The Security Council today extended for two months the mandate of the United Nations Mission in the Republic of South Sudan (UNMISS), with some members expressing concern over provisions on the potential use of unarmed unmanned aerial systems, sanctions, and technical support establishing a hybrid court to prosecute the perpetrators of mass atrocity crimes in the world’s youngest nation.
By a vote of 13 in favour, zero against, and 2 abstentions (Russian Federation and Venezuela), the Council adopted resolution 2241 (2015) under Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter, extending the Mission’s mandate until 15 December 2015. It acknowledged that the Agreement to resolve the nearly two-year conflict, signed in August, was the first step in reversing the “difficult” political and economic situation, as well as humanitarian and security “catastrophe”.
Against that backdrop, the Council, through the text, emphasized that individuals or entities that threatened the peace, security or stability of South Sudan could be designated for targeted sanctions, pursuant to resolution 2206 (2015). It urged all parties to engage in an open, fully inclusive national dialogue aimed at securing peace, reconciliation and good governance.
In broad terms, the Council authorized the Mission to use “all necessary means” in the protection of civilians, monitoring and investigation of human rights, aid delivery and implementation of monitoring both the ceasefire and the broader Agreement. Specific provisions concerning ceasefire arrangements and broader peace Agreement received the most attention in the chamber.
Through the text, the Council made a series of requests to the Secretary-General, among them, to prioritize the complete deployment of UNMISS personnel to the authorized military and police strength, including tactical military helicopters and unarmed unmanned aerial systems. It also requested the Secretary-General to conduct a mandate review within 45 days, and to provide both an assessment and recommendations for “necessary civilian and force structure capabilities” for UNMISS deployment.
In a much-debated provision, the Council requested the Secretary-General to make available technical assistance to implement Chapter V of the Agreement — including in the setting up of the hybrid court for South Sudan — to the Commission of the African Union and to the Transitional Government of National Unity. In addition, it requested him to report to within six months on such assistance, and similarly, invited the African Union to share information, expressing its intention to assess the work accomplished.
More generally, the Council demanded that the Government of South Sudan comply “fully and without delay” with the Status of Forces Agreement with UNMISS, and that all parties allow the rapid, safe and unhindered access of relief personnel and delivery of humanitarian assistance, and immediately cease from violence.
Speaking after the vote, the representative of South Sudan expressed his dismay that his Government had not been consulted on the text. “It is particularly regretful that issues on which the South Sudan Government had made its position clear have been adopted without regard to the Government’s point of view”, he stated, referring to the deployment of UNMISS personnel to the authorized military and police strength, including tactical military helicopters and unmanned aerial vehicles.
He said that to include those contested issues without consultation was to invite controversy and potential disagreement and hostility. South Sudan desperately needed the Organization’s support for the credible implementation of the peace agreement. It also needed assistance in such areas as building peace, governance capacity and delivering essential services.
Explaining his abstention, the representative of the Russian Federation said the text’s sponsors had failed to consider the serious concerns of his delegation and others. He underscored that he could not agree with an ultimatum regarding sanctions against South Sudan. The goal was to supplement the mandate for facilitating the peace process, not frighten parties with sanctions. Moreover, he could not agree with wording around the hybrid court, as that was a decision of the African Union, and thus, an exclusive prerogative of the African Commission. He was also against forcing South Sudan to use unmanned aerial vehicles despite that country’s wishes.
Along similar lines, the representative of Venezuela said he had abstained, as some provisions diverted attention from the goal of adapting the Mission’s work to the Agreement and enabling negotiations between the Government and the opposition. The resolution should not refer to sanctions and unmanned aerial vehicles, which South Sudan had opposed in safeguarding its sovereignty, and the hybrid court, which could confuse on what the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IAOD) and the African Union had agreed.
Taking a different view, the representative of the United States said the resolution was the start of a process to ensure that UNMISS had the tools it needed to support the Agreement’s implementation. The text had amended the Mission’s mandate so that immediate steps could be taken towards that end. No changes had been made to the core tasks of protecting civilians, monitoring and investigating human rights, and creating conditions for humanitarian assistance to reach those in need.
Rather, he said, the resolution requested recommendations to improve civilian and force structure capabilities. It expressed a commitment to exert pressure on both sides, neither of which had complied with the ceasefire. By providing support to an accountability mechanism, the text had responded to the 26 September request of the Peace and Security Council to assist its efforts to promote justice. The hybrid court could play an important role in that effort.
Also speaking today were the representatives of China, Nigeria and Angola.
The meeting began at 11:22 a.m. and ended at 11:56 a.m.
