22 September 2016
7775th Meeting (AM)

Adopting Resolution 2309 (2016), Security Council Calls for Closer Collaboration to Ensure Safety of Global Air Services, Prevent Terrorist Attacks

Speakers Stress Importance of Information-Sharing, Capacity-Building, Technical Aid

During a ministerial meeting on countering the ongoing danger posed by terrorism to civil aviation, the Security Council this morning called on all States to work with each other and the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) to continuously adapt measures to meet that “ever-evolving global threat”.

Unanimously adopting resolution 2309 (2016) after a briefing by the Secretary General of the ICAO, Fang Liu, the Council affirmed States’ responsibility to ensure the safety of air services operating within their territory and called on all States to work within the ICAO to ensure that international security standards were reviewed, updated, adapted and put in place based on current risks, following the Chicago Convention on aviation security.

Along with enhanced screening, security checks and facility security, the Council called for strengthened cooperation and information-sharing among States and a requirement that airlines provide advance passenger information to national authorities in order to track the movement of individuals identified by the counter-terrorism committees.  Regional and international cooperation on border control, law-enforcement and criminal justice was also underlined.

Through the text, the Council urged States with the means to do so to assist in capacity development, including training and technology transfer, to enable other States to fulfil their obligations under the resolution.  It urged all States to ensure cooperation among their domestic departments, agencies and other entities, and encouraged continued close cooperation between ICAO and the Counter-Terrorism Executive Directorate (CTED) on identifying gaps and vulnerabilities in aviation security.

In her briefing, Ms. Liu said, “The high-profile attacks in Brussels and Istanbul earlier this year were a tragic reminder of enormous challenges […].  But they also showed the resilience and responsiveness of the global civil aviation network,” she said.  Outlining her organization’s extensive work in formulating standards and assisting States in implementing them, she highlighted challenges in national coordination and in adapting measures to meet evolving threats.

“The Security Council’s focus will serve to heighten the efforts by the global community on aviation security, encourage intensified political engagement by the States to effectively implement ICAO’s security standards and to support ICAO’s technical assistance activities to States in need,” she added.

In their statements this morning, Council members agreed that civil aviation remained an attractive target for terrorists and that cooperation must be increased to continuously strengthen security throughout the global air network, under the framework provided by ICAO and the Chicago Convention.  They agreed with the importance of information-sharing, cooperation in capacity-building and technical assistance as well.

Most speakers, in addition, praised the focus on civil aviation in a stand-alone resolution.  While also appreciating the value of Council action in raising awareness of the issue, the representative of Egypt said before the vote that the timing of the adoption only days before the ICAO triennial assembly meeting could insinuate a desire to interfere with the organization’s affairs.

Also speaking this morning were ministers, secretaries and representatives of the United Kingdom, United States, France, Senegal, Malaysia, Ukraine, New Zealand, Spain, China, Russian Federation, Japan, Venezuela, Uruguay and Angola.

The meeting began at 10:12 a.m. and ended at 12:16 p.m.


The full text of resolution 2309 (2016) reads as follows:

The Security Council,

Reaffirming that terrorism in all forms and manifestations constitutes one of the most serious threats to international peace and security and that any acts of terrorism are criminal and unjustifiable regardless of their motivations, whenever, wherever and by whomsoever committed, and remaining determined to contribute further to enhancing the effectiveness of the overall effort to fight this scourge on a global level,

Noting with concern that the terrorism threat has become more diffuse, with an increase, in various regions of the world, of terrorist acts including those motivated by intolerance or violent extremism, and expressing its determination to combat this threat,

Reaffirming its commitment to the sovereignty, including sovereignty over the airspace above a State’s territory, territorial integrity and political independence of all States in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations,

Recognizing the vital importance of the global aviation system to economic development and prosperity, and of all States strengthening aviation security measures to secure a stable and peaceful global environment, and further recognizing that secure air services in this regard enhance transportation, connectivity, trade, political and cultural links between States, and that public confidence in the security of air transport is vital,

