Egypt Calls for Full Participation in Negotiations as Russian Federation Says Text Wrongly Defines Situation as ‘Conflict’
The Security Council adopted its first resolution addressing Boko Haram’s presence in the Lake Chad Basin today, expressing concern about the protection needs of civilians affected by terrorism, including those resulting from sexual exploitation and abuse, extra-judicial killings and torture.
Unanimously adopting resolution 2349 (2017), the Council strongly condemned all terrorist attacks, violations of international humanitarian law and human rights abuses by Boko Haram and Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (ISIL/Da’esh) in the region, including killings, abductions, child, early and forced marriage, rape, sexual slavery and the increasing use of girls as suicide bombers. Those responsible must be held to account and brought to justice.
By other terms, the Council encouraged Governments to enhance regional military cooperation, and to move “vigorously and decisively” to cut funding flows to individuals, groups, undertakings and entities on the ISIL and Al-Qaida Sanctions List, including Boko Haram. It urged Lake Chad Basin Governments to implement consistent policies to promote defections from Boko Haram and ISIL, to deradicalize and reintegrate those who had already defected, and to ensure there was no impunity for those responsible for terrorist attacks.
On the humanitarian front, the Council urged all parties to the conflict to ensure respect for and protection of humanitarian personnel, and to facilitate safe, timely and unhindered access for humanitarian organizations to deliver aid. In terms of follow-up, the Council encouraged the Secretary-General to carry out a joint visit to the Lake Chad Basin region with the Chairperson of the African Union Commission, the President of the World Bank Group and the President of the African Development Bank.
In the ensuing discussion, delegates welcomed the Council’s unity in passing the resolution on the heels of its mission to Cameroon, Chad, Niger and Nigeria from 2 to 7 March to better understand the conflict’s root causes. Several urged the quick disbursement of funds pledged at the Oslo Humanitarian Conference on Nigeria and the Lake Chad Region, held on 24 February.
Cameroon’s representative, speaking on behalf of the Lake Chad Basin Commission, described the resolution as a “step change” in mobilizing international support for countries to combat Boko Haram. “We are fighting against terrorism,” he stressed, noting that the military response, while essential, should be part of a holistic approach. He pressed States to adopt and implement measures to tackle the causes and consequences of the current situation, expressing hope that the resolution would mark the start of more decisive support to regional countries, which had been forced to curtail spending on education, health and other efforts.
In similar vein, Nigeria’s representative welcomed the resolution’s call for enhanced regional military cooperation and coordination, emphasizing that his country was resolute in its efforts to defeat terrorism. The people of the Lake Chad Basin needed support, he said, pointing out that shrinking of Lake Chad had exacerbated their hardship, with cross-border knock-on effects making it difficult for Governments to meet people’s needs.
Senegal’s representative welcomed the resolution as “the first of its kind”, with its pledge to support the efforts of Lake Chad Basin countries to combat Boko Haram, and in so doing, to resolve the humanitarian crisis sparked in 2009 by that group’s activities.
Other speakers, while having joined the consensus, took issue with the Council’s working methods, with the Russian Federation’s representative emphasizing that the resolution had been rushed through under the United Kingdom Presidency. It did not recognize the irresponsible policy of interference by some States in the affairs of others, he pointed out, while also describing the text as “unrefined” in its description of the Lake Chad Basin situation as a “conflict”, when, in fact, it was of a counter-terrorism nature.
Egypt’s delegate also underlined the need for full participation by all Council members, notably those from Africa, when discussing issues on the continent. The Council must take the concerns and proposals of all countries on board to avoid unacceptable interference in internal State affairs, he added.
The United Kingdom’s representative added: “We will fail the people of the region if we do not respond to what we saw.”
Also speaking were representatives of Japan, Ethiopia, Bolivia and China.
The meeting began at 1:18 p.m. and ended at 1:55 p.m.
