AS REFORMS PROCEED, UNITED NATIONS MUST BE SURE TO SERVE INTERESTS OF ALL ITS MEMBERS, GENERAL ASSEMBLY IS TOLD

GA/9129
11 October 1996

AS REFORMS PROCEED, UNITED NATIONS MUST BE SURE TO SERVE INTERESTS OF ALL ITS MEMBERS, GENERAL ASSEMBLY IS TOLD

11 October 1996


Press Release
GA/9129


AS REFORMS PROCEED, UNITED NATIONS MUST BE SURE TO SERVE INTERESTS OF ALL ITS MEMBERS, GENERAL ASSEMBLY IS TOLD

19961011 Debate Ends on Secretary-General's Report; Some Warn That Organization Must Not Become Instrument of Wealthier States

The most pressing challenge for the United Nations today was to serve the genuine interests of all its Member States, the General Assembly was told this afternoon as it concluded the current portion of its review of the Secretary-General's report on the work of the Organization.

The United Nations must meet that challenge, said the representative of Cuba, so as not to become a hostage to, or instrument of, any Member State. The dilemma between serving all or serving a few was becoming more sharp in a time when globalization did not spread wealth, but instead inequality.

The representative of China said that genuine reform of the United Nations would enable it to better adapt to global changes and more effectively promote peace and development. Major reforms should be discussed by the membership and endorsed by the majority of Member States, rather than formulated according to the will of a small number of countries. The practice of making irresponsible remarks and unwarranted accusations against the United Nations while long withholding payment of assessed contributions did not support genuine reform.

The representative of Pakistan said the United Nations must reverse the current global trends towards isolationism and provincialism. Amidst that trend, poor nations were being told to solve their economic problems themselves. In order to build the foundation for peace, the crucial aspect of development must not be undermined.

The inability of the world community to provide a swift and effective answer to the problems arising from the application of sanctions threatened to undermine trust in the very institution of sanctions, said the representative of the Ukraine. That, in turn, called into question the very principle of collective activity through the implementation of enforcement measures by the United Nations. Unfortunately, the negative impact of sanctions on third countries had yet to be adequately addressed.

In a brief statement of position on behalf of the "Group of 77" developing countries and China, the representative of Costa Rica said they could not accept the implications contained in paragraph 94 of the Secretary- General's report -- a paragraph which addressed short-term ways of achieving efficiencies and reducing costs that were proposed following the review overseen by the Efficiency Board.

Statements were also made by the representatives of Malta, Latvia, Belgium, Kuwait, Nepal, Zimbabwe, Sudan, Iraq, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Nigeria, Tunisia, Iran and Italy.

The Assembly will meet again at 10 a.m., Monday, 14 October, to elect members of the Committee for Programme and Coordination (CPC), and to review the Secretary-General's report on follow-up to the World Summit for Children.

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Assembly Work Programme

The General Assembly met this afternoon to continue its consideration of the Secretary-General's annual report on the work of the Organization (document A/51/1). (For background on the report, see Press Release GA/9128, 11 October.)

Statements

BRUNO RODRIGUEZ (Cuba), said that, for the overwhelming majority of States, the world today was more unsafe now than it had been in the past. Poverty had increased and wealth had become more concentrated. The abyss between the North and the South grew deeper and deeper. Conflicts were unleashed, and the United Nations could not seem to find a way to settle them. Colonial concepts had been woven to make people believe they were to blame for their poverty. People were told that the "globalization" was the globalization of wealth -- at hand's reach for the industrious. In fact, what had occurred was the globalization of problems and of inequality. The globalized world was a unipolar world in which any illusion of global government would be doomed to failure. For the United Nations, the dilemma between serving all or serving a few had never been so sharp. There was no more pressing, practical or concrete challenge for the United Nations today than to serve the genuine interests of all its Member States, so as not to become a hostage to or an instrument of any of them.

The United Nations so-called financial crisis was a payment crisis. The United Nations must have the political ability to make the largest economy in the world honour its commitments in full, on time and without conditions. It was not due to a lack of United Nations attention that conflicts had not subsided. However, it had not come to grips with the actual causes of conflicts and had often applied artificial solutions.

The decrease in the resources allocated for development was due to the lack of political will to promote development on a global scale, he said. Developing countries could not entrust other international actors with a task that was primarily the United Nations responsibility. Legitimate and sensible reform would truly strengthen and revive the General Assembly.