Noting that the global nature of aviation means that States are dependent on the effectiveness of each others’ aviation security systems for the protection of their citizens and nationals and relevant aspects of their national security, bearing in mind the common goal of the international community in this regard, which means States are dependent on each other to provide a common secure aviation environment,

Expressing concern that terrorist groups continue to view civil aviation as an attractive target, with the aim of causing substantial loss of life, economic damage and disruption to connectivity between States, and that the risk of terrorist attacks against civil aviation may affect all regions and Member States,

Expressing grave concern over terrorist attacks against civil aviation and strongly condemning such attacks,

Also expressing concern that civil aviation may be used as a transportation means by Foreign Terrorist Fighters, and noting in this regard that Annex 9 — Facilitation to the Convention on International Civil Aviation, done at Chicago on December 7, 1944 (the “Chicago Convention”) contains standards and recommended practices relevant to the detection and prevention of terrorist threats involving civil aviation,

Reaffirming that terrorist attacks against civil aviation, like any act of international terrorism, constitute a threat to international peace and security, and that any acts of terrorism are criminal and unjustifiable regardless of their motivations, whenever, wherever, and by whomsoever committed, and reaffirming the need to combat by all means threats to international peace and security caused by terrorist acts, in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations and other international law, in particular international human rights law, international refugee law, and international humanitarian law,

Expressing particular concern that terrorist groups are actively seeking ways to defeat or circumvent aviation security, looking to identify and exploit gaps or weaknesses where they perceive them, noting in this regard the high priority risk areas for aviation as identified by the Council of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), in its Global Risk Context Statement, and stressing the need for international aviation security measures to keep pace with the evolution of this threat,

Affirming the role of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) as the United Nations organization responsible for developing international aviation security standards, monitoring their implementation by States and its role in assisting States in complying with these standards, noting in this regard ICAO’s “no country left behind” initiative, and noting also the adoption at the 37th Session of the ICAO Assembly in 2010 of the Declaration on Aviation Security and the ICAO Comprehensive Aviation Security Strategy, both of which have become key instruments of leadership and engagement for the Organization in carrying out its aviation security programme, and noting the intention to develop a Global Aviation Security Plan as the future global framework for progressive aviation security enhancement,

Noting that the protection of civil aviation from acts of unlawful interference is addressed by the Convention on Offences and Certain Other Acts Committed on Board Aircraft (Tokyo, 1963), by the Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Seizure of Aircraft (The Hague, 1970), by the Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts Against the Safety of Civil Aviation (Montréal, 1971), by the Protocol for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts of Violence at Airports Serving International Civil Aviation, Supplementary to the Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts Against the Safety of Civil Aviation (Montréal, 1988), by the Convention on the Marking of Plastic Explosives for the Purpose of Detection (Montréal, 1991), by the Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts Relating to International Civil Aviation (Beijing, 2010), by the Protocol Supplementary to the Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Seizure of Aircraft (Beijing, 2010), by the Protocol to Amend the Convention on Offences and Certain Other Acts Committed on Board Aircraft (Montréal, 2014) and by bilateral agreements for the suppression of such acts,

Reaffirming its call upon all States to become party to the relevant international counter-terrorism conventions and protocols as soon as possible, whether or not they are a party to regional conventions on the matter, and to fully implement their obligations under those to which they are a party,

“1.   Affirms that all States have the responsibility to protect the security of citizens and nationals of all nations against terrorist attacks on air services operating within their territory, in a manner consistent with existing obligations under international law;

“2.   Affirms also that all States have an interest to protect the safety of their own citizens and nationals against terrorist attacks conducted against international civil aviation, wherever these may occur, in accordance with international law, including international human rights law and international humanitarian law;