FODÉ SECK (Senegal) welcomed the resolution as “the first of its kind” on the Lake Chad Basin, saying it testified to the Council’s pledge to support countries combating the Boko Haram terrorist movement, and in so doing, resolve the humanitarian crisis. It also arrived on the heels of the Council’s visit to Cameroon, Chad, Niger and Nigeria from 2 to 7 March. Noting that the region had faced a security and humanitarian crisis since the advent of Boko Haram in 2009, he said the resolution invited continued action against that group through the Multinational Joint Task Force. Noting that bilateral and multilateral efforts had helped the Task Force boost its logistical, mobility, communications, equipment and intelligence capacities, he called for contributions to its trust fund, requesting that the $400,000 pledged at the Oslo Conference be urgently disbursed. The resolution encouraged Governments to enhance coordination, and for the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), the Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS) and the Lake Chad Basin Commission to devise a joint strategy to tackle the causes behind Boko Haram’s existence.
AMR ABDELLATIF ABOULATTA (Egypt), expressing support for the text, said it underscored the importance of sovereignty, while staying within the Council’s mandate. It also expressed the Council’s solidarity with countries in their efforts against Boko Haram, despite limited capacity, the complex military environment and the severity of the humanitarian crisis. Negotiations had demonstrated the imperative of improving the Council’s working methods regarding consultations on draft resolutions, he said, emphasizing the need to uphold transparency and allow full participation by all members — whether permanent or non-permanent, and notably African members — when discussing issues relating to the continent. The Council must maintain transparent communications on any draft resolution with all countries concerned, taking their concerns and proposals on board, he said, underlining, especially, the need to avoid unacceptable interference in the internal affairs of States and to keep abreast of realities on the ground.
KORO BESSHO (Japan) said the resolution’s unanimous adoption marked a milestone in the Council’s increased attention to the Lake Chad Basin. Describing terrorism, trafficking, food insecurity and climate change as issues that could not be solved individually, he said the text emphasized that security gains must be paired with efforts to address development, human rights and the root causes of instability. Japan urged building on today’s “foundational” resolution by using a variety of tools to achieve such aims through the United Nations Office for West Africa and the Sahel (UNOWAS), the United Nations Regional Office for Central Africa (UNOCA) and the Peacebuilding Commission, as well as subregional and regional organizations, and bilateral and multilateral support mechanisms.
TEKEDA ALEMU (Ethiopia) said the resolution conveyed the right message following negotiations. Underscoring the impact of climate-change-induced challenges, as well as falling commodity prices on the Lake Chad Basin region, he said there had been little recognition of their severity on the international community’s part. The resolution remained true to the Council’s commitment to the region’s countries, which had enthusiastically welcomed its recent mission and “expect nothing less”, he said. Hopefully, the text would live up to those expectations, he added.
EVGENY ZAGAYNOV (Russian Federation) said his country had supported the resolution in light of the importance of maintaining Council unity on the issue. However, not all its comments and arguments had been taken on board, he said, emphasizing that it was incorrect to describe the Lake Chad Basin situation as a “conflict”. In fact, the Council had designated Boko Haram as a terrorist organization, he recalled, emphasizing that the situation on the ground was, therefore, of a counter-terrorism nature. In addition, the resolution did not recognize the irresponsible policy of interference exercised by some States in the affairs of others — as had been done in Libya. The delegation of the Russian Federation had urged its counterpart not to “rush” the resolution, but the latter had been determined to pass it under the United Kingdom Presidency and had not heeded those warnings, he said, adding that its actions had resulted in an “unrefined” text.
PEDRO LUIS INCHAUSTE JORDÁN (Bolivia) said the resolution aimed to demonstrate support for the Governments of Cameroon, Chad, Niger and Nigeria in their struggle against Boko Haram. Calling on the Council to maintain its unanimity around that issue, and to respect the sovereignty, independence and territorial integrity of those countries, he echoed concerns voiced by other delegates over the Council’s working methods. There had not been enough negotiating time on the resolution, he pointed out, saying he would have preferred to hold two further rounds of talks on its contents.
SHEN BO (China) emphasized the need to respect the sovereignty and territorial integrity of countries in the region, and to help them upgrade their counter-terrorism abilities. Support should also be provided to help the Multinational Joint Task Force improve the humanitarian situation. The Council should pay due attention to any concerns expressed about the draft, reflecting them in the text, so as to achieve maximum consensus.
