The inaugural United Nations Ocean Conference opened today with a call for urgent action to improve the health of the world’s seas, now in peril after decades of pollution, overfishing and the unattended effects of climate change that were decimating marine life, and in turn, livelihoods.
The Conference, which runs through 9 June, will explore how to achieve Sustainable Development Goal 14: conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development.
Opening the event, Secretary-General António Guterres told world leaders that unless they could overcome the territorial and resource interests that had blocked progress, the state of the oceans would continue to deteriorate. “We need a new strategic vision,” he said, a new model of ocean governance. The first step was to end the artificial dichotomy between economic demands and the health of our seas.
Concrete steps were needed, he said, from expanding marine protected areas and managing fisheries, to reducing pollution and cleaning up plastic waste, the latter of which, if left unchecked, would outweigh fish in the sea by 2050. The political will which had led to the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, the Paris Agreement on climate change and the Addis Ababa Action Agenda must now be translated into funding commitments. Better data must be gathered and best practices shared.
“Improving the health of our oceans is a test for multilateralism,” he said. “We created these problems. With decisive, coordinated global action, we can solve them.”
Peter Thomson (Fiji), President of the General Assembly, said the time had come to correct wrongful ways. It was inexcusable that humanity tipped the equivalent of a garbage truck of plastic into the ocean every minute of every day. Illegal fishing and harmful fisheries subsidies were driving fish stocks to collapse, he said, while greenhouse gases were causing sea levels to rise.
The task was to ensure that Goal 14 received the support necessary to meet its targets, he said. “We are here on behalf of humanity to restore sustainability, balance and respect to our relationship with our primal mother, the source of life, the ocean.”
Co-President of the Conference Isabella Lövin, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister for International Development Cooperation and Climate of Sweden, said the ocean was 30 per cent more acidic than in pre-industrial times. Big predatory fish stocks had declined by 70 to 90 per cent, and in some areas, there were more microplastics than plankton. Without a healthy planet, people would not prosper. She called on Member States, business, civil society, academia and other stakeholders to start making a real difference.
Josaia Voreqe Bainimarama, Prime Minister of Fiji and Conference Co-President, said oceans were being treated as rubbish dumps. The rich marine bounty that generations had relied on for sustenance was being destroyed. He urged participants to act in concert to protect marine resources, stressing that no one country or Government could afford to ignore the magnitude of the threat. Goal 14 must rocket to the top of the global agenda.
Stressing that oceans had a direct impact on poverty education, health, economic growth, food security and job creation, Frederick Musiiwa Makamure Shava (Zimbabwe), President of the Economic and Social Council, added that solutions must be put into place to ensure that oceans remained a source of life and human well-being for generations.
Wu Hongbo, Secretary-General of the Ocean Conference and Under-Secretary-General for Economic and Social Affairs, said special attention should be paid to the means of implementation for Goal 14, including capacity-building and enhanced financing, which was critical for small island developing States, least developed countries and developing nations alike.
The afternoon featured a partnership dialogue on marine pollution, during which world leaders, along with senior officials from Government, the private sector, scientific community and civil society, explored challenges relating to particular pollutants, such as microplastics, and broader trends, such as the rapid growth of coastal cities, which would require more scientific research, knowledge sharing and governance arrangements.
The Conference — officially titled the United Nations Conference to Support the Implementation of Sustainable Development Goal 14: Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development — opened with a traditional Fijian welcome ceremony, featuring three calls of a ceremonial conch shell, a Kava drinking ceremony and cultural dance.
In other business, delegates elected Mr. Bainimarama and Ms. Lövin as the Presidents of the Conference.
The Conference also adopted, without a vote, its rules of procedure (document A/CONF.230/2) and agenda (document A/CONF.230/1), as well as a Secretariat note on organizational and procedural matters (document A/CONF.230/3). Twelve Vice-Presidents were elected by acclamation: Algeria, Croatia, Estonia, Guatemala, Indonesia, Ireland, Kenya, Morocco, New Zealand, Poland, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela. Arthur Amaya Andambi (Kenya) was elected Rapporteur-General.
The nine members of the General Assembly Credentials Committee — Cameroon, China, Malawi, Netherlands, Paraguay, Republic of Korea, Russian Federation, Saint Lucia and the United States — were meanwhile appointed members of the Conference Credentials Committee without a vote.
The Ocean Conference will reconvene at 10 a.m. on Tuesday, 6 June.