“3.   Notes that Annex 17 — Security to the Convention on International Civil Aviation, done at Chicago on December 7, 1944 (the “Chicago Convention”), provides that contracting States shall develop and implement regulations, practices, and procedures to safeguard civil aviation against acts of unlawful interference and to ensure that such measures are capable of responding rapidly to meet any increased security threat, and further notes that Annex 17 to the Chicago Convention establishes additional standards to safeguard international civil aviation against unlawful interference, to which contracting States shall conform in accordance with the Chicago Convention, and that Annex 17 to the Chicago Convention also provides recommended practices, and that both standards and recommended practices are supported by detailed guidance on their effective implementation;

“4.   Welcomes and supports the work of ICAO to ensure that all such measures are continuously reviewed and adapted to meet the ever-evolving global threat picture, and calls upon ICAO, within its mandate, to continue and enhance its efforts to establish compliance with international aviation security standards through effective implementation on the ground, and to assist Member States in this regard;

“5.   Calls upon all States to work within ICAO to ensure that its international security standards are reviewed and adapted to effectively address the threat posed by terrorist targeting of civil aviation, to strengthen and promote the effective application of ICAO standards and recommended practices in Annex 17, and to assist ICAO to continue to enhance audit, capacity development and training programmes in order to support their implementation;

“6.   Further calls upon all States, as part of their efforts to prevent and counter terrorist threats to civil aviation and acting consistent with relevant international legal instruments and framework documents, to:

(a)   Ensure that effective, risk-based measures are in place at the airports within their jurisdiction, including through enhancing screening, security checks, and facility security, to detect and deter terrorist attacks against civil aviation and to review and assess such measures regularly and thoroughly to ensure that they reflect the ever-evolving threat picture and are in accordance with ICAO standards and recommended practices;

(b)   Take all necessary steps to ensure that these measures are effectively implemented on the ground on a continuing and sustainable basis, including through the provision of the required resources, the use of effective quality control and oversight processes, and the promotion of an effective security culture within all organizations involved in civil aviation;

(c)   Ensure that such measures take into account the potential role of those with privileged access to areas, knowledge or information that may assist terrorists in planning or conducting attacks;

(d)   Urgently address any gaps or vulnerabilities that may be highlighted by ICAO or national self-risk assessment or audit processes;

(e)   Strengthen security screening procedures and maximize the promotion, utilization and sharing of new technologies and innovative techniques that maximize the capability to detect explosives and other threats, as well as strengthening cooperation and collaboration and sharing experience in regards to developing security check technologies;

(f)   Further engage in dialogue on aviation security and cooperate by sharing information, to the extent possible, about threats, risks, and vulnerabilities, by collaborating on specific measures to address them and by facilitating, on a bilateral basis, mutual assurance about the security of flights between their territories;

(g)   Require that airlines operating in their territories provide advance passenger information to the appropriate national authorities in order to detect the departure from their territories, or attempted entry into or transit through their territories, by means of civil aircraft, of individuals designated by the Committee  pursuant to resolutions 1267 (1999), 1989 (2011) and 2253 (2015);

“7.   Urges States able to do so to assist in the delivery of effective and targeted capacity development, training and other necessary resources, technical assistance, technology transfers and programmes, where it is needed to enable all States to achieve the outcomes set out above, in particular with regards to paragraphs 6 (b) and 6 (e);

“8.   Calls upon all States to strengthen their international and regional cooperation to strengthen information-sharing, border control, law enforcement and criminal justice to better counter the threat posed by foreign terrorist fighters and returnees;

“9.   Urges all States to ensure that all their relevant domestic departments, agencies and other entities work closely and effectively together on matters of aviation security;

“10.  Encourages continued cooperation between ICAO and the Counter-Terrorism Executive Directorate (CTED) on identifying gaps and vulnerabilities relevant to aviation security, welcomes also the cooperation between ICAO and the Counter-Terrorism Implementation Task Force to facilitate the delivery of technical assistance and capacity building in the field of aviation security, encourages closer cooperation between ICAO and the Counter-Terrorism Committee and CTED, and requests CTED to continue to work with ICAO to address aviation security in all relevant CTED activities and reports, in particular country assessments;

“11.  Requests the Counter-Terrorism Committee (CTC) to hold a Special Meeting within 12 months, in cooperation with ICAO, on the issue of terrorist threats to civil aviation, and invites the Secretary-General of ICAO and the Chair of the CTC to brief the Council on the outcomes of this meeting in 12 months time;

“12.  Decides to remain seized of the matter.”