Regarding Security Council reform, he said a lack of flexibility had been shown by some States, which view reform from a discriminatory perspective that was incompatible with the principle of the sovereign equality of States. He challenged what he called the anachronistic privilege of the veto -- or the threat of the veto, which had become sort of an "underground veto", used to avoid public consequences, to which "all States are equal", only that "some are more equal than others".

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Preventive diplomacy and the establishment of peace must not be conceived or applied on a cost-benefit basis, he said. In the opinion of a large number of Member States, including his own, preventive diplomacy and the establishment of peace must be seen only as diplomatic means to prevent the escalation of a controversy and its unfolding into a conflict. The Secretary- General's report did not sufficiently emphasize the principle of consent, he said. That was a principle which many considered a cornerstone for any United Nations diplomatic initiative and a condition that would always prevail over attempts to impose an artificial peace that might become interference in the internal affairs of a sovereign State.

WANG XUEXIAN (China) said that although the Organization had made efforts to alleviate regional conflicts, address the question of social development and push forward its own reforms, there was concern that the question of development had failed to get due attention, that the financial difficulties of the United Nations were on the rise and that the role of the United Nations had weakened.

He said preventing conflicts, restoring stability, eradicating poverty and achieving the objectives of social development were closely linked with economic development. While the United Nations had an important role to play in the field of development, the United Nations efforts in the economic and development areas had declined, as marked by shortage of funds and shrinking operations of United Nations development agencies. The role of the United Nations in the field of development must be strengthened rather than weakened.

The United Nations financial crisis was a payment crisis caused by delayed payment by a few Member States, particularly the major contributor, he said. It was obviously unjustifiable for a certain major contributor to withhold payment of its assessed contributions on the ground of United Nation reforms. The practice of making irresponsible remarks and unwarranted accusations against the United Nations on the one hand, and long withholding payment of assessed contributions to the United Nations on the other hand, was of no help to genuine reform of the United Nations. Genuine reform, desired by the general membership, should enable the United Nations to better adapt to global changes and more effectively promote peace and development. Major reform plans concerning all aspects of the United Nations, including the Secretariat, should be subject to full discussion of the general membership, and confirmed and endorsed by the majority of Member States, rather than formulated according to the will of only a small number of countries.

China expected the United Nations to make greater efforts to address the deep-rooted causes of conflicts, he said. At the same time, it must be recalled that countries varied from one another in social system, values, level of development, historical tradition, religious belief and cultural

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background. The United Nations must have a clear understanding of that situation and base its practice thereon.

JOSEPH CASSAR (Malta) said the humanitarian imperative had transformed the United Nations into a symbol of hope for millions. In his report the Secretary-General stressed the equal importance of the commitment to build a global society which rested on social justice and continued United Nations assistance to the victims of man-made or natural disasters. The details he provided were a stark reminder that the world community could not limit its action to provide assistance only during or in the immediate aftermath of disaster. There were innumerable instances when tragic situations failed to attract the continued attention of the media even though the suffering of millions persisted. The United Nations had kept alive its consistent commitment to those victims, be they populations affected by the Chernobyl catastrophe, be they Somali or Palestinian refugees, be they those who lived the daily agony of extreme poverty and exclusion.

Development of international humanitarian law reflected the commitment to contain the impact of war. That aspect of the Organization's work required constant attention and further focus. The promotion and protection of human rights was another key aspect of this humanitarian imperative, he continued. This important hallmark of United Nations commitment had changed the international environment. That focus on human rights had been instrumental in demolishing those walls behind which authoritarian regimes which trampled upon human dignity sought to hide. It had inspired and enabled the international community to combat the violation of human rights, and to restore social justice, freedom and progress.

He said the United Nation's fiftieth anniversary commemorations provided Member States the opportunity to collectively renew commitment to the Charter and underlined the need for a process of sustained reform. The measure against which the system's functioning might be assessed was the Charter. It established the principles on which the work of the Organization was based, guided and furthered. In the review and renewal of the structures of the Organization, the need for an expanded Security Council and a revitalized General Assembly remained institutional priorities. Consensus building was a key to the achievement of progress in those two important areas of reform. Equally important was the principle of sovereign equality of States that was fundamental to the Organization, and particularly for the role of the General Assembly. The process of its revitalization and its enhanced relationship with the Security Council should not be held hostage to agreement in other distinct areas.