ISABELLA LÖVIN, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister for International Development Cooperation and Climate of Sweden, and Co-President of the Conference, described the global ocean conveyer belt as a sort of ocean bloodstream that connected everybody. The ocean accounted for 97 per cent of the living biosphere, contained 1.3 billion cubic kilometres of water and provided 50 per cent of the planet’s oxygen. Mankind always believed it was endless, infinite and impossible for humans to affect in any significant way, she said, but today it was 30 per cent more acidic than in pre-industrial times, big predatory fish stocks had declined by 70 to 90 per cent and surface waters were getting warmer. In some areas, there were more microplastics than plankton.
She recalled an interview a few years ago with an Australian yachtsman who, while crossing the Pacific Ocean, saw rubbish floating everywhere, including toys, car tires and telegraph poles. More recently, researchers on uninhabited Henderson Island, a United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) World Heritage Site, found 38 million plastic items on its shore. “By now we know one thing for certain — the ocean is not endless, not infinite,” she said. “But it has no borders. It knows nothing about nations. It is just one united ecosystem and we are part of it.”
Environmental protection and economic development were inseparable, she said, adding that without a healthy planet, people would not prosper. Sweden was committed to maintaining the political momentum created by the Paris Agreement on climate change and the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, and called on all Member States, business, civil society, academia and other stakeholders, to start working towards making a real difference. “We know what needs to be done. We know the ocean is broken. We now need to sit together and make the long to-do list we all need to be ticking off together in order to fix it,” she said, adding that a better moment to do so would never come.
JOSAIA VOREQE BAINIMARAMA, Prime Minister of Fiji and Co-President of the Ocean Conference, said climate change and the state of the world’s oceans could not be separated. Rising sea levels and ocean acidity had a direct impact on people’s lives and countries’ prosperity. “We come from opposite sides of the Earth but we are united in our determination to meet the challenges head-on,” he said, appealing to young people in particular to become agents for change, whether by collecting bottles from a beach or banding together to clean up coastal areas. “Our waterways are choking,” he said, and oceans were being treated as rubbish dumps. Turtles, dolphins and sharks were being caught in nets, and whales had stomachs full of rubbish. The rich marine bounty that generations had relied on for sustenance was being destroyed.
He said the degradation must stop, appealing to the world’s people to act in concert to protect marine resources. “That effort starts now,” he said, pressing to participants to send a message that time was running out to save our seas and oceans. No one country or Government could afford to ignore the magnitude of the threat. As a Fijian, he had the Pacific Ocean “running through my blood,” and it said it pained him to see the deterioration of that precious resource. Where there once had been an abundance of fish, boat hulls were now increasingly sparse or non-existent. Greedy nations and commercial interests were robbing countries like Fiji of food and livelihoods through over-fishing. Noting that small island developing States lacked the means to police their economic zones, he said Goal 14 must rocket to the top of the global agenda and he encouraged all participants to make the Ocean Conference a success.
ANTÓNIO GUTERRES, Secretary-General of the United Nations, said oceans and seas covered two thirds of the planet, providing food, energy, water, jobs and economic benefits to every country. They were a crucial buffer against climate change and a massive resource for sustainable development. Many nationalities, including his own, had a special relationship with the sea. The truth was, the sea has a special relationship with all of us. Yet pollution, over-fishing and the effects of climate change were severely damaging ocean health, he said, with one study finding that plastic in the seas could outweigh fish by 2050.
Indeed, oceans were becoming more acidic, he said, causing coral bleaching and reducing biodiversity, while fisheries in some places were collapsing. Dead zones — underwater deserts where life could not survive due to a lack of oxygen — were growing rapidly. Conflicting demands from industry, fishing, shipping, mining and tourism were stressing coastal systems. While numerous reports, global commissions and scientific assessments had described the serious damage to the world’s most vital life support system, Governments were not making full use of the tools available, including the Convention on the Law of the Sea.
“We created these problems,” he said. “With decisive, coordinated global action, we can solve them”. The Sustainable Development Goals must be the road map. The essential first step must be to end the artificial dichotomy between economic demands and ocean health. Strong political leadership and new partnerships were needed, based on the existing legal framework, and he commended all who had signed the Call for Action, to be formally adopted this week. From expanding marine protected areas and managing fisheries, to reducing pollution to cleaning up plastic waste, he called for a step change locally, nationally and globally. The ongoing work to create a legal framework on conservation and the sustainable use of biodiversity in areas beyond national jurisdiction was particularly important in that regard.