FANG LIU, Secretary-General of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), said that her organization had been contributing to the implementation of the Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy and relevant Security Council resolutions since 2006, as one of the 38 entities on the Strategy’s Task Force.  Established in 1944 upon the signing of the Convention on International Civil Aviation in Chicago, the so-called “Chicago Convention”, ICAO worked with member States on international aviation standards and recommended practices in support of a safe, efficient, secure, economically sustainable and environmentally responsible sector.  Harmonized regulations helped States, airlines, airports and others to cooperate on managing over 100,000 daily flights, allowing 10 million passengers each day to reach their destinations safely and efficiently.  That volume was expected to double by 2030.

She further described ICAO’s activities in relation to international treaties and assistance in capacity-building, including technical assistance through the “No Country Left Behind” initiative.  The primary aim of security assistance under such programmes was addressing concerns identified through the organization’s audit programme and helping meet security standards, including implementation of traveller identification strategies.  For those purposes a special regional plan for Africa was established in 2015.  ICAO’s security standards covered a comprehensive range of measures, from allocation of responsibilities among agencies to threat and risk assessments, baggage and cargo security, physical security at airports, incident response and international cooperation, among other matters.

“The high-profile attacks in Brussels and Istanbul earlier this year were a tragic reminder of enormous challenges […].  But they also showed the resilience and responsiveness of the global civil aviation network,” she said.  Following those attacks ICAO developed new amendments to security provisions of the Convention aimed at enhancing land-side security at airports, which the ICAO Council was due to adopt in November.  Meanwhile, levels of implementation of security standards were steadily improving at both the global and regional levels, with intensified multilateral cooperation.  “But at the same time, the threat and risk situation remains complex and rapidly evolving, and so too must the security measures to address them,” she said.  The availability of small weapons, improvised explosive devices, portable surface-to-air weapons, drones and other technology were all of growing concern, along with general issues of cybersecurity.

While overall implementation of standards was improving there was much room for progress, she said, particularly among States lacking in national capacity.  Describing the system of aviation security focal points within each country, she stressed that the required coordination was often challenging.  She, therefore, called on States to help ensure that all of their relevant domestic entities worked together closely and effectively.  International assistance aimed to mobilize State’s political will, as well as enhance national capacities.  “The Security Council’s focus will serve to heighten the efforts by the global community on aviation security, encourage intensified political engagement by the States to effectively implement ICAO’s security standards and to support ICAO’s technical assistance activities to States in need,” she added.

The current centrepiece of the ICAO work programme was development of a new Global Aviation Security Plan, she said, which aimed to stimulate progress in all those areas, with targets and objectives tailored to States’ needs and under a strategic framework that offered clarity on security priorities, with time frames for achieving results and consequences when commitments were not delivered.

Action on Draft Resolution

The representative of Egypt, speaking before the vote, expressed concerns about the timing of the vote, which had come only days before the ICAO triennial assembly meeting.  While the current resolution could insinuate a desire to interfere in ICAO affairs, he said, the resolution’s goal was to raise awareness of the gravity of the situation and the threats to civil aviation security, with a reminder of events that had taken place since September 2001.  The threat was indeed real and cooperation must be fostered, with assistance provided as needed, while remembering that ICAO was the global body in charge of those matters.

Egyptian authorities, he said, had received a letter from ICAO in August 2016 indicating the progress the Government had recorded in the field of aviation security.  He hoped other countries would follow a similar path.  Security required a collective effort to counter terrorism, particularly dealing with its root causes.  The world must keep pace with the fast-changing attitudes and means of terrorist groups with the adoption of measures and standards.  Underlining that terrorist goals aimed to economically destabilize countries, he expressed hope that implementation of the resolution would effectively address those and other concerns.

