateral spirit to fight “the battle of our lives”.
SUDQI ATALLAH ABD ALKADETR AL OMOUSH (Jordan) said the United Nations cannot succeed unless Member States commit to implementing its resolutions. Emphasizing that Jordan is attached to the principle of moderation, he said recent international crises, especially in the Middle East, and the fast pace of change in political and strategic relations demonstrate the importance of the United Nations founding principles. Jordan supports the Secretary-General’s reform programme, which will promote the Organizations’ ability to respond to crises. He went on to note the inaugural Conference on the Establishment of a Middle East Zone Free of Nuclear Weapons and Other Weapons of Mass Destruction, which Jordan chaired in November 2019, adding that the region must forge relations built on peace and stability so that its people can build the future they want.
MOHAMED AL HASSAN (Oman), echoing the Secretary-General’s remarks, said that “peace is the most precious human humanitarian value”. Selective implementation of the Charter leads to instability, and the use of force and coercive measures must be avoided. In light of growing tensions and conflicts in the world, the work of the United Nations is increasing, making it necessary to balance work between the General Assembly and the Security Council. Emphasizing the need for more concerted efforts to reach international consensus to end all conflicts, including in the Middle East, he highlighted the need to resolve the question of Palestine and provide further assistance to the brotherly people of Yemen.
IVAN ŠIMONOVIĆ (Croatia), associating with the European Union, called the adoption of the Charter and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights “stellar” moments in history. The end of the cold war ushered in a better political climate to prevent mass atrocity; the institutions provided by the Charter functioned more efficiently, and both peacekeeping and international accountability mechanisms were introduced. “Not anymore”, he said, noting that atrocity crimes are again on the rise and impunity is rampant. The Council must be more engaged in preventing crises and dedicated to its Charter duties, he said, expressing support for establishing a code of conduct for mass atrocity crimes, and refraining from veto use in such cases, as outlined in the France-Mexico initiative. Croatia upholds the responsibility to protect principle, as consensually adopted in the 2005 World Summit outcome, and while not legally binding like Charter provisions, it is politically binding on all Member States.
RABAB FATIMA (Bangladesh) said the Charter has withstood the test of time and shaped the rules-based international order. However, there is an urgent need to move from words to action, she said, recommending that greater involvement by developing countries can provide much-needed impetus for system-wide United Nations reforms. The 2030 Agenda should be leveraged to address the drivers of conflict and the International Court of Justice, among other legal bodies, can play a more pivotal role in ending a culture of impunity. It is more important than ever for all Member States to unite and engage to apply the Charter in its true spirit, she said, calling for more innovation in the application of its principles.
FRANCISCO DUARTE LOPES (Portugal) expressed his country’s strong commitment to a strengthened multilateral system with the United Nations at its centre. Portugal also supports reform of the United Nations system to fully uphold the collective vision of international peace and security, including through conflict prevention, as outlined in the Charter’s Article 1. He called for adapting the Council’s working methods to enhance transparency and efficiency, pointing out that support for peacekeeping will remain a priority for Portugal. Further, there must be stronger, more regular coordination between the Council and the Peacebuilding Commission, as well as a focus on climate challenges among the potential sources of conflict.
MARIA THEOFILI (Greece) pointed out that the fundamental significance of the respect for the rule of law and the public order of the oceans is reflected in the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. The instrument contributes to the strengthening of peace, security, cooperation and good neighbourly relations among all nations and is a factor of stability and security in a challenging international context, she said, stressing the need to abide by its provisions, which have long been recognized by jurisprudence as reflecting customary international law, and thus refrain from actions that violate article 2 (4) of the United Nations Charter prohibiting the use of force or threat of use of force. Her country’s bid for election to the Security Council for 2025-2026 is guided by the strong aspiration to uphold the Charter.
ROBERT KAYINAMURA (Rwanda) said that the role of the United Nations is being questioned and international treaties challenged, with multilateral cooperation at a crossroads, when it is needed most. While countries pursue national interests, the people they serve have common aspirations to live in a peaceful, sustainable and dignified world. The United Nations remains the only universal global forum for open, continuous and honest dialogue. “We must strengthen multilateral cooperation,” he said, adding that without it, most contemporary challenges, including terrorism, climate change, migration and transnational crimes, cannot be effectively addressed. The Security Council needs to make a wider and more effective use of means for pacific settlement of disputes under Articles 33 to 38 of the Charter.
HAU DO SUAN (Myanmar), associating himself with the Non-Aligned Movement and ASEAN, said that since joining the Organization in 1948, his country has always fulfilled its international obligations under the Charter. With the rise of unilateralism, nationalism and protectionism, the world needs a stronger United Nations. He emphasized the responsibility of each State to abide by the principles of respect for sovereignty and territorial integrity, political independence and non-interference in domestic affairs. In settling disputes and conflicts, the United Nations and the international community should support the chosen ways and initiatives of the countries concerned. Turning to the work of the Council, he said the application of double standards and the politicization of issues must be avoided.
MOHAMMED HUSSEIN BAHR ALULOOM (Iraq), recalling that his country was among the first to sign the Charter in 1945, said the campaign against Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant/Da’esh (ISIL) reflected the practical application of the principle of international cooperation in response to threats against international peace and security. Victory was achieved through the sacrifice of the Iraqi security forces with support from the international coalition, friends, brothers and neighbours. Some countries, however, have not abided by the purposes and principles of the Charter, adopting conflict instead of cooperation to achieve their interests. Had they abided by the Charter, things would not have escalated to the point where they are today. Regrettable events in recent days represented clear provocative acts against the Iraqi State, Government and people that endangered its security, breached its sovereignty and territorial integrity, and put Iraq on the threshold of war. Iraq does not want to become an open place for conflict that would destabilize the region and undermine national reconstruction. Hopefully, all parties will resort to wisdom and reason, he said, calling on the Council to condemn attacks and aggression against Iraq and to appeal for calm and de-escalation.