International, regional and subregional organizations must create partnerships that enable the international community to respond more quickly and effectively to violent conflict, the Security Council heard today, as it unanimously adopted a resolution on the importance of regional cooperation for international peace and security.
Through resolution 2167 (2014), the 15-member body encouraged the United Nations and regional organizations, especially the African Union, to take concrete steps to strengthen their relationships and develop more effective partnerships, while stressing the critical role of the United Nations to strengthen the ability of regional and subregional organizations to rapidly deploy peacekeeping forces.
The United Nations, the African Union and the European Union, together with other key partners, need to do better, warned United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon. Existing mechanisms and capacities must be used much more effectively and predictably, and the world must stop looking at different tools in isolation or only through the lens of the relevant organizations.
It was important to draw detailed lessons learned from recent experiences throughout Africa, he continued. In that connection, the United Nations would continue to work to enhance the predictability and sustainability of African-led peace support operations.
The Permanent Observer of the African Union to the United Nations noted that the continent’s regional mechanisms had proven themselves in peace support operations which had allowed Africa to contribute to its own peace, security and stability.
He advocated for more dynamic partnerships between the United Nations and regional organizations, saying more innovation was needed. Capacities and efficiency could be bolstered, although predictable financing was essential. Experience had shown the constraints faced when financing was restricted.
In the long term, prevention and mediation were crucial contributors to stability, said the European External Action Service’s Deputy Secretary-General. Policy frameworks and tools to prevent and resolve crises were needed and peacekeeping operations had to focus on ensuring an emergence from crises.
Pakistan’s Minister of State for Foreign Affairs said that, as a leading troop contributor, his country was committed to collective efforts to strengthen peacekeeping and the global and regional partnerships that underpinned it. He went on to stress the necessity of diversifying and deepening partnerships to allow for swift conflict response, the promotion of durable solutions and ensuring long-term prevention to stem relapse into conflict.
The representative of Egypt, speaking on behalf of the Non-Aligned Movement, said enhanced measures for the safety and security of peacekeepers were also critical, stating the importance of consensus among Member States on policy development. It was vital to receive a strong commitment from the Security Council in drafting clear mandates, and he cautioned against mandates that lacked political basis or sufficient resources, or were not achievable.
The Minister for Foreign Affairs of Estonia also addressed the Council today.
Also speaking today were the representatives of Rwanda, United States, United Kingdom, Russian Federation, China, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Australia, Chad, Nigeria, Chile, Jordan, France, Republic of Korea, Argentina, Japan, Sweden, Brazil, Italy, Guatemala, Spain, Turkey, Malaysia, Romania, Indonesia, Thailand, Estonia, New Zealand, Armenia, Ireland, Malawi, Fiji, Georgia, Zimbabwe, Germany, Philippines, Morocco, and India.
A representative of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) also spoke.
The meeting started at 10:15 a.m. and ended at 4:10 p.m.
The Security Council met today to convene an open debate on peacekeeping operations from which it had a letter dated 3 July from the Permanent Representative of Rwanda to the United Nations addressed to the Secretary-General (S/2014/478).
BAN KI-MOON, Secretary-General of the United Nations, said partnerships with regional organizations should continue to be based on the comparative strengths of each group. It was important to draw detailed lessons learned from recent experiences throughout Africa. The United Nations would continue to work to enhance the predictability and sustainability of African-led peace support operations. The Organization was conscious that the root causes of conflict were not yet fully addressed and emerging transnational threats posed new challenges to stability. It was critical to ensure that all precautions were taken and dialogue on how best to support host Governments must continue.
He stated that there had been a great deal of consideration given to the need for the United Nations and key regional actors to be able to deploy more rapidly, especially in acute emergencies. The European Union Battlegroup was created for that purpose, as was the African Standby Force. However, despite years of investment, the global community was far from having predictable and effective mechanisms for rapid deployment. The United Nations, the African Union and the European Union, together with other key partners, need to do better. Existing mechanisms and capacities must be used much more effectively and predictably. The world must stop looking at different tools in isolation and only through the lens of the relevant organizations. Instead, leaders must see how organizations could be brought together in a way that would finally allow the international community to respond much more quickly.
MACIEJ POPOWSKI, Deputy Secretary-General of the European External Action Service, said that the African Union was taking the lead role alongside various regional groups in bringing conflicts to an end. Still, he noted that half the conflicts requiring peacekeeping operations were in Africa and that they took up 70 per cent of the United Nations budget. He called for an increase in the budget devoted to regional cooperation under Chapter VIII of the United Nations Charter. Peacekeeping operations transformed mandates into concrete action and they were crucial to successful transitions from conflict to lasting peace. Since the Brahimi report, efficiency had become the focus in peacekeeping. The European Union had developed its own common security and defence policy, wherein Africa was a major centre of gravity. It involved close cooperation with the United Nations and aimed at enhancing practical support that would build on the European Union-United Nations joint declaration on crisis management.
The European Union's aim in African peacekeeping operations, he said, was to build African capacity to restore and maintain peace and to support regional and local capabilities to deploy autonomous operations. The European Union supported the African peace and security architecture, particularly through the Africa Peace Facility, to which the European Union had donated €110 million. There was an increased focus on building national capacity to maintain peace after complex peace processes. He also pointed to support of the African Union, noting that Darfur was the first mission to receive such support and that others followed. The European Union had also deployed its own autonomous missions, aimed at bridging and preparing the ground for United Nations missions. Prevention and mediation were crucial to longer-term stability. Policy frameworks and tools to prevent and resolve crises were needed and peacekeeping operations had to be focused on ensuring emergence from crises. He also called for work on the peacekeeping-peacebuilding nexus.
TETE ANTÓNIO, Permanent Observer of the African Union to the United Nations, said Council members needed to draw on previous deliberations about partnerships, including on the funding of African Union operations. Those operations had seen a wealth of experience gained, with many examples illustrating the advantages and potential of a flexible approach. He appreciated the Security Council's focus on supporting African efforts to promote peace and security and for the constant strengthening of the United Nations-African Union partnership. The African Union and other regional mechanisms had proven themselves in peace support operations and had allowed the continent to contribute to its own peace, security and stability in the way envisioned by the Charter, paving the way for multidimensional United Nations deployments. Well-designed and innovative operations, like the African Union operation in Darfur, which became the African Union-United Nations Hybrid Operation in Darfur (UNAMID), demonstrated the capacity to adapt. He pointed to other regionally run operations in Mali, Central African Republic and Somalia.