The Council then unanimously adopted resolution 2309 (2016).


BORIS JOHNSON, Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs of the United Kingdom, recalled recent aviation tragedies as evidence of the dire seriousness of threats to international peace and security posed by terrorist organizations.  States depended on each other to provide a secure aviation environment as no country alone could do so.  The resolution had made clear that precautions should adapt to terrorists’ changing tactics.  Targeted capacity development, training and technical help were needed and should be provided, given that protecting civil aviation was vital for all States.  Just as the danger had evolved, so had the response, including taking action against foreign terrorist fighters and cutting off their financing.  “The terrorists will not relent,” he said, “so we will never cease to persevere and thwart their evil designs.”

JEH JOHNSON, Secretary of Homeland Security of the United States, said recent terrorist attacks were a matter of grave concern.  In the United States, the defining moment to aviation security had occurred on 11 September 2001, resulting in the creation of an agency to address air safety and security.  Terrorist organizations continued to view civil aviation as targets and the United States was constantly improving its systems, which had included enhanced security on in-bound flights, more bomb-sniffing dogs and more agents.  Encouraging other nations to follow suit and to increase information-sharing, he said the resolution provided an opportunity to advance global standards to address the evolving terrorist threats.  States must address gaps and vulnerabilities while working swiftly to address concerns about flights between their countries and others.

SÉGOLÈNE ROYAL, Minister for the Environment, Energy and Marine Affairs of France, said terrorists targeting civil aviation had an unfortunately long list of examples, from Entebbe in 1976 to New York in 2001 and others since then, causing thousands of deaths.  Despite steps that had been taken to address those issues, the threats remained constant.  Recent changes included the intensity and global nature of attacks and the methods used by terrorist organizations.  “All of us are linked to one another,” she said, underlining the importance of detecting weak links in the world’s collective armour.  States must move beyond standards as required.  The international community must also mobilize against that global menace and provide, as needed, the technical assistance to fragile States to improve infrastructure to meet international standards.  Air routes must remain reliable, with those States’ economic development relying on ensuring safety and security.  Recalling a national example, she said a recent attack on a train in France had triggered her ministry to establish, among other things, metal detectors and canine brigades in stations.

MANKEUR NDIAYE, Minister for Foreign Affairs and Senegalese Abroad of Senegal, said terrorist attacks posed grave threats to international peace and security, requiring steps to be taken to ensure air safety.  Senegal, for its part, had bolstered aviation security on its territory and airspace with new regulations in line with the Chicago Convention.  The Government had also created a platform for exchanging information with other States to help to address the terrorist threat.  Based on ICAO provisions, national policies had shaped security programmes that were constantly being updated, including quality control and cooperation between States.  Senegal had also followed the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) framework on civil aviation, he said, expressing satisfaction that the Council would remain seized of the matter.

DATO SRI ANIFAH AMAN, Minister for Foreign Affairs of Malaysia, surveying the extent of civil aviation in the current world, concurred with the view that it remained an attractive target for international terrorism, with devastating effects when attacks were successful.  It was, therefore, an issue of international peace and security.  He was pleased to support today’s resolution, which, he commented, could spur further cooperation on the matter, as well as possible updates to the Global Aviation Security Plan by the ICAO assembly beginning early next week.  Recounting that Malaysia had suffered two civil aviation tragedies within four months not ostensibly linked to terrorism, he said that from the experience the country had learned the importance of the immediate provision of expertise and assistance from States and international organizations to determine probable causes.  It had also showed the need for increased preparedness and prevention capacity.  Accordingly, his country had introduced new security measures, improved information-sharing and strengthened the legal and operational framework for aviation security, along with the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN).  He reassured all concerned that Malaysia, alongside all partners, remained committed to bringing closure to all outstanding questions on flights MH370 and MH17, and cooperating with all international efforts to stem the scourge of terrorism.

