Security Council Extends Mandate of United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Central African Republic

SC/13619
13 December 2018
8422nd Meeting (PM)

Security Council Extends Mandate of United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Central African Republic

Situation Extremely Serious, Says Permanent Representative, as China, Russian Federation Abstain from Voting on Resolution 2448 (2018)

The Security Council extended the mandate of the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in the Central African Republic (MINUSCA) until 15 November 2019 today, tasking it with reinforcing its support for the peace process in the troubled country.

Adopting resolution 2448 (2018) by a vote of 13 in favour to none against, with 2 abstentions, the Council decided to maintain MINUSCA’s the current troop level of up to 11,650 military personnel for effective capability in civilian protection, under the strategic objective of supporting the “creation of the political, security and institutional conditions conducive to the reduction of the presence of, and threat posed by, armed groups through a comprehensive and robust approach and robust posture”.

Reaffirming its support for the African Initiative for Peace and Reconciliation in the Central African Republic and its dialogue process, the Council called upon all actors also to support the Initiative and to strengthen coordination of all related efforts under the African Union’s leadership of the process.

In that context, the Council called upon the national authorities to accord priority to advancing inclusive dialogue with armed groups, extending State authority, reforming the security sector and combating impunity.  Reiterating support for President Faustin‑Archange Touadéra’s efforts to cement and broaden national ownership of the peace process, the Council demanded that all militias and armed groups engage in good faith.

The Council determined that MINUSCA will reinforce its role in the peace process through the participation of the Special Representative as a full member of the Panel of Facilitators and mediation support (within ongoing technical, logistical and security functions), while coordinating other international support.  As part of its support for the political process, the Mission is to advance preparations for an inclusive electoral process leading up to elections planned for 2020 and 2021.

Also by the text, the Council prioritized MINUSCA’s support for transitional justice, facilitating a secure environment for the delivery of humanitarian assistance, and protecting United Nations personnel, sites and equipment.  It also tasked the Mission with logistical support for the national army — the Forces armées centrafricaines — and national police in extending State authority, and continuing to assist authorities in developing an approach to the human rights vetting of security forces.

Concerning security sector reform, the Council charged the Mission with providing advice on a national strategy, in close coordination with the European Union, France, Russian Federation, United States and other international partners.  Among other responsibilities cited are supporting Government efforts to disarm, demobilize, reintegrate and repatriate armed cadres; monitoring human rights; promoting the rule of law and fighting impunity for serious crimes.

Following the adoption, Francois Delattre (France) welcomed the renewal, noting the continued turmoil in the Central African Republic.  He said members sought consensus in the Council through determined efforts to find a delicate balance of perspectives.  In that light, efforts to call the Council’s decisions into question would be counterproductive, he said, calling upon all actors to implement the resolution fully by putting the interests of the Central African people at the fore.  He expressed hope that MINUSCA, having reached full deployment, will improve the effectiveness of its civilian-protection efforts.  Emphasizing the key importance of supporting the African peace initiative and providing logistical support for the extension of State authority throughout the national territory, he pledged that France will continue to provide its full support to the Central African people in their quest for peace.

Stef Blok, Minister for Foreign Affairs of the Netherlands, also welcomed the adoption, pointing out the importance of strengthening MINUSCA’s role in the political process and in protecting civilians.

Joanna Wronecka (Poland) said the Council’s unified approach is particularly important ahead of elections projected for the next few years.

Jonathan Cohen (United States), noting the difficulties that continue to challenge the Central African Republic, said that overcoming them requires total unity and transparency among all actors.  Emphasizing the importance of consultations with the United Nations and the Government in all efforts, he said that helping the country is not a competition.  Situations in which it is not clear which initiatives are in support of Government efforts and which are commercial ventures must be avoided, he stressed.  He went on to reiterate his country’s rejection of Rome Statute jurisdiction over non‑signatory States, while noting that the Central African Republic is a signatory.  The United States remains concerned about the fight against impunity and respects the efforts of those who have joined the International Criminal Court, he said, adding that they should also respect his country’s views.

Olof Skoog (Sweden) also highlighted the need to reinforce MINUSCA’s support for the political process, expressing hope that all countries will unite in support of restoring peace in the Central African Republic.

Kacou Houadja Léon Adom (Côte d’Ivoire), Council President for December, spoke in his national capacity and on behalf of Ethiopia and Equatorial Guinea, expressing regret at the lack of consensus on the resolution.  The interests of the Central African Republic’s people should be the sole guide of decisions about the country, he emphasized.  The renewal, he affirmed, will allow MINUSCA to better support humanitarian access and civilian protection, while advancing the political process, for which, the African Initiative is the only proper route, he stressed.  He went on to express the full support of the three countries for MINUSCA’s efforts in favour of peace and lasting stability in their fellow African country.

Vassily Nebenzia (Russian Federation) said that he too supports MINUSCA but cannot support the resolution due to the manner in which work on the text was conducted.  The penholders seemed to approach African countries as exclusive turf, he noted.  Explaining that his suggestions for the text were intended to increase transparency and acceptance of the role of regional actors, he said that his contributions were not respected, adding that there was not even a minimum search for compromise.  The situation demonstrates once again that the penholder system must be changed because it has been usurped by the “Western three”, he noted.  The text ignores the role of Russian instructors in training the military, after the Russian Federation’s supplies of military equipment were obstructed.  Using the pretext of consolidating support, the penholders are saying that their efforts are exclusive in nature, while the status quo leads to the deterioration of the situation, he argued.  The Russian Federation will continue to work for the benefit of the people of the Central African Republic, he vowed.

Ma Zhaoxu (China) similarly emphasized that whereas the Council must take the interests of all stakeholders in the Central African Republic into account, they were not adequately reflected in the text.  For that reason, China also abstained from the vote, he explained.

Ambroisine Kpongo (Central African Republic) thanked Council members for the acute sense of responsibility they demonstrated in negotiations concerning her country.  Meanwhile, the situation on the ground is extremely serious amid calls from all stakeholders for urgent action, she said.  Clashes between ex-Séléka and anti-Balaka groups continue and civilians remain in the middle of the violence.  Despite calls to lay down arms, the groups have responded with demonstrations of force, she said, emphasizing the need to exercise constant and strategic military pressure on the groups to keep their violent activities from expanding.  Amid attacks on camps for the internally displaced, further displacement continues and violence spreads to areas that were previously peaceful, she added.

Describing the proliferation of human rights violations, she said impunity also continues, noting the particular suffering of women and children.  It is crucial to plan seriously for the deployment of the Central African Republic’s armed forces, she said, adding that logistical support from MINSCA would therefore be welcome.  She noted that the Russian Federation supplied equipment and further training for the armed forces.  Welcoming the resolution’s support for the electoral and political processes, she stressed the necessity to ensure that MINUSCA has adequate resources to fulfil its mandate.  She went on to reaffirm the Government’s commitment to the African Initiative, underlining her country’s appreciation for the international mobilization in favour of the Central African Republic and the Council’s support for its recovery.  She also paid tribute to those who lost their lives in that effort.

The meeting began at 3:10 p.m. and ended at 3:54 p.m.

