UN Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs,
with support from the UN Population Fund (UNFPA)

Population Education Newsletter & Forum, No. 42, 1995

This newsletter is being made available by the Population Information 
Network (POPIN) Gopher of the United Nations Population Division, 
Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis, in 
collaboration with the UNESCO Regional Clearing House on Population 
Education and Ecommunication (Bangkok) and the Asia-Pacific Population 
Information Network.  For further information, please contact UNESCO 
Bangkok via E-mail at: rechpec@ksc6.th.com

                        IN ASIA AND THE PACIFIC
                              No. 42, 1995


Regional News

     EPD Holds Consultative Meeting

     Youth NGOs Agree to Integrate Environment and
     Population Issues in their Activities

     Comparative Study on Family Life Education,
     Sex Education and Human Sexuality

     Countries Build Information Resource Centres

     Global POPIN Chalks Out Five-Year Strategy

Country News


          Population Education Programme Reviewed


          Programmatic Approach to IEC on Reproductive


          FP Education at the Grassroots Level

     Democratic People's Republic of Korea

          Population Programme Paves the Way for Better Flow      
          and Use of Population Information


          Adolescent Reproductive Health Forms Part of
          5th Country Programme Cycle


          Package on Population Education for Spcial Interest     
          Groups Developed


          Teacher Educators Trained

          MOECSW Trains Master Trainers and Supervisors


          Content Analysis Reveals Extensive Coverage of
          Population Contents in Textbooks


          UNFPA Grants $26.7 Million for Population Programme

          Project Document Drafted to Revitalize Population       

Pacific Islands

     Federated States of Micronesia

          New Population Education Project Proposal Drafted

     Papua New Guinea

          Population Education in PNG Schools

     Solomon Islands

          Population Education in Primary Schools

Development and Trends in Population IEC

          Information, Education and Communication

Five-Star Teaching Materials

          School Health Education to Prevent AIDS and STD

Publications in Circulation: A Review

Guidelines from UNFPA

          Approaches to Adolescents: Audience-specific

From the Desk of TSS/CST Advisers

          Content of Educational Programmes for Men

Recent Population Education Documents


                 EPD Holds Consultative Meeting

     To put into motion UNESCO's inter-disciplinary and inter-
agency co-operation project, "Environment, Population Education and
Information for Human Development", or more widely known as EPD,
UNESCO PROAP has involved various government agencies, NGOs and
other partner agencies, both at the regional and national levels,
in the implementation of various activities related to population
education, environment and sustainable development issues.

     After eight months of initial efforts by the various
organizations to implement activities on EPD, a consultative
meeting was held in Beijing, China from 19-23 June 1995 to present
the results of such projects and activities and to forge further
partnerships on EPD.

     The meeting also identified needs and priorities for EPD
implementation in the participating countries; developed
institutional, national or regional plans of action and proposed
action-oriented recommendations to achieve the over-all goals of

     Thirty-four participants deliberated on the future directions
of the EPD.  They came from eight countries from Asia, regional
research and educational centres/institutions and UN agencies such
as UNFPA Country Support Teams, UNEP, FAO, and UNESCO. 

     In the opening session, the welcome remark was delivered by
Mr. Cao Yuanju, Secretary-General of the Chinese National
Commission for UNESCO; a keynote speech given by Mr. Cha In-suk,
Secretary-General, Korean National Commission for UNESCO, followed
by a short remark by Mr. Je Ryung Hong, representative of National
Commission of DPR Korea for UNESCO. Mr. R.C. Sharma of UNESCO
Headquarters provided the background information about EPD and Mr.
Tae-Ho Yoo, EPD Focal Point Coordinator, made a statement.

                      Efforts made so far

     The efforts that have been so far made to implement the goals
of EPD and which were discussed during the meeting focused on
research studies, curriculum and other materials, information
campaigns, and other pilot action projects completed. They dealt
with environmental education and sustainable development, youth,
NGO and environment, HIV/AIDS awareness and prevention,
urbanization and development, rural women and quality of life,
population and environment focusing on biodiversity conservation,
as well as repackaging and reorientation of environment and
population education materials.