PAVLO KLIMKIN, Minister for Foreign Affairs of Ukraine, affirming the importance of today’s resolution and surveying action against terrorism over the past 15 years, noted the changing nature of the threats to civil aviation.  There was a persistent need to increase cooperation between States and assist in constantly upgrading protection programmes.  Close cooperation between all agencies and organizations involved should be maintained.  Control of portable missiles and other weapons should be tightened.  His country had experienced terrorist activities in the Donbas region carried out with the direct support of the Russian Federation since 2014.  The downing of Malaysian Airlines Flight MH17 was a potent reminder of the gravity of the threat.  He called for full implementation of resolution 2166 (2014), which demanded accountability be established for that crime.  He strongly supported ICAO initiatives in response to the event, including work on risks to civil aviation arising from conflict zones.  He also called for enhancement of global information-sharing on such threats.  Calling for strict adherence to ICAO standards and practices, he maintained that the Russian Federation had interfered with the air traffic responsibilities delegated to Ukraine since the occupation of Crimea.

MURRAY MCCULLY, Minister for Foreign Affairs of New Zealand, Council President for September, spoke in his national capacity, saying the international community must remain vigilant and the forthcoming ICAO triennial assembly should reflect the Council’s collective views.  A risk-based, tailored approach to security was important for States with limited capacities and lower risk profiles, including many small island developing countries in his region.  Agreeing on standards was only the first step.  Ensuring that they were effectively implemented must follow.  Enhanced security could only be a short-term bandage as there were far greater challenges to address, including the conditions motivating those who commit terrorist acts.  Now, members must reflect on the effectiveness of the Council, given its poor track record of delivering a sustainable solution to major conflicts and the United Nations resources used for peacekeeping and humanitarian support for victims rather than for preventing conflict.  Major improvements to the United Nations machinery, including the Council, were well overdue and Council members had a responsibility to address those matters.

IGNACIO YBAÑEZ, Vice-Minister for Foreign Affairs of Spain, said no State was free from threats to civil aviation and they must work together to ensure safety.  It was critically important to have a joint response, with the same security protocols and codes of conduct.  It was also important to identify vulnerabilities and address related challenges to overcoming them.  Spain supported the resolution and fully backed the work of ICAO, which should maintain its cooperative role.  Given the current realities, the Council, through the resolution, had reminded States to be attentive in that regard.  For its part, Spain had taken a number of steps to bolster national security, including bomb detection systems and passenger recognition processes.  Going forward, all States must abide by the provisions of the resolution.

WU HAITAO (China) said that as the globalization sector advanced, air transport played an important role.  However, terrorist attacks on civil aviation were threatening peace and security.  Efforts should focus on shoring up security measures using a multi-pronged approach, including airport, ground and air safety programmes.  States must, by the resolution, bolster their efforts to improve such measures and international cooperation must be strengthened.  Countries with a more developed aviation sector should offer assistance to other States with less advanced systems.  As ICAO was a technical agency, it should help States in those endeavours.  Terrorist acts that compromised civil aviation should be met with a zero tolerance attitude and global actions against terrorism must be led by the United Nations, based on the Charter’s principles.  For their part, all parties must step up intelligence sharing in an effort to collectively stop terrorist threats.

VITALY I. CHURKIN (Russian Federation) affirmed the importance of today’s resolution in accelerating action to improve international aviation security, stressing that the effort should continue to be led by ICAO.  Clearly incorporating Security Council concerns into the organization’s work, as urged by his country, would enhance international efforts as the threats changed and adopted.  Regular information-sharing should be part of all cooperation, particularly in identifying gaps and providing assistance to States in meeting the highest standards.  Further consolidation of efforts between States was also needed.

