Mission Police Force Chiefs Brief on Challenges, Addressing Members’ Queries during Interactive Dialogue
The Security Council this afternoon resolved to include, on a case by case basis, policing as an integral part of the mandates and decision-making structures of United Nations peacekeeping operations and special political missions.
Unanimously adopting resolution 2382 (2017), the Council would take into account the need to give clear, credible, achievable, appropriately resourced mandates for policing‑related activities, and emphasize in that context the need to ensure a United Nations system‑wide approach to the rule of law.
By the text, the Council would continue to promote and support the finalization and operationalization of the Strategic Guidance Framework for International Police Peacekeeping. It requested the Secretary‑General to, among other things, provide updates on progress in terms of gender‑responsive police reform and protection activities, where mandated, including efforts to make national police services more accessible and responsive to women.
Recognizing the important role that United Nations police components could play in the protection of civilians, including in preventing and addressing sexual and gender‑based violence, and violations and abuses against children, the Council urged police‑contributing countries to ensure that all deployed officers, formed units and specialized teams had undergone comprehensive training. It reiterated that the protection of children in armed conflict should be an important aspect of any comprehensive strategy to resolve conflict and build peace, underscoring in that regard the importance of specialized predeployment and in‑mission training and stressing the importance of enhancing coordination between police components and child, women and gender protection advisers.
Further to the resolution, the Council urged all police‑contributing countries to deliver robust predeployment training to prevent sexual exploitation and abuse and to ensure that all personnel to be deployed were vetted for previous criminal acts of sexual exploitation and abuse.
Welcoming efforts of Member States and the Secretariat to strengthen the strategic generation of both female and male police personnel with the appropriate expertise and language skills, the Council urged police-contributing countries to, among other things, substantially increase the numbers of women officers, doubling their numbers by 2020, and increase their representation in leadership positions.
Briefing the Council, Under‑Secretary‑General for Peacekeeping Operations Jean‑Pierre Lacroix said the United Nations police played a continued vital role in bridging the Organization’s work from prevention and peacekeeping to peacebuilding and development. United Nations police now operated on a solid foundation based on the Strategic Guidance Framework, used comprehensive approaches to operations, capacity‑building and development and focused on basic skills transfer and strengthening host‑State police institutions. As more was demanded from police officers, he said, there was also a need to ensure their welfare, safety and security in the field. As such, they needed to be supplied with up‑to‑date equipment to increase their situational awareness.
Issoufou Yacouba, Head of the Police Component of the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (MINUSMA), said the situation on the ground was characterized by a resurgence of attacks against Malian security forces, Mission forces, Operation Barkhane, humanitarian workers and civilians in the north and centre of the country. MINUSMA had developed a comprehensive policing plan charged with strengthening the Malian structures that fought both criminality and terrorism. Some 24,000 security personnel had been trained, with 1,385 trained specifically for fighting organized crime and terrorism. A gender strategy was a large part of all training. In addition, Mission officers continued to support the work of the special judicial police.
Georges‑Pierre Monchotte, Police Commissioner of the United Nations Mission for Justice Support in Haiti (MINUJUSTH), said the first challenge of the transition was managing troop drawdowns and tailoring the initiative to the new landscape, including promoting gender equality. A harmonious transition had been made in cooperation with Haiti’s national police, using a new approach to transferring skills, with the aim of generating cultural exchanges. An advice and support programme had centred on mentoring senior officials in the areas of command and administration. More broadly, he encouraged police‑contributing countries to deliver the necessary resources and to include more female officers.
Priscilla Makotose, Police Commissioner of the African Union-United Nations Hybrid Operation in Darfur (UNAMID), said including more women was indeed important. Noting that 20 per cent of UNAMID officers were female, she said few women were serving in the Sudanese police in Darfur, emphasizing that progress was essential in order to address conflict‑related sexual violence and sexual- and gender‑based violence. Women also needed additional training, mentoring, more role models and the appointment by Member States of more qualified females to senior positions. Turning to UNAMID priorities, she highlighted civilian protection and the creation of a protective environment through community policing initiatives and capacity‑building for Sudan’s police force. Mission police also supported the institutional development of Sudan’s police force.
Council members agreed that police work was a crucial part of United Nations peacekeeping and that the completion of mandates and exit strategies of missions were dependent on reformed and strengthened national capacity in security. They stressed that national ownership was critical and that given the multiple challenges that related to gender and communities, deploying female police officers was of particularly importance. Predeployment and in‑mission training of police personnel should also be enhanced, many delegates said, and better resource management should be focused on boosting capacities for planning, providing timely information and increasing communication and leadership.