Resolution

The full text of resolution 2448 (2018) reads as follows:

“The Security Council,

Recalling its previous resolutions and statements on the Central African Republic (CAR), in particular resolutions 2121 (2013), 2127 (2013), 2134 (2014), 2149 (2014), 2181 (2014), 2196 (2015), 2212 (2015), 2217 (2015), 2262 (2016), 2264 (2016), 2281 (2016), 2301 (2016), 2339 (2017), 2387 (2017), 2399 (2018), as well as resolution 2272 (2016), and its Presidential Statements S/PRST/2014/28 of 18 December 2014, S/PRST/2015/17 of 20 October 2015, S/PRST/2016/17 of 16 November 2016, S/PRST/2017/5 of 4 April 2017, S/PRST/2017/9 of 13 July 2017 and S/PRST/2018/14 of 13 July 2018,

Reaffirming its strong commitment to the sovereignty, independence, unity and territorial integrity of the CAR, and recalling the importance of the principles of non‑interference, good‑neighbourliness and regional cooperation,

Reaffirming the basic principles of peacekeeping, such as consent of the parties, impartiality, and non‑use of force, except in self‑defence and defence of the mandate, recognizing that the mandate of each peacekeeping mission is specific to the need and situation of the country concerned, underlining that the mandates that it authorizes are consistent with the basic principles, reiterating that the Security Council expects full delivery of the mandates it authorizes, and recalling in this regard its resolution 2436 (2018),

Recalling that the CAR Authorities have the primary responsibility to protect all populations in the CAR in particular from genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing and crimes against humanity and, in this regard, recalling the importance of restoring state authority in all parts of the country,

Expressing deep concern regarding persistent violence perpetrated by armed groups throughout the country in their attempts to forcefully gain control of territory and resources and destabilize the country, as well as the lack of capacity of the national security forces, and the persistence of the root causes of the conflict,

Condemning in the strongest terms incitement to ethnic and religious hatred and violence and the multiple violations of international humanitarian law and the widespread human rights violations and abuses, including those committed against children and those involving sexual and gender‑based violence in conflict, committed notably by both ex‑Seleka and anti‑Balaka elements, and other armed groups, as well as the targeting of civilians from specific communities, resulting in deaths, injuries and displacements,

Expressing its concern that children have continued to be victims of abuses committed by armed elements of the ex‑Seleka and anti‑Balaka as well as other armed groups, including the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA), and that women and girls continue to be violently targeted and victims of sexual and gender‑based violence in the CAR,

Recalling its resolutions on the protection of civilians in armed conflict, including 2286 (2016) and 1894 (2009), its resolutions on Children and Armed Conflict including 2225 (2015) and 2427 (2018) and its resolutions on Women, Peace and Security including 2106 (2013) and 2242 (2015), welcoming the ratification by the CAR Authorities of the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the involvement of children in armed conflict on 21 September 2017, underlining the importance of its full implementation, and calling upon all parties in the CAR to engage with the Special Representative on Children and Armed Conflict and the Special Representative on Sexual Violence in Conflict,

Emphasizing that any sustainable solution to the crisis in the CAR should be CAR‑owned, including the political process, and should prioritize reconciliation of the Central African people, through an inclusive process that involves men and women of all social, economic, political, religious and ethnic backgrounds, including, those displaced by the crisis,

Recalling the holding of, and local participation in, grassroots consultations throughout the country between 21 January and 8 March 2015, which enabled thousands of people in the CAR to express their views on the future of their country, and the holding and the current relevance of the Bangui Forum in May 2015, during which the Republican Pact for Peace, National Reconciliation and Reconstruction as well as agreements on the principles for disarmament, demobilization, reintegration and repatriation (DDR/R), justice and reconciliation, and security sector reform (SSR), and on the commitment by armed groups to end the recruitment and use of children and to release all children from their ranks, were adopted,

Stressing the urgent and imperative need to end impunity in the CAR and to bring to justice perpetrators of violations of international humanitarian law and of abuses and violations of human rights, including in the context of the peace process led by the African Initiative, welcoming in this regard the official launch of investigations by the Special Criminal Court (SCC) and the steps initiated by the Government of the CAR in establishing other transitional justice mechanisms to ensure accountability for past crimes and reparation for victims while promoting national reconciliation, and underlining the need to bolster the other national accountability mechanisms as well as the support for the work of the Independent Expert on human rights in the CAR,

Reiterating the primary responsibility of the national authorities to ensure a conducive environment for the effective and independent investigation, prosecution and adjudication of all cases, also emphasizing the need for the CAR government to ensure institutional preparedness to that end,

Recalling the peaceful organization of a constitutional referendum on 13 December 2015 and legislative and presidential elections in December 2015, February and March 2016, as well as the inauguration of the President Faustin‑Archange Touadéra on 30 March 2016,

Taking note of the upcoming presidential, legislative and local elections in 2020/2021 and underlining the primary responsibility of the Government of the CAR to organize inclusive, free, fair, transparent, credible, peaceful and timely electoral processes, including the full and effective participation of women, and encouraging the CAR authorities, with the support of relevant partners, to promote the participation of IDPs and refugees in accordance with the Constitution of the CAR,

Emphasizing the fact that the current security situation in the CAR provides a conducive environment for transnational criminal activity, such as that involving arms trafficking and the use of mercenaries as well as a potential breeding ground for radical networks,

Reiterating that illicit trade, exploitation and smuggling of natural resources including gold, diamonds, and wildlife poaching and trafficking continues to threaten the peace and stability of the CAR,

Expressing grave concern at the threat to peace and security in the CAR arising from the illicit transfer, destabilizing accumulation and misuse of small arms and light weapons, and the use of such weapons against civilians,

Acknowledging in this respect the important contribution to the peace, stability or security of the CAR, of the Council‑mandated sanctions regime renewed by resolution 2399 (2018), including its provisions related to the arms embargo, and its provisions related to individuals or entities designated by the Committee as engaging in or providing support for acts that undermine the peace, stability or security of the CAR,

Expressing concern about reported travel by individuals designated pursuant to UNSC resolution 2127 (2013) and noting the critical importance of effective implementation of the sanctions regime, including the key role that neighbouring States, as well as regional and subregional organizations, can play in this regard and encouraging efforts to further enhance cooperation,

Reiterating its serious concern at the dire humanitarian situation in the CAR and the consequences of the deterioration of the security situation on humanitarian access, condemning in the strongest terms attacks against humanitarian workers, and emphasizing in particular the current humanitarian needs of more than half of the population of the country and the alarming situation of internally displaced persons (IDPs) and refugees in neighbouring countries, further expressing concern at the consequences of the flow of refugees on the situation in countries of the region, and recalling the need for Member States to scale up funding to urgently respond to the humanitarian needs in the country identified in the 2018 Humanitarian Response Plan,

Recognizing the adverse effects of climate change, ecological changes and natural disasters, among other factors, on the stability of the Central African Region, including through drought, desertification, land degradation, and food insecurity, and stressing the need for adequate risk assessment by the United Nations relating to these factors and for long‑term strategies by governments of the Central African Region and the United Nations to support stabilization and build resilience,

Recalling the responsibility of the CAR Authorities to protect and promote the right to freedom of movement of all people in the CAR, including IDPs, without distinction, their freedom to choose where to reside, and to comply with their right to return to their own country or to leave in order to seek asylum in other States and expressing concern for the plight of civilians trapped in enclaves with limited access to humanitarian assistance,