                 Priority areas needing attention

     Several priority areas were identified that needed immediate
action by the participants. These included creation of awareness of
the interrelationships between environment, population and
development; advocacy; education; training; population management;
gender concerns; monitoring and evaluation; and information
dissemination and networking.


     In order to implement these priority areas, a set of
strategies were formulated. First, an inter-agency and inter-
sectoral mechanism at various levels for coordinating the work of
EPD has to be set up. The private sector, youth and NGOs have to be
actively involved. The others include the use of communication
strategies with approved standard criteria; integrating EPD
messsages into existing development programmes; conduct of action-
oriented research; and mobilizing political support. Alternative
avenues for seeking funding were also discussed. 

     To concretize these recommendations, several actions were
recommended. Among these included the creation of a Regional
Advisory Council, the national EPD advisory committee in each
country and the setting up of EPD focal points coordinated by
UNESCO National Commissions. These should be followed by activities
such as development of core messages for use in the formal and non-
formal education; national capacity-building; development of
prototype teaching materials; use of modern technologies of
communication for training and learning; launching EPD advocacy
campaign; networking of information and documentation centres; and

                 Youth NGOs Agree to Integrate 
      Environment and Population Issues in their Activities

     To cooperatively address development problems from the youth
perspective, which will ensure their maximum participation, a
Working Group of the Regional Consultation of Youth NGOs in Asia
and the Pacific was organized in 1994 to mobilize a network of
youth NGOs in the region.

     Among the current issues identified by the Working Group as
requiring priority attention were the problems dealing with
population, environment and sustainable development. Hence, a
Working Group Meeting of the Regional Consultation of Youth NGOs in
Asia and the Pacific was held from 19-21 April 1995 at the UNESCO
PROAP to discuss and shape a plan of action integrating issues on
environment, population and development for consideration by the
youth NGOs.

     Organized by the Regional Unit for Social and Human Sciences
of UNESCO, the meeting developed this plan of action jointly by the
participants coming from various NGOs from China, Malaysia, Nepal,
Republic of Korea, Viet Nam, and regional institutions such as the
Asian Youth Council and World Organization of the Scout Movement
based in the Philippines.     

     To help them develop a relevant plan of action, the
participants were exposed and sensitized to the current policies
and programmes adopted by FAO, UNEP, UNFPA, and UNESCO in the areas
of population, environment and development, especially, on the new
programme thrusts adopted at the UN Conference on Environment and
Development held in 1992, the International Conference on
Population and Development held in 1994 and the World Summit on
Social Development. These presentations highlighted how the youth
NGOs can be mobilized and associated as partners in their
programmes and activities.

     The plan of action developed by the participants identified
the areas of cooperation in the broad fields of training,
information, funding, technical cooperation, environmental
protection, population and family life education, literacy,
employment opportunities, health and poverty alleviation, and
education, values and ethics.

     Specific national and regional projects were also identified.
Among these included income-generation activities, preparation of
directories, tree-planting events, volunteering action, and
production of training and teaching materials and manuals.

          Comparative Study on Family Life Education, 
               Sex Education and Human Sexuality 

     Under UNESCO EPD auspices, a comparative study on family life
education, sex education and human sexuality is being undertaken by
EPD in collaboration with UNESCO Regional Offices covering four
regions of the world-- Asia and the Pacific, Africa, Latin America
and Carribean, and Arab States.

     Over the past 20 years, some 90 countries in the world have
implemented population education programmes. These programmes
follow different conceptual frames of reference based on
predominant national problems and thrusts. Many of these have
included family life education, sexuality and human reproductive

     In the light of emerging issues and problems, it has been
urged that key concepts and contents on family life education
should be revised and updated accordingly, taking into account the
specificity of socio-cultural contexts. Before undertaking the
revision and updating of contents, an analysis of the contents of
existing national and regional training and teaching/learning
materials in the four regions is currently being undertaken.

     The results of these analyses will serve as basis for the
reconceptualization of population education/family life education
within the new EPD philosophy, taking into account emerging needs
in the areas of information, training, and educational materials

     The studies which are currently under preparation look into
the following: (i) the justifications for implementing family life
education programmes; (ii) content analysis of family life
education and sex education programmes in terms of rationale,
objectives, concepts, themes and contents, teaching strategies and
methodologies,etc.; (iii) changing scenes in the 90s; (iv) emerging
key issues and concepts; (iv) objectives, concepts and contents to
be reinforced or revised for training and teaching purposes; (v)
recommendations for a reconceptualization/reorientation; and (vi)
lessons learned and future needs and requirements. 