The representative of the Russian Federation said that United Nations police must scrupulously comply with Council mandates and the principles of the United Nations Charter. While the Russian Federation had supported the resolution, he noted that work on the document had encountered difficulties. He also stressed that peacekeepers should under no circumstances become parties to a conflict nor be in a position to use force against a host State. China’s representative stressed the importance of observing Charter principles, including impartiality and no use of force except in self‑defence or when mandated.
In an interactive dialogue, the Under‑Secretary‑General for Peacekeeping Operations and the police commissioners answered questions posed by Council members.
Representatives of the United States, Ethiopia, Ukraine, Uruguay, Sweden, Kazakhstan, Japan, Egypt, United Kingdom, Bolivia, France, Senegal and Italy also spoke.
The meeting started at 3:34 p.m. and adjourned at 6:03 p.m.
JEAN‑PIERRE LACROIX, Under‑Secretary‑General for Peacekeeping Operations, said the Secretary‑General had made it clear in October that he wanted more efficient and cost‑effective peace operations. For the United Nations police, that meant playing a continued vital role in bridging United Nations work from prevention and peacekeeping to peacebuilding and development. United Nations police now operated on a solid foundation based on the Strategic Guidance Framework for International Police Peacekeeping, used comprehensive approaches to operations, capacity‑building and development and focused on basic skills transfer and strengthening host-State police institutions.
He said the Strategic Guidance Framework allowed for improving efficiency in police generation and performance measurement. In addition, the United Nations Police Division was finalizing an accountability framework. Playing an increasingly vital and unique role in civilian protection through community‑oriented and intelligence‑led efforts, United Nations police interacted with the local communities, established trust and collected early warning signs. Equally important was its work with host-State counterparts in prioritizing civilian protection and addressing serious and organized crime.
Improving effectiveness meant recruiting more women, he said, citing a range of examples. Women officers performed the same tasks as their male colleagues, among them, mentoring female police leaders of the future and helping to increase access to justice for women and children at risk. There was a need for more qualified women executives from Member States. On the issue of conduct and discipline, he said the Department of Peacekeeping Operations would not hesitate to replace units from countries that had failed to hold perpetrators accountable.
As more was demanded from police officers, he said, there was also a need to ensure their welfare, safety and security in the field. Police peacekeepers needed to be supplied with up‑to‑date equipment to increase their situational awareness. Other issues that must be addressed included disparities in conditions of service among different types of police personnel that had negatively impacted morale.
ISSOUFOU YACOUBA, Head of the Police Component of the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (MINUSMA), said the situation on the ground was characterized by a resurgence of attacks against Malian security forces, Mission forces, Operation Barkhane, humanitarian workers and civilians in the north and centre of the country. A total of 86 Blue Helmets had been killed and 387 wounded since 2013, civilians suffered daily and socioeconomic conditions were equally worrying, with more than 500 schools closed. Criminal movements were substituting for the State in offering security and basic services because their trafficking‑based incomes. People were afraid to cooperate with the Malian and international forces due to fear of reprisal. Eradicating criminal activities should therefore be central to all security efforts in Mali, and integral to the mission of the Group of Five for the Sahel (Sahel G-5) Joint Force.
MINUSMA had developed a comprehensive policing plan charged with strengthening the Malian structures that fought both criminality and terrorism, he said. Some 24,000 security personnel had been trained, with 1,385 trained specifically for fighting organized crime and terrorism. A gender strategy was a large part of all training. Infrastructure improvement and upgrading of equipment was integral. MINUSMA police continued to support the work of the special judicial police. The investigative section of those police had taken full charge of the 71 cases under its control, which involved terrorism, money laundering, proliferation of arms and other major threats. Climate consequences were exacerbating the situation. Meanwhile, the social fabric of the Sahel was tearing, he said, urging the countries of the region to work closely together.
GEORGES-PIERRE MONCHOTTE, Police Commissioner of the United Nations Mission for Justice Support in Haiti (MINUJUSTH), recalled the practices that the previous United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH) had developed, including capacity‑building for the national police. The first challenge of the transition to the new Mission was the management of the drawdown of troops, including a reduction of 69 per cent of police officers to a total of 295. Another challenge was the need to tailor the initiative to the new landscape, including promoting gender equality.
A harmonious transition had been made in cooperation with Haiti’s national police, he said, using a new approach to transferring skills, with the aim to generate cultural exchanges. An advice and support programme had centred on mentoring senior officials in the areas of command and administration. Further, United Nations officers had been selected based on language skills and experience. In order to encourage participation and ownership, 11 round tables had been organized. He encouraged police‑contributing countries to deliver the necessary resources and to include more female officers. The police component could only be successful if it enjoyed material as well as human support in order to reach the mandated 295 qualified personnel level.