Statements after Action
PETR V. ILIICHEV (Russian Federation) said that while he had not stood in the way of the adoption, he was not in favour of the text, as its sponsors had failed to consider the serious concerns of his delegation and others. His Government could not agree with the wording as an ultimatum regarding sanctions against South Sudan. The goal was to supplement the United Nations Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS) mandate for facilitating the peace process, not to frighten the parties with sanctions. Yet, instead of diplomacy, some members had preferred to use sanctions. “A political settlement won’t be helped by this,” he said. Parties in South Sudan needed help in implementing the Agreement and the threat of sanctions would only harden positions.
He said the Russian Federation could not agree on the wording around the assessment of the hybrid court, as it was a decision of the African Union, and thus, an exclusive prerogative of the African Commission. He was against forcing South Sudan to use unmanned aerial vehicles despite that country’s wishes. Such actions undermined South Sudan’s sovereignty and that was unacceptable. Furthermore, recommendations of United Nations officials were not obligatory. The Russian Federation had long had concerns about the working methods of some Council members, who had tried push through resolutions against positions of other members. That called for democratization and more openness in the Council’s work.
LIU JIEYI (China) said he had voted in favour of the resolution on adjusting the Mission’s mandate. With efforts by the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD), the parties to the conflict had signed the Agreement to resolve the conflict and the peace process had entered a new stage. He welcomed that development, adding he hoped the resolution would play a constructive role in the achievement of peace and stability in South Sudan. The imperative was to support Intergovernmental Authority and African Union efforts. He urged parties to honour their ceasefire commitments, implement the Agreement on schedule, affirm the Intergovernmental Authority’s lead role and provide assistance to it. On sanctions, he reiterated his position that the Council should show caution. Actions on South Sudan should be conducive to the larger peace process. The concerns of some members had not been met and the Council should have spent more time on broad consultations to maximise efforts to achieve consensus.
U. JOY OGWU (Nigeria) said she had voted in favour of the text acknowledging the Mission’s vital role in stabilizing South Sudan. Its tasks were to protect civilians, facilitate aid delivery, and to support the implementation of the ceasefire and peace agreement — essential tasks that only UNMISS could perform. The resolution had sent a message of support to the Mission to save lives.
RAFAEL DARÍO RAMÍREZ CARREÑO (Venezuela) commended work by South Sudan and regional authorities, as well as brotherly countries seeking African solutions to African problems. UNMISS had been valuable in protecting civilians and delivering humanitarian assistance. Nonetheless, he said he had abstained in the vote, as the text contained elements that unnecessarily diverted attention from the goal of adapting UNMISS’s work to the terms of the Agreement, as well as enabling conditions that would allow the Government and opposition to take part in negotiations. It should not include counterproductive elements, such as references to sanctions and unmanned aerial vehicles, which South Sudan opposed in safeguarding its sovereignty, and the hybrid court, which could confuse what had been agreed between the Intergovernmental Authority and the African Union. He regretted that the Council’s spirit of unity had not been achieved.
DAVID PRESSMAN (United States) said the Council had acted in response to persistent fighting. The resolution was the start of a process to ensure that UNMISS had the tools it needed to support the Agreement’s implementation, which was crucial for ending the cycle of violence. It amended the Mission’s mandate to take immediate steps to support the Agreement. No changes had been made to the core tasks of protecting civilians, monitoring and investigating human rights, and creating conditions for humanitarian assistance to reach those in need. The resolution requested recommendations to improve civilian and force structure capabilities. “This review is essential to better address growing numbers of people in protection camps, and ongoing human rights and international human rights law violations,” he said.
He said the resolution reflected the consensus achieved in a 29 September meeting on South Sudan, when the international community had spoken of the importance of signatories’ support for the Agreement. Some, however, sought to distract. The resolution expressed the commitment to exert pressure on both sides, neither of which had complied with the ceasefire. That was in line with the 26 September Peace and Security Council communiqué. It also made clear shared the responsibility to ensure that UNMISS was equipped to fulfil its mandate, he said, recalling that eight of the Council’s 15 members had troops serving in the Mission. There was a collective duty to ensure the Mission had the tools and technological capabilities to safely conduct its work. By providing support to an accountability mechanism, the text had responded to the 26 September request of Peace and Security Council to assist its efforts to promote justice. Ensuring that perpetrators were punished and victims had access to justice was essential. The hybrid court could play an important role in that effort.
ISMAEL ABRAÃO GASPAR MARTINS (Angola) said the resolution was adopted to reconfigure the mandate of the Mission, taking into account the signing of an agreement between the South Sudanese parties and international stakeholders, in particular with IGAD. The agreement reached was not a perfect document but a base for discussions between the parties. The Council needed to listen closely to the parties in order to be of assistance instead of creating new problems. The vote today expresses support to UNMISS despite different views among Council members, namely the use of unmanned aerial vehicles. The question of sanctions remained sensitive, which must be addressed carefully by the Council. He underlined the importance of Council support for the African Peace and Security Council.