          Countries Build Information Resource Centres

     The value of information in implementing various population
programmes and activities has been unequivocably recognized by many
countries in the region. This realization has been manifested in
the integration of activities aimed at systematizing documentation
and information services into project documents funded by UNFPA.

     For example, the Population Centre based at the National
Economics University in Viet Nam is responsible for the training,
teaching, and research on population and to undertake these
functions effectively, trainers, trainees, teachers, students, and
researchers need to have constant supply of updated reference
materials. Thus, the Population Centre under the Project VIE/92/P04
provided full funding support to establish a Documentation Centre.
Within one year, it has built a collection of over 1,000 titles
which is currently rapidly growing. It has also computerized its
bibliographic information into a database. With the Librarian
trained, the Documentation Centre is now serving the information
needs of its target clientele.

     In Laos, the  LAO/93/P03- Maternal and Child Health and Birth
Spacing Project of the Institute of Maternal and Child Health
allocated funds to set up a Documentation Centre at the Institute.
Having procured the books and organized the collection in a well-
appointed room, the Documentation Centre is now ready for use   by
the project personnel and target clientele. The Institute plans to
arrange the training of the Librarian as well as the
computerization of its bibliographic collection.

     Similarly, Cambodia has systematically incorporated the
setting up of its Documentation Centre to serve the information
requirements of the project personnel, medical and paramedical
personnel and other service providers under the project CMB/94/P01
- Maternal and Child Health and Birth Spacing Programme. The
Project Director and Consultant have initiated the procurement of
materials, equipment and facilities to put the Centre into

     In Mongolia, several institutions engaged in various types of
population programmes , i.e., the Maternal and Child Health
Programme (MON/93/P01) of the Ministry of Health, the Ministry of
Labour, the Institute of Statistics among others, have also
attempted to build a collection or resource base to serve the
information needs of their respective groups of clientele.

     The Democratic People's Republic of Korea has also recently
concretized the role of population information in supporting its
population programme by setting up a Population Information Centre
at the Grand People's Study House. A project document has recently
been prepared, which when approved, will launch a more systematic
mechanism for the collection, processing, dissemination and
networking of population information throughout the country.   

     Many more countries are planning to rationalize and
systematize their setting up of information support mechanism in
order to facilitate more effective planning and implementation of
population activities.

                   Assistance from UNESCO

     The UNESCO Clearing House on Population Education and
Communication is at the forefront of the efforts to assist these
countries in establishing their Documentation Centres through the
procurement of books and facilities, training of their librarians
and documentalists, as well as providing technical assistance and
advise on various aspects of information provision and operations. 


          New Director for UNESCO's Principal Regional Office
                      for Asia and the Pacific

     Mr. Victor M. Ordonez has recently assumed his post as the
Director of UNESCO's Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.  As
such he is responsible for coordinating the efforts of UNESCO's
Bangkok Office in the areas of education, culture, communications,
and social science throughout the forty-one countries of the Asia
and the Pacific region, as well as serving as the official
representative of the Organization and its Director-General to
Thailand, Viet Nam, Laos, Cambodia, Myanmar, Japan, and the
Republic of Korea in particular.

     Mr. Ordonez comes directly from UNESCO Headquarters in Paris,
where he served since 1990 as the Principal Director of the Basic
Education Division and the Coordinator of programmes and inter-
agency efforts in the Education for All initiatives following from
the World Conference on Education for All in Jomtien, Thailand.

     Prior to joining UNESCO, Mr. Ordonez had served as Deputy
Minister and Undersecretary in the Ministry of Education, Culture
and Sports of the Philippines, and had served in other key
government positions in the Ministries of Trade and of Government
Reorganization in that country.  He had served as academic dean,
planning director, graduate school dean, college president, and
board chairman of various academic institutions in the Philippines. 
He was also a professional lecturer at University of California,
Los Angeles and a research fellow at the East West Center Hawaii. 
Mr. Ordonez holds seven academic degrees, with honors, including a
Ph.D. in oriental philosophy, and pursued post-doctoral studies in
management at the University of Wisconsin, Harvard University, and
the Asian Institute of Management.