Further, the political will of the 2030 Agenda, the Paris Agreement on climate change and the Addis Ababa Action Agenda must be translated into funding commitments, he said, stressing that better data, information and analysis were also required, because “we can’t improve what we don’t measure”. Finally, best practices and experiences must be shared. For its part, the United Nations was committed to providing integrated, coordinated support for the implementation of all historic agreements of the past year. He was personally determined to break down barriers to improve the Organization’s performance and accountability.
He said the United Nations was building partnerships with Governments, the private sector and civil society, as well as working with international financial institutions on innovative financing to release more funds. It was harnessing big data to improve the basis for decision-making. A new strategic vision was needed and he called on Member States to define a new model for ocean governance. Unless the territorial and resource interests that had blocked progress for too long were overcome, the oceans would continue to deteriorate. He urged participants to set aside short-term national gain to prevent long-term global catastrophe, stressing that “conserving our oceans and using them sustainably is preserving life itself.”
PETER THOMSON (Fiji), President of the General Assembly, stressed that the Conference offered the best opportunity to reverse the cycle of decline that human activity had brought upon the seas. Sustainable Development Goal 14 — the ocean’s goal — was humanity’s only universally agreed measure to conserve and sustainably manage its resources. The task ahead was to ensure that the Goal received the support necessary to meet its critical targets. “To do that, we need to hear the truth about the state of the ocean,” he said. “We are here on behalf of humanity to restore sustainability, balance and respect to our relationship with our primal mother, the source of life, the ocean.”
Indeed, he said, the time had come to correct wrongful ways. It was inexcusable that humanity tipped the equivalent of a garbage truck of plastic into the ocean every minute of every day. “We have unleashed a plague of plastic upon the ocean,” he said, defiling nature in tragic ways. Illegal and destructive fishing practices, along with harmful fisheries subsidies, were driving fish stocks to collapse, while greenhouse gasses were driving climate change and causing sea-level rise through ocean warming, threatening ocean life through acidification and deoxygenation.
The central conclusion was clear, he said: To secure a future for our species, action must be taken now on the health of the ocean and on climate change. With Goal 14 in place within the 2030 Agenda and the Paris Agreement ratified, it was time to demonstrate fidelity to those two life-saving agreements. Describing the mantra of the Ocean Conference as “human-induced problems have human-devised solutions”, he pledged that participants would work to advance Goal 14 targets of 2020, 2025 and 2030. They would follow-up with diligence on commitments made, “all along holding ourselves responsible to bequeath a conserved and sustainably managed ocean to the stewards of the future”, he declared.
FREDERICK MUSIIWA MAKAMURE SHAVA (Zimbabwe), President of the Economic and Social Council, said the collective focus this week would be on scaling up efforts to halt ocean degradation and reverse a cycle of decline. Urgent action needed to be taken. Noting that the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, among other agreements, had been in place for some time, he said what was now needed was implementation of the 2030 Agenda.
“The issue of conserving and sustainably using our oceans is very complex, as oceans have a direct impact on poverty eradication, health, sustained economic growth, food security and creation of sustainable livelihoods and decent work,” he said. At the same time, biodiversity and the marine environment must be protected and the impact of climate change addressed. Political guidance from the high-level political forum that would be held on 10-18 July under the auspices of the Economic and Social Council would be critical for promoting integrated consideration of the Sustainable Development Goals.
He described the Ocean Conference as a unique place to raise awareness and to underscore solutions that must be put into place to ensure that the world’s oceans and seas remained a source of life and human well-being for generations. The Call to Action that would be adopted by the Conference must be a cooperative effort that ensured a pooling of financial and technical resources as well as technology sharing and capacity-building, he said.
WU HONGBO, Secretary-General of the Ocean Conference and Under-Secretary-General for Economic and Social Affairs, said that without oceans and seas, there would be no life on the planet. Yet, oceans faced a variety of threats, including climate change, marine pollution, extraction of marine resources, and erosion and destruction of marine and coastal habitats. Member States had committed to conserve and sustainably use oceans, seas and marine resources through Sustainable Development Goal 14. The message of the Call for Action was clear. “The time to act is now,” he said, noting that its 22 specific actions promised to galvanize global commitments and partnerships.
He said the number of voluntary commitments was growing daily, and, importantly, covered all targets of Goal 14. The coming days were a great opportunity to rally support at all levels, as the Conference was a platform for Governments, United Nations agencies, major groups and others to identify the ways and means to support implementation of Goal 14, by building on existing partnerships and stimulating new ones. Special attention should focus on the means of implementation, such as capacity-building and enhanced financing, which was critical for small island developing States, least developed countries and developing nations alike. With broad support from all stakeholders, the Conference would bring about solutions for saving the ocean and advancing implementation of Goal 14.