FRANCIS MADING DENG (South Sudan) said that at the critical juncture when the peace agreement was bringing together the parties, he hoped the Council would engage the Government of South Sudan on all matters related to peace, security, protection of populations, human rights and humanitarian issues, and promote close cooperation with the peacekeepers. It was unfortunate that the resolution had been adopted without consultation with the Government.
“It is particularly regretful that issues on which the South Sudan Government had made its position clear have been adopted without regard to the Government’s point of view”, he continued, referring to Operating Paragraph 10, which requested the Secretary-General to prioritize the complete deployment of UNMISS personnel to the authorized military and police strength, including tactical military helicopters and unmanned aerial vehicles. Those were contested issues with the Government. To include them without consultation with the Government was to invite controversy and potential disagreement and hostility.
He said his Government now desperately needed the support of the Organization and the international community for the credible implementation of the peace agreement. It also needed assistance in such areas of building peace, building governance capacity and delivering essential services, among other things. It was time for the United Nations and the international community to engage the Government on this constructive agenda instead of using negative threats of sanctions and punishment.
The full text of resolution 2241 (2015) reads as follows:
“The Security Council,
“Recalling its previous resolutions 1996 (2011), 2046 (2012), 2057 (2012), 2109 (2013), 2132 (2013), 2155 (2014), 2187 (2014), 2206 (2015) and 2223 (2015), and statements by its President S/PRST/2014/16, S/PRST/2014/26 and S/PRST/2015/9,
“Reaffirming its strong commitment to the sovereignty, independence, territorial integrity, and national unity of the Republic of South Sudan, and recalling the importance of the principles of non-interference, good-neighbourliness, and regional cooperation,
“Welcoming the signing of the “Agreement on the Resolution of the Conflict in the Republic of South Sudan” (the “Agreement”) as contained in the annex to S/2015/654, by President Salva Kiir Mayardit, the Sudanese People’s Liberation Movement/Sudanese People’s Liberation Army in Opposition (SPLM/SPLA-IO) Chairman Dr. Riek Machar Teny, Former Detainees representative Mr. Pagan Amum Okiech, and other stakeholders, and recognizing these signatures as a commitment by the parties to implement the Agreement, without exception, and expressing its concern with any statement by any party suggesting a lack of commitment to implement the Agreement, as contained exclusively in the annex to S/2015/654,
“Expressing deep appreciation for the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) Ministerial Group’s initiative in leading the mediation since the onset of the crisis, commending the expanded efforts of the “IGAD-Plus” configuration, involving 19 nations and organizations including the United Nations, as friends of South Sudan from Africa and elsewhere, to develop and achieve a comprehensive solution that has now established a foundation to deliver a peace to South Sudan, and urging enhanced support by the international community during the peace implementation,
“Recalling its resolution 2086 (2013) and reaffirming the basic principles of peacekeeping, including consent of the parties, impartiality, and non-use of force, except in self-defence and defence of the mandate, and recognizing that the mandate of each peacekeeping mission is specific to the need and situation of the country concerned,
“Reiterating its grave alarm and concern regarding the political, security, and humanitarian crisis in South Sudan, resulting from the internal Sudan People’s Liberation Movement (SPLM) political dispute, and subsequent violence caused by the country’s political and military leaders since December 2013,
“Acknowledging that the Agreement is the first step in reversing the difficult political and economic situation, as well as the humanitarian, and security catastrophe resulting from this crisis, and calling upon the parties, with support from the United Nations and the international community, to fully implement the Agreement,
“Calling upon the parties to adhere to the permanent ceasefire immediately, and confirming its intention to move swiftly to update the mandate of the United Nations Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS) to support implementation of key tasks in the Agreement,
“Strongly condemning all human rights violations and abuses and violations of international humanitarian law, including those involving extrajudicial killings, ethnically targeted violence, rape and other forms of sexual and gender-based violence, recruitment and use of children, enforced disappearances, arbitrary arrests and detention, violence aimed at spreading terror among the civilian population, and attacks on schools, places of worship, hospitals, and United Nations and associated peacekeeping personnel, by all parties, including armed groups and national security forces, as well as the incitement to commit such abuses and violations,
“Further condemning harassment and targeting of civil society, humanitarian personnel and journalists, and emphasizing the importance of accountability for those responsible for violations of international humanitarian law and violations and abuses of human rights and that the Government of South Sudan bears the primary responsibility to protect its populations from crimes against humanity, war crimes, ethnic cleansing, and genocide,
“Expressing serious and urgent concern over the more than 2.21 million displaced persons and deepening humanitarian crisis, stressing the responsibility borne by all parties to the conflict for the suffering of the people of South Sudan, and the necessity of ensuring that the basic needs of the population are met, and commending United Nations humanitarian agencies, partners, and donors for their efforts to provide urgent and coordinated support to the population,