     Mr. Ordonez takes over the directorship of PROAP from Mr.
Hedayat Ahmed of Bangladesh, who has retired after a distinguished
term of office from 1990 to 1995.


            Global POPIN Chalks Out Five-Year Strategy

     The Global POPIN Coordinating Unit based in the Department for
Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis at United
Nations Headquarters and the six regional POPIN members based at
the Economic Commissions for Asia and the Pacific, for Latin
America and the Caribbean, for Africa, for Western Asia, for Europe
and Northern American POPIN met from 14-17 June in Bangkok to
discuss their future plans and directions.

     Representatives from specialized UN agencies such as FAO,
UNESCO and WHO and other international organizations such as CICRED
also participated in the deliberations to determine their role in
the POPIN work agenda within the next five years.

     The meeting was opened with two addresses by Mr. Adrianus
Mooy, Executive Secretary of ESCAP followed by Mr. Joseph Chamie,
Director of Population Division, DESIPA, UN. Both underlined the
importance of the information revolution to the economic strategies
and population activities in the countries, with particular
attention to the critical role of POPIN and information technology
in achieving the goals of the ICPD Programme of Action.

     Among the many recommendations arrived at, the Advisory
Committee proposed that POPIN adjust to the widened scope of
population reflected in the ICPD Programme of Action. It also urged
that POPIN continue to grow as a cohesive network at global,
regional and national level; to diversify financing and to actively
involve other specialized UN agencies and UNFPA TSS/CST in its work

     Many recommendations also emerged regarding the use of new
information technologies. Among these include the use of INTERNET
and CD ROM to disseminate population information; development of
the CD-ROM technology for producing POPIN databases; and provision
of training on new information technologies and the expansion of
the Coordinating Committee listserv Popcoor-1 to serve as a cost-
effective mechanism for exchange of information and coordination of

                         COUNTRY NEWS

             Population Education Programme Reviewed

     The UNFPA-funded population education programme was reviewed
last November 1994 in order to identify the emerging needs and
requirements as well as chart the future directions of the

     The review was undertaken with the assistance of the CST SAWA
Adviser on Population Education, Dr. D.M. de Rebello. Comprehensive
literature review, and intensive discussions with government
functionaries, educationists, teachers, students, UNFPA Country
Director and staff and concerned officials of the World Bank and
other UN agencies involved in the programme served as the
modalities for the review.

     The review looked into the current status of the school
education sector and assessed the present progress of the
population education programme vis-a-vis its objectives and
achievements. It also analysed the issues and constraints in
relation to institutionalization of the programme, capacity
building and integration of population education in curriculum and

     Among the many recommendations, the review proposed further
building up of national capacities at various levels; development
of teaching/learning materials and textbooks for the new sectors;
and intensification of good quality teacher education. Institu-
tionalization of population education in the formal school system
up to grade 12 and in technical and vocational education as well as
the madrasah system and the introduction of population education in
the Mass Non-formal Education Programme were also proposed. 


      Programmatic Approach to IEC on Reproductive Health 

     Various UNFPA-funded population programmes are now in place in
six provinces and the capital and some more are in the pipeline.
The ones currently being implemented include projects on maternal
and child health and birth spacing, national population census,
improvement of family health of displaced persons, and socio-
economic research. Those in the pipeline are population education
in the school system, gender and population issues, and population
and environment.

     All the programmes mentioned have implications for
information, education and communication (IEC). To implement these
programmes effectively, UNFPA and the Government realized the need
for IEC support. To provide a coherent, integrated and holistic
approach to the provision of IEC support to all the UNFPA-funded
population activities, a programmatic approach to IEC was developed
with the assistance of CST Adviser on Population Communication, Mr.
Francisco Roque. 

     The IEC programme will basically support the government policy
of providing voluntary birth spacing services as a means to promote
better maternal and child health through IECM activities; and to
provide adequate information to selected target groups required to
bring about desired behavioural changes in responsible reproductive
decision-making and lifestyle.