He advocated for more dynamic partnerships between the United Nations and regional organizations, as envisioned by the United Nations Charter. The African Union Peace and Security Council had reiterated the importance of complementarity and significant progress had been made, with coordination constantly being bolstered. More innovation was needed, however, and action capacities and efficiency could be bolstered, with predictable financing essential. Experience had shown clearly the constraints faced when financing was restricted. African countries were making enormous sacrifices to increase their own contributions. He also noted that, in response to the Gambari report, which assessed the standing African force, many measures had been taken, with the aim to reach full capacity by 2015 at the latest.
EUGÈNE-RICHARD GASANA (Rwanda) said the resolution was intended to provide concrete ways to strengthen partnerships between international and regional organizations to ensure a comprehensive strategy for effective responses to threats to international peace and security. The United Nations Charter had been transformed into action with the passage of today's resolution. The international community had learned from the tragic failures in Rwanda and Srebrenica that rapid response mechanisms were of critical importance. When it came to Africa, it was clear that the African Union and regional organizations often had political leverage, the advantage of proximity, as well as comparative advantages based on past experiences and logistical capabilities. That now presented an opportunity to share the peacekeeping burden with regional organizations and ultimately make operations more effective at the strategic, operational and tactical levels.
SAMANTHA POWER (United States) said regional organizations were playing a more central role in peacekeeping than ever before, particularly in Africa. When African countries formed the new African Union, they decided they would not stand by when atrocities were being committed on the continent. They committed not to turn a blind eye. The entire international community had recognized the importance of the security and stability of countries in conflicts, particularly given the reality that conflicts did not respect borders. There were many challenges to making regional and international peacekeeping missions work, which was why the United States was investing heavily in such efforts. Her country's support of regional initiatives was part of its broader commitment to making peacekeeping more effective and building partnerships with countries that contributed troops to such missions. We owe it to regional and international security and the many civilians in harm's way to give them our full support.
MARK LYALL GRANT (United Kingdom) said the United Nations had increasingly turned to the continent of Africa as a partner, which had brought many advantages to regional and international peacekeeping efforts. Troops in Africa-led missions demonstrated the sort of proactive response that was needed and had the attitude and skills necessary to protect civilians in difficult terrains. One key challenge that remained was the lack of financial resources. Regional organizations had a responsibility to secure resources for their efforts and must be prepared to devote more of their own resources. He commended the increasing level of cooperation between the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and the United Nations.
VITALY CHURKIN (Russian Federation) said in recent years, the Security Council had taken up the issue of practical cooperation with regional and subregional organizations many times. Those organizations often had better knowledge of the situation in their regions and had at their disposal preventative mechanisms that were specifically geared towards realities on the ground. Partners should act in a harmonious way and not duplicate efforts. Throughout the history of cooperation between the United Nations and regional and subregional organizations there were many examples of success, which were typically based on carrying out realistic tasks, with sufficient resources. It was important that such partnerships comply with the basic principles of peacekeeping and only used force in strict compliance with relevant mandates. The Russian Federation supported closer cooperation between the United Nations and regional and subregional organizations on the basis of Chapter VIII of the United Nations Charter.
WANG MIN (China) said that United Nations peacekeeping operations had been an important tool for the maintenance of international peace and security for more than six decades. In recent years, the United Nations and regional and subregional organizations had increasingly strengthened their partnerships. That was an important development and was one of the increasingly effective means for promoting peace in Africa and the world at large. The international community recognized that many security threats were intertwined. The United Nations should strengthen its cooperation with organizations such as the African Union in the planning and implementation of peacekeeping operations. Such partnerships should be guided by the United Nations Charter. Strengthening capacity-building should also become a priority in the context of such partnerships.
RAIMONDA MURMOKAITĖ (Lithuania) said regional organizations, in cooperation with the United Nations, performed an essential function, not only in peacekeeping, but also in critical mediation efforts. But, those partnerships were “not immune” to the obstacles facing United Nations peacekeeping operations, including clarity of mandates, capability and training gaps, logistical hurdles, and insufficient coordination among mission components. UNAMID had positively impacted the situation, but it had also been plagued by several problems, including high numbers of casualties among peacekeepers, a lack of cooperation from the host Government, shortages of equipment and transport, as well as capability deficiencies and internal coordination problems. Its record of protecting civilians had been criticized, including by the Office of Internal Oversight Services, which had described it as ineffective and passive. The African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM), on the other hand, along with the United Nations and its European Union and other partners, had made advances against Al-Shabaab militants. The operations in the Central African Republic, including with the cooperation of French forces, had made a difference in protecting civilians and restoring security. Enhanced partnerships required identification of comparative strengths, clearly defined mandates and command and control structures, and adequate resources.
SYLVIE LUCAS (Luxembourg) said that, in recent interventions in Mali and the Central African Republic, the presence of regional organizations had increased those operations' legitimacy and helped the United Nations to carry out its work. The United Nations benefited from that local knowledge. It was in Africa where cooperation between the United Nations and regional groups had been most prominent. She outlined how synergy between regional organizations and the United Nations had occurred in South Sudan and in the Central African Republic. Cooperation covered humanitarian issues, crisis response, peacekeeping and development. Luxembourg had provided instructors to help build capacities in Mali and Somalia and had made substantial contributions to the United Nations budgets for African missions.
GARY QUINLAN (Australia) said the need for effective cooperation between the United Nations and regional organizations was “self-evident”. Their cooperation lay at the heart of peacekeeping, and drawing on regional organizations’ unique strengths and comparative advantages helped to protect civilians and save lives. That had been seen in places such as Somalia and the Central African Republic. With more simultaneous peace and security crises around the globe, efforts must continue to foster predictability and trust in those partnerships. Strengthening mechanisms for forthright dialogue at both the strategic and operational levels would help to achieve unified views on key issues and translate them into tangible results. Ad hoc improvisation did not work and a broader strategy must be developed for anticipating and responding to future challenges together. There was scope for enhancing early engagement between the United Nations and regional organizations during the planning and transition phases of a peace operation. Australia had seen the rewards of inclusive cooperation in Timor-Leste following the drawdown of the United Nations mission there. Collective capacity for rapid deployment in response to emerging crises must be improved, but no organization had yet developed an enduring solution to that challenge.