PRISCILLA MAKOTOSE, Police Commissioner of the United Nations‑African Union Hybrid Operation in Darfur (UNAMID), said priorities included civilian protection and the creation of a protective environment through community policing initiatives and capacity‑building for Sudan’s police force. As part of its mandate, Mission officers conducted patrols in camps for displaced persons and in communities while also managing public order during the distribution of humanitarian assistance and working with community policing volunteers on activities including arms collection. Mission police also supported the institutional development of Sudan’s police force.
Updating the Council on the reconfiguration of UNAMID’s police component, she also provided a snapshot of personnel, noting that 20 per cent of UNAMID officers were female. Despite greater gender awareness, few women were serving in the Sudanese police in Darfur, she said, emphasizing that progress was essential in order to address conflict‑related sexual violence and sexual- and gender‑based violence. More advocacy and support for victims of such violence was required. To receive more female United Nations peacekeepers, national police services must have proportional representation. Women also needed additional training, mentoring, more role models and the appointment by Member States of more qualified females to senior positions.
AMY NOEL TACHCO (United States) said it was evident that police work was a crucial part of United Nations peacekeeping. Completion of mandates and exit strategies of missions were dependent on reformed and strengthened national capacity in security. The safety of citizens and sustainable peace also relied on police activities. Expressing hope that MINUJUSTH found a strong partner in the Government of Haiti for its work, she noted challenges faced by the other operations and welcomed the adoption of resolution 2382 (2017) for improving the structural position of police in peacekeeping missions. “Police cannot be second‑class citizens in United Nations missions”, she said, emphasizing that the United States had contributed greatly to police work in the peacekeeping context to build lasting and sustainable peace in situations around the world.
TEKEDA ALEMU (Ethiopia) underlined the importance of United Nations police, given current trends and challenges. Building State capacity for security in order to allow transitions from peacekeeping to development was indispensable. In that context, national ownership was critical and national consultations should be constant in all stages of work. Deploying female police officers was particularly important, given the multiple challenges that related to gender and communities. Well‑trained and formed police units were essential for the success of all activities, he emphasized, adding that triangular cooperation was essential for strengthening the effectiveness of United Nations police activities.
VOLODYMYR YELCHENKO (Ukraine) said the United Nations police should be prepared to carry out complex tasks in preventing, mitigating and resolving conflict, and contributing to early peacebuilding and reconciliation. He expressed support for the Strategic Guidance Framework, stressing also that predeployment and in‑mission training of police personnel should be enhanced. For their part, peacekeeping operations should be given resilient mandates and advanced technologies to stop illegal cross‑border arms flows, criminals, foreign terrorist fighters and mercenaries. They also must have the means and resources to monitor and verify ceasefire agreements. Cooperation among police‑contributing countries, the Secretariat and the Council should be maintained to ensure timely troop generation and deployment.
ELBIO ROSSELLI (Uruguay) said the increasing relevance of the police component in United Nations peacekeeping operations had become ever more clear. Indeed, resolution 2382 (2017) had ascertained that the key role of United Nations police was at the forefront of efforts in the maintenance of peace. Having contributed police officers to peacekeeping operations since 1971, Uruguay was also home to a police academy for United Nations police, he said, welcoming the assessment and evaluation work conducted by the Department of Peacekeeping Operations. Police had a key role to play in the protection of civilians in the complex field of operations, he said, emphasizing his support for the zero‑tolerance policy of the United Nations regarding sexual exploitation and abuse. Turning to the briefers, he asked Mr. Monchotte what the major challenges were to the success of MINUJUSTH.
IRINA SCHOULGIN‑NYONI (Sweden), recalling Sweden’s long history of contributing to the policing capacity of United Nations peacekeeping operations, said effective, responsive and representative police services — as part of functioning rule of law institutions — were a cornerstone of stable, resilient societies. Swedish police and corrections officers were engaged in Liberia and the Central African Republic, working in the latter with Malian authorities to establish a rapid response unit for sexual and gender‑based violence. Calling for policing advice to be integrated as standard practice in mandate development and renewal, she asked the briefers how best to achieve that goal, and to reflect on MINUJUSTH’s transitional work so far.
YERULAN AKYLBAYEV (Kazakhstan), underscoring the need for clear mandates and directives for police continents in United Nations peace operations, said strong units were also needed to ensure the rule of law, security sector reform, protection of civilians and human rights. Noting that such an approach would lead to stable host countries and help prevent new conflicts — as well as attract new investments for economic development — he said the main task of United Nations police was to help strengthen national police, justice and corrections institutions as well as those that held them accountable. National ownership was imperative and priorities must be consistent with the host country’s culture and legal traditions, while not conflicting with international norms. The role of United Nations police in the protection of civilians with the military was a critical issue to be resolved, as were the broader capability and training gaps, notably by expanding the number of police‑contributing countries.