“Recalling the need for all parties to the conflict to allow and facilitate, in accordance with relevant provisions of international law and United Nations guiding principles of humanitarian assistance, the full, safe and unhindered access of relief personnel, equipment and supplies and timely delivery of humanitarian assistance, to all those in need, in particular to internally displaced persons (IDPs) and refugees,
“Condemning all attacks against humanitarian personnel and facilities, including those that resulted in the deaths of 34 personnel since December 2013, and recalling that attacks against humanitarian personnel and depriving civilians of objects indispensable to their survival may amount to violations of international humanitarian law,
“Expressing its deep appreciation for the actions taken by UNMISS peacekeepers and Troop- and Police-Contributing Countries to protect civilians, including foreign nationals, under threat of physical violence and to stabilize the security situation within and beyond UNMISS sites, recognizing the significant resource and capacity challenges the Mission faces in implementing its mandate, and expressing appreciation for UNMISS’s efforts to support IDPs seeking protection on its sites, while underlining the necessity to find sustainable solutions for the internally displaced persons, including in alternative safe and secure locations, and in keeping with the Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement,
“Taking note with interest of the reports on the human rights situation in South Sudan including on the “Escalation of Fighting in Great Upper Nile in April/May 2015” of 29 June 2015, the situation of children in armed conflict on 17 June 2015 and 11 December 2014, the “Attack on Bentiu-20 October 2014” released on 19 December 2014, and the “Attacks on Civilians in Bentiu and Bor-April 2014” on 9 January 2015, in addition to the 21 February 2014 UNMISS Interim Human Rights report, and 8 May 2014 “Conflict in South Sudan: A Human Rights Report”,
“Expressing grave concern that according to some of these reports there are reasonable grounds to believe that war crimes and crimes against humanity, including those involving extrajudicial killings, rape and other acts of sexual violence, enforced disappearances, the use of children in armed conflict, and arbitrary arrests and detention have been committed by both government and opposition forces, and noting that such crimes constitute actions that threaten the peace, security and stability of South Sudan,
“Reaffirming that sustainable peace requires an integrated approach based on coherence between political, security, development, human rights, including gender equality, rule of law, and justice and reconciliation activities and, in this regard, emphasizing the importance of the rule of law as one of the key elements of conflict prevention, peacekeeping, conflict resolution and peacebuilding,
“Stressing the increasingly urgent need to end impunity in South Sudan and to bring to justice all perpetrators of such crimes, and further stressing the importance of accountability, reconciliation and healing in ending impunity, and ensuring a sustainable peace,
“Emphasizing that individuals or entities responsible for or complicit in, or having engaged in, directly or indirectly, actions or policies that threaten the peace, security or stability of South Sudan, may be designated for targeted sanctions pursuant to resolution 2206 (2015), recalling its willingness to impose targeted sanctions and noting with interest the 26 September 2015 communique of the African Union Peace and Security Council expressing its determination to impose measures against all those who impede implementation of the Agreement,
“Recognizing the work of the African Union Commission of Inquiry in independent and public human rights monitoring, investigation and reporting, and its 27 June 2014 “Interim Report of AU Commission of Inquiry on South Sudan”, and welcoming the African Union Peace and Security Council 26 September 2015 communique which includes a decision to release the African Union Commission of Inquiry on South Sudan report and the Separate Opinion, and anticipating with interest the findings and recommendations,
“Strongly condemning the use of media to broadcast hate speech and transmit messages instigating violence against a particular ethnic group, which has the potential to play a significant role in promoting mass violence and exacerbating conflict, calling on the Government of South Sudan to take the appropriate measures in order to deter such activity, and further urging all parties to desist from these actions and instead contribute to promoting peace and reconciliation among the communities,
“Recognizing the important role played by civil society organizations, faith leaders, women, and youth in South Sudan in reaching the Agreement, and underscoring the importance of their participation — and other political parties — in implementing the Agreement,
“Emphasizing that persistent barriers to full implementation of resolution 1325 (2000) will only be dismantled through dedicated commitment to women’s empowerment, participation, and human rights, and through concerted leadership, consistent information and action, and support, to build women’s engagement in all levels of decision-making,
“Expressing deep concern at persistent restrictions placed upon the movement and operations of UNMISS, including through repeated violations of the Status of Forces Agreement and blocking the deployment of essential assets and enablers, and underscoring the importance of close cooperation and communication between UNMISS and the Government of South Sudan in addressing these issues,