He said cooperation on the institutional level helped avoid duplication. It was cost-effective and provided an opportunity for better sharing of information and expertise. There existed a need to apply such a coordinated

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approach to areas of "common heritage of mankind". That concept was an integral part of a number of conventions and resolutions, which ascribed responsibility for different areas of common heritage to specific international institutions. Malta believed that the Trusteeship Council should be entrusted with such coordination. During the fiftieth session, Malta tabled a resolution, later adopted by the General Assembly, on the review of the role of the Trusteeship Council. Member States were requested to submit their views on the future of the Council. The Trusteeship Council, a principal organ of the United Nations, should continue to exist because of its present potential under the Charter, applied to current and emerging realities. Malta's proposal had encountered a range of opinions and views. He looked forward to further discussion.

ULDIS BLUKIS (Latvia) said in his report the Secretary-General described what had been accomplished at the three levels of institutional reform: intergovernmental, organizational and managerial. However, he barely touched on the state of reforms at the intergovernmental level. Reforms at that level had lagged behind reforms at the other two. The relevant intergovernmental bodies, and particularly the General Assembly, must remedy that lag. The Assembly must examine the possibility of establishing a system of self- management that would be mission-driven and result-oriented, to replace the present procedure-driven, resolution-oriented system.

Priority should be given to reaching a framework agreement for reform of intergovernmental bodies.

ALEX REYN (Belgium) said ensuring the durability of the United Nations system during its current period of transition required that Member States look out for out for its financial health. Prompt payment of assessments would enable the Secretary-General to avoid the dangerous financial methods he had needed to employ to maintain a precarious budgetary balance. In addition, the financial uncertainties affecting peace-keeping operations could increase the risk to troop-contributing countries. It was hoped that all Member States could be counted on to adapt their financial mechanisms to today's realities.

He said some progress had been made in adapting United Nations organs and instruments to the new challenges of economic and social development. That process should continue. Coordination of development activities at Headquarters and in the field could still be improved. It was hoped that the working group on the agenda of development would present concrete results to the Assembly during the current session.

The Secretary-General's correct decision to rebaptize "preventive diplomacy" as "preventive action" was not a really new concept, he said. Nevertheless, the multidimensional approach was very interesting. The respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms was one field where the concept of

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preventive action could be put to use. The task of respecting these rights, during times of war and especially during times of peace, was the first responsibility of Member States to the international community. Significant efforts were also needed in the field of international humanitarian law, which had been systematically flouted during the past few years. There was no need for new texts or treaties, it was just a matter of respecting existing laws.

One of the most spectacular results of the work of the Organization had been signing of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), he said. However, lack of progress on the banning of anti-personnel land-mines was disappointing. Belgium would work arduously to achieve that aim.

MOHAMMAD A. ABULHASAN (Kuwait) paid tribute to the Secretary-General's stewardship of the Organization and said his report outlined the full spectrum of its activities.

The section of the report concerning the situation in his country stated that Iraq had not implemented the relevant resolutions. That included in particular, those relating to Iraq's return of prisoners and hostages and the return of property seized during its occupation of Kuwait. Of particular concern were such irreplaceable items as archives of specific Kuwaiti ministries.

The Secretary-General's expressed concern about Iraq's failure to comply with those obligations refuted its claims that it had fulfilled its commitments, he said. Iraq had not as yet released one Kuwaiti prisoner. Iraq also continued to use Kuwaiti equipment to threaten his country in military exercises. The satisfactory resolution of both matters was a priority for his country.

ANATOLI M. ZLENKO (Ukraine) said the informal open-ended working group on an Agenda for Peace had continued its deliberations on the four key areas it had identified: preventive diplomacy and peacemaking; post-conflict peace- building; coordination; and the questions of the United Nations-imposed sanctions. The most important failure of the group was the lack of activity on the part of delegations in elaborating and submitting specific proposals and formulating conceptual approaches. Unfortunately, Member States relied mainly on the innovative approach of coordinators and, consequently, concentrated on criticism of drafts they prepared. As a result, many valuable ideas were not reflected in the papers presented. In elaborating the papers, delegations strongly rejected the methodology of a scientific approach, the application of which could have helped to resolve many problems.

He said he noted with satisfaction that the Secretary-General and the Secretariat had started on their own to implement proposals made by the Member States during the discussion of the Supplement to Agenda for Peace, not

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waiting for the results of the deliberations of the working group. He welcomed the creation, within the Secretariat, of a standing oversight group of senior officers, which reviewed potential and/or ongoing crisis situations on the basis of information provided by the designated officers.