     The target groups to be reached include: service providers and
health workers, policymakers and administrators, women of
reproductive age, men, and the adolescents aged 15-19 as well as
teachers and trainers.

     The IEC interventions hope to create awareness of the benefits
of birth spacing, introduce population concepts in curricula and
appropriate health/teaching materials in selected medical schools
and secondary schools, reduce misconceptions, provide proper
counselling, and sustain Government's interest and commitment to
the population programmes.

     MOE to Introduce Population Education in Three Subjects

     Cambodia is currently undertaking reforms of its educational
system both in structure and substance. Under these reforms, the
Ministry of Education (MOE) is revising its curricula and textbooks
in selective subjects. 

     The Government and UNFPA saw a timely opportunity to introduce
population education concepts into three subjects, geography, home
science, and moral education and civics from grades 7 to 12. To
pave the way for this activity, the UNFPA and the Government
discussed the development of a pilot project that will concentrate
first on the training of small number of professional educators and
development of first draft of curricula and textbooks including
teacher's guides which could be tried out in this pilot stage and
reproduced during the second phase.

     The project document has been prepared with the assistance of
CST Adviser on Population Education, Mr. Ansar Ali Khan based in
CST Bangkok and is now under review.


              FP Education at the Grassroots Level 

     In order to reach the grassroots level with family planning
information, the Publicity and Education Department of State Family
Planning Commission (SFPC) established a network of FP and
communication centres in 29 provinces to undertake FP publicity and
disseminate educational materials.

     However, these mechanisms were not far-reaching enough to
cover the rural and more remote areas of the counties where
information was most needed and have direct access to grassroot FP
service providers, fieldworkers, and end-users. Thus, the SFPC
decided to further set up 180 pilot county stations under the
project CPR/90/P17 (Strengthening Rural Grassroots Family Planning
Publicity and Education). 

     These pilot county stations provided training and guided
village/township FP workers and service providers on how to
communicate FP to the target groups effectively. They also
strengthened the existing 29 Provincial Publicity and Education
Sub-Centres through training programmes, production and
distribution of appropriate IEC materials.

     The project was recently evaluated with the assistance of
UNESCO CST Population Communication Adviser who reported a number
of weaknesses as well as successes in the implementation of the

     Based on the findings, the evaluation report recommended the
improvement of the training in various aspects to suit the Chinese
culture. It proposed that the training curriculum should be "need-
based" and developed through participatory approach, with specific
behavioural objectives, using participatory training methodologies
and competency-based evaluation.

     It also recommended that the content of future IEC materials
should be updated on a regular basis, using survey findings in the
local area where possible in response to the finding that most IEC
materials had taken on urban, mass-media bias. It further added
that the materials should include new messages on how to combat
rumours and misconceptions on various FP methods, on responsible
sexual behaviour, on teen-age pregnancy and prevention and on
reproductive health needs of adolescents.


             Population Programme Paves the Way for 
        Better Flow of and Use of Population Information    

     The population programme of DPRK is currently generating
census data, a number of demographic and contraceptive research
studies, and various IEC materials. However, these have not been
widely disseminated. At the same time, policymakers and
professionals engaged in population and development activities
expressed the need for more information and materials to assist
them in their tasks. 

     To address these needs, the Government represented by the
National Coordinating Committee for Population Programmes, proposed
the establishment of a Population Information Centre that will
facilitate the collection, processing, dissemination, and use of
population information and materials in order to support the work
of the population personnel.

     In a fact-finding and project development mission undertaken
with the assistance of the UNFPA, Beijing, UNDP Pyongyang, and CST
for East and South-East Asia Adviser on Population Information, it
was agreed upon that a Population Information Centre be set up at
the Grand People's Study House which serves as the central document
information centre in the country as well as correspondence
university rendering re-education programmes for the working
     The project document which is under approval at the moment
basically lays the foundation for a nationwide population
information networking by building first the centrepiece of the
network. It will develop the capability of the Grand People's Study
House in collecting, organizing, analysing, repackaging and
disseminating population information as well as in managing a
nationwide network.