“Strongly condemning the attacks by government and opposition forces and other groups on United Nations and IGAD personnel and facilities, including the December 2012 downing of a United Nations helicopter by the SPLA, the April 2013 attack on a United Nations convoy, the December 2013 attack on the UNMISS camp in Akobo, the August 2014 shooting down of a United Nations helicopter by unidentified armed groups, the August 2014 arrest and detention of an IGAD monitoring and verification team, the detention and kidnappings of United Nations and associated personnel, the repeated attacks on the UNMISS camps in Bor, Bentiu, Malakal and Melut, and the disappearance purportedly caused by SPLA forces, and deaths of three United Nations-affiliated national staff and one national contractor in Upper Nile State, and calling upon the Government of South Sudan to complete its investigations of these attacks in a swift and thorough manner and to hold those responsible to account,
“Reiterating its request that UNMISS take additional measures, as appropriate, to ensure the security of its air operations in South Sudan, and report thereon to the Council,
“Stressing the importance of effective engagement and liaison with local communities, both within and outside the Protection of Civilians sites, in order to fulfil UNMISS’s Protection of Civilians mandate,
“Expressing grave concern regarding the threats made to oil installations, petroleum companies and their employees, and urging all parties to ensure the security of economic infrastructure,
“Recalling its resolution 2117 (2013) and expressing grave concern at the threat to peace and security in South Sudan arising from the illicit transfer, destabilizing accumulation and misuse of small arms and light weapons,
“Welcoming IGAD’s continued operations of the Monitoring and Verification Mechanism (MVM) and its transition to the Ceasefire and Transitional Security Arrangements Monitoring Mechanism (CTSAMM), and calling for the withdrawal of armed groups and allied forces invited by either side, consistent with the Agreement,
“Reaffirming its resolutions 1265 (1999), 1296 (2000), 1674 (2006), 1738 (2006), 1894 (2009), 2150 (2014) and 2222 (2015) on the protection of civilians in armed conflict, and 1502 (2003) and 2175 (2015) on the protection of humanitarian and United Nations personnel; resolutions 1612 (2005), 1882 (2009), 1998 (2011), 2068 (2012), 2143 (2014) and 2225 (2015) on children and armed conflict; resolutions 1325 (2000), 1820 (2008), 1888 (2009), 1889 (2009), 1960 (2010), 2106 (2013), and 2122 (2013) on women, peace, and security; resolution 2150 (2014) on the prevention and fight against genocide; resolution 2151 (2014) on security sector reform; and resolution 2171 (2014) on conflict prevention,
“Taking note of the 21 August 2015 Secretary-General’s Report (S/2015/655) and the recommendations contained therein,
“Determining that the situation in South Sudan continues to constitute a threat to international peace and security in the region,
“Acting under Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations,
“1. Reiterates its endorsement of the Cessation of Hostilities (CoH) Agreement accepted and signed by the Government of South Sudan and the SPLM/SPLA-IO on 23 January 2014, further endorses the “Agreement on the Resolution of the Conflict in the Republic of South Sudan”, as contained in the annex to S/2015/654 (the 'Agreement'), which is designed to bring this conflict to an end; calls for immediate and full implementation of the Agreements by the parties, and expresses its intention to consider all appropriate measures, as demonstrated by its 3 March 2015 unanimous adoption of resolution 2206 (2015), against those who take action that undermines the peace, stability, and security of South Sudan, including those who prevent the implementation of these agreements;
“2. Urges all parties to engage in an open and fully inclusive national dialogue seeking to implement lasting peace, reconciliation and good governance, including through the full and effective participation of youth, women, diverse communities, faith groups, civil society, and the formerly detained political leaders, encourages the efforts of IGAD, the African Union, and the United Nations to support implementation of the Agreement by the parties and further urges them to ensure that child protection provisions are integrated into all peace negotiations and peace agreements;
“3. Decides to extend the mandate of UNMISS until 15 December 2015;
“4. Decides that the mandate of UNMISS shall be as follows, and authorizes UNMISS to use all necessary means to perform the following tasks:
(a) Protection of civilians:
(i) To protect civilians under threat of physical violence, irrespective of the source of such violence, within its capacity and areas of deployment, with specific protection for women and children, including through the continued use of the Mission’s Child Protection and Women Protection Advisers;
(ii) To deter violence against civilians, including foreign nationals, especially through proactive deployment, active patrolling with particular attention to IDPs, including, but not limited to, those in protection sites and refugee camps, humanitarian personnel and human rights defenders, and identification of threats and attacks against civilians, including through regular interaction with civilians and working closely with humanitarian, human rights and development organizations, in areas at high risk of conflict including, as appropriate, schools, places of worship, hospitals, and the oil installations, in particular when the Government of the Republic of South Sudan is unable or failing to provide such security;
(iii) To implement a mission-wide early warning strategy, including a coordinated approach to information gathering, monitoring, verification, early warning and dissemination, and response mechanisms, including response mechanisms to prepare for further potential attacks on United Nations personnel and facilities;
(iv) To maintain public safety and security of and within UNMISS protection of civilians sites;
(v) To exercise good offices, confidence-building, and facilitation in support of the mission’s protection strategy, especially in regard to women and children, including to facilitate the prevention, mitigation and resolution of inter-communal conflict in order to foster sustainable local and national reconciliation as an essential part of preventing violence and long-term State-building activity;