Underlining the continued need to support national, and to coordinate in a transparent manner international, efforts towards the transformation of the security sector in the CAR and stressing the crucial role of the Internal Security Forces (ISF) (police and gendarmerie) in the restoration of community security, public safety and the rule of law in the CAR,

Welcoming in this regard the work carried out by the European Union Training Mission in the CAR (EUTM‑RCA), as well as the support of other international and regional partners, including France, the Russian Federation and the United States, to provide coherent, transparent, and coordinated support to reform the FACA into multi‑ethnic, professional, and representative armed forces, and to the training and the enhancement of capacities of the national security and defence forces, and encouraging effective coordination between the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in the Central African Republic (MINUSCA), EUTM‑RCA and other international partners in this regard,

Welcoming the continued role of the United Nations, including the Regional Office for Central Africa (UNOCA), neighbouring countries, the African Union (AU), the Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS), the International Conference on the Great Lakes region (ICGLR), as well as the strong engagement of the European Union (EU), and the continued engagement of the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, other international partners and donors, and the Community of Sant’Egidio, in support of the stabilization of the CAR,

Condemning in the strongest terms all attacks, provocations and incitement to violence against MINUSCA contingents and other international forces by armed groups or other perpetrators, paying tribute to the personnel of MINUSCA who sacrificed their lives in the service of peace, underlining that attacks targeting peacekeepers may constitute war crimes, reminding all parties of their obligations under international humanitarian law and urging the CAR Authorities to take all possible measures to ensure the arrest and prosecution of perpetrators,

Welcoming in this regard MINUSCA’s efforts to protect civilians and to combat armed groups with the success of operation “MBARANGA” in Paoua, launched in January 2018, and other ongoing operations in the country,

Welcoming the commitment of the Secretary‑General to enforce strictly his zero‑tolerance policy on sexual exploitation and abuse (SEA), noting the various measures taken by MINUSCA and Troop- and Police‑contributing countries (T/PCCs) to combat SEA, which has led to a reduction in reported cases, but still expressing grave concern over numerous allegations of SEA reportedly committed by peacekeepers in the CAR, as well as by non‑United Nations forces, stressing the urgent need for T/PCCs and, as appropriate, MINUSCA, to promptly investigate those allegations in a credible and transparent manner and for those responsible for such criminal offences or misconduct to be held to account, and further stressing the need to prevent such exploitation and abuse and to improve how these allegations are addressed in line with resolution 2272 (2016),

Noting the presentation of the report on “Improving Security of United Nations Peacekeepers”, which highlights the link between the safety and security of peacekeepers and the performance of troops, recognizing that fatalities can be a consequence of deficiencies in training, equipment and performance,

Recognizing that institutionalizing a culture of performance in UN peacekeeping will contribute to better delivery of peacekeeping mandates, as well as lead to improvements in the safety and security of peacekeepers, and welcoming the work already initiated by the Secretariat in the setting up of a comprehensive and integrated performance policy framework measuring performance based on data collection and analysis,

Welcoming the initiative of the Secretary‑General to conduct Special Investigations into performance issues, and encouraging the Secretary‑General to report on the findings of such investigations and efforts to take collective action to improve peacekeeping operations,

Reiterating its serious concern at the continuing lack of key capabilities for MINUSCA, stressing the need to fill gaps in, in particular in the field of military helicopters, and emphasizing the utmost importance of improving logistics support to ensure the security and safety of MINUSCA’s personnel in that regard,

Stressing the need to implement MINUSCA’s mandate, based on the prioritization of tasks, and, when relevant, in a phased manner,

Taking note of the Report of the Secretary‑General of 15 October 2018 (S/2018/922) which builds on the findings and recommendations of the independent strategic review of MINUSCA conducted in June‑September 2018,

Determining that the situation in the CAR continues to constitute a threat to international peace and security in the region,

Acting under Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations,

Political process

1.   Reiterates its support to President Faustin‑Archange Touadéra in his efforts to promote lasting peace and stability in the CAR and calls on the CAR Authorities to take all the necessary steps, without delay, to advance an inclusive dialogue with armed groups and promote national reconciliation, the extension of State authority, the reform of the security sector, the disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR) process, and the fight against impunity, as the highest priorities;

“2.   Reaffirms its support to the African Initiative for Peace and Reconciliation in the CAR (African Initiative) and its roadmap that was adopted by the ministerial conference held in Libreville on 17 July 2017 by the CAR Authorities, the AU, the ECCAS, the ICGLR with the support of Angola, Chad, Congo and Gabon, reaffirms that the African Initiative and its roadmap constitute the only framework for a comprehensive political solution in the CAR, as agreed by the CAR Authorities and under their leadership, and calls upon all actors to support the African Initiative in its implementation of the peace process;

“3.   Welcomes the progress made by the Panel of Facilitators of the African Initiative, underscores the urgent need for further progress in an ambitious and inclusive dialogue between the CAR authorities and the armed groups, as well as all segments of society, promoting the full and effective participation of women, in order to reach a comprehensive political agreement without delay, and encourages President Faustin‑Archange Touadéra to cement and broaden national ownership of the peace process;

“4.   Welcomes the high‑level ministerial meeting on the CAR that was held on 27 September 2018 in the margins of the 73rd ordinary session of the General Assembly of the United Nations, co‑chaired by the CAR, the United Nations, the AU and the ECCAS, reiterates the need to strengthen coordination of all efforts and initiatives under the leadership of the African Union in support of the African Initiative for peace and reconciliation in the CAR, welcomes in this regard the intent of the United Nations and the AU to appoint a joint Special Envoy to support the peace process by ensuring sustained and coherent regional engagement and support to the peace process, working in close cooperation with all partners of the Central African Republic, as needed and without prejudice of the respective mandates of MINUSCA and UNOCA, further welcomes the call for MINUSCA to play a greater political role in the African Initiative and the decision to include the Special Representative of the Secretary‑General (SRSG) as a full member of the Panel of Facilitators, and further calls on Member States represented in the Panel of Facilitators to reinforce their financial support to the African Initiative and international partners to continue to provide adequate financial support to the political process;

“5.   Emphasizes the importance of the role and high‑level commitment of the AU, the ECCAS, the ICGLR, and neighbouring countries that are part of the Panel of Facilitators of the African Initiative to promote lasting peace and stability in the CAR and calls on them in this regard to step up their coordination and efforts for the next steps in the implementation of the Libreville roadmap;

“6.   Welcomes the first meeting of the International Support Group (ISG) to the CAR, co‑chaired by the AU, the ECCAS and the United Nations, that took place in Bangui on 11 April 2018 to promote coherent and sustained engagement for the stabilization and recovery efforts in the CAR, and in this regard calls for the reactivation of joint bilateral commissions between Cameroon, Chad and Sudan with the CAR to address cross‑border issues, including violence in transhumance corridors and transnational trafficking;

“7.   Urges all militias and armed groups throughout the country to lay down their arms, cease all forms of violence and destabilizing activities, including attacks against peacekeepers and humanitarian workers, incitement to hatred and violence and restrictions on freedom of movement of people, and release children from their ranks, immediately, permanently and unconditionally, and urges all political and institutional actors in the CAR to strongly condemn and counter such acts;

“8.   Further demands that all militias and armed groups engage constructively and in good faith in the peace process;