KORO BESSHO (Japan) welcomed resolution 2382 (2017) as part of efforts to build sustainable peace, for which police operations were essential. The results of recent peacekeeping reviews must be put into action in the field, with the newly adopted resolution providing important guidance for the way ahead. MINUSTAH provided a good example of international assistance to the rule of law in conjunction with national ownership, while it had paved the way for completing its mandate. Strengthening national police in Mali was also critical, he said, adding that Japan looked forward to actively supporting efforts to improve the effectiveness of United Nations police work.
AMR ABDELLATIF ABOULATTA (Egypt) said resolution 2382 (2017) strengthened the work of United Nations police by putting it in its proper context. Police were essential for addressing the emerging challenges to peacekeeping and were key for drafting exit strategies and maintaining sustainable peace. He reiterated full support for the police component of peacekeeping, noting that Egypt was the third‑largest police contributor and had pledged to contribute more personnel along with armoured vehicles. He asked what plans there were to allow security to be handed off in the area of UNAMID operations.
JONATHAN GUY ALLEN (United Kingdom), affirming the central importance of United Nations policing in building sustainable peace, said the Council should listen carefully to speakers today to respond to current challenges and reshape programmes. There was still much to be done to ensure effectiveness. Today’s resolution, while a step in the right direction, did not go quite far enough in addressing such considerations. He would have liked to have seen more emphasis on flexibility and analytic capabilities along with specialists to deal with specific peacekeeping situations. Policing should be incorporated into assessment efforts as well, he said, also affirming the importance of ensuring diversity in contingents, including a greater representation of women.
WU HAITAO (China) said with more than 11,000 officers employed in complex situations, United Nations police must observe the principles of the Charter, including impartiality and no use of force except in self‑defence or when mandated. The police component for peacekeeping operations should be tailored to the context, show respect for host countries, consider the needs of the situation on the ground and be subject to assessment or change. Host countries had the primary responsibility to protect civilians, with support from the police component. The Secretariat should boost interaction between the military and police components, he said, also noting the importance of better coordination between police‑contributing countries and host nations. For its part, China was the largest police‑contributing country among permanent members of the Council.
PEDRO LUIS INCHAUSTE JORDÁN (Bolivia) said police components played an important role in the maintenance of peace, particularly in providing civilian protection, advice and capacity building of the local police. It was important to create a consistent and nimble structure for components in order to contribute to transitional processes. Better resource management should be focused on boosting capacities for planning, providing timely information and increasing communication and leadership. In the context of peacebuilding, important elements included strengthening the role of police during mission transitions, gender mainstreaming and promoting the full participation of women in peace processes. He asked what efforts the police commissioners were undertaking to ensure that there was greater female police participation in their missions, especially in MINUJUSTH.
PETR V. ILIICHEV (Russian Federation), noting that United Nations police had to work under ever more complicated conditions, expressed support for their work in assisting local Governments in protecting civilians and national capacity‑building. However, they must scrupulously comply with Council mandates and the principles of the United Nations Charter, while recognizing the importance of national ownership and of not supplanting efforts of local police. While the Russian Federation had supported the resolution, he said work on the document had encountered difficulties and the Council had taken pains not to politicize the document. Peacekeepers should under no circumstances become parties to a conflict nor be in a position to use force against a host State. The ongoing dialogue between the Council and police- and troop‑contributing countries was important and platforms for such exchanges were available in the Council’s Working Group on Peacekeeping and the Special Commission on Peacekeeping Operations.
ANNE GUEGUEN (France) said police contingents had become more important as peacekeeping challenges had grown more complex. Today’s text underlined that fact. Police forces must continue to play a central role in the protection of civilians, particularly those most vulnerable, making it critical that they formed links with communities and coordinated closely with other components of peacekeeping operations. It was important for police to know well the needs of the host State and work with national actors to respond. Their effectiveness hinged on having adequate equipment and proper training. Capabilities for rapid deployment should be built. In addition, more women police should be deployed, as they helped create a link with the most vulnerable populations and were at the forefront of the battle against sexual abuse. Language capabilities were also critical and France was helping contingents prepare in that regard. She also described a European specialized training initiative for fighting organized crime and terrorism.
SALIOU NIANG DIENG (Senegal) said police components had become critical actors in multidimensional missions. Civilian protection was a priority, but there were many activities involved. A fuller view of police activities must be developed, particularly through the results of the High‑level Independent Panel on Peace Operations report. Today’s resolution reflected efforts to tackle the new challenges identified. He asked about communication constraints in capacity‑building as well as other areas, on the desirability of all‑women police units and other areas. Senegal, which was a leading police-contributing country, was constantly increasing its efforts to boost the role of women in police activities.