(vi) To foster a secure environment for the eventual safe and voluntary return of IDPs and refugees including through monitoring of, ensuring respect for human rights by, and where compatible and in strict compliance with the United Nations Human Rights Due Diligence Policy (HRDDP), coordination with police services and civil society actors in relevant and protection-focused activities, such as sensitization to issues of sexual and gender-based violence, in order to strengthen protection of civilians;
(b) Monitoring and investigating human rights:
(i) To monitor, investigate, verify, and report publicly and regularly on abuses and violations of human rights and violations of international humanitarian law, including those that may amount to war crimes or crimes against humanity;
(ii) To monitor, investigate, verify and report specifically and publicly on violations and abuses committed against children and women, including all forms of sexual and gender-based violence in armed conflict by accelerating the implementation of monitoring, analysis and reporting arrangements on conflict-related sexual violence and by strengthening the monitoring and reporting mechanism for violations against children;
(iii) To coordinate with, and provide technical support to, international, regional, and national mechanisms engaged in monitoring, investigating, and reporting human rights violations, as appropriate;
(c) Creating the conditions conducive to the delivery of humanitarian assistance:
(i) To contribute, in close coordination with humanitarian actors, to the creation of security conditions conducive to the delivery of humanitarian assistance, confidence building and facilitation, so as to allow, in accordance with relevant provisions of international law and United Nations guiding principles of humanitarian assistance, the rapid, safe and unhindered access of relief personnel to all those in need in South Sudan and timely delivery of humanitarian assistance, in particular to internally displaced persons and refugees;
(ii) To ensure the security and freedom of movement of United Nations and associated personnel where appropriate, and to ensure the security of its installations and equipment necessary for implementation of mandated tasks;
(d) Supporting the Implementation of the Monitoring and Verification Mechanism (MVM)/Ceasefire and Transitional Security Arrangements Monitoring Mechanism (CTSAMM):
(i) To ensure proper coordination with the Joint Technical Committee (JTC), MVM and its successor the CTSAMM, and Monitoring and Verification Teams (MVTs), as appropriate;
(ii) To provide support for the work of the MVM and its successor the CTSAMM, including mobile and dedicated fixed site security to IGAD’s MVM and the CTSAMM, as established in line with the decisions of the 31 January 2014 and 13 March 2014 meetings of the IGAD Assembly of Heads of State and Government and the Agreement, and;
(e) Supporting the Implementation of the Agreement:
“To carry out, within its capabilities, the following tasks in support of the implementation of the Agreement:
(i) To support the planning and establishment of agreed transitional security arrangements, including the establishment and operation of the Joint Operations Centre;
(ii) To support the work of a National Constitutional Amendment Committee (NCAC) and the incorporation of the Agreement into the Transitional Constitution of the Republic of South Sudan, upon request of the parties to the Agreement;
(iii) To assist the parties to develop a strategy to address disarmament, demobilization, reintegration and security sector reform activities;
(iv) To participate in and support the CTSAMM in implementation of its mandate to monitor the separation, assembly and cantonment of forces consistent with Chapter II, paragraph 2.4 of the Agreement;
(v) To monitor and report on the withdrawal of all State and non-State security actors, allied to either Party in conflict, from the territory of South Sudan, with the exception of Western Equatoria State based on the agreements entered into by the Government of the Republic of South Sudan prior to the onset of the 15 December 2013 crisis, and the disarmament, demobilization and repatriation of non-State security actors consistent with Chapter II of the Agreement;
(vi) To actively participate in the work of the Joint Monitoring and Evaluation Commission;
“5. Requests and Encourages the Special Representative of the Secretary-General to exercise her good offices to lead the UN system in South Sudan in assisting IGAD, the African Union (AU) and other actors, as well as the parties, with swift implementation of the Agreement and to promote reconciliation;
“6. Emphasizes that protection of civilians, as described in paragraph 4 (a), must remain a priority in decisions about the use of available capacity and resources within the mission;
“7. Requests the Secretary-General, through his Special Representative, to continue to direct the operations of an integrated UNMISS and coordinate all activities of the United Nations system in the Republic of South Sudan, to deliver a coherent international approach to implementing peace in the Republic of South Sudan, and to use the United Nations’ good offices to engage with the parties and other stakeholders;
“8. Decides to maintain the overall force levels of UNMISS consisting of a military component of up to 12,500 troops of all ranks and a police component, including appropriate Formed Police Units, of up to 1,323 personnel;
“9. Requests that the Secretary-General provide detailed information on force generation, restructuring of the UNMISS force, logistical support and enablers, including as part of his regular reports, and requests the Secretary-General to review needs on the ground and provide an updated assessment of the force’s operations, deployment and future requirements in his regular reports to the Council;
“10. Requests the Secretary-General to prioritize the complete deployment of UNMISS personnel to the authorized military and police strength, including tactical military helicopters and unarmed unmanned aerial systems;
“11. Encourages the Secretary-General to assist IGAD and the parties in the mass communication and dissemination of key messages in support of the Agreement’s implementation;