BANTE MANGARAL (Chad) said regional organizations could deploy swiftly, take risks and impose peace where it did not exist, understanding better the realities on the ground. Despite resource weaknesses, several regionally run peacekeeping operations had been deployed, including in South Sudan, Darfur, Somalia, Mali and the Central African Republic. The many crises in Africa showed the need to bolster the United Nations-African Union partnership. He stressed the need to improve abilities to prevent conflict, noting that the African Union was working to operationalize its peace and security architecture, particularly the proposed rapid reaction force. He called for increased voluntary contributions to the peace fund for the African Union, asking the United Nations to make resources available for international peace and security. He pointed to the Prodi report's recommendation that financing for flexible and lasting solutions should be guaranteed.
U. JOY OGWU (Nigeria) noted that Boutros-Ghali's Agenda for Peace recommended that the Security Council grant authority to regional organizations in crises. She noted how Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) had responded effectively and stabilized several situations in West Africa prior to the deployment of United Nations missions. More robust partnerships were needed and the time was right to reflect on how best to improve the peacekeeping abilities of regional organizations. It was vital that the United Nations Security Council work with the African Union to improve their partnership for effective peacekeeping operations in the region. Regional and subregional organizations in Africa faced logistical, operational and financial constraints and she pointed to the proposals contained within the Prodi report and the report of the Chairperson of the African Union-United Nations partnership to improve partnerships. Financial resources were vital and additional alternative sources of financing should be found.
CRISTIÁN BARROS MELET (Chile) said it was time to take stock of the growing role of regional and subregional groups, which worked to boost consolidation of peace, human rights, reconciliation and development. The United Nations was able to delegate elements of its peacekeeping mandates, while the involvement of regional organizations also helped to boost consensus and deepen trust on how international issues were being dealt with. As well as in Africa, regional efforts had been important in relation to the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH), where Latin American and Caribbean countries had mobilized troops and peace to support Haiti. Regional organizations played a preventive role, containing issues and potentially keeping matters off the Security Council agenda. He urged the mainstreaming of women and gender into all elements of peacekeeping and made note of the Joint Centre for Peacekeeping Operations in Chile, which had improved capacity.
MAHMOUD HMOUD (Jordan) had participated in the maintenance of peace and security in various places throughout the world through the contribution of a large number of peacekeeping forces. The United Nations must continue to coordinate efforts to de-escalate tensions and mobilize support to end long-term conflicts. Peacekeeping operations were among the most effective tools to assist countries torn by conflict. It was important that such efforts addressed root causes and took into account the political situations of individual countries. Peacekeeping operations that lacked resources were inadequate in the face of armed conflict and called into question the safety of peacekeepers. The United Nations should strengthen legal protections for peacekeepers to ensure their safety and the smooth performance of peacekeeping operations, particularly through cooperation with regional organizations.
GÉRARD ARAUD (France) noted the issue of building greater partnerships between the United Nations and regional organizations was based on the reality that most crises were already being addressed through such cooperation. Coordination with the African Union, for example, had become a daily way of work. Such multifaceted cooperation should be encouraged, as regional organizations had natural advantages, such as knowing the terrain and having political leverage. Efforts should be taken to develop the capacities of regional organizations, with the understanding that regional ownership could be a critical driver for enhanced peacekeeping operations. The European Union supported the scale-up of regional organizations, particularly in Africa and was the main financial contributor to the activities of the African Union. That unique cooperation made it possible for Europe to have an active role in supporting peacekeeping efforts in Africa, although, it was also important for African organizations to take up a larger share of the financial burden.
OH JOON (Republic of Korea) called for enhanced partnerships in United Nations peacekeeping, stressing the importance of swift responses for early stabilization. He pointed to the coordinated response seen in the Central African Republic, which could be an effective case study for future responses. Inter-regional partnerships, like the one between the African Union and the European Union, facilitated swifter responses to situations in the field and represented an evolved form of Chapter VIII cooperation. It helped to bridge the gap to United Nations peacekeeping missions under Chapter VII. International intervention did not automatically resolve conflict, notably in South Sudan, where even a fully fledged operation could not prevent a relapse into conflict. Enhanced strategies and enhanced regional cooperation were needed, along with a greater focus on early warning and prevention.
MARÍA CRISTINA PERCEVAL (Argentina) said convening of the meeting was extremely timely and called on States to focus on where agreement existed. It was not an issue of preference, but was rather a strategic necessity in an interdependent world. Within the complex, challenging situation the world faced, cooperation across many areas was growing. Despite growing global links, it would be "clumsy, if not irresponsible" to minimize the fact that the Charter calls for Chapter VIII regional responses to uphold peace and security. The future of peacekeeping was tied in with the future of regional cooperation. Regional organizations should complement, but not replace, the work of the United Nations or the Security Council. However, they helped to add context and a closer, deeper knowledge of the roots of conflicts, which were vital to the successful conclusion of missions. Marrying the universal composition of the United Nations with the greater operational capacities of regional organizations could have positive results.
TARIQ FATEMI, Minister of State for Foreign Affairs and Special Assistant to the Prime Minister of Pakistan, said as a leading troop contributor, his country was committed to collective efforts to strengthen peacekeeping and the global and regional partnerships that underpinned it. Regional cooperation was an important dimension of the work of the United Nations in various fields, ranging from peace and security to development to human rights. It was necessary to diversify and deepen partnerships to allow for swift responses to conflicts, promote durable solutions and ensure long-term prevention to stem relapse into conflict.
He said that the African Union and its subregional organizations were increasingly leading conflict responses, at times acting independently and at other times in support of the United Nations. From those experiences, the importance of realizing the full potential of regional partnerships based on complementarities and comparative advantages was evident. Adequate capacity and resources were essential for effective planning and management of any peacekeeping operation. There was a need to take partnerships in Africa to a higher plane, including through strategic cooperation and coordination between the Security Council and the African Union. Peacekeeping was a collective responsibility of the entire United Nations membership and was indeed a partnership.
MOTOHIDE YOSHIKAWA (Japan) said regional and subregional organizations could provide vital capabilities for peacekeeping operations. Their deep knowledge and understanding of regional matters, as well as local networks, could significantly improve the effectiveness of United Nations peacekeeping operations. Nine out of 16 current peacekeeping missions were operating in Africa, which reflected how prominent peace and security issues were in that continent. Regional organizations were indispensable partners for the United Nations in its efforts to fulfil its responsibilities in the maintenance of international peace and security. In order for regional arrangements to successfully fulfil their role as first responders, it was essential for the international community to strengthen regional capacity, particularly with regard to human resources.