MATTHEW RYCROFT (United Kingdom), Council President for March, spoke in his national capacity, emphasizing that it was not enough merely to bring attention to the region. “We will fail the people of the region if we do not respond to what we saw.” The resolution made clear the need for the international community and the United Nations to scale up the response to the humanitarian crisis, notably by quickly disbursing funds pledged at the Oslo Conference, supporting the efforts of regional Governments to build an efficient crisis response, addressing economic inequalities and empowering women, especially since Boko Haram exploited men who viewed women as objects. He called for improved bridging of humanitarian and development programmes, as well as greater support for the Task Force, expressing hope for the deployment of United Nations human rights advisers.
TOMMO MONTHE (Cameroon), speaking on behalf of the Lake Chad Basin Commission — comprising also Niger, Nigeria and Chad — said the Council’s unprecedented visit had allowed it to take stock of the nature of Boko Haram, a nebulous terrorist group that used girls as suicide bombers, burned down schools, raided cattle and ambushed both soldiers and civilians. The Council had witnessed national military, humanitarian, diplomatic and other efforts to counter the group, he said, underlining: “We are fighting against terrorism.” Indeed, Boko Haram was associated with Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (ISIL/Da’esh), he pointed out. Given the humanitarian, economic, political, social and military costs of the crisis, regional countries understood that the military response, though essential, should be part of a holistic approach, he said, stressing that each State must adopt and implement measures to tackle the causes and consequences of the current situation.
Welcoming the text’s mention of national development plans, he said the Commission had stepped up cooperation with ECCAS and ECOWAS. While the Multilateral Joint Task Force had reduced Boko Haram’s military capacity, the group was not asleep, he cautioned. It continued to carry out suicide bombings, abductions and ambushes. Hopefully, today’s resolution would mark the start of more decisive support for the Task Force and regional initiatives, as well as to Lake Chad Basin countries forced to curtail spending on education, health and other services. He welcomed paragraphs 33 and 34 of the text, on a joint visit by the Secretary-General, the Chairperson of the African Union Commission, the President of the World Bank Group and the President of the African Development Bank, expressing hope that the Secretary-General’s report would be bold and focused on the most appropriate solutions.
ANTHONY BOSAH (Nigeria), associating himself with the Lake Chad Basin Commission, said his country had expectations that, when military gains were made at the present critical juncture, the international community would continue to engage the Government of Nigeria in efforts to protect civilians and resolve the humanitarian situation. He said he looked forward to a constructive approach from the Council, emphasizing that Nigeria was resolute in its efforts to defeat terrorism and had put a human-rights-based strategy in place to achieve that aim.
He went on to state that a Presidential Committee had been empowered to coordinate various efforts. Nigeria continued to advance existing legal and institutional frameworks to attain humanitarian effectiveness. It was providing food, health care and access to water for those in need, and engaging religious leaders as a way to discourage young people from becoming radicalized. Stressing that the people of the Lake Chad Basin needed United Nations support, he said it was time to provide comprehensive assistance, including help with peacebuilding. Noting that the shrinking of Lake Chad had exacerbated the hardship, with cross-border knock-on effects making it more difficult for Governments to meet people’s needs, he called for spirited efforts to alleviate human suffering, reiterating that the region’s future lay in the security and stability of the resources around Lake Chad.
The full text of resolution 2349 (2017) reads as follows:
“The Security Council,
“Recalling its previous resolutions and presidential statements on counter-terrorism, conflict prevention in Africa, the protection of civilians, women, peace and security, children and armed conflict, and on the United Nations Office for West Africa and the Sahel (UNOWAS) and the United Nations Regional Office for Central Africa (UNOCA),
“Recalling its visit to the Lake Chad Basin region (the region) from 2 to 7 March 2017 to engage in dialogue with the Governments of Cameroon, Chad, Niger, and Nigeria, displaced persons, security and humanitarian personnel, civil society including women’s organizations, and regional bodies,
“Affirming its solidarity and full support for the conflict-affected populations of the region including displaced and host communities who are suffering from the ongoing security crisis, humanitarian emergency and development deficits resulting from the violence by terrorist groups Boko Haram and the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (ISIL, also known as Da’esh), and its solidarity with the respective Governments in their efforts to address these urgent needs, whilst addressing adverse economic conditions,
“Affirming its strong commitment to the sovereignty, independence, unity and territorial integrity of Cameroon, Chad, Niger and Nigeria,
“Recognizing the determination and ownership of the Governments in the region, as well as subregional and regional organizations, to address the impact of Boko Haram and ISIL,