“12. Requests UNMISS to take fully into account gender considerations as a crosscutting issue throughout its mandate, in particular regarding women’s participation in implementation of the Agreement, including in support to the South Sudanese National Police Service (SSNPS), activities in support of constitution development, ceasefire monitoring, cantonment, disarmament, demobilization and security sector reform, and further requests enhanced reporting by UNMISS to the Council on this issue;
“13. Requests the Secretary-General to conduct a review of the mandate, in light of the political and security situation in South Sudan, within 45 days from the adoption of this resolution, and to provide an assessment and recommendations, including resource requirements, for necessary civilian and force structure capabilities for UNMISS deployment and requirements in the context of implementation of the Agreement and to fulfil the mandate;
“14. Recognizing the importance of security in Juba for successful implementation of the Agreement, requests the Secretary-General, in consultation with the Government of South Sudan and respective Troop- and Police-Contributing Countries, to conduct an assessment of security planning in Juba, and the appropriate role for the United Nations in providing support for security to key infrastructure in order to protect freedom of movement in Juba and report back to the Security Council with his recommendations in 45 days;
“15. Requests the Secretary-General to assess actions already undertaken by UNMISS and other countries in support of the SSNPS and submit to the Security Council within 45 days of the date of adoption of this resolution recommendations on possible further support to the SSNPS as well as the Joint Integrated Police in support of implementation of the Agreement and consistent with the HRDDP;
“16. Authorizes the Secretary-General to take the necessary steps, in accordance with paragraph 8, to continue to expedite force and asset generation;
“17. Requests UNMISS to continue to intensify its presence and active patrolling in areas of high risk of conflict, high concentrations of IDPs and refugees, including as guided by its early warning strategy, in both government and opposition-held areas, and key routes for population movement, and to conduct regular reviews of its geographic deployment to ensure that its forces are best placed to fulfil its mandate, and requests the Secretary-General provide an update to the Security Council on how the Mission is working toward fulfilling its protection of civilian duties, including, but not limited to new patrol areas and proactive deployment, and on the measures to be taken to transform the Mission to become more efficient and effective in implementing its mandate as part of his regular reports;
“18. Further requests that UNMISS continue to ensure full compliance with the United Nations zero tolerance policy on sexual exploitation and abuse and to keep the Council fully informed about the Mission’s progress in this regard, and urges Troop- and Police-Contributing Countries to take appropriate preventive action including pre-deployment awareness training, and to ensure full accountability in cases of such conduct involving their personnel;
“19. Encourages UNMISS to fully implement the HRDDP and requests the Secretary-General to include progress made in implementing the policy in his reports to the Council;
“20. Requests UNMISS to assist the Committee, within existing resources, established pursuant to paragraph 16 of resolution 2206 (2015) and the Panel of Experts established by the same resolution; further urges all parties and Member States, as well as international, regional and subregional organizations to ensure cooperation with the Panel of Experts and further urges all Member States involved to ensure the safety of the members of the Panel of Experts and unhindered access, in particular to persons, documents and sites in order for the Panel of Experts to execute its mandate;
“21. Condemns in the strongest terms attacks on and threats made to UNMISS personnel and United Nations facilities, as well as those of IGAD, such as the August 2014 shooting down of a United Nations helicopter, the August 2014 arrest and detention of an IGAD monitoring and verification team, the detention and kidnappings of United Nations and associated personnel, and the repeated attacks on the UNMISS camps in Bor, Bentiu, Malakal and Melut, stresses that such attacks may constitute violations of the Status of Forces Agreement and/or war crimes, demands that all parties respect the inviolability of United Nations premises and immediately desist and refrain from any violence against those gathered at United Nations facilities, and further demands the immediate and safe release of detained and kidnapped United Nations and associated personnel;
“22. Recalls the designation criteria detailed in paragraph 7 of resolution 2206 (2015), stresses the sanctity of United Nations protection sites, and specifically underscores that individuals or entities that are responsible or complicit in, or have engaged in, directly or indirectly, attacks against United Nations missions, international security presences, or other peacekeeping operations, or humanitarian personnel, threaten the peace, security and stability of South Sudan and therefore may meet the designation criteria;
“23. Reiterates its request that UNMISS take additional measures, as appropriate, to ensure the security of its air operations in South Sudan and report thereon to the Council;
“24. Demands that the Government of South Sudan comply fully and without delay with the Status of Forces Agreement with UNMISS and all relevant parties cooperate fully in the deployment, operations, and monitoring, verification, and reporting functions of UNMISS, in particular by guaranteeing the safety, security, and unrestricted freedom of movement of United Nations and associated personnel, throughout the territory of the Republic of South Sudan, and further calls upon the Government of South Sudan to ensure freedom of movement for IDPs, including those leaving and entering protection of civilian sites, and to continue to support UNMISS by the allocation of land for protection of civilian sites;