SIGNE BURGSTALLER (Sweden), speaking on behalf of the Nordic countries — Denmark, Finland, Iceland and Sweden — said enhanced cooperation improved the use of scarce resources. The African Union shouldered a heavy burden alongside the United Nations, and he welcomed its progress in bringing increased knowledge and ownership to conflict management in the continent. A more results-oriented cooperation and a strong African ability to deal with the peace and security challenges would benefit all. It had become apparent that the international community lacked sufficient capability to react quickly enough to early warnings, he said, citing South Sudan and the Central African Republic as recent examples. The early warning mechanisms of the African Union, and of ECOWAS and the Intergovernmental Authority for Development (IGAD), should be improved upon. Despite clear advantages in the cooperation, there were also challenges, not least with regard to command and control, joint planning and coordination. Well-structured partnerships would ensure smooth transfers. The Nordic countries stressed the importance of ensuring that the Women, Peace and Security Framework were reflected in all aspects of peacekeeping. They also welcomed the Council’s increased attention to the issue of enhanced cooperation with regional groups.
GUILHERME DE AGUIAR PATRIOTA (Brazil) said he supported a multipolar world based on cooperation, "devoid of unilateralism or exceptionalism", where States sought peaceful solutions to situations. The Union of South American Nations had built institutional architecture to promote peace, stability and cooperation. The South American Defence Council established an innovative coordination and cooperation mechanism and greater regional integration was instrumental in encouraging many countries of the region to support United Nations stabilization efforts in Haiti. To develop cooperation, there needed to be greater collaboration between the United Nations and regional and subregional organizations. Financial constraints should not dictate policy. It was important to be conscious of the difficulties in coordinating two or more international entities, and continuing to assert that maintaining peace and security went beyond peacekeeping. Prevention, peacebuilding and economic development were also important.
INIGO LAMBERTINI (Italy), associating himself with the European Union, said the European Union-United Nations partnership was heavily "operations-driven", illustrated by the mission in the Central African Republic where the European force prepared the ground for a United Nations mission that would take over in September. He listed other examples of cooperation, including Libya, Kosovo and Somalia. The principles underpinning action were those of the African Peace and Security Architecture, aimed at increasing capacity of the African Union and subregional groups. In the Horn of Africa, Italy had supported IGAD efforts in South Sudan and Somalia, resolving outstanding issues between the Somali Federal Government and Juba Administration. He believed that core-periphery relations were vital to the Somali stabilization process in keeping with the New Deal Compact for Somalia.
MÓNICA BOLAÑOS PÉREZ (Guatemala), associating herself with the Non-Aligned Movement, stressed that peacekeeping operations must have clear, achievable and verifiable mandates. Those should be tailored to each particular situation, taking into account the needs and circumstances of each specific situation. The growth and expansion of United Nations peacekeeping operations comes with increasingly complex mandates, which made it necessary to improve the capacity to assess conflict situations, and have effective planning, as well as a rapid response strategy for emergency situations. The relationship between peacekeeping and peacebuilding must be improved, while the credibility of the United Nations in peacekeeping operations must be preserved.
ROMAN OYARZUN (Spain) defended the need for mechanisms to ensure the greater efficiency of peace operations, along with robust, clear and appropriate mandates and resources. Attention should be paid to changing circumstances, and needs and challenges facing the operations on the ground, in order to achieve participation of the countries concerned as well as that of regional and subregional organizations. Spain was pleased with the level of cooperation between the European Union and United Nations, both at the institutional and operational level, which had produced satisfactory results both in Mali and the Central African Republic, among others. The regional approach improved knowledge of the local challenges and “brings us closer” to their needs and concerns, thereby facilitating the adoption of sustainable, comprehensive and efficient solutions. Spain appreciated the effort and dynamism shown by African regional and subregional organizations to the continent’s peace and security challenges. It supported African-owned solutions through the strengthening of African prevention, management and conflict-solving mechanisms and capacities.
LEVENT ELER (Turkey) noted the conditions under which today's peacekeepers operated had changed dramatically, with the number of conflicts on the rise. Given that the majority of the Council's agenda was occupied by peace and security challenges in Africa, the partnership between the United Nations and the African Union was welcome. He noted that the partnership between the two organizations could be further intensified by strengthening the institutionalization of their relations. The African Union also required logistical, financial and capacity-building support in dealing with regional instabilities. The efforts to establish an African standby force should be redoubled and the United Nations and the African Union should undertake joint efforts to draw lessons from past experiences.
HUSSEIN HANIFF (Malaysia), associating himself with Association of South-East Asian Nations (ASEAN) and the Non-Aligned Movement, said that, while the Council had the primary responsibility of maintaining international peace and security, regional organizations had the responsibility to work towards peaceful settlement of conflicts within their respective areas. Partnerships offered “unique comparative advantages”; apart from commanding legitimacy and affinity within their respective regions, those groups provided useful information, which, in turn, could enhance the effectiveness of the United Nations. Coupled with geographical proximity, regional groups could more rapidly deploy assets, including troops. He noted that peacekeepers must be provided with clear operational tasks, guidance and training, while troops must be ever aware of the cultural sensitivities of the areas in which they served. Malaysia had set up a peacekeeping centre for training prior to assignment with the Organization and, over the years, had collaborated with United Nations agencies. He noted the need for resources, and added that logistical support was also crucial.
SIMONA MICULESCU (Romania) said the strengthened United Nations cooperation with regional organizations was, unquestionably, regarded as a positive trend and an ever-greater necessity. Regional and subregional organizations were often in a more suitable position to operate in regional conflict zones than United Nations troops. Romania attached great importance to the effectiveness of the United Nations in the pursuit of global peace and security. It was an active promoter of efforts to redefine means of cooperation between the United Nations and regional organizations. Such organizations had become significant contributors to international endeavours to support States in transition from conflict and from political instability to sustainable peace.
DESRA PERCAYA (Indonesia), associating himself with the Non-Aligned Movement and ASEAN, said that, although cooperation between the United Nations and regional organizations was recognized in the United Nations Charter, there remained a gap in more systematically and effectively harnessing the role of regional actors. He called on mediators and civilian capacity enhancement providers, the United Nations and the international community to step up political and technical support to relevant regional entities. Peacekeeping mechanisms needed to be improved to ensure adequate and timely financial and logistical resources for the missions, and there had to be greater trust and confidence between the United Nations and regional organizations. He looked forward to proposals from the Special Committee on Peacekeeping Operations on the theme.