“Expressing grave concern at the ongoing terrorist attacks perpetrated by Boko Haram and ISIL, and the dire humanitarian situation across the region caused by the activities of Boko Haram, including large-scale displacement, and the risk of famine in north-east Nigeria,
“Reaffirming that terrorism in all forms and manifestations constitutes one of the most serious threats to international peace and security and that any acts of terrorism are criminal and unjustifiable regardless of their motivations, whenever and by whomever committed, and remaining determined to contribute further to enhancing the effectiveness of the overall effort to fight this scourge on a global level,
“Expressing deep concern that terrorist groups benefiting from transnational organized crime and trafficking in all forms may contribute to undermining affected States, specifically their security, stability, governance, social and economic development, and recognizing the connection between trafficking in persons, sexual violence and terrorism and other transnational organized criminal activities, which can prolong and exacerbate conflict and instability or intensify its impact on civilian populations,
“Recognizing that security, development and human rights are interlinked and mutually reinforcing and are vital to an effective and comprehensive approach to countering terrorism, stabilization and reconciliation,
“Welcoming the commitment expressed by the Governments in the region to combat Boko Haram, in order to create a safe and secure environment for civilians, enable the return of internally displaced persons and refugees, facilitate stabilization, and enable access for humanitarian organizations, in accordance with the African Union Peace and Security Council’s mandate, commending the important territorial advances by the Governments in the region against Boko Haram, including through the Multinational Joint Task Force which has contributed to the liberation of hostages, the arrest of Boko Haram members, and an increase in the number of defectors, and further paying tribute to all those who have lost lives in the fight against Boko Haram,
“Recognizing the threat posed by terrorist groups Boko Haram and ISIL, and recalling that Boko Haram has been designated as associated with Al-Qaida by the 1267/1989/2253 ISIL (Da’esh) and Al-Qaida Sanctions Committee (the Committee),
“Underscoring the need for a holistic, comprehensive approach to degrade and defeat Boko Haram and ISIL that includes coordinated security operations, conducted in accordance with applicable international law, as well as enhanced civilian efforts to improve governance, promote development and economic growth in affected areas, tackle radicalization, and ensure women’s empowerment and protection,
“Recognizing the interconnectedness of the challenges facing the Lake Chad Basin and the wider Sahel region and encouraging greater regional and international coherence in addressing these challenges,
Security, Protection of Civilians and Human Rights
“1. Strongly condemns all terrorist attacks, violations of international humanitarian law and abuses of human rights by Boko Haram and ISIL in the region, including those involving killings and other violence against civilians, notably women and children, abductions, pillaging, child, early and forced marriage, rape, sexual slavery and other sexual and gender-based violence, and recruitment and use of children, including increasingly the use of girls as suicide bombers, and destruction of civilian property, and calls for those responsible for these acts to be held accountable, and brought to justice;
“2. Recalls the Communiqués of the African Union Peace and Security Council on Boko Haram, including from the 484th meeting, recognizes the continued support of the African Union to the Multinational Joint Task Force, and calls for the Member States of the Lake Chad Basin Commission and Benin to continue their efforts in the fight against Boko Haram and implementation of the communiqués; further acknowledging the need for an effective and strategic relationship between the African Union Peace and Security Council and the Security Council, to enable both institutions to support stability and development in the Lake Chad Basin;
“3. Encourages Governments in the region to sustain momentum, further enhance regional military cooperation and coordination, comply with obligations under international humanitarian and human rights law, secure the conditions to enable safe, timely and unhindered humanitarian access, facilitate the restoration of civilian security and the rule of law in areas restored to Government control, and guarantee free movement of goods and persons; and further encourages regional collaboration on the implementation of the 2016 Abuja Regional Security Summit conclusions and strengthened cooperation under the auspices of a third Regional Security Summit in 2018, including with respect to post-conflict stabilization and recovery;
“4. Welcomes the multilateral and bilateral support provided to the military efforts in the region and encourages greater support to strengthen the operational capability of the Multinational Joint Task Force to further the region’s efforts to combat Boko Haram and ISIL, which may include appropriate, logistical, mobility and communications assistance, equipment, as well as modalities to increase effective information sharing as appropriate, given the complex environment in which they operate and the evolving tactics of Boko Haram and ISIL, as well as training, including on sexual and gender-based violence, gender and child protection;