SEBASTIANO CARDI (Italy) affirmed the central role of police contingents in situations around the world, particularly in the fight against terrorism and organized crime as in Mali, in preventing the relapse in conflict as in Haiti, and in mainstreaming a necessary gender perspective as in Darfur. Readiness was crucial; for that reason the standing police capacity in Brindisi was an important asset. Predeployment training was vital for protection responsibilities, particularly of vulnerable groups. Recruitment of more women was another critical element of improving effectiveness. In all areas, police must be equipped with the resources they needed for effectiveness and for ensuring their safety.
Mr. LACROIX, answering Council members’ questions, said the debate had highlighted the vital and increasing role of United Nations police peacekeeping, complementary to the military component in the protection of civilians. United Nations police also strengthened local capacities in rule of law institutions, which was important in fostering peace and providing an exit strategy. Addressing a question about how the police dimension could be better integrated in Council mandates, he underlined the importance of better integrating the activities of different components of peacekeeping operations. He hoped the Council would provide steady support and encouragement to Member States to improve training and capacities. He also recommended an increased integration of the police component in regional and subregional organizations and the African Union. Other important issues included the importance of language for policing, and that resources and mandates were matched and that Member States provided funding for capacity‑building efforts.
Mr. YACOUBA said the issue of improvised explosive devices was of great concern for MINUSMA, Mali and the Council. The first response to the issue had to include predeployment training, which had already prevented many deaths. Incidents also occurred because protocol was not followed, which was a command issue. In addition, not all armed vehicles were strong enough to protect against anti‑personnel mines. The Mission had established a database that traced explosive devices in order to trace those who were behind the attacks.
He said another problem was the lack of trust between defence forces and local populations, an issue that could only be addressed through security sector reform. Defence forces must represent all peoples of Mali and must be accountable before the law, he said, stressing that impunity must end. Community policing units had been set up, supported by the Government of Mali, in order to increase trust, he said, adding that formed police units had a responsibility to learn local languages. The overall vision was to have an accountable police force that upheld the rule of law.
Mr. MONCHOTTE said integration coordination in MINUJUSTH was largely done through the local focal point. With respect to future challenges, the non‑politicization of the police was crucial. Budgetary challenges were also important to face and were being anticipated in current planning. In addition, MINUJUSTH faced the challenge of recruiting the appropriate personnel and securing the right equipment. As training in respect for human rights was critical, mechanisms for preventing abuse were being instituted. In regard to questions on the success of the transition, he said it had been due to a clear vision and planning coordinated closely with the national partners. Strong provisions for election security were also key, enabling the national police to gain invaluable experience. Gender equality was being secured through extensive structures and ongoing dialogue with the national police. Communications relied on the ability to speak a common language and French‑speaking experts were actively pursued.
Ms. MAKOTOSE said most displaced persons remained in camps in Darfur because of feelings of insecurity; she hoped that further confidence would be built. Sustainability in the rule of law was being built through training of trainers and the development of other institutional frameworks. A community policing programme had been developed, along with joint work with the rest of the country team in anticipation of the exit of UNAMID. Sudanese police were being deployed in many necessary areas, but not yet in all areas needed. On women’s participation, she was advocating with the Sudanese police through continuous engagement and had created a women’s network in that force. Traditional rulers and governors were being sensitized on the issue and were increasingly beginning to accept women police. On the language question, she said that geographical representation of personnel was crucial as was the availability courses in Arabic.
The full text of resolution 2382 (2017) reads as follows:
“The Security Council,
“Recalling its primary responsibility under the Charter of the United Nations for the maintenance of international peace and security,
“Recalling its resolution 2185 (2014) on United Nations Policing, as well as relevant resolutions such as resolutions 1265 (1999) and 1894 (2009) on the protection of civilians, 1325 (2000) and 2242 (2015) on women, peace and security, 2086 (2013) and 2378 (2017) on peacekeeping operations, 2151 (2014) on security sector reform, 2171 (2014) on conflict prevention, 2282 (2016) on post-conflict peacebuilding, and statements of its President, such as the statement of 21 February 2014 (document S/PRST/2014/5) on the rule of law, as well as the statement of 14 July 1997 (document S/PRST/1997/38), and the reports of the Secretary-General (documents A/66/615 and S/2016/952) on United Nations Policing,
“Taking note of the report of the Secretary-General on United Nations Policing of November 2016 and its vision for United Nations Police Components ready to effectively address the challenges of the twenty-first century,
“Stressing the primary responsibility of States for the prevention and resolution of conflicts, as well as for the protection of civilians and the important contribution that United Nations Policing in peacekeeping and special political missions can provide throughout the conflict cycle, where and as mandated, including through the protection of civilians, capacity-building and development efforts of host-State police services, and noting the relevance of its contribution when considering the broader reform of the peace and security pillar,