CHAYAPAN BAMRUNGPHONG (Thailand), speaking on behalf of ASEAN, said that almost 4,000 troops and police officers from the member States of ASEAN were currently serving in United Nations peacekeeping missions around the world. Under the framework of the Joint Declaration on Comprehensive Partnership between ASEAN and the United Nations, it was continuously looking for ways and means to foster closer cooperation in the area of peacekeeping. Partnerships between the United Nations and regional actors had to be based on Chapter VIII of the Charter and the principles of United Nations peacekeeping. He stressed the importance of the Special Committee on Peacekeeping Operations, drawing attention to recent policy decisions in its 2014 substantive session. There needed to be a financing mechanism to ensure that regional organizations were well-resourced.
URMAS PAET, Foreign Minister of Estonia, said his country had actively contributed to international peacekeeping since 1995 and since then, not a single day had gone by when an Estonian soldier, policeman or expert had not been on a peace mission. Estonia's efforts were aimed at protecting civilians and achieving a peaceful outcome to conflict situations, with the understanding that there was a link between international peace and domestic security. There were comparative advantages to the involvement of regional organization, particularly in Africa. At times, regional and subregional organizations had more knowledge and experience to handle local affairs. They may also have better-suited capabilities for an effective regional response.
With regional organizations taking more responsibility, the excessive burden the United Nations was facing could be relieved, he said. Political will was the first and foremost prerequisite to more regional action. Both the European Union and NATO had worked to improve their operational and planning capabilities, as well as their readiness for prompt action. The European Union's Battlegroups and the NATO Rapid Response Force were good examples for other regions to follow. Estonia highly valued the role of international actors and international law, although there was also a need for stronger national and regional ownership by the Governments of countries struggling for peace and security.
JIM MCLAY (New Zealand) expressed concern that, despite efforts by troop-contributing countries, the system of peacekeeping was still dangerously exposed. United Nations peacekeeping was overstretched, deployment of new missions was too slow and uncertain, and existing missions were being taken by surprise by the re-emergence of conflict. Much of the initial work on halting conflict and restoring peace was too dependent on peacekeeping by regional organizations, which were often poorly equipped for such tasks. Of even greater concern was the fact that regional peacekeeping lacked predictable and sustainable financing. Regional and subregional organizations had important functions across the full spectrum of the Council's mandate, therefore, partnerships with such organizations must improve.
ZOHRAB MNATSAKANYAN (Armenia) said that levels of institutionalized cooperation varied between regions. It was reasonable to argue that a regional actors’ proximity to a conflict would increase its stake in resolving such a crisis. However, he added that neighbouring States may have contrasting interests, and may favour one party at the expense of another. Effectiveness was reliant on the explicit consent of all directly concerned parties to the conflict. Any peacekeeping force's specific nature, strength and composition should derive from the content of the political agreement between all parties to the conflict. Recognizing peacekeeping's value, he pointed to a peacekeeping brigade in the Armenian armed forces, adding that his country would contribute forces to the United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL), manifesting the intention of gradually increasing Armenia's contribution to United Nations peacekeeping.
TIM MAWE (Ireland), associating himself with the European Union, said that his country held a seminar in 2013 on partnerships with regional organizations. Greater regional participation expressed the sharing of the collective security burden and the European Union-United Nations partnership was essential. With many European States having left the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF), he saw an opportunity to return to European Union peacekeeping. Ireland consistently appeared in peacekeeping operations. He hoped to see imaginative, ambitious and bold approaches to further enhance the relationship between the European Union and the United Nations. He noted the willingness of African organizations to take on operations and noted that AMISOM had stayed the course where a force from outside might not have, pursuing tasks that a United Nations force would not. Coordination between the United Nations and the African Union to ensure coherence was vital. Nonetheless, he noted constraints, including possible partisanship and the occasional inability to act decisively.
CHARLES PETER MSOSA (Malawi), speaking on behalf of the Southern African Development Community (SADC) and associating himself with the African Union and the African Group, said that the importance of regional cooperation was most clearly illustrated in Africa. The partnership between the United Nations and regional organizations had complementary specialities, which had been demonstrated in UNAMID, as well as with the African-led International Support Mission to the Central African Republic (MISCA) and the African-led International Support Mission to Mali (AFISMA). He welcomed the peace agreement in the Central African Republic and looked to Guinea, where elections and constitutional order had been restored. He noted that the SADC mutual defence pact had contributed to peacekeeping and regional stabilization, particularly in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
MOOTAZ AHMADEIN KHALIL (Egypt), speaking on behalf of the Non-Aligned Movement, said peacekeeping was at a critical juncture as a result of increased demand and the expansion and complexity of tasks, with mandates that exceeded the scope of traditional political and military roles. Those factors burdened the capacities of the Organization and country contributors to achieve the desired goals. Improved capacity to assess conflict was required, as well as better planning based on accurate information. Enhanced measures for the safety and security of peacekeepers were also critical, as was Charter-based rapid response to emergencies. He stressed the importance of consensus among Member States on policy development, with the Special Committee serving as the sole body in that regard. It was imperative to provide all necessary support and to receive a strong commitment from the Council in drafting clear and achievable mandates, based on an objective assessment.
He cautioned against adopting mandates that lacked political basis or sufficient resources, or which were not practically achievable. The primary responsibility for maintaining international peace and security rested with the United Nations and the regional arrangements should be in line with the Charter’s Chapter VIII. The Movement called for intensified support by the United Nations for the African Union operations through predictable and sustainable funding. It comprised most, if not all, top military and political troop-contributing countries, and it continued to increase its contribution, which was clear evidence of its members’ commitment.
NAMITA KHATRI (Fiji) said regional organizations were likely to have a keener understanding of the local situation and cultures. The institutional systems of regional neighbours were likely to be similar, and a logical corollary would provide faster response times than the launch of a global force-generation effort. Although regional organizations had the know-how and personnel to assist neighbouring countries in conflict situations, they did not always have the resources, including helicopters and new technologies, along with proper financing. Additionally, partnerships should be created for the long terms rather than only in crises, and the onus was on the United Nations Secretariat to facilitate cooperation of the kind envisaged in successive reports of the Special Committee on Peacekeeping. If the best option for resourcing was to “re-hat” a mission as a United Nations operation, then methodical planning through use of best practices was vital, as was the need for detailed, less burdensome mandates.