“9.   Recalls that individuals or entities that undermine peace and stability in the CAR could be listed for targeted measures pursuant to resolution 2399 (2018);

“10.  Urges the CAR Authorities to urgently implement a genuine and inclusive process to support reconciliation in the CAR, including by addressing marginalization of civilians from specific communities, issues of national identity, and local grievances of all the components of society over the whole territory of the CAR, including through national policies on economic development and civil service recruitment, and to promote reconciliation initiatives at the regional, national, prefectural and local levels, including through local elections;

“11.  Recalls the crucial role of civil society in the peace and reconciliation process and the need for the CAR Authorities to adequately promote its engagement in this process to ensure that the comprehensive political agreement addresses the root causes of the conflict and further encourages the full and effective participation of women in this process;

“12.  Also calls upon the CAR Authorities to ensure that national policies and legislative frameworks adequately protect the human rights of IDPs, including freedom of movement, and supports durable solutions for IDPs and refugee populations, including the voluntary, safe, dignified and sustainable return to one’s home or local integration or resettlement;

“13.  Underscores the importance of respect for the Constitution to ensure the long‑term stabilization and development of the CAR;

“14.  Encourages the submission by Member States of listing requests to the Committee established by paragraph 57 of resolution 2127 (2013), including detailed evidentiary support for each request, of individuals and entities engaging in or providing support for acts that undermine the peace, stability or security of the CAR, including acts that threaten or impede the political process, or the stabilization and reconciliation process, or that fuel violence;

“15.  Calling on international partners to assist the CAR Authorities in building the institutional and operational capacities of national police, gendarmerie and customs authorities to effectively monitor the borders and points of entry, including to support the implementation of the measures renewed and modified by paragraph 1 of resolution 2399 (2018) and the disarmament and repatriation of foreign members of armed groups;

“16.  Recalls the successful conduct of pre‑DDR activities and Community Violence Reduction (CVR) programmes, welcomes the completion of the disarmament, demobilization and reintegration pilot project with the integration of former elements of armed groups into the CAR armed forces, and urges the CAR Authorities to address the presence and activity of armed groups in the CAR by implementing a comprehensive strategy that prioritizes dialogue and the urgent implementation of an inclusive, gender‑sensitive and effective DDR as well as repatriation (DDRR) in the case of foreign fighters, including children formerly associated with armed forces and groups, while respecting the need to fight against impunity, to be implemented in coherence with SSR which ensures civilian oversight of defence and national security forces, with the support of the international community;

“17.  Calls on the CAR Authorities to implement the National Security Policy and the National Strategy on SSR, including with the support of the international community, in order to put in place professional, ethnically representative, regionally balanced, taking into account the recruitment of women, and appropriately trained and equipped national defence and internal security forces, including through the adoption and implementation of appropriate vetting procedures of all defence and security personnel, including human rights vetting, as well as measures to absorb elements of armed groups meeting rigorous eligibility and vetting criteria, and requests the Secretary‑General to report to the Council on progress taken in this regard as part of his regular reporting cycle;

“18.  Recalls the finalization, in coordination with MINUSCA and EUTM‑RCA, of the 2017–2019 Guidance Document for the Redeployment of CAR armed forces, based on the National Defence Plan adopted in 2017, which establishes the conditions for the progressive redeployment of the FACA units trained by EUTM‑RCA, in coordination with MINUSCA, EUTM‑RCA and other relevant international partners, in order to contribute to the extension of State authority and security, welcomes the adoption by the CAR Ministries of Defence and the Interior in February 2018 of a joint five‑year concept for the deployment of both defence and internal security forces in order to ensure complementarity between their deployments, and further calls on the CAR Authorities to ensure that redeployments of defence and internal security forces are sustainable, do not pose a risk to the stabilization of the country, civilians or the political process, and demonstrate the Government of the CAR oversight, command and control, and appropriate budgetary support and to develop a comprehensive national security strategy that is aligned with the peace process;

“19.  Calls on the CAR Authorities to take concrete steps, without delay and as a matter of priority, to strengthen justice institutions at national and local levels as part of the extension of State authority and to fight impunity, in order to contribute to stabilization and reconciliation, including, inter alia, by restoring administration of the judiciary, criminal justice and penitentiary systems throughout the country, by demilitarizing the prisons and gradually replace the FACA by recruiting and sustaining civilian prison personnel, by establishing transitional justice mechanisms, based on an victim‑centered approach, to ensure accountability for past crimes and reparation for victims, and by ensuring access to fair and equal justice for all;

“20.  Welcomes in this regard the concrete steps toward the full operationalization of the Special Criminal Court (SCC), including the holding of its inaugural session on 22 October 2018 that officially launched its investigations, and the steps initiated to establish the Truth, Justice, Reparations and Reconciliation Commission, and further encourages the SCC to continue its investigations;

“21.  Also calls on the CAR Authorities to continue their efforts to restore the effective authority of the State over the whole territory of the CAR, including by redeploying State administration in the provinces, and ensuring the timely payment of salaries to civil servants and Security forces, with the objective of ensuring stable, accountable, inclusive and transparent governance;

“22.  Encourages the CAR Authorities, with the support of the international community, in particular with International Financial Institutions leading international efforts, and based on critical peace and State building goals, to continue consolidating public financial management and accountability, especially revenue collection, expenditure controls, public procurement and concession practices building on relevant international experiences and in a manner that allows it to meet the expenses related to the functioning of the State, implement early recovery plans, and revitalize the economy, and fosters national ownership and respects the sovereignty of the CAR;

“23.  Further calls on Member States, international and regional organizations to disburse pledges made at the international conference in Brussels (17 November 2016) as well as the African Solidarity Conference held in Addis Ababa (1 February 2017), in support of the implementation of the country’s peacebuilding priorities as outlined in the CAR’s National Strategy for Recovery and Peace consolidation (RCPCA) to provide support to the CAR Authorities for the reforms, for the restoration of the State authority over the whole territory, including contributions for the payment of salaries and other needs, in addition to support for the SSR and DDRR programmes and for the restoration of the judiciary and the criminal justice system including the SCC and, in that regard, encourages the CAR Authorities to accelerate the effective implementation of the RCPCA and relevant partners to support the efforts of the Government of the CAR through the RCPCA Secretariat to boost development projects and accelerate their delivery and implementation with a special emphasis on infrastructures that require heavy investments and a coordinated strategy to address the needs of the country in that regard;

“24.  Takes note of the development of a framework of mutual accountability between the CAR Authorities and international partners under the leadership of the Government of the CAR, with the aim of enhancing transparency and accountability as well as the coherence and sustained support of the CAR’s international partners in support of agreed national priorities;

“25.  Stresses in this context the valuable role of the Peacebuilding Commission (PBC) in bringing strategic advice, providing observations for the Security Council’s consideration, and fostering a more coherent, coordinated and integrated approach to international peacebuilding efforts, recognizes the active role of the Kingdom of Morocco, and encourages continued coordination with the PBC and other relevant international organizations and institutions in support of CAR’s long term peace building needs;

Human rights, including child protection and sexual violence in conflict

26.  Reiterates the urgent and imperative need to hold accountable all those responsible for violations of international humanitarian law and violations and abuses of human rights, irrespective of their status or political affiliation, reiterates that some of those acts may amount to crimes under the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (ICC), to which the CAR is a State party, and recalls that committing acts of incitement to violence, in particular on an ethnic or religious basis, and then engaging in or providing support for acts that undermine the peace, stability or security of the CAR could be a basis for sanctions designations pursuant to resolution 2399 (2018);