“Affirming that lasting peace is not achieved nor sustained by military and technical engagements alone, but through political solutions and strongly convinced that such political solutions should guide the design and deployment of United Nations peacekeeping operations,
“Reaffirming its commitment to upholding the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations, including its commitment to and respect for the principles of political independence, sovereign equality and territorial integrity of all States in conducting all peacekeeping activities and the need for States to comply with their obligations under international law,
“Further reaffirming the basic principles of peacekeeping, including consent of the parties, impartiality, and non-use of force, except in self-defence and defence of the mandate, and recognizing that the mandate of each peacekeeping mission is specific to the need and situation of the country concerned, and that the Security Council expects full delivery of the mandates it authorizes,
“Welcoming the role that United Nations Police Components can play in facilitating the transitions from peacekeeping to development and peacebuilding, and recognizing that improved performance of United Nations Policing can contribute to successful exit strategies of peacekeeping missions and will require continued transparent and accountable efforts to strengthen United Nations Police doctrine and its implementation and defining clearer standards for personnel, equipment, operations, performance, and assistance to host-State police services, as well as increased training and capacity-building to prepare police-contributing countries and ensure predictable deployment,
“Stressing that the successful implementation of the mandates of peacekeeping operations and special political missions requires close cooperation and use of integrated planning mechanisms between the different elements of these missions, including between police, military and civilian components, under the overall leadership of the Head of Mission,
“Noting the important role United Nations Policing can play, where mandated, in strengthening the rule of law and security sector reform and reaffirming the lead role of national authorities in progressing the reform of police and other law enforcement agencies as part of wider rule of law and security sector reform efforts, including in dedicating national resources towards national police and other law enforcement institutions, and monitoring the impact of police reform, and recognizing that the political leadership and political will of national authorities are critical in this regard and success necessitates national ownership,
“Highlighting the important role that United Nations Police Components can play in building the capacity of host-State policing and other law enforcement institutions, as mandated, in particular through building principles of community oriented policing and in addressing organized crime, particularly through support in the areas of border, immigration and maritime security and crime prevention, response and investigation, where mandated,
“Having considered that transnational organized crime undermines stability and further considering that transnational organized crime can benefit international terrorism, which may require strengthening or rebuilding of criminal justice systems to address relevant threats,
“Recalling the work conducted by the Security Council Working Group on Peacekeeping Operations, the Fourth and Fifth Committees of the General Assembly and the Special Committee on Peacekeeping Operations, which have provided guidance to the Secretariat on United Nations policing including on a standardized approach to United Nations Policing and compliance thereto, as well as support to the United Nations Secretariat to address capacity and capability gaps, where they exist, thereby improving the performance of United Nations Policing,
“Noting the increasing scope and reliance on police abilities in United Nations operations and welcoming ongoing efforts to attain specialized capacities, capabilities and technologies for United Nations Police Components, further noting the Policy for Formed Police Units in United Nations Peacekeeping and encouraging Member States to contribute well-trained and appropriately vetted men and women police personnel with appropriate language skills for formed police units (FPUs) with the full complement of agreed contingent-owned equipment, specialized police teams (SPTs) and individual police officers, as well as civilian experts, to effectively implement mandated tasks and facilitate the conditions for transitions and exits,
“Noting that host-State policing institutions should be the primary link between the government, individuals and communities on security issues, reiterating that professional, effective, accountable, and accessible law enforcement, corrections, and judicial institutions are necessary to lay the foundation for sustainable peace and national development, and further noting that failure to address operational and accountability deficits in police institutions can undermine the positive gains made, and thus risks a relapse into conflict,
“Recognizing the indispensable role of women in United Nations peacekeeping and special political missions, including the critical role that women play in all peace and security efforts, including by providing diverse perspectives which can assist in building trust with local communities and stressing the need to increase their participation and leadership in decision-making in host-States with regard to policing and the rule of law,
“Welcoming the efforts to incentivize greater numbers of women in military and police deployed and appointed to senior positions in United Nations peacekeeping operations, as both individual police officers (IPOs) and as part of SPTs and FPUs, and efforts to review the obstacles preventing women’s recruitment and professional advancement; taking note in this regard of the Secretary-General’s System-Wide Strategy on Gender Parity which tasks relevant United Nations entities, in consultation with police-contributing countries, to develop a separate, dedicated strategy on this matter,
“Reaffirming its determination to pursue more prioritization when evaluating, mandating and reviewing United Nations peacekeeping operations, including through strengthening Triangular consultations with troop- and police-contributing countries and the Secretariat, strengthening existing formal mechanisms, and underlining the shared responsibility for meaningful, inclusive, active and dynamic consultations, as well as enhancing its dialogue with host countries, with the aim of fully and successfully implementing peacekeeping mandates,