He went on to comment on the issue of economic sanctions imposed by the Security Council, which had been the focus of one of the sub-groups. Unfortunately, one of the most important and complex issues -- the negative impact of economic sanctions imposed by the Security Council on third States - - had not even been discussed. The delegation of Ukraine did not consider as persuasive the allusions to the fact that the issue was anticipated in the Sixth Committee in the framework of the discussion on the application of Article 50 of the United Nations Charter. He said the problem of the negative impact of economic sanctions imposed by the Council had long ago "overgrown" Article 50. It should be examined through the prism of strengthening the effectiveness of such sanctions. The inability of the world community to provide a swift and effective answer to the problems arising from the application of sanctions threatened to undermine trust in the very institution of sanctions. That, in turn, called into question the very principle of collective activity in the implementation of enforcement measures by the United Nations.

SHANTI SHUMSHER J.B. RANA, Minister of State for Housing and Physical Planning, (Nepal) said his delegation aligned itself with the statement made on behalf of the member countries of the Non-Aligned Movement. They acknowledged without reservation that the Secretary-General's current report, in form and contents, was a distinct improvement over the reports of the previous years. He said the delegation of Nepal was grateful for the tenacious and tireless efforts of the Secretary-General, for peace, and his efforts to better manage the Organization. Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali had succeeded in giving shape to the deliberations of the United Nations through his proposals in the Agendas for Peace and for Development. No-one had more eloquently pleaded the case of democracy and human rights, better emphasized the need for greater help to the weaker and the needy and been a stronger advocate of the case of the developing countries, in particular the least developed, than the Secretary-General.

The result of the ongoing reform process must be an Organization well- equipped, financed and structured to serve effectively the purposes for which it was established. It must not fail to serve the needs and aspirations of the peoples of the world in whose name the Charter was signed.

AHMAD KAMAL (Pakistan) said the United Nations was in the midst of a dramatic transformation, a process that had not been smooth. The role of the Organization had to be better understood and redefined. The greatest threat facing it was the trend towards neo-isolationism and neo-provincialism. Poor

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nations were being told to solve their economic problems themselves. Nations locked in conflict were being left at the mercy of the powerful aggressors. The United Nations must reverse those dangerous trends. He said the Secretary-General had reported that voluntary resources in United Nations funds and programmes had declined in recent years. The flow of official development assistance from countries of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) had declined to 0.27 per cent of the gross domestic product (GDP), as against the agreed target of 0.7 percent. In order to build the foundations of peace, that crucial aspect of development must not be undermined.

He said the Secretary-General had described the situation in Jammu and Kashmir as one of the oldest unresolved conflicts on the United Nations agenda. Over the past several years, Pakistan had explored all avenues for resolution of that dispute. It had asked for a plebescite under United Nations auspices and offered to hold substantive talks on Kashmir in either a bilateral or multilateral framework. India's response had been brutal and unabating repression, turning the whole of Kashmir into a military concentration camp. The dispute in that area represents a critical threat to peace and security in a very important region. It was vital that the United Nations intercede to promote a just and peaceful solution. The main stumbling block to a meaningful dialogue was India's obduracy.

MACHIVENYIKA T. MAPURANGA (Zimbabwe) said reform of the United Nations should not be a mere downsizing exercise; that might lead a weakened and ineffective organization. Reform of the Secretariat should not be approached as merely a cost-cutting exercise, without due consideration to programme delivery. Any attempt to pursue the reform and restructuring of the Organization without the authority and support of the legislative authority of the General Assembly would run the risk of transforming the United Nations into an organization that serves the interests of only a few. Reform should reaffirm the role of the General Assembly as the decision-making body of the whole United Nations system. The General Assembly had the key role to play in the post-conflict peace-building activities of reconciliation, rehabilitation and reconstruction. The Secretary-General's proposals on preventive diplomacy deserved support, but principles of request and consent should always be respected.

Zimbabwe was perturbed that the Secretary-General, in his report, sought to change the term "preventive diplomacy" to "preventive action" while the General Assembly was still grappling with the definition of preventive diplomacy. New and undefined terminologies, including "peace operations", might throw the entire process into confusion.