“27.  Recalls the decision made by the Prosecutor of the ICC on 24 September 2014 to open, following the request of the national Authorities, an investigation into alleged crimes committed since 2012 and the ongoing cooperation of the CAR Authorities in this regard;

“28.  Takes note in this regard of the report of the Mapping Project describing serious violations and abuses of international human rights and violations of international humanitarian law committed within the territory of CAR between January 2003 and December 2015 and further calls on the CAR Authorities to follow up on the recommendations;

“29.  Urges all parties to armed conflict in the CAR, including ex‑Seleka and anti‑Balaka elements, to end all violations and abuses committed against children, in violation of applicable international law, including those involving their recruitment and use, rape and sexual violence, killing and maiming, abductions and attacks on schools and hospitals and further calls upon the CAR Authorities to swiftly investigate alleged violations and abuses in order to hold those responsible accountable and to ensure that those responsible for such violations and abuses are excluded from the security sector;

“30.  Reiterates its demands that all parties protect and consider as victims those children who have been released or otherwise separated from armed forces and armed groups, and emphasizes the need to pay particular attention to the protection, release and reintegration of all children associated with armed forces and armed groups;

“31.  Calls upon all parties to armed conflict in the CAR, including ex‑Seleka and anti‑Balaka elements, to end sexual and gender‑based violence, and further calls upon the CAR Authorities to swiftly investigate alleged abuses in order to hold those responsible accountable, and to develop a structured and comprehensive framework to address sexual violence in conflict, in line with resolutions 1960 (2010) and 2106 (2013), to ensure that those responsible for such crimes are excluded from the security sector and prosecuted, and to facilitate immediate access for victims of sexual violence to available services;

“32.  Welcomes the work achieved so far by the Mixed Unit for Rapid Intervention and Suppression of Sexual Violence against Women and Children (UMIRR) to register and transfer cases of sexual violence to judicial authorities, calls on the CAR authorities and international partners to sustain adequate support to the UMIRR, and further calls for the swift prosecution of alleged perpetrators;

Peacekeeping Operation

33.  Renews its strong support to SRSG Parfait Onanga‑Anyanga;

“34.  Decides to extend the mandate of MINUSCA until 15 November 2019;

“35.  Decides that MINUSCA shall continue to comprise up to 11,650 military personnel, including 480 Military Observers and Military Staff Officers, and 2,080 police personnel, including 400 Individual Police Officers and 1,680 formed police unit personnel, as well as 108 corrections officers, recalls that the increase of 900 military personnel authorised by paragraph 32 of resolution 2387 (2017) aimed at increasing MINUSCA’s flexibility and mobility to improve the efficient implementation of its full mandate and, in particular, the protection of civilians task provided at paragraph 39 (a), and further recalls its intention to keep this number under continuous review;

“36.  Decides that MINUSCA’s strategic objective is to support the creation of the political, security and institutional conditions conducive to the sustainable reduction of the presence of, and threat posed by, armed groups through a comprehensive approach and proactive and robust posture without prejudice to the basic principles of peacekeeping;

“37.  Recalls that MINUSCA’s mandate should be implemented based on a prioritization of tasks established in paragraphs 39 to 41 of this resolution, and, when relevant, in a phased manner, and further requests the Secretary‑General to reflect this prioritization in the deployment of the mission and to align budgetary resources according to the prioritization of mandate tasks as set out in this resolution, while ensuring appropriate resources for the implementation of the mandate;

“38.  Authorises MINUSCA to take all necessary means to carry out its mandate within its capabilities and areas of deployment;

“39.  Decides that the mandate of MINUSCA shall include the following priority tasks:

(a)   Protection of civilians

(i)   To protect, in line with S/PRST/2018/18 of 21 September 2018, without prejudice to the primary responsibility of the CAR Authorities and the basic principles of peacekeeping, the civilian population under threat of physical violence;

(ii)  In support of the CAR Authorities, to take active steps to anticipate, deter and effectively respond to serious and credible threats to the civilian population through a comprehensive approach and, in this regard:

–     to enhance its interaction with civilians, to strengthen its early warning mechanism, to increase its efforts to monitor and document violations of international humanitarian law and violations and abuses of human rights and to continue and strengthen local community engagement and empowerment;

–     to maintain a proactive deployment and a mobile, flexible and robust posture, as well as by conducting active patrolling, in particular in high risks areas;

–     to mitigate the risk to civilians before, during and after any military or police operation, including when in support of national security forces;

-     to work with the CAR Authorities to identify and report threats to and attacks against civilians and implement existing prevention and response plans and strengthen civil‑military cooperation, including joint planning;

(iii) To provide specific protection for women and children affected by armed conflict, including through the deployment of Child Protection Advisers, Women Protection Advisers and Gender Advisers;

(iv)  To fully implement its new protection of civilians strategy adopted in April 2018 and to build on its work to develop a comprehensive protection of civilians strategy involving national authorities, the United Nations Country Team (UNCT), humanitarian and human rights organizations, and other relevant partners in coherence with its political strategy;

(b)   Good offices and support to the peace process, including national reconciliation, social cohesion and transitional justice

(i)   To reinforce its role in the peace process through its participation in the African Initiative and the participation of the SRSG to the Panel of Facilitators, including substantive and mediation support to the African Initiative within its ongoing technical, logistical and security support, and a stronger convening and coordinating role of international support to the African Initiative, including by promoting the ISG to the CAR as the international framework in support to the African Initiative;

(ii)  To collaborate with the African Initiative to ensure that the Mission’s political and security strategies promote a more coherent peace process that connects local and national peace efforts with the ongoing efforts to advance DDR, SSR, the fight against impunity, and the restoration of State authority while ensuring that the efforts of the African Initiative are informed by the political, security, human rights, humanitarian and protection developments;

(iii) To assist the CAR Authorities’ efforts, at national and local levels, for an increased participation of political parties, civil society, women, youth, and where and when possible, IDPs and refugees to the peace process, in cooperation with the African Initiative;

(iv)  To provide good offices and technical expertise in support of efforts to address the root causes of conflict, in particular to advance national reconciliation and local conflict resolution, and the preparation and conduct of an inclusive and transparent electoral process as a full part of the political process, working with relevant regional and local bodies and religious leaders, while ensuring the full and effective participation of women in line with the CAR action plan on Women, Peace and Security, and drawing upon integrated information and analysis from the United Nations system in‑country;

(v)   To support efforts of the CAR Authorities to address transitional justice as part of the peace and reconciliation process, and marginalization and local grievances, including through dialogue with the armed groups, civil society leaders including women and youth representatives, and by assisting national, prefectoral and local authorities to foster confidence among communities;

(vi)  To provide technical expertise to the Government of the CAR in its engagement with neighbouring countries, the ECCAS, and the AU, in consultation and coordination with UNOCA, in particular through the assessment of opportunities to resolve issues of common and bilateral interest, in order to improve the anticipation and prevention of possible risks to regional stability;

(vii) To make more proactive use of strategic communications, including through the use of relevant communication tools, in particular radio, to support its protection of civilians’ strategy, in coordination with the CAR Authorities, to help the local population better understand the mandate of the mission, its activities, and to build trust with the CAR citizens, parties to the conflict, regional and other international actors and partners on the ground;