“Noting with appreciation the improved cooperation between the United Nations, international, regional and subregional organizations and initiatives, including through training, sharing of experience, exchange of information, thematic expertise and operational readiness as appropriate, and the establishment by the United Nations Police Components of a serious and organized crime focal point network, and further noting that these efforts can strengthen host-State police and other law enforcement agencies’ capacities and capabilities to counter transnational threats,
“1. Stresses that the primacy of political solutions should be the hallmark of the approach of the United Nations to the resolution of conflict and resolves to include, on a case by case basis, policing as an integral part of the mandates and decision-making structures of United Nations peacekeeping operations and special political missions, taking into account the need for consistent integration of police expertise within the planning of such missions, and to give clear, credible, achievable, appropriately resourced mandates for policing-related activities, and emphasizes in this context the need to ensure a United Nations system-wide approach to the rule of law;
“2. Underscores the critical importance of improving accountability, transparency, efficiency and effectiveness in the performance of United Nations peacekeeping operations and special political missions and calls on the Secretariat to continue efforts to strengthen doctrine and define clear standards for personnel, equipment, operations, performance, and assistance to host nation police forces for effective performance of United Nations Police in missions, as well as for preparing police-contributing countries for deployment, and requests the United Nations’ Secretariat to assist Member States’ training activities by providing timely and complete information regarding the training needs of police-contributing countries and those with the capacity to deliver such training, to ensure coherence and identify where capability gaps remain, thereby enhancing triangular cooperation;
“3. Reaffirms its ongoing efforts to review peacekeeping operations to ensure maximum effectiveness and efficiency on the ground, and to deepen these efforts in partnership with police-contributing countries, and requests the Secretary-General to ensure data streams related to the effectiveness of peacekeeping operations, including peacekeeping performance data, to include police, are centralized to improve analytics and evaluation of mission operations, based on clear and well-identified benchmarks;
“4. Resolves to continue to promote and support the finalization and operationalization of the Strategic Guidance Framework for International Police Peacekeeping, to conduct targeted recruitment based on identified field needs and develop a measurable accountability framework for the implementation of mandates, and requests the Secretary-General to consider undertaking the following to ensure the timely completion of country-specific mandates and improve performance:
(a) Strengthen the collaboration of United Nations Policing with the Peacekeeping Strategic Force Generation and Capability Planning Cell, so that police and military requirements are coordinated, force generation occurs in concert and performance data is centralized to improve performance based decision-making;
(b) Provide additional guidance for relevant officials, including for Special Representatives of the Secretary-General and Special Envoys, and assist relevant senior United Nations management to understand how to deliver mandated police-related tasks;
(c) Highlight in his regular reports to the Security Council concerning specific United Nations peacekeeping and special political missions mandated by the Security Council, updates on progress in terms of gender-responsive police reform and protection activities, where mandated, including efforts to make national police services more accessible and responsive to women, in order to improve Security Council oversight of police reform and protection of civilians activities in accordance with resolutions 2122 (2013) and 2242 (2015);
“5. Recognizes the role of United Nations Policing in contributing, as appropriate, to the United Nations’ efforts to prevent conflicts through, inter alia, as mandated, protection of civilians, and assisting host-States with relevant capacity-building and calls on the Secretary-General to make sure that planning of United Nations peacekeeping and special political missions with police mandates are based on a thorough analysis of the context, capacities and needs of host States;
“6. Reaffirms that States bear the primary responsibility for protection of civilians and recognizes the important role that United Nations Police Components can play, where and as mandated, in the protection of civilians, including in preventing and addressing sexual and gender based violence, and, where applicable, conflict-related sexual violence and violations and abuses against children in the context of conflict and post-conflict situations, including, where appropriate, supporting the efforts of host authorities to build and reform policing and law enforcement institutions so they are able to sustainably and consistently protect civilians, and in this regard:
(a) Urges police-contributing countries to ensure that all deployed IPOs, FPUs and SPTs have undergone comprehensive training, including specific training on protection of civilians, sexual and gender based violence, as well as child protection, as a key part of their predeployment training, to successfully fulfil their mandates;
(b) Requests the Secretary-General to ensure that United Nations Police Components support protection of civilians activities as part of the whole of mission approach in missions with protection of civilians mandates;
(c) Reiterates that the protection of children in armed conflict should be an important aspect of any comprehensive strategy to resolve conflict and build peace and of capacity-building efforts in support of host-State police, law enforcement agencies and, where appropriate, juvenile justice systems; underscoring in this regard the importance of specialized predeployment and in-mission training on mission-specific child protection and on appropriate comprehensive child-sensitive prevention and protection responses, as well as monitoring and reporting on violations and abuses committed against children, and stressing the importance of enhancing coordination between Police Components and Child Protection Advisers, as well as Gender and Women Protection Advisers as outlined in all relevant United Nations Security Council resolutions;