EIRINI LEMOS-MANIATI, Senior Civilian Liaison Officer to the United Nations, NATO, said that in the context of the Council’s request for more prompt action to preserve peace and protect civilians, the United Nations was to be commended for seeking to strengthen its essential role and to ensure the effective functioning of collective security. But, the Organization itself had recognized over the years that enhancing global security and stability could not be managed by a single organization on its own. That had to be done through a concerted effort based on shared goals and common values. Partnerships were critical in that endeavour, he said, noting that NATO had been a long-standing partner of the United Nations. Its new Strategic Concept, developed in 2010, committed the alliance to help prevent and manage conflicts, and to stabilize post-conflict situations, including by working more closely with the United Nations.
He said that, over two decades, NATO had demonstrated a clear ability to plan, initiate and conduct multinational operations of varying scale and complexity, including at short notice, at strategic distance, and over an extended timeframe. Those operations had involved combinations of skills, assets and capabilities and had covered the entire spectrum from peace enforcement to multifaceted security assistance, from maritime embargoes to humanitarian assistance and disaster relief. The alliance continually looked at ways to make pragmatic cooperation more effective. As the United Nations assessed the respective strengths and roles of its partners, NATO would support its peacekeeping efforts through the provision of enablers such as logistical and medical support and strategic airlift. It would also share its expertise on asymmetrical threats, “C-IED”, or Counter Improvised Explosive Devices Centre of Excellence; planning; training; and standardization. A key agenda item at the NATO Summit next month would be strengthening the “inter-operability” between its forces and those of its partners.
KAHA IMNADZE (Georgia) said the United Nations Observer Mission in Georgia (UNOMIG) had been crucial to maintaining peace and stability. The ending of its mandate in 2009 led to a vacuum of international presence, with only the European Union Monitoring Mechanism remaining. It had proven unable to exercise its mandate and reach all areas, but it was the primary source for unbiased information and was vital to continuation and improvement of the situation in the future. He pointed out Georgia's contribution to global security, noting an upgrading of armed forces to improve their ability to participate in missions. He listed some of Georgia's military contributions and said he was looking to enhance support for United Nations peacekeeping. Regarding the situation in Ukraine, he called for enhanced regional cooperation to respond to the situation, welcoming the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) special monitoring mission and the European Union advisory mission.
ROFINA CHIKAVA (Zimbabwe), associating herself with SADC and the Non-Aligned Movement, noted the prevalence of intra-State conflicts and unconventional threats, such as terrorism, organized crime and piracy. Such threats tended to permeate borders, and there was a need for a broad discussion on how peacekeeping should adapt. Emphasizing the importance of a well-structured partnership between the United Nations and regional organizations, she pointed to the establishment of regional standby brigades and the deployment of regional and joint peacekeeping operations, outlining their successes. SADC had established a standby brigade, mandated to intervene for peace and security restoration in a conflict situation. Lessons needed to be learned from past experiences to strengthen strategic cooperation. Further, she called for predictable financing in light of the problems faced by United Nations missions in Central African Republic and Somalia.
HARALD BRAUN (Germany) said the sequential or parallel deployment of peace operations by the United Nations and regional organizations — especially the European Union and the African Union — had become the norm rather than the exception. Germany contributed to that joint endeavour both to United Nations missions as well as in the European framework. There was a growing sense that peacekeeping should be made more effective to meet the multiple challenges, and in that context, he welcomed the announced review by Secretary-General Ban. A critical aspect should address the partnership between the United Nations and regional organizations, as with more parallel deployments more lessons could be learned. Improved synergies were required, not least, given increasingly strained resources. A seminar organized by his country, in Berlin in November, would address the comparative advantages of the organizations and how to capitalize on them to achieve the common goal. Also central would be ways to ensure that efforts by both the United Nations and European Union complemented one another rather than developed in parallel. The seminar would also consider ways to ensure that absorption capacities of host nations were not overstretched.
LIBRAN CABACTULAN (Philippines) said that current conflicts now involved not only States, but also non-State actors, resulting in a more complex and complicated peacekeeping landscape for the United Nations to address and operate within. Operational demands and realities, including finite resources, required the maximization, multiplication, and coordination of efforts. Regional arrangements and agencies could do more to provide important contributions to peacekeeping. Partnerships between such organizations and the United Nations must be based on comparative advantages, complementarity, and the optimal use of resources and capacities. There needed to be effective communication and coordination between the United Nations and regional organizations, while strengthening the safety and security of peacekeepers should remain a priority.
ABDERRAZAK LAASSEL (Morocco) stressed the importance of adaptation to new trends, such as cooperation with regional organizations groups. He shared the belief that regional groups held certain comparative advantages in helping to tackle conflicts. ECOWAS had played a key role in Mali and Guinea-Bissau. ECCAS was present in Central African Republic and IGAD had helped civilians under its mandates connected to Sudan and South Sudan. Action by the African Union in Mali had helped prevent the worst and support was now needed in the fight against Boko Haram. Noting his country’s commitment to peacekeeping operations in Côte d’Ivoire, Central African Republic and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, he stressed that impartiality should never be confused with neutrality or indecision.
ASOKE MUKERJI (India) said that his country had gained much experience as the largest overall contributor of troops to United Nations peacekeeping. Indian troops had witnessed the development of new trends and recognized new demands, especially in Africa. It was critical not to mix mandates, he said, pointing out the dangers of using the United Nations to tackle what might be essentially internal political conflicts. There needed to be a structured mechanism of cooperation between the United Nations and regional organizations. Operationally, he said investment in logistics, equipment and training went a long way to making operations more viable and sustainable. On the financial aspect, he addressed the issue of peacekeeping operations in transition from regionally led to United Nations-led. Such situations required careful financial planning and a commitment to collaboration.