(c)   Facilitate the creation of a secure environment for the immediate, full, safe and unhindered delivery of humanitarian assistance

To improve coordination with humanitarian actors and to facilitate the creation of a secure environment for the immediate, full, safe and unhindered, civilian‑led delivery of humanitarian assistance, in accordance with United Nations guiding humanitarian principles and relevant provisions of international law, and for the voluntary safe, dignified and sustainable return or local integration or resettlement of internally displaced persons or refugees in close coordination with humanitarian actors;

(d)   Protection of the United Nations

To protect the United Nations personnel, installations, equipment and goods and ensure the security and freedom of movement of United Nations and associated personnel;

“40.  Further authorises MINUSCA to pursue the following tasks of its mandate, bearing in mind that these tasks as well as those in paragraph 39 above are mutually reinforcing:

(a)   Support for the extension of State authority, the deployment of security forces, and the preservation of territorial integrity

(i)   To continue to support the Government of the CAR in implementing its strategy for the extension of State authority including by providing advice to the Government of the CAR on the establishment of interim security and administrative arrangements acceptable to the population and under Government of the CAR oversight, and through sequenced efforts based on identified priorities and targeted geographic areas, to articulate a division of labour with the UNCT and relevant partners in which MINUSCA would focus on immediate, short and medium‑term priorities and hand over activities in long‑term areas to relevant partners and to report to the Security council on benchmarks for tasks to be handed over to the UNCT and partners;

(ii)  To support a gradual handover of security of key officials, and static guard duties of national institutions, to the CAR security forces, in coordination with the CAR Authorities, and based on the risks on the ground;

(iii) To promote and support the rapid extension of State authority over the entire territory of the CAR, including by supporting the deployment of vetted and trained national police and gendarmerie in priority areas, including through co‑location, advising, mentoring and monitoring, in coordination with other partners, as part of the deployment of the territorial administration and other rule of law authorities, for increasing State presence in these priority areas outside of Bangui;

(iv)  To provide enhanced planning and technical assistance to FACA units trained or certified by EUTM‑RCA, and a limited number of vetted or trained ISF, engaged in joint operations with MINUSCA that include joint planning and tactical cooperation, in accordance with MINUSCA’s mandate and the United Nations Human Rights Due Diligence Policy (HRDDP), without exacerbating the risks to the stabilization of the country, civilians, the political process, to UN peacekeepers, or the impartiality of the Mission, to perform this task by reallocating approved resources, and to keep this planning and technical assistance under regular review in particular in the light of the benchmarks outlined in the Secretary‑General’s letter to the President of the Security Council of 15 May 2018 (S/2018/463);

(v)   To provide limited logistical support for the progressive redeployment of a limited number of FACA units trained or certified by EUTM‑RCA, and a limited number of vetted or trained ISF, engaged in joint operations with MINUSCA that include joint planning and tactical cooperation, in order to support the implementation of MINUSCA’s current mandated tasks, including to protect civilians, and to support national authorities in the restoration and maintenance of public safety and the rule of law, in accordance with MINUSCA’s mandate and the United Nations Human Rights Due Diligence Policy (HRDDP), without exacerbating the risks to the stabilization of the country, civilians, the political process, to UN peacekeepers, or the impartiality of the Mission, to perform this task by reallocating approved resources, and to review this limited logistical support in one year to ensure its compliance with the benchmarks outlined in the Secretary‑General’s letter to the President of the Security Council of 15 May 2018 (S/2018/463);

(b)   Security Sector Reform (SSR)

(i)   To provide strategic and technical advice to the CAR Authorities to implement the National Strategy on SSR, in close coordination with EUTM-RCA and other international partners, including France, the Russian Federation and the United States, and with the aim of ensuring coherence of the SSR process, including through a clear delineation of responsibilities of the FACA, the ISF and other uniformed entities, as well as the democratic control of both defence and internal security forces;

(ii)  To continue to support the CAR Authorities in developing an approach to the vetting of defence and security elements (FACA, police and gendarmerie) which includes human rights vetting, in particular to promote accountability of violations of international and domestic law amongst security forces and in the context of any integration of demobilized armed groups elements into security sector institutions;

(iii) To take a leading role in supporting the CAR Authorities in implementing the National Capacity‑Building and Development Plan for ISF, particularly command and control structures and oversight mechanisms, and coordinate international assistance in this regard;

(iv)  To support the Government of the CAR in developing an incentive structure for training of police and gendarmerie and for the selection, recruitment, vetting and training of police and gendarmerie elements, with the support of donors and the United Nations Country Team (UNCT), taking into account the need to recruit women at all levels, and in full compliance with the United Nations HRDDP;

(v)   To coordinate the provision of technical assistance and training between the international partners in the CAR, in particular with EUTM‑RCA, in order to ensure a clear distribution of tasks in the field of SSR, for the benefit of both the FACA and the CAR ISF;

(c)   Disarmament, Demobilization, Reintegration (DDR) and Repatriation (DDRR)

(i)   To support the CAR Authorities in developing and implementing an inclusive and progressive programme for the disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR) and, in case of foreign elements, Repatriation (DDRR), of members of armed groups, based on the Principles of DDRR and Integration into the Uniformed Corps, signed at the Bangui Forum on 10 May 2015, while paying specific attention to the needs of children associated with armed forces and groups and the need to prevent rerecruitment, including through the implementation of the DDRR pilot project and the implementation of other DDRR projects, including gender‑sensitive programmes, with the aim to disarm, demobilize and reintegrate as well as, in coordination with EUTM‑RCA, the UNCT and other relevant partners, to integrate eligible and vetted armed groups elements in security forces, as an incentive to armed groups to remain engaged in the political process and in preparation for the national DDR programme;

(ii)  To support the CAR Authorities and relevant civil society organizations in developing and implementing CVR programmes, including gender‑sensitive programmes, for members of armed groups including those non‑eligible for participation in the national DDRR programme, in cooperation with development partners and together with communities of return in line with the priorities highlighted in the RCPCA;

(iii) To provide technical assistance to the CAR Authorities in developing and implementing a national plan for the integration of eligible demobilized members of armed groups into the security and defence forces, in line with the broader SSR agenda and the need to put in place professional, ethnically representative and regionally balanced national security and defence;

(d)   Promotion and protection of human rights

(i)   To monitor, help investigate, and timely report to the Security Council and publicly on violations of international humanitarian law and on violations and abuses of human rights committed throughout the CAR;

(ii)  To monitor, help investigate and ensure reporting on violations and abuses committed against children and women, including rape and other forms of sexual violence in armed conflict, in connection with the UMIRR;

(iii) To assist the CAR Authorities in their efforts to protect and promote human rights and prevent violations and abuses and to strengthen the capacity of civil society organizations;

(e)   Support for national and international justice, the fight against impunity, and the rule of law

(i)   To help reinforce the independence of the judiciary, build the capacities, and enhance the effectiveness of the national judicial system as well as the effectiveness and the accountability of the penitentiary system;

(ii)  To help build the capacities of the national human rights institution coordinating with the Independent Expert on human rights as appropriate;

Urgent temporary measures:

(iii) To urgently and actively adopt, within the limits of its capacities and areas of deployment, at the formal request of the CAR Authorities and in areas where national security forces are not present or operational, urgent temporary measures on an exceptional basis and without creating a precedent and without prejudice to the agreed principles of peacekeeping operations, which are limited in scope, time‑bound and consistent with the objectives set out in paragraphs 39 and 40 (e), to arrest and detain in order to maintain basic law and order and fight impunity;

(iv)  To pay particular attention, in implementing the urgent temporary measures in the conditions stated above, to those engaging in or providing support for acts that undermine the peace, stability or security of the CAR, including acts that threaten or impede the political process, or the stabilization and reconciliation process, or that fuel violence;

Special Criminal Court (SCC):

(v)   To provide technical assistance to the CAR Authorities to identify, investigate and prosecute those responsible for crimes involving violations of international humanitarian law and of violations and abuses of human rights committed throughout the CAR so that they can be brought to justice, and to help prevent such violations and abuses;

(vi)  To provide support and to coordinate international assistance to the justice and correctional institutions to reinstate the criminal justice system, within the framework of the United Nations global focal point on rule of law, in a manner that emphasizes civilian oversight, impartiality and the protection of human rights;

(vii) To provide technical assistance to the CAR Authorities in partnership with other international partners, to support the operationalization of the SCC consistent with CAR laws and jurisdiction and in line with the CAR’s international humanitarian law and international human rights law obligations, with the aim of supporting the extension of State authority;

(viii)      To provide technical assistance, in partnership with other international partners, and capacity building for the CAR Authorities, in order to facilitate the functioning of the SCC, in particular in the areas of investigations, arrests, detention, criminal and forensic analysis, evidence collection and storage, recruitment and selection of personnel, court management, prosecution strategy and case development and the establishment of a legal aid system, as appropriate, as well as, to provide security for magistrates, including at the premises and proceedings of the SCC, and take measures for the protection of victims and witnesses, in line with the CAR’s international human rights obligations, including with respect to fair trials, and due process;

(ix)  To assist in the coordination and mobilization of bilateral and multilateral support to the operationalization and functioning of the SCC;

Rule of law:

(x)   To provide support and to coordinate international assistance to build the capacities, and enhance the effectiveness of the criminal justice system as well as the effectiveness and the accountability of police and penitentiary system with the support of the UNCT;

(xi)  Without prejudice to the primary responsibility of the CAR Authorities, to support the restoration and maintenance of public safety and the rule of law, including through apprehending and handing over to the CAR Authorities, consistent with international law, those in the country responsible for crimes involving serious human rights violations and abuses and serious violations of international humanitarian law, including sexual violence in conflict, so that they can be brought to justice, and through cooperation with States of the region as well as the ICC in cases of crimes falling within its jurisdiction following the decision made by the Prosecutor of the ICC on 24 September 2014 to open, following the request of national Authorities, an investigation into alleged crimes committed since 2012;

“41.  Further authorises MINUSCA to carry out the following additional tasks:

(a)   To coordinate international assistance as appropriate;

(b)   To assist the Committee established pursuant to paragraph 57 of resolution 2127 (2013) and the Panel of Experts established by the same resolution, including by passing information relevant to the implementation of the mandate of the Committee and Panel of Experts;

(c)   To monitor the implementation of the measures renewed and modified by paragraph 1 of resolution 2399 (2018), in cooperation with the Panel of Experts established pursuant to resolution 2127 (2013), including by inspecting, as it deems necessary and when appropriate without notice, all arms and related materiel regardless of location, and advise the Authorities on efforts to keep armed groups from exploiting natural resources;

(d)   To support the Panel of Experts established pursuant to resolution 2127 (2013) in collecting information about acts of incitement to violence, in particular on an ethnic or religious basis, that undermine the peace, stability or security of the CAR in accordance with paragraph 32 (g) of resolution 2399 (2018);

(e)   To ensure, with all relevant United Nations bodies, unhindered access and safety for the Panel of Experts established pursuant to resolution 2127 (2013), in particular to persons, documents and sites within their control in order for the Panel to execute its mandate;

(f)   As appropriate, and taking into account the comparative advantage of other relevant partners, to contribute to support the CAR Authorities to develop and finalize a nationally owned strategy to tackle the illicit exploitation and trafficking networks of natural resources, which continue to fund and supply armed groups in the CAR, taking into account, where appropriate, the reports of the Panel of Experts established pursuant to resolution 2127 (2013) and the decisions of the Kimberley Process (KP), with the aim of extending the State authority over the entire territory and its resources;

(g)   To provide transport for relevant State authorities in carrying out inspections and monitoring visits in key mining areas and sites as appropriate and on a case by case basis and when the situation allows, as a means to promote and support the rapid extension of the State authority over the entire territory;

Mission effectiveness

42.  Requests the Secretary‑General to deploy and allocate personnel and expertise within MINUSCA to reflect the priorities identified by paragraph 39 to paragraph 41 of this resolution, and to continuously adjust this deployment according to the progresses made in the implementation of this mandate;

“43.  Encourages MINUSCA to develop measurable targets by which to assess progress against the pursuit of the strategic objective defined in paragraph 36 of this resolution;

“44.  Reiterates the importance of current and future T/PCCs providing troops and police with adequate capabilities, equipment and predeployment training in order to enhance the capacity of MINUSCA to operate effectively and requests the Secretary‑General to accelerate the recruitment of qualified staff, who have the competencies, education, work experience and language skills to adequately and effectively implement the tasks enumerated in paragraphs 39 to 41 above;

“45.  Requests the Secretary‑General to take all possible steps, including through the full use of existing authorities and at his discretion, to maximize MINUSCA’s operational capacity and ability to discharge its mandate, with a specific focus on priority areas, over the entire territory of the CAR, including by using new rapidly deployable units, implementing a comprehensive performance management mechanism for contingents leadership, adjusting the number of bases and camps, and enhancing MINUSCA’s personnel, mobility assets and capabilities for gathering timely, reliable and actionable information on threats to civilians and the analytical tools to use it, while continuing to strengthen the performance of the Mission and recalls in this regard its resolution 2436 (2018);

“46.  Commends the commitment of the T/PCCs in implementing the mission’s mandate in a challenging environment, and in this connection, highlights that undeclared national caveats, lack of effective command and control, refusal to obey orders, failure to respond to attacks on civilians, and inadequate equipment may adversely affect the shared responsibility for effective mandate implementation and should not be accepted by the Secretary‑General;

“47.  Notes the progress of all T/PCCs to meet UN standards and calls on them to immediately finalize the procurement and deployment of all required contingent‑owned equipment, in order to comply with United Nations standards for troops and police;

“48.  Takes note of the independent investigation by Brigadier General Amoussou to improve MINUSCA’s response to protect civilians and encourages MINUSCA to continue implementing its recommendations;

“49.  Requests the Secretary‑General to implement a zero‑tolerance policy on serious misconduct, sexual exploitation and abuse, sexual harassment, fraud, corruption, trafficking in natural resources or wildlife, including by making full use of the existing authority of the SRSG to ensure accountability of the Mission’s staff and through effective mission support arrangement;