Development had not received the same priority as peace-keeping operations, he said. The Agenda for Development had the potential to provide

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a blueprint for international development cooperation. Given the attitudes shown in the negotiations, he had doubts that the potential would be fully realized. Attempts to renegotiate the agreements and commitments entered into at international conferences was of concern. The Agenda for Development would be of no value to the developing countries if it was merely confined to an analysis of the world economic outlook. Effective delivery of programmes should manifest itself in the improved lives of the beneficiaries.

The concurrence of Member States was critical to the discharge of the Secretary-General's mandate. He cautioned against any reform measures which sought to undo what had been accomplished in the recent past. Initiatives to simplify the Secretariat structures should not be considered managerial or administrative. Any modification of related initiatives should be left to the various working groups of the General Assembly.

ELFATIH MOHAMED AHMED ERWA (Sudan) said Operation Lifeline had been an example of cooperation in the humanitarian sphere. It depended on trust, and the Sudan's trust in the motivations of the United Nations had encouraged it to ask the Organization to coordinate that endeavour. Some had complained because it was simply not possible to reach all the needy people on both sides.

He said his country was determined to bring relief supplies to all citizens affected by the war, including those behind rebel lines. Progress had been made in the quest for peace, and many in the rebel movement now rejected war. Distributing relief supplies was no longer as hazardous as it had been, as there was now greater security and stability. He called on the international community to help Operation Lifeline in its work.

He noted that any hindrances to the work of Operation Lifeline was traceable to the rebel movement and its activities. The Government, for its part, would cooperate fully with the United Nations in the delivery of supplies to all affected. The Sudan, which had initiated Operation Lifeline as a human rights commitment, even in the circumstances of war, would not impede its activities. His country would continue its peace efforts, so there might be no need for relief measures.

NIZAR HAMDOON (Iraq) said the Secretary-General's report outlined the challenges and "windows of opportunity" facing the Organization. However, the efforts of the Secretary-General would not lead to reform unless all Member States worked together. Security Council reform, for example, could not occur if some States continued to try to keep it a "club of the wealthy". How could the finances of the Organization be reformed, if the United Nations continued to be kept hostage by one major power that refused to honour its financial obligations? he asked. How could there be revitalization in the area of

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development, if the countries of the north refused to give the countries of the south the necessary means to achieve their goals of development?

On the part of the report dealing with Iraq-Kuwait, he said the report stated that the lifting of sanctions was related to Iraq's failure to fulfil its commitments. That was untrue, he asserted. The resolutions on sanctions contained unclear demands. For example, on the return of prisoners, Iraq had repatriated some 6,500 detainees and missing persons and continued to cooperate with the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) in the search for missing persons. Everyone recognized that the search for missing persons in the aftermath of a war on such a scale would take many years. On the other hand, it was a fact that many Iraqi infants died monthly because of the sanctions. Was it admissible that Iraqi children were being starved and killed, over the question of a few hundred missing persons? To say that Iraq failed to comply with mandates and commitments was wrong, as the report of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) had indicated. The Council must set a time-frame for the sanctions regime, taking into consideration a number of factors including the effects on the civilian population and the absolute clarity of the conditions for lifting sanctions.

KIM CHANG GUK (Democratic People's Republic of Korea) thanked the Secretary-General for his attention to the Korean question. His country had suffered a terrible natural disaster and many countries and agencies had given sincere humanitarian assistance. The Korean question, which remained one of the significant issues facing the Organization, involved the termination of foreign intervention and the peaceful reunification of the country. The United Nations was still legally in a state of war with the Democratic Peoples' Republic of Korea. There was a United Nations command in south Korea which was not a result of any resolution. Big powers had abused the United Nations in dealing with the Korean question. The United Nations must redress the past in that regard. The Secretary-General's report did not deal substantively with the question. It mentioned the armistice agreement of 1953, which was only a temporary agreement to be replaced by a formal peace agreement.

He said his country in 1994 had proposed to the United States the establishment of a new peace agreement to replace the outdated armistice agreement. In 1996, the Democratic Peoples' Republic of Korea had proposed an interim arrangement. The United States had not responded to those proposals. If the United Nations was concerned with events on the Korean peninsula it would end the outdated armistice arrangement and remove the United Nations flag from the peninsula. The United Nations should redress the past and take action on the issue.

IBRAHIM GAMBARI (Nigeria) said the world was painfully aware that there could neither be development without peace, nor sustainable peace without

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development. The linkage between the two justified the attention the General Assembly continued to devote to the Secretary-General's "An Agenda for Peace" and its supplement, "An Agenda for Development". He noted the progress that had been achieved by the various General Assembly working groups and urged their early completion to produce agreements on the major defining themes.