In the afternoon, the Ocean Conference held a partnership dialogue on the topic “Addressing marine pollution”. Moderated by Elliott Harris, Head of the New York Office of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), and co-chaired by Luhut Binsar Pandjaitan, Coordinating Minister for Maritime Affairs of Indonesia, and Vidar Helgesen, Minister of Climate and Environment of Norway, it featured a panel discussion by Nancy Wallace, Director, Marine Debris Program, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, United States Department of Commerce; Kosi Latu, Director-General, Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment Programme; Peter Kershaw, Chair of the Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Environment; and Sybil Seitzinger, Pacific Institute for Climate Solutions, University of Victoria, Canada.
Mr. PANDJAITAN called plastic and microplastic debris a major threat to marine and coastal diversity. Such debris resulted mostly from solid waste management. Summarizing Indonesia’s recently launched ocean policy as well as research initiatives, he said the country had come up with a plan of action that incorporated, among other pillars, behavioural change and reducing waste leakage. He emphasized that plastics manufacturers must be involved in fighting marine pollution. “We can get rid of this problem because we care and we can,” he said, underscoring the need for action at the national, regional and global level.
Mr. HELGESEN said marine litter was possibly the fastest-growing environmental problem as well as a shared challenge. Providing an example, he said 30 plastic bags and other pieces of plastic debris were found this past winter in the stomach of a beached whale in Norway. It was both possible and necessary to act, he said, describing a programme in his country that included waste management as a key component in fighting marine litter. He said his country was also considering extended producer responsibility, and emphasized the need for a higher level of political attention and united action.
Mr. HARRIS said it was a painful fact that oceans, seas, lakes and other waterways were being damaged — or slowly being strangled — by human activity. Most ocean pollution originated on land, he said, adding that by some estimates there were more microplastics in the world’s oceans than stars in the galaxy. Many countries were taking courageous action, he said, citing a Canadian ban on microplastics in personal care products, a French restriction on plastic cutlery and a prohibition on plastic bags in some African countries. More, however, needed to be done.
Ms. WALLACE said the world’s oceans were overflowing with man-made items that did not belong there, including disposable plastic bags, cigarette butts, derelict fishing nets and abandoned vessels. Lost and discarded items threated health, safety and wildlife. Marine debris was a complex global problem that called for a wide array of solutions, she said, the ultimate solution being preventing such debris from getting into the oceans in the first place. Waste management offered a myriad of solutions, but every country had unique challenges in that regard. Programmes to increase the value of waste would encourage its collection, she said, underscoring the paramount importance of sharing information on challenges and solutions.
Mr. LATU said that countries in the Pacific region — an area that was 98 per cent water and 2 per cent land, with the world’s most important tuna fisheries — had adopted a Cleaner Pacific Strategy, which addressed all forms of waste, including marine plastics and oil leaking from World War II shipwrecks. Poor waste disposal, mainly on land but also at sea, contributed to the problem. Research on fishing vessels found that 37 per cent of the waste dumped overboard was comprised of plastics, he said, emphasizing the need to effectively implement relevant international conventions. Other solutions would include awareness-raising, encouraging recycling and improved practices on vessels.
Mr. KERSHAW said marine litter was a global problem with regional differences. Microplastics came in many forms, from those used in toothpaste and facial scrubs to plastic resin beads and the secondary fragments of larger plastic items. A further challenge was that many durable plastics contained modifying chemicals with toxicological properties. Some solutions were relatively easy, such as removing microplastics from personal products in which they were not needed, he said. Others, such textile fibres and vehicle tire dust, were more problematic. Once it was known how microplastics were leaking into the oceans, then solutions — including partnerships — could be sought.
Ms. SEITZINGER discussed the impact of excessive use of nutrients, including toxic algae blooms, hypoxic regions and coral reef degradation. Fertilizer and manure were the leading source of inorganic nitrogen, but its impact varied between regions. No single solution was possible because there were multiple sources related to food and energy production, she said, adding that sewage treatment facilities should be designed to capture nitrogen and phosphorous for reuse. Noting that billions of dollars were spent on subsidies to encourage the use of fertilizers, particularly in China and India, she said that fewer subsidies could lead to reduced fertilizer use with little impact on grain production. She went on to suggest that consideration be given to laboratory-grown meat, which would reduce land, water and fertilizer use and eliminate manure production.