“50.  Recalls its Presidential Statement S/PRST/2015/22 and its resolution 2272 (2016) and requests the Secretary‑General to take all necessary measures to ensure full compliance of MINUSCA with the United Nations zero tolerance policy on sexual exploitation and abuse and to ensure that all personnel of the mission are vetted for history of sexual misconduct in the service with the United Nations and to keep the Council informed through his reports to the Council about the Mission’s progress in this regard, including by reporting on the start, agreed deadlines and outcomes of 2272 reviews, and urges TCC/PCCs to take appropriate preventative action including predeployment awareness training, and to ensure full accountability in cases of such conduct involving their personnel;

“51.  Calls on the Secretariat to continue to explore, on the basis of need, the use of specialized police teams together with required specialized equipment, for police and gendarmerie capacity building and development and operational support;

“52.  Requests MINUSCA to ensure that any support provided to non‑United Nations security forces is provided in strict compliance with the HRDDP, and requests the Secretary‑General to include information on any such support in his reports to the Council;

“53.  Emphasizes the need for MINUSCA and EUTM‑RCA, while carrying out their mandate, to act in full respect of the sovereignty, territorial integrity and unity of the CAR and in full compliance with applicable international humanitarian law, human rights law and refugee law and recalls the importance of training in this regard;

Environmental issues and natural resources

54.  Requests MINUSCA to consider the environmental impacts of its operations when fulfilling its mandated tasks and, in this context, to manage them as appropriate and in accordance with applicable and relevant General Assembly resolutions and United Nations rules and regulations;

“55.  Calls on the CAR, its neighbouring States and other member States of the ICGLR to cooperate at the regional level to investigate and combat regional criminal networks and armed groups involved in the illegal exploitation and smuggling of natural resources including gold, diamonds and wildlife poaching and trafficking;

Child protection

56.  Requests MINUSCA to take fully into account child protection as a cross‑cutting issue throughout its mandate and to assist the CAR Authorities in ensuring that the protection of children’s rights is taken into account, inter alia, in DDR and DDR/R processes and in SSR in order to end and prevent violations and abuses against children;

Gender

57.  Requests MINUSCA to take fully into account gender mainstreaming as a cross‑cutting issue throughout its mandate and to assist the CAR Authorities in ensuring the full and effective participation, involvement and representation of women in all spheres and at all levels, including in stabilization activities, transitional justice, the work of the SCC and of the Truth, Justice, Reparations and Reconciliation Commission, SSR, DDR and DDR/R processes, the preparation of the 2020/2021 elections, as well as in the national political dialogue process, through, inter alia, the provision of gender advisers, further requests enhanced reporting by MINUSCA to the Council on this issue, and encourages the UN Secretariat, in collaboration with Member States, to engage greater numbers of women in the military, police and civilian components of the mission with full respect for the principle of equitable geographical distribution, in conformity with article 101, paragraph 3, of the United Nations Charter;

Weapon and ammunition management

58.  Requests MINUSCA to actively seize, confiscate and destroy, as appropriate, weapons and ammunitions of armed groups, including all militias and other non‑state armed groups, who refuse or fail to lay down their arms, and when they present an imminent threat to civilians or the stability of the state;

“59.  Requests MINUSCA to seize and collect arms and any related materiel the transfer of which to the CAR violates the measures imposed by paragraph 1 of resolution 2399 (2018) and to record and dispose of such arms and related materiel as appropriate;

“60.  Requests MINUSCA to provide technical assistance to the CAR Authorities in the operationalization of the national commission for Small Arms and Light Weapons to address civilian disarmament and the fight against the illicit proliferation of small arms and light weapons;

“61.  Requests MINUSCA to destroy, as appropriate, the weapons and ammunitions of disarmed combatants in keeping with its effort to seize and collect arms and related materiel the supply, sale or transfer of which violate the measures imposed by paragraph 1 of resolution 2399 (2018);

“62.  Calls upon the CAR Authorities and international partners and relevant United Nations entities, in coordination with MINUSCA, including UNMAS, to address the illicit transfer, destabilizing accumulation, and misuse of small arms and light weapons in the CAR, and to ensure the safe and effective management, storage and security of stockpiles of small arms and light weapons, and the collection and/or destruction of surplus, seized, unmarked, or illicitly held weapons and ammunition, and further stresses the importance of incorporating such elements into SSR and DDR/R programmes;

“63.  Encourages the CAR Authorities to implement the Central African Convention for the Control of Small Arms and Light Weapons, their Ammunition, Parts and Components that can be used for their Manufacture, Repair or Assembly signed at Kinshasa on April 30 2010;

MINUSCA Freedom of movement

64.  Urges all parties in the CAR to cooperate fully with the deployment and activities of MINUSCA, in particular by ensuring its safety, security and freedom of movement with unhindered and immediate access throughout the territory of the CAR to enable MINUSCA to carry out fully its mandate in a complex environment including by helping to ensure the full and effective implementation of, and compliance with, the host country agreement (SOFA) by the CAR Authorities;

“65.  Calls upon Member States, especially those in the region, to ensure the free, unhindered and expeditious movement to and from the CAR of all personnel, as well as equipment, provisions, supplies and other goods, including vehicles and spare parts, which are for the exclusive and official use of MINUSCA;

Humanitarian access

66.  Demands that all parties allow and facilitate the full, safe, immediate and unhindered access for the timely delivery of humanitarian assistance to populations in need, in particular to internally displaced persons, throughout the territory of the CAR, in accordance with the United Nations guiding principles of humanitarian assistance and relevant provisions of international law;

“67.  Further demands that all parties ensure respect and protection of all medical personnel and humanitarian personnel exclusively engaged in medical duties, their means of transport and equipment, as well as hospitals and other medical facilities;

Humanitarian appeal

68.  Calls on Member States and international and regional organizations to respond swiftly to the revised humanitarian appeal through increased contributions and to ensure that all pledges are honoured in full and in a timely manner;

Support to MINUSCA

69.  Authorises French armed forces, within the provisions of their existing bilateral agreement with the CAR and the limits of their capacities and areas of deployment, at the request of the Secretary‑General, to use all the means to provide operational support to elements of MINUSCA when under serious threat, from the date of adoption of this resolution, and requests France to ensure reporting to the Council on the implementation of this mandate and to coordinate its reporting with that of the Secretary‑General referred to in paragraph 71 of this resolution;

Review and Reporting

70.  Requests the Secretary‑General to review on a regular basis the conditions required for the transition, drawdown and withdrawal of the United Nations operation, in a manner which does not prejudice overall efforts to support long term objectives for peace and stability, and looks forward to receiving this information as part of his regular reporting to the Security Council;

“71.  Requests the Secretary‑General to keep the Council regularly informed of the situation in the CAR and the implementation of the mandate of MINUSCA, to report to the Council, on 15 February 2019, and then every four months from that date, and to include in his reports to the Council updates on and recommendations related to the dynamic implementation of MINUSCA’s mandated tasks, including by providing appropriate financial information, information on the security situation, the priority political elements as defined above on political progress, progress on mechanisms and capacity to advance governance and fiscal management, relevant information on the progress, promotion and protection of human rights and international humanitarian law, a review of the troop and police levels, force and police generation and deployment of all MINUSCA’s constituent elements, information on the progress in the implementation of the measures taken to improve MINUSCA’s performance, including measures to ensure force effectiveness as outlined in paragraphs 42 and 44 to 51;

“72.  Decides to remain actively seized of the matter.”

For information media. Not an official record.