“5. Calls for the urgent deployment of the remaining Multinational Joint Task Force civilian personnel, including Human Rights Advisers through the African Union, and a dedicated Gender Adviser, and for the pledges made at the African Union donor conference of 1 February 2015 in support of the Multinational Joint Task Force to be promptly fulfilled, encourages the African Union to disperse funds provided for the Multinational Joint Task Force by key partners, further encourages Member States to contribute generously to the African Union Trust Fund, and requests the Secretary-General to advocate strongly with the international community and donors in support of this effort;
“6. Reiterates its call on Member States to move vigorously and decisively to cut the flows of funds and other financial assets and economic resources to individuals, groups, undertakings and entities on the ISIL and Al-Qaida Sanctions List, including Boko Haram, reiterates its readiness to consider listing individuals, groups, undertakings and entities providing support to Boko Haram, including those who are financing, arming, planning or recruiting for Boko Haram, and in this regard encourages all Member States to submit to the Committee listing requests for individuals, groups, undertakings and entities supporting Boko Haram;
“7. Calls upon the countries of the region to prevent, criminalize, investigate, prosecute and ensure accountability of those who engage in transnational organized crime, in particular in arms trafficking and trafficking in persons;
“8. Calls upon relevant United Nations entities, including UNOCA, UNOWAS, and the United Nations Office to the African Union to redouble their support for Governments in the region, as well as subregional and regional organizations, to address the impact of Boko Haram and ISIL violence on the peace and stability of the region, including by addressing the conditions conducive to the spread of terrorism, and violent extremism that can be conducive to terrorism, in line with the United Nations Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy, and to conduct and gather gender-sensitive research and data collection on the drivers of radicalization for women, and the impacts of counter-terrorism strategies on women’s human rights and women’s organizations, in order to develop targeted and evidence-based policy and programming responses;
“9. Calls upon Member States to ensure that any measures taken to counter terrorism comply with all their obligations under international law, in particular, international human rights law, international refugee law and international humanitarian law; and further encourages Governments in the region to consider, in discussion with communities, the potential impact of operations against and security responses to Boko Haram and ISIL on people’s livelihoods, and freedom of movement;
“10. Expresses regret at the tragic loss of life in the January 2017 Rann incident, welcomes the commitment expressed by relevant Nigerian authorities to investigate and ensure accountability for those responsible, and calls for transparency on the findings of the investigation report and action taken;
“11. Expresses concern about the protection needs of civilians in the region affected by the scourge of terrorism, including those resulting from sexual exploitation and abuse, extra-judicial killings, arbitrary detention, torture, and recruitment and use of children in violation of international law; and welcomes initial steps taken such as the deployment of female members of the security services to internally displace persons camps where sexual exploitation and abuse has been reported or confirmed;
“12. Reiterates the primary responsibility of Member States to protect civilian populations on their territories, in accordance with their obligations under international law, and calls on all Governments in the region, and as relevant the United Nations and other actors, to prioritize human rights protection concerns including through: greater cooperation by concerned Governments with the Office of United Nations the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) and the Offices of the Special Representatives on Sexual Violence in Conflict and Children and Armed Conflict; taking urgent measures to prevent arbitrary arrest and detention and ensure that persons deprived of liberty are treated in accordance with international law; enhanced capacity and responsiveness of national human rights mechanisms across the region; and taking measures to increase the number of women in the security sector;
“13. Emphasizes the importance of strengthening cross-border judicial cooperation in identifying and prosecuting perpetrators of human rights violations and abuses, as well as the most serious crimes, such as sexual and gender-based violence; calls on Governments in the region to provide rapid access for survivors of abduction and sexual violence to specialized medical and psychosocial services, and community reintegration, to prevent stigmatization and persecution, and encourages the international community to extend its support in this regard; urges the prompt investigation of all allegations of abuse, including sexual abuse, and holding those responsible accountable; and encourages the creation of a timeline for transferral of camp management to civilian structures to ensure the civilian nature of internally displaced persons sites, whilst taking due consideration of the security situation in these sites;
“14. Urges Governments in the region to ensure women’s full and equal participation in national institutions and mechanisms for the prevention and resolution of conflicts, including in the development of strategies to counter Boko Haram and ISIL, welcomes initial efforts in the region to address women’s representation such as the 25-per-cent quota for elected offices in Niger, and strongly encourages the further development, implementation and funding of National Action Plans on Women, Peace and Security by Cameroon, Chad, Niger and Nigeria; and encourages all regional organizations engaged in peace and security efforts in the region to ensure that gender analysis and women’s participation are integrated into their assessments, planning and operations;