     Four activities will be envisaged to achieve this goal. The
first requires the establishment of the Population Information
Centre structure and organization. The rest necessitates the
collection of materials and creation of a bibliographic database,
the training of personnel in various information-handling tools and
techniques and service provision, and facilitating dissemination of
information through a repackaging and lecture series programme.   


           Adolescent Reproductive Health Forms Part 
                 of 5th Country Programme Cycle

     Indonesia is now entering the Fifth Country Programme Cycle of
Population. The reproductive health and family well-being of the
youth forms part of the country programme. In order to translate
this component into concrete action programme, a project document
in its first draft, was developed for UNFPA funding by the
Government and with the assistance of UNFPA CST Adviser on
Population Education based and UNFPA Field Office in Jakarta.

     The project aims to raise the level of commitment and degree
of participation of families, particularly parents, for developing
among their pre-adolescent and adolescent children a btter
understanding of the concepts/process of adolescent reproductive
health and desirable atttitudes and values dealing with family
well-being. This is to be achieved through family-centred learning
approaches that will contribute to the adoption of the small,
happy, and prosperous family norm.

     To achieve this goal, the project will develop national
capacity by creating management teams, developing sets of training
and counselling materials, delivering key messages through the
media, upgrading skills in adolescent counselling and developing
better understanding of adolescent reproductive health and family
well-being issues among the facilitators.  

     The strategy to be used is to set up small groups of 20-30
families which will regularly meet to discuss adolescent problems
and issues with the help of cadres. They will be supported by
provincial reproductive health and family well-being counselling
centres which will also be set up to handle serious cases difficult
for parents to handle. 

     These centres, to be run by NGOs, will provide counselling
services to parents and youth, evolve innovative and culturallly
acceptable counselling techniques, and at the same time serve as
material and information collection, development and dissemination

     The project will be launched in collaboration with seven NGOs
in seven selected provinces. It is currently under review by UNFPA
and the Government.


               Package on Population Education for 
                Special Interest Groups Developed

     The Population Education Programme of the Non-Formal Education
Centre has developed a package of Population Education for Special
Interest Groups comprising a learning package and fieldworker's

     The learning package is especially developed for teaching
population education for out-of-school populations. Special
interest groups in Maldives include newly married couples,
adolescents and working youth. Produced under the guidance of
UNESCO, Bangkok, the package contains 36 different materials such
as posters, charts, leaflets, booklets, stories, and illustrated
booklets which may be taught in 36 to 45 periods.

     The materials deal with eight themes, namely, family size and
family welfare, population and resources, delayed marriage and
parenthood, responsible parenthood, population-related values and
beliefs, women in development, AIDS/STD and respect for old people.

       Accompanying the learning package is the fieldworker's guide
used to teach the package. It contains individual guides for each
of the 36 learning materials. The guide gives the titles of the
materials, format, objectives of the materials, messages, target
groups, and an overview of the content of each learning materials.

     The methodologies used for teaching the learning materials
include role playing, group discussion, questioning, brainstorming,
survey, creative writing, problem-solving and evaluation. The
package will be used by fieldworkers to conduct island-based
population education courses.


                    Teacher Educators Trained

     As part of its teacher training programme series on population
education, the Population Education Unit of the Tribhuvan
University organized a one-week training course on population
education from 5-11 July 1994.

     Attended by 20 teacher educators who are involved in teaching
population education in their respective campuses, the training
provided opportunities for upgrading the participants' knowledge,
and changing their attitudes and behaviour with regard to
population concepts. It also developed their skills in more
effective methodologies for teaching population education in their

     The Faculty of Education, through its Population Education
Unit, has been introducing population education in its teacher
training programme under the UNFPA-funded country programme. This
is done through incorporating population education contents into
different subject areas such as health education, geography and
economics in the curriculum of Proficiency Certificate Level,
Bachelor Level and Master Degree. In addition, it has been offering
population education as major subject at the Proficiency
Certificate Level in Mahendra Ratna Campus.

     Thirteen resource persons from Tribhuvan University,
Curriculum Development Centre of the University and UNFPA Field
Office and Country Support Team, Kathmandu, provided lectures on
the following topics: population education in Asia and the Pacific,
population situation in Nepal, demography and population dynamics,
population theories, curriculum development in population
education, teaching methods, human sexuality, STDs an d AIDS,
population education programme, research, and population policy.