In the ensuing interactive debate, ministers, other senior officials and representatives of Member States and international organizations discussed the effects of marine pollution in different parts of the world, as well as measures being taken to address the problem.
MARION HENRY, Secretary of Resource and Development for the Federated States of Micronesia, said that, on his walks along the beach in his country, he saw fewer almonds than he did in his childhood, but many plastics. Perhaps the easiest solution to the problem would be to stop debris from entering the oceans in the first place. Comparing ocean debris to dumping garbage over a fence onto a neighbour’s backyard, he said “the ocean is our backyard”, and requested that other States be good neighbours in that regard.
NICOS KOUYIALIS, Minister for Agriculture, Rural Development and Environment of Cyprus, said pollution problems were more profound in enclosed or semi-enclosed seas, such as the Mediterranean. Another serious problem was eutrophication due to treated and untreated domestic sewage and other discharges from land-based sources, he said, noting that his country, in that regard, had since the early 1980s maintained a “no drop of water in the sea” sewage policy.
KAMINA JOHNSON SMITH, Minister for Foreign affairs and Foreign Trade of Jamaica, said marine pollution had severe consequences for her country. Forging new partnerships and strengthening existing ones to protect and preserve the maritime space was a responsibility that Jamaica took seriously, she said, citing as an example its participation in the Global Ballast Water Management Project to address the transmission of potentially invasive species.
JOHN SILK, Minister for Foreign Affairs of the Marshall Islands, said his country had recently banned the importation and use of single-use plastic bags, which had become more common than fish along its shores. He added that the Pacific was also struggling with the legacy of events it did not cause, including naval shipwrecks, unexploded ordinance and radioactive contamination.
The representative of the Netherlands said his country’s positon was simple: litter did not belong in the marine environment. The Netherlands was committed to an integral approach that emphasized prevention, he said, noting that a ban on plastic bags at point of sale went into effect on 1 January 2016.
The representative of the Stiftelsen Stockholm International Water Institute emphasized the importance of engaging upstream sources of marine pollution. Otherwise, she said, communities located well away from coastal areas might not feel motivated to take relevant action.
The representative of China said his country was taking a number of steps to address marine pollution, including improving urban sewage treatment systems and adhering to the principles of recycling. At the international level, China advocated the sharing of successful experiences. It was also striving to reduce fertilizer use while assessing what further measures would be required.
The representative of The Ocean Cleanup said his organization was developing advanced technology to collect existing marine debris through a system that involved natural ocean currents and a fleet of artificial coast lines. Once deployed, it could clean up 50 per cent of the Great Pacific Garbage Patch in 5 years, he said, adding that it would be easy later on to develop spin-off systems that could intercept plastic debris before it could reach the ocean.
His counterpart from World Animal Protection said the issue of abandoned and lost fishing gear, also known as ghost fishing gear, must feature near the top of the agenda. It represented 10 per cent of all marine debris, but it was the deadliest to marine life, and after overfishing it was most responsible for declining fish stocks, she said, inviting participants to support the Global Ghost Gear Initiative.
Responding to the discussion, Ms. SEITZINGER said an opportunity existed to address the problem of nutrient pollution. She added that the benefits of working together should always be present in people’s minds.
Mr. KERSHAW said it was encouraging to hear so many positive initiatives, adding however that better partnerships with industry were needed to deal with solid waste before it come become microplastics.
Mr. LATU said that, in devising solutions, it was important to remember that pollution knew no boundaries. He added that while some countries seemed to have strong waste management policies, others needed to do more work in that regard.
Ms. WALLACE said she had never seen so much commitment and passion on the marine pollution issue. The next step would be to turn plans into action.
Mr. PANDJAITAN said that, without action, there would be more plastic in the sea than fish. No single country could work alone, he said, emphasizing the need to strengthen regional and international measures, with the international community acting at the United Nations level to a clear timeline.
Mr. HELGESEN said he took away from today’s meeting a number of important steps, including stronger enforcements of existing measures, the need to develop new and stronger international commitments to combat marine litter, a process to further harmonize measures to monitor marine debris and forging partnership along the entire plastics value chain to promote a circular economy. Quoting the “famous philosopher” Elvis Presley, he appealed for a little less conversation and a little more action.
Also participating in the discussion were ministers, other senior officials and representatives of Estonia, Italy, Panama, Netherlands, Peru, Turkey, Indonesia, Algeria, Israel and Honduras, as well as the European Union.
Also taking the floor were representatives of the Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission, United Nations Office for Project Services (UNOPS) and United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).