In response to the statement by the representative of Ukraine, he said that the representative had deviated from the topic at hand.  On MH17, he said that Ukraine bore responsibility for the tragedy of flight MH17 because it did not properly manage its airspace.  The Russian Federation had agreed with the need to carry out an impartial investigation of the incident with participation by ICAO.  Unfortunately, adequate proposals for that to happen were not forthcoming.  Kyiv, in addition, had violated the ceasefire meant to allow a comprehensive investigation.  In the matter of airspace over Crimea and the Black Sea, he maintained that the Russian Federation was in the best position to provide the services in question.

YOSHIFUMI OKAMURA (Japan) said that the progress had been made in aviation security, but threats remained high.  Today’s resolution provided political momentum to intensify efforts to address them.  Japan, determined to be the seventh largest air transporter, was known for its tireless approach to mitigating the terrorist threats, with the use of the most advanced technology.  In international cooperation, he surveyed assistance that had been provided to African and Asian partners as part of significant counter-terrorism assistance.  Strongly supporting ICAO’s role in aviation security, he said his country had provided it with major funding and had contributed other material.  Under Japan’s leadership of the Group of Seven (G7), an action plan had been developed for aviation security that called on States to strictly abide by the Chicago Convention and its annexes.  The country would strongly support the new aviation security framework, as well as continue its efforts to fight global terrorism.

RAFAEL DARÍO RAMÍREZ CARREÑO (Venezuela) said that he had voted in favour of the resolution due to his country’s commitment to countering the scourge of terrorism around the world.  Concurring with the need to constantly strengthen aviation security, he cautioned, however, that the threat of terrorism should not be used to advance political interests.  Supporting ICAO’s role in aviation security, he highlighted the importance of stronger international and regional cooperation, along with information-sharing and technical assistance.  Meanwhile, the root causes of terrorism and radicalization should be addressed, and the ideologies of terrorism combatted.  All efforts to counter terrorism must be conducted under the United Nations principles and be consistent with human rights law.  Aviation security measures must be implemented in an even-handed, comprehensive manner, including control of dangerous portable weapons.

LUIS BERMÚDEZ (Uruguay) said methods that terrorists had recently adopted had transcended the notion of air piracy, with ground attacks and cyberattacks taking place.  The high number of victims of those attacks was tragic and they had had a devastating economic impact on States and regions.  The Chicago Convention had recognized threats to civil aviation and Uruguay had abided by its provisions and protocols in addition to adopting national legislation to enhance safety and security.  Having committed to other international instruments, Uruguay had established an agency aimed at guaranteeing security on national territory.  Emphasizing that many countries lacked the technical capacity and adequate finances to apply international standards, he said assistance should be provided to them, including technology transfer programmes.  Cooperation was essential in implementing best practices and standards.  The changing and growing challenges generated by terrorist threats could only be tackled collectively.

JULIO HELDER MOURA LUCAS (Angola) said dealing with civil aviation security and terrorist threats was a priority that needed constant attention.  Attacks against civil aviation constituted a threat to international peace and security, regardless of the motivation and aims of its perpetrators.  A more collective response was needed, using common measures.  Practices and procedures should appropriately address any threats to the sector.  For its part, Angola adopted a vast number of measures to verify and monitor the sector by incorporating ICAO guidelines, including efforts aimed at managing airports and planning security programmes.  Enhancing technical cooperation and mitigating threats must be at the centre of efforts to combat terrorist attacks on the sector.

The representative of Ukraine, taking the floor for a second time, responded to the statement made by his counterpart from the Russian Federation.  He said that the Russian Federation’s role in the Donbas conflict in the eastern part of Ukraine had taken place before the downing of the MH17 passenger jet.  With regard to the crash site, he said access had been blocked by officers wearing military uniforms who were not from Ukraine.  He recalled that, in 2015, the Russian Federation had vetoed a resolution on launching an investigation into the crash.

The representative of the Russian Federation, speaking for a second time, responded to the Ukraine delegate’s statement, saying the discussion today was about terrorism, not politically driven topics.

The representative of Ukraine, responding to the statement, said the situation to which he was referring was indeed a case of State-sponsored terrorism.

For information media. Not an official record.