“15. Welcomes the efforts of Governments in the region and of regional and subregional organizations, as well as the hospitality provided by host communities for the millions of displaced people, the majority of whom are women and children, who are uniquely impacted, and urges Governments in the region, donors and relevant international non-governmental organizations to urgently redouble their efforts and ensure close coordination, including between development and humanitarian actors, in particular to enhance early recovery, food security, improve living conditions, and increase livelihood opportunities;
“16. Urges all parties to the conflict to ensure respect for and protection of humanitarian personnel, facilities, and their means of transport and equipment, and to facilitate safe, timely and unhindered access for humanitarian organizations to deliver lifesaving aid to affected people, and in particular in the case of Governments, where applicable, through facilitating bureaucratic and administrative procedures such as the expediting of outstanding registrations, and importation of humanitarian supplies, and further calls upon Governments in the region to increase collaboration with United Nations partners including through more effective civilian-military coordination mechanisms;
“17. Welcomes the $458 million in humanitarian assistance pledged at the Oslo conference for 2017 and urges swift disbursement of these funds to prevent further deterioration of the humanitarian crisis and to begin to address endemic development needs; and strongly encourages all other/non-traditional donors to contribute in line with the needs highlighted in the 2017 Humanitarian Response Plans of each country;
“18. Further welcomes the Government of Nigeria’s announcement of its 2017 spending plans for north-east Nigeria which project total federal and state government expenditure of $1 billion on development and humanitarian activities, and urges swift implementation of these plans;
“19. Welcomes the scaling up of the United Nations response, especially in north-east Nigeria, and calls for further deployment of experienced staff, measures to reduce staff turnover, and strong coordination, including through creation of civil-military coordination guidelines, provision of training to further improve coordination between armed forces and humanitarian personnel, coordination across borders and the development of multi-year prioritized plans; and further calls on all humanitarian organizations to ensure programming is gender-sensitive, based on strengthening resilience within communities and developed based on the need of, and where possible in consultation with affected people and local organizations;
“20. Urges relevant national and through them local authorities to ensure that resources dedicated to the humanitarian effort are directed to those most in need;
“21. Calls upon Governments in the region to ensure that the return of refugees and internally displaced persons to their areas of origin is voluntary, based on informed decisions, and in safety and dignity; urges relevant national and local authorities to work cooperatively with displaced persons and host communities, to prevent secondary displacement of affected populations, and to take all necessary steps to respond to the humanitarian needs of host communities, and encourages the international community to extend its support in this regard; welcomes the signing by the Governments of Nigeria and Cameroon, and the Office of United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), of the tripartite agreement on 2 March 2017 on the voluntary repatriation of Nigerian refugees, and urges its swift and complete implementation;
Root Causes and Development
“22. Calls upon the Governments in the region to take further measures to address social, political, economic and gender inequalities, and environmental challenges, and to develop strategies to counter the violent extremist narrative that can incite terrorist acts, and address the conditions conducive to the spread of violent extremism, which can be conducive to terrorism, including by empowering youth, families, women, religious, cultural and education leaders, in order to help address the conditions which have enabled the emergence and survival of Boko Haram and ISIL;
“23. Recognizes the complex challenges faced by the region and welcomes the development of programmes by the respective Governments to help build and sustain peace by addressing the root causes of the crisis, namely the ‘Buhari Plan’ of Nigeria, the Programme ‘Renaissance’ of Niger, the ‘Recovery Road Map’ the Special Youth Triennial Programme of Cameroon, the ‘Vision 2030: the Chad we want’ of Chad, and the Lake Chad Development and Climate Resilience Action Plan of the Lake Chad Basin Commission; calls upon respective Governments to strengthen their coordination and prioritization within these programmes to enable effective implementation, and calls upon international partners to extend their support in this regard;
“24. Calls upon Governments in the region, including through the support of the international community, to support early recovery activities and long-term investment in vital services such as health care and education, agriculture, infrastructure such as the safe trade corridor and livelihoods, social cohesion, good governance, and the rule of law, to enhance longer-term recovery and resilience of populations, particularly for the areas with the most pressing need;