“25. Demands that all parties allow, in accordance with relevant provisions of international law and United Nations guiding principles of emergency humanitarian assistance, the rapid, safe and unhindered access of relief personnel, equipment and supplies, and timely delivery of humanitarian assistance, to all those in need throughout South Sudan in particular to internally displaced persons and refugees and stresses that any returns or other durable solutions for IDPs or refugees must be undertaken on a voluntary and informed basis in conditions of dignity and safety;
“26. Further demands that all parties immediately cease all forms of violence, human rights violations and abuses, violations of international humanitarian law, including rape and other forms of sexual and gender-based violence;
“27. Condemns all violations of applicable international law, including international humanitarian law and violations and abuses of international human rights committed by all parties to the conflict, in particular against children, such as those involving their recruitment and use as child soldiers, killing and maiming, and abduction as well as attacks against schools and hospitals, urges all parties to the conflict to implement the Conclusions on Children and Armed Conflict in South Sudan adopted by the Security Council Working Group on Children and Armed Conflict on 8 May 2015, strongly urges the Government to fully and immediately implement its revised action plan to end and prevent violations committed against children, and further strongly urges the SPLM/SPLA-IO to fully and immediately implement their commitment to end violations and abuses against children signed on 10 May 2014; takes note of the 29 October 2014 national launch of the campaign “Children, Not Soldiers” by the Government, and welcomes the release of children by the South Sudan Democratic Movement/Army Cobra faction;
“28. Expresses grave concern at the findings of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General on Sexual Violence in Conflict of rampant sexual violence in South Sudan and welcomes the 11 October 2014 Joint Communiqué of the Government of South Sudan and the United Nations on Addressing Conflict-Related Sexual Violence, the December 2014 unilateral communiqué issued by the SPLM/A-IO on Preventing Conflict Related Sexual Violence, the appointment by the Government of South Sudan of a High-Level Focal Point to Address Conflict-Related Sexual Violence, and the establishment and work of the Technical Working Group, calls upon both parties as a matter of urgency to finalize actions plans to implement the commitments made under their respective communiqués, urges the Government of South Sudan to implement without delay the commitments made in accordance with resolution 1960 (2010) and 2106 (2013), and further calls for specific and time bound commitments by both parties to combat sexual violence in accordance with resolution 1960 (2010) and 2106 (2013);
“29. Requests the Secretary-General to make available technical assistance for the implementation of Chapter V of the Agreement, including in the setting up of the hybrid court for South Sudan contemplated by the Agreement, to the Commission of the African Union and to the Transitional Government of National Unity, in consultation with them and consistent with Article 1.5 of Chapter V of the Agreement, and including with regard to the establishment of the Commission for Truth, Reconciliation, and Healing;
“30. Requests the Secretary-General to report to the Security Council within six months from the date of adoption of this resolution on the technical assistance provided consistent with paragraph 29 above to the African Union and the Transitional Government of National Unity with respect to Chapter V of the Agreement, including the hybrid court for South Sudan contemplated by the Agreement, and invites the African Union to share information on progress made with the Secretary-General to inform his report, and expresses the Security Council’s intention at that time to assess the work that has been done in the establishment of the hybrid court, in line with international standards;
“31. Calls upon the Government of South Sudan to move forward expeditiously and transparently to complete the ongoing investigations of allegations of human rights violations and abuses in a manner consistent with its international obligations, and encourages it to release the reports of those investigations;
“32. Further calls upon the Government of South Sudan, while taking note of paragraph 3.2.2 of Chapter V of the Agreement, to hold to account all those responsible for violations and abuses of human rights and violations of international humanitarian law, and to ensure that all victims of sexual violence have equal protection under the law and equal access to justice, and to safeguard equal respect for the rights of women and girls in these processes;
“33. Calls upon all parties to ensure women’s full and effective representation and leadership in all conflict resolution and peacebuilding efforts including through support to women’s civil society organizations; further encourages Troop- and Police-Contributing Countries to take measures to increase the deployment of women in the military, police, and civilian components of the mission, and reaffirms the importance of appropriate gender expertise and training in all missions mandated by the Security Council;
“34. Condemns attacks on oil installations, petroleum companies and their employees, and the continued fighting around these facilities, and urges all parties to ensure the security of economic infrastructure;
“35. Requests that the Secretary-General report to the Security Council on the implementation of the UNMISS mandate, as well as information on violations of the Status of Forces Agreement, including on UNMISS responses to any such violations, in a written report to be submitted no later than 45 days from adoption of this resolution;
“36. Decides to remain actively seized of the matter.”