The full text of Security Council resolution 2167 (2014) reads as follows:
“The Security Council,
“Recalling Chapter VIII of the Charter of the United Nations,
“Recalling all its previous relevant resolutions, including resolution 2033 (2012) on the cooperation with regional and subregional organizations in matters relating to the maintenance of peace and security, and statements by its President underscoring the importance of developing effective partnerships between the United Nations and regional organizations, in particular the African Union (AU), in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations and the relevant statutes of regional and subregional organizations,
“Recalling its primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security, and recognizing that cooperation with regional and subregional organizations in matters relating to the maintenance of peace and security, and consistent with Chapter VIII of the Charter of the United Nations, can improve collective security,
“Reaffirming its commitment to uphold the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations, including its commitment and respect to the principles of political independence, sovereign equality and territorial integrity of all States in conducting all peacekeeping activities and the need for States to comply with their obligations under international law,
“Resolving to strengthen the central role of the United Nations in peacekeeping and to ensure the effective functioning of the collective security system established by the Charter of the United Nations, and welcoming the 11 June 2014 announcement of the Secretary-General of a comprehensive review of United Nations peacekeeping activities,
“Reaffirming that respect for the basic principles of peacekeeping, including consent of the parties, impartiality, and non-use of force, except in self-defence and defence of the mandate, is essential to the success of peacekeeping operations,
“Recognizing that regional organizations are well positioned to understand the root causes of armed conflicts owing to their knowledge of the region, which can be a benefit for their efforts to influence the prevention or resolution of these conflicts, and acknowledging the efforts made by the African Union to review the scope of the African Standby Force (ASF), consistent with the recommendations of the 2013 independent Panel of Experts,
“Recognizing the role that regional and subregional organizations can play in the protection of civilians, and in particular women and children affected by armed conflict, as well as in the prevention of and response to sexual and gender-based violence in armed conflicts and post conflict situations and supports the critical role that women play in all peace and security efforts, including those to prevent and resolve conflict and mitigate its impact,
“Recognizing the valuable contribution of relevant regional and subregional organizations and arrangements for the protection of children affected by armed conflict and commending the declaration signed on 17 September 2013 between the Office of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Children and Armed Conflict and the Peace and Security Department of the African Union Commission, in order to mainstream protection mechanisms in all peace and security activities of the African Union, in close partnership with UNICEF (United Nations Children’s Fund), as well as the European Union (EU) Guidelines on Children and Armed Conflict, including its Checklist for the integration of the protection of children affected by armed conflict into EU Common Security and Defence Policy operations,
“Recognizing the role that regional and subregional organizations can play in post-conflict peacebuilding including Security Sector Reform and Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration, rule of law, recovery, reconstruction and development processes, and reaffirming the importance of interaction and cooperation between the Peacebuilding Commission and regional and subregional organizations and arrangements,
“Stressing the utility of developing effective partnerships between the United Nations and regional and subregional organizations, in order to enable early responses to disputes and emerging crises and to strengthen the role of the United Nations in the prevention of conflict, and stressing that the coordination of efforts at the regional level may be necessary for the development of a comprehensive strategy to ensure effective peacekeeping activities to address threats, to international peace and security,
“Underlining the usefulness of sharing the experience of countries which have gone through conflict and post-conflict situations and comparable transitions, and emphasizes the importance of effective regional, South-South and triangular cooperation,
“Welcoming the continuing efforts and enhanced peacekeeping role of regional and subregional organizations, consistent with the Charter of the United Nations and Security Council resolutions and decisions, including in preparing the ground for United Nations peacekeeping operations and calling upon regional and subregional organizations to promote coherence and coordination of their peacekeeping efforts with those of the peacekeeping operations and special political missions, as well as with the wider United Nations presence on the ground,
“Welcoming the initiatives already taken by regional or subregional organizations in the maintenance of international peace and security including the African Union, the European Union, the Economic Community of Central African States , the Economic Community of West African States, the Southern African Development Community, the Eastern African Community (EAC), the Organization of American States, the Union of South American Nations, the Community of Latin America and Caribbean States, the Caribbean Community and Common Market, the Collective Security Treaty Organization, the League of Arab States, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations and the Arab Maghreb Union,
“Welcoming the United Nations partnership with the African Union in the field of peacekeeping, including by supporting the African Union’s efforts to develop policy, guidance and training, in particular in the areas of Security Sector Reform, post-conflict reconstruction, women peace and security and the protection of civilians including child protection and the prevention of and response to sexual and gender based violence in armed conflicts and post conflict situations, thereby welcoming the Framework of Cooperation between the Special Representative on Sexual Violence in Conflict and the African Union signed on 31 January 2014 and calling for its implementation,
“Recalling in this regard its commitment to regularly assess, in consultation with relevant stakeholders, the strength, mandate, and composition of peacekeeping operations with a view to making the necessary adjustments where appropriate, according to progress achieved or changing circumstances on the ground including in security, thereby allowing, on a case by case basis, reconfiguration, transition or withdrawal,
“Emphasizing that United Nations peacekeeping activities should be conducted in a manner so as to facilitate post-conflict peacebuilding, prevention of relapse into armed conflict and progress towards sustainable peace and development, and recognizing that the mandate of each peacekeeping mission is specific to the needs and situation of the country concerned,
“Recognizing that one major constraint facing some regional organizations, in particular the African Union, in effectively carrying out the mandate of maintaining regional peace and security is securing predictable, sustainable and flexible resources,
“Recalling its resolution 1809 (2008), which welcomed the Secretary-General’s proposal to establish a joint African Union-United Nations panel to consider options for supporting regional organizations when they undertake peacekeeping operations pursuant to a Security Council mandate; and welcoming the steps taken by the Chairperson of the African Union Commission to generate resources from within African Union Member States in support of peace support operations,
“1. Underlines the importance of partnership and cooperation with relevant regional and subregional organizations and arrangements, in accordance with Chapter VIII of the Charter of the United Nations, in supporting peacekeeping operations, including on issues relating to the protection of civilians, taking into account the respective mandates of peacekeeping operations, and peacebuilding activities as well as forging greater regional and national ownership, and furthermore, reiterates that the growing contribution made by regional and subregional organizations can usefully complement the work of the United Nations in maintaining international peace and security, and stresses in this regard that such contribution must be made in accordance with Chapter VIII of the Charter of the United Nations, including the need for regional and subregional organizations at all times to keep the Security Council fully informed of activities undertaken or in contemplation for the maintenance of international peace and security;
“2. Expresses its determination to take effective steps to further enhance the relationship between the United Nations and regional and subregional organizations, in particular the African Union, in accordance with Chapter VIII of the Charter of the United Nations;
“3. Encourages the continuing involvement of regional and subregional organizations in the peaceful settlement of disputes, including through conflict prevention, confidence-building and mediation efforts;