“7. Requests the Secretary-General to continue and strengthen efforts to enhance measures in United Nations peacekeeping and special political missions against all forms of sexual exploitation and abuse by United Nations personnel and on support to victims in cooperation with the Victims’ Rights Advocate, urges all Police-Contributing Countries to ensure that all police personnel to be deployed are vetted for previous criminal acts of sexual exploitation and abuse and to deliver robust predeployment training to prevent sexual exploitation and abuse, and recalls the primary responsibility of troop-contributing countries to investigate allegations of sexual exploitation and abuse by their personnel and of troop- and police-contributing countries to hold accountable, including through prosecution, where appropriate, their personnel for acts of sexual exploitation and abuse, taking into account due process;
“8. Reaffirms the importance of national ownership and leadership in peacebuilding, whereby the responsibility for sustaining peace is broadly shared by the Government and all other national stakeholders, and recognizes that United Nations Police Components, including IPOs, FPOs and SPTs can contribute to building and sustaining peace by supporting host-State police and other law enforcement services, as mandated,
“9. Recalls in this regard the importance of United Nations Policing-related support to non-United Nations security forces adhering to the Human Rights Due Diligence Policy,
“10. Recognizes the importance of United Nations Policing by:
(a) Reaffirming its commitment to continue to convene the annual briefing of Heads of United Nations Police Components established in resolution 2185 (2014);
(b) Highlighting, where appropriate, United Nations Policing aspects in deliberations of the Security Council Working Group on Peacekeeping;
(c) Encouraging the inclusion of United Nations Policing issues in briefings of the Secretary-General’s Special Representatives and Special Envoys and in the reports of the Secretary-General, where appropriate;
“11. Stresses the importance of national ownership and commitment in policing and that, where appropriate, a thorough assessment of national capacity gaps in the area of police activities should inform United Nations Policing capacity-building activities and police development, including the composition of United Nations Police Components, and during planning, recruitment, the provision of guidance, and training,
“12. Welcomes the efforts of Member States and the Secretariat to strengthen the strategic generation of both female and male police personnel with the appropriate expertise and language skills, in order to convey information and provide technical assistance in the most accessible manner to the desired audience, including through participation in the United Nations Chiefs of Police Summit and engagement in the Peacekeeping Capabilities Readiness System for Rapid Deployment, and urges police-contributing countries to contribute further:
(a) Well-trained, equipped and performing FPUs, including rapidly deployable FPUs;
(b) Highly qualified IPOs and civilian experts with specialized skill sets;
(c) SPTs with proper support;
(d) A substantial increase in numbers of female police across the different roles, with the aim of an overall doubling by 2020, and increasing representation in leadership positions, in line with resolution 2242 (2015) and the original United Nations Global Goal to reach 20 per cent female officers by 2014;
(e) Police units that have completed predeployment training, with the support of the Secretariat, as appropriate, within the areas of their respective responsibilities, so that relevant mechanisms are in place to evaluate Member States’ predeployment readiness;
“13. Reiterates the importance of gender analysis in all police activities and mission phases and the role of Police Gender Advisers and its request to the Secretary-General to enhance coordination between Police Components and Child Protection Advisers, as well as Gender and Women Protection Advisers, calls upon the United Nations Secretariat to work closely with Member States and UN-Women to overcome systemic challenges regarding the eligibility of female police for United Nations missions, such as entry requirements, including by instituting special measures, or supporting women police associations, and encourages Member States to provide updates annually on these efforts, and share good practices in this regard;
“14. Notes the continued efforts of the Secretary-General to enhance performance in the peace and security pillar and encourages the Secretariat to assess issues concerning the functions, structure and capacity of the Police Division in consultation with Member States;
“15. Welcomes the work of the Police Division Standing Police Capacity (SPC) in providing a rapid, coherent, effective and responsive start-up and assistance capability for the Police Components of United Nations peacekeeping and special political missions, as well as support to other United Nations entities through the Global Focal Point for Police, Justice and Corrections arrangement, and requests the Secretary-General to ensure the work of the SPC is better integrated into efforts of United Nations peacekeeping operations to ensure coordination and information sharing and that the SPC is used to maximum effect;
“16. Requests the Secretary-General to provide a report by the end of 2018, including on:
(a) Implications for the delivery of policing mandates stemming from any changes to the United Nations Secretariat’s Peace and Security Architecture;
(b) Strengthening United Nations Policing’s operational and policy coherence within the United Nations system;
(c) Improving United Nations capability, accountability and transparency on United Nations Policing;
(d) Planning for strategic police generation gaps and key skill sets;
(e) Ensuring coherence of relevant United Nations Policing initiatives, in order to improve mission transitions and timely exits;
(f) Strengthening partnerships between the United Nations and international, regional and subregional organizations in accordance with Chapter VIII of the United Nations Charter, in the areas of policing.”