On peace-keeping, he emphasised that although responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security lay with the Security Council, the international community should give concrete logistic and financial assistance to regional and sub-regional bodies. He welcomed the observation in the report identifying preventive diplomacy and peacemaking as critical elements in preventing crises, noting efforts to that end through early warning, quiet diplomacy and preventive deployment.

He said the increasing globalization and interdependence of the world economy masked the continued impoverishment of the large population of the countries of the south. More integrated efforts would be required of the United Nations system if "An Agenda for Development" were to succeed. The report demonstrated the challenges and opportunities facing the United Nations in an increasingly complex environment, he noted, but the reforms already implemented would not produce results if the Organization continued to be without funds. It was absurd that the reward for some of the world's poorest countries which sent their sons and daughters into harm's way on behalf of the international community, should be an additional burden.

SLAHEDDINE ABDELLAH (Tunisia) said a number of issues involved in reform of the United Nations system needed priority attention during the Assembly's current session. The role of the Assembly must be strengthened as the universal and representative body of the Organization. The Security Council must be adapted to the new political realities. Reform required a spirit of compromise. Reform of the Secretariat must include continued reorganization of its structures, with distribution of high-level posts. The United Nations could not meet its responsibilities unless the financial crisis was solved, he said. The situation that created the crisis must be ended. The many issues covered in the Secretary-General's report could not be addressed in the short time allotted. That discussion would be better served by the inclusion of some sort of executive summary.

MEHDI DANESH-YAZDI (Iran) said disarmament had traditionally been at the top of the United Nations agenda. However, in recent years there was a clear trend towards giving less emphasis to the role of disarmament, particularly at macro-level. Some major developments in the disarmament field had not been addressed in the Secretary-General's report, including the recent advisory opinion of the International Court of Justice on the illegality of nuclear weapons, and the refusal of the biggest possessors of chemical weapons to ratify the Chemical Weapons Convention.

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According to the report, organizational reform was a joint responsibility of the Secretary-General and Member States, while managerial reform was within the discretion of the Secretary-General, he said. However, not all managerial reforms were purely of an uncontentious administrative nature. Any major reform would have a direct implication for the implementation of the work programme mandated by the governing bodies. While the Secretary-General was the chief administrative officer, he should keep the Assembly informed of any changes in the implementation of its decisions. One of the budgetary measures presented by the Secretary-General had been a 12 per cent reduction in posts, he said. Even with increases in efficiency, it was hard to imagine how the Organization could meet its increased responsibilities with such a reduced staff. That drastic reduction was bound to have a negative impact on programme delivery, as seen in the report's reference to a lack of resources for development issues.

FRANCESCO PAOLO FULCI (Italy) said his country had made a proposal for Security Council reform for which 77 countries had expressed support or interest. The working group on Council reform had acknowledged that granting new permanent seats to only two countries was unacceptable. The increase in the non-permanent seats seemed the natural approach. Italy was encouraged by the degree of support its proposal had received during the general debate. Past efforts to improve transparency throughout the Organization must be increased. Other reforms were needed, including the streamlining of the work of the General Assembly.

Considerable efforts had been made to balance the budget and eliminate waste, he continued. However, the policy of budget cuts must never obstruct United Nations priorities. A review of the scale of assessments, based on ability to pay, must be completed. At the same time, all Member States must pay their contributions. The Agenda for Development should guide future work, not only of the Organization, but also of national Governments. Such work should take account of the dramatic and rapid changes in the field of international development cooperation. The United Nations today was ill- equipped to carry out peace enforcement operations due to a lack of adequate structure and resources. Peace enforcement operations should be mandated to properly equipped regional organizations or to a coalition of States. Italy supported United Nations efforts to focus on preventive diplomacy and post-conflict peace-building, and supported the enhancement of rapid-response capabilities.

NAZARETH A. INCERA (Costa Rica), speaking on behalf of the Group of 77 developing countries and China, said they could not accept the implications contained in paragraph 94 of the report, which addressed short- term ways of achieving efficiencies and reducing cost, proposed following the review overseen by the Efficiency Board.

The General Assembly, following its consideration of the Secretary-General's report on the work of the Organization, took note of that report. * *** *

For information media. Not an official record.