“4. Welcomes and further encourages the ongoing efforts of the African Union and the subregional organizations to strengthen their peacekeeping capacity and to undertake peacekeeping operations on the continent, in accordance with Chapter VIII of the Charter of the United Nations, and to coordinate, with the United Nations, through the Peace and Security Council, as well as ongoing efforts to develop a continental early warning system, response capacity such as the African Standby Force and enhanced mediation capacity, including through the Panel of the Wise;
“5. Welcomes in that regard the recent steps taken by the EAC to activate its standby arrangements and generate the required contribution in the context of the ASF;
“6. Underscores the need to strengthen the role of both United Nations and Regional Organizations’ headquarters in providing strategic guidance and support to the missions’ command and control structures to ensure that operations are managed effectively;
“7. Welcomes recent developments regarding cooperation between the United Nations, the African Union and the European Union, including the contribution of the European Union to the enhancement of African Union capacities; and further encourages regional and subregional organizations to strengthen and increase cooperation among them including efforts to enhance their respective capacities, in the maintenance of international peace and security;
“8. Recognizes the need to further strengthen cooperation and consultations with Troop- and Police-Contributing Countries, including through triangular cooperation between the Security Council, the Troop- and Police-Contributing Countries and the Secretariat, and encourages active participation of all stakeholders in open and more frequent consultation processes with a view to enhance the efficiency of the implementation of the mandates;
“9. Encourages the Peacebuilding Commission to continue to work in close consultation with regional and subregional organizations and arrangements, with a view to ensuring more consistent and integrated strategies for post-conflict peacebuilding and recovery;
“10. Encourages pertinent regional and subregional organizations and arrangements to help address the widespread impact of armed conflict on children, invites them to continue the mainstreaming of child protection into their advocacy, policies, programmes and mission planning, the development and expansion of guidelines to protect children affected by armed conflict as well as the training of personnel and the inclusion of child protection staff in their peacekeeping and field operations, and reiterates its call for the establishment of child protection mechanisms within their secretariats, including through the appointment of child protection focal points;
“11. Reaffirms its intention to consider further steps to promote closer and more operational cooperation between the United Nations and regional and subregional organizations in the fields of early warning, conflict prevention, peacekeeping and peacebuilding, and of ensuring coherence, synergy and collective effectiveness of their efforts; and in this regard, welcomes the already existing strong cooperation initiatives between the United Nations, the African Union and the European Union;
“12. Stresses the importance for the United Nations of developing regional and subregional organizations’ ability to deploy peacekeeping forces rapidly in support of United Nations peacekeeping operations or other Security Council-mandated operations, and welcomes relevant initiatives taken in this regard;
“13. Requests in that context the Secretary-General to initiate in full and close cooperation with the African Union a lessons learned exercise on the transitions from the African Union peace operations to United Nations peacekeeping operations in Mali and the Central African Republic and to produce specific recommendations that could be used for possible future transitional arrangements not later than 31 December 2014;
“14. Encourages the United Nations and regional organizations, especially the African Union to take concrete steps to strengthen their relationships and develop a more effective partnership when addressing issues of mutual interest and underscores the need to enhance the United Nations and regional organizations’ pre-deployment joint planning and joint mission assessment processes to increase effectiveness of peacekeeping mission;
“15. Stresses the need for the United Nations and the African Union to work to ensure that women and gender perspectives are fully integrated into all peace and security efforts undertaken by the two organizations, including by building the necessary capacity, encourages regional and subregional organizations to include gender expertise in peacekeeping and field operations, as appropriate, and increase female leadership in regional and subregional peacekeeping efforts;
“16. Encourages the Secretary-General and regional and subregional organizations and arrangements to enhance information-sharing on their respective capabilities and lessons-learned in maintaining international peace and security and to continue to compile best practices, in particular in the field of mediation, good offices and peacekeeping and also encourages strengthening of cooperation and dialogue among regional and subregional organizations in this regard;
“17. Recognizes the inclusive consultative processes undertaken by the Police Division in the development of the Strategic Guidance Framework for International Police Peacekeeping, and encourages closer coordination and cooperation on policing issues between the United Nations Secretariat and international, regional and sub-regional organisations, including through training, the sharing and exchange of knowledge, thematic expertise and operational support as appropriate;
“18. Encourages the increased engagement of the African Union Peacekeeping Support Team within the Department of Peacekeeping Operations and the United Nations Office to the African Union as coordinating structures, aimed at providing necessary expertise and transfer of technical knowledge to enhance the capacity of the African Union’s Peace Support Operations Division including in mission planning and management, as well as the deployment of the Department of Political Affairs’ staff to work with the African Union on the effective operationalization of the Panel of the Wise and other mediation programmes;
“19. Calls on the Secretary-General to coordinate with and support the African Union Commission in its development of a list of needed capacities and recommendations on ways the African Union can further develop its military, police, technical, logistic and administrative capabilities, welcomes the practice of staff exchanges, especially between the UN and AU and encourages its continuity particularly the staff in the financial and logistical areas, and further encourages the African Union to identify its priorities in personnel training, particularly in those areas dealing with financial, logistic and administrative matters;
“20. Invites regional and subregional organizations to accelerate the establishment of Standby Arrangements System for conflict prevention and peacekeeping, welcomes in that regard the commitment made by the African leaders at the Malabo Summit of 26-27 June 2014 and steps taken by the African Union Commission to operationalize the African Capacity for Immediate Response to Crisis, and encourages the AU member States to generate substantive pledges to this initiative, and further encourages the African Union Commission to harmonize this concept with the ASF;
“21. Reaffirms its previous resolutions and statements by its President regarding the Prodi report, including S/PRST/2010/21, S/PRST/2009/26, and S/PRST/2013/12, as well as resolutions 1809 (2008), 2033 (2012) and 2086 (2013);
“22. Reiterates that regional organizations have the responsibility to secure human, financial logistical and other resources for their organizations, including through contributions by their members and support from partners and welcomes the valuable financial support provided from partners in this regard;
“23. Stresses the need to enhance the predictability, sustainability and flexibility of financing regional organizations when they undertake peacekeeping under a Security Council mandate, and recognizes the benefit of joint planning missions and assessment visits in determining the needs of regional peace support operations;
“24. Reiterates its resolve to give peacekeeping operations clear, credible and achievable mandates matched by appropriate resources;
“25. Urges Member States and relevant international organizations to contribute to strengthening the capacity of regional and subregional organizations, in particular of African regional and subregional organizations, in conflict prevention and crisis management, and in post-conflict stabilization, including through the provision of human, technical and financial assistance;
“26. Welcomes in this regard the support provided by the European Union through the African Peace Facility, in particular the support provided to AMISOM and MISCA (African-led International Support Mission in the Central African Republic);
“27. Further welcomes the extensive support by bilateral partners of the African Union for the deployment of African-led operations and encourages them to pursue these efforts;
“28. Requests the Secretary-General, in close consultation with the AU Commission and EU to produce, not later than 31 March 2015, an assessment report and recommendations on the progress of the partnerships between the UN and relevant regional organizations in peacekeeping operations;
“29. Decides to remain seized of the matter.”