“25. Encourages the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) and the Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS), together with the Lake Chad Basin Commission, to develop a comprehensive and common strategy that effectively addresses the drivers that contributed to the emergence of Boko Haram and ISIL, with a particular focus on longer term development needs; and further urges the two subregional organizations to convene their planned summit on Boko Haram to adopt a common strategy and develop active cooperation and coordination mechanisms;
“26. Recognizes the adverse effects of climate change and ecological changes among other factors on the stability of the region, including through water scarcity, drought, desertification, land degradation, and food insecurity, and emphasizes the need for adequate risk assessments and risk management strategies by governments and the United Nations relating to these factors;
“27. Acknowledges the important contribution of civil society, in particular women’s and youth organizations, to conflict prevention, conflict resolution, and peacebuilding and humanitarian efforts in the region, and encourages greater dialogue between respective Governments and civil society, as well as support;
“28. Calls upon the United Nations and its partners to make further progress towards the implementation of the United Nations Integrated Strategy for the Sahel (UNISS) in order to address comprehensively the security, political and developmental challenges and the underlying root causes and drivers of instability and conflicts in the Sahel region;
Disarmament, Demobilization, Rehabilitation and Reintegration, and Accountability
“29. Encourages Governments in the region, in collaboration with regional and subregional organizations, relevant United Nations entities and other relevant stakeholders, and in the context of this resolution, to develop and implement a regional and coordinated strategy that encompasses transparent, inclusive, human rights-compliant disarmament, demobilization, de-radicalization, rehabilitation and reintegration initiatives, in line with strategies for prosecution, where appropriate, for persons associated with Boko Haram and ISIL, drawing upon regional and international best practice and lessons learned; and urges relevant national and through them local actors, to develop and implement appropriate plans for the disarmament, demobilization, reintegration, and where appropriate prosecution of the Civilian Joint Task Force and other community-based security groups;
“30. Stresses the need to pay particular attention to the treatment and reintegration of women and children formerly associated with Boko Haram and ISIL, including through the signing and implementing of protocols for the rapid handover of children suspected of having association with Boko Haram to relevant civilian child protection actors, as well as access for child protection actors to all centres holding children, in accordance with applicable international obligations, and the best interests of the child;
“31. Urges Governments in the region to develop and implement consistent policies for promoting defections from Boko Haram and ISIL and for deradicalizing and reintegrating those who do defect, and to ensure that there is no impunity for those responsible for terrorist acts, and abuses and violations of international human rights and violations of humanitarian law; and invites the international community to extend its support to the Governments in the region in developing and implementing their disarmament, demobilization, rehabilitation and reintegration strategies and policies;
“32. Calls upon concerned governments to urgently develop and implement, consistent with international law, in particular international human rights law, international refugee law and international humanitarian law as applicable, vetting criteria and processes allowing for the prompt assessment of all persons who have been associated with Boko Haram and ISIL in the custody of authorities, including persons captured or surrendered to authorities, or who are found in refugee or internally displaced persons camps, and to ensure that children are treated in accordance with international law; and encourages Governments in the region, within the context of this resolution, to prosecute those responsible for terrorist acts, where appropriate, and to develop both rehabilitation programmes in custodial settings for detained terrorist suspects and sentenced persons, and reintegration programmes to assist persons either released from custody having served their sentence or those who have completed a rehabilitation programme in an alternative setting, in order to facilitate reintegration into their communities;
“33. Encourages the Secretary-General, with a view to enhancing collaboration and responsibility among relevant entities and mobilizing resources for the region, to make a high level visit to the region, and invites him to consider undertaking a joint visit with the World Bank, Chairperson of the African Union Commission, the President of the World Bank Group, and the President of the African Development Bank, to strengthen the focus on and commitment to the region of the international community;
“34. Requests the Secretary-General to produce a written report within five months on the United Nations’ assessment of the situation in the Lake Chad Basin Region as it relates to elements of this resolution, particularly regarding the progress made and remaining challenges, and possible measures for consideration, including with respect to achieving greater coherence of efforts in the context of overlapping regional strategies, and thereafter to include these elements in regular reporting by UNOCA and UNOWAS.”