         MOECSW Trains Master Trainers and Supervisors 

     The Population Education Programmes both in the formal and
non-formal sectors of the Ministry of Education, Culture and Social
Welfare (MOECSW) undertook a series of training programmes between
January and June to upgrade the knowledge and skills of master
trainers, supervisors, and resource persons on various areas of
population education.

     These training were meant to equip the master trainers to
carry out their main tasks of training the trainers and teachers at
various levels of education and location.

                 In the formal education sector

     As far as the formal sector is concerned, the Population
Education in the Formal School Sector Project (NEP/93/P01) under
the Curriculum Development Centre organized five training courses
aimed at training 220 master trainers located in various parts of
the country. This was the first step in the "Three Steps Training
Strategy" of the project aimed at reaching 220 master trainers, 825
secondary school headmasters and 2025 secondary school teachers in
as short a time as possible.
     Among the training courses held were in Dhangadi for 25
participants from 9 districts from the Far Western Region from 23-
27 April 1995; Pokhara for 43 participants from 2-7 April; and
Biratnagar from 20 to 24 February.

     The training courses basically covered six major subject
areas: i) pedagogical aspect of population education (content,
scope, objectives, nature, teaching methodologies); ii) demography
and population dynamics (composition, distribution and density,
sources of population data, demographic transition, consequences
and determinants of population growth); iii) family life and
adolescence and human sexuality education as well as AIDS
education; iv) maternal and child health and family planning; v)
environment; vi) population policy and programmes. 

     In addition to the substantive knowledge imparted to the
participants, the training also equipped the participants in
organizing the training at the district level and in employing
innovative methodologies and strategies in organizing teaching-
learning process in the classroom.

            In the non-formal education sector

     In the non-formal education sector, the Population Education
Programme (NEP/93/P08) under the Non-formal Education Section, also
organized a Master Trainers Training Workshop in Makwanpur from 26-
28 March 1995. This training was also the first step in a tiered
approach where the trained master trainers will in turn train the
trainers and then the facilitators/teachers who are managers of
learning centres for adult learners under the literacy and post
literacy programmes.

     The training course focused more on the approaches and
strategies for integrating population education in development
programmes, non-formal education, adult literacy, post literacy and
out-of-school children programmes.

     This resulted in the improvement and upgrading of skills in
the management of training for the trainers at the district level
and in the improvement of the teaching-learning process in the non-
formal education set up.

     The CST Advisers on Population Education in the Formal and
Non-formal Education, Dr. D. de Rebello and Mr. S. Hutabarat, based
in Kathmandu actively assisted the Ministry in organizing the
training courses as well as serving as resource persons.


          Content Analysis Reveals Extensive Coverage 
              of Population Contents in Textbooks 

     A content analysis undertaken on textbooks for classes I-X  of
Bihar, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh revealed that population-related
messages are being conveyed through as many as 107 lessons in
Bihar, 158 lessons in Rajasthan and 99 in Uttar Pradesh through
their textbooks on languages, social sciences and science.       

     The study further revealed that the number of lessons carrying
population education contents were more in the primary level than
in other school levels. This trend was the same in all the three
States included in the study. The report pointed out the advantage
of this finding in terms of the high drop-out rates of children at
the primary stage.

     The study also found out that messages pertaining to
population change and resource development have been conveyed
through more entry points as compared to the messages on
adolescence education which found only scanty places in the
textbooks. Nevertheless, the study pointed out that population-
related messages on the different themes are being conveyed in all
subject areas and to the students of all the three stages of school

     These themes included family size and family welfare, proper
age at marriage, responsible parenthood, population change and
resource development, population-related values and beliefs, status
of women, and adolescence education.

     The study was conducted by the Population Education Unit of
NCERT to find out the extent of coverage of and gaps in population-
related themes being conveyed to students through the textbooks in
the three States which are demographically backward.


       UNFPA Grant $26.7 Million for Population Programme

      "The UNFPA's programme in the Philippines is based on the
goals and objectives of the ICPD Programme of Action and is also
fully consistent with the Philippine Medium Term Development Plan's
vision of people empowerment and human development which is the
current focus of the President's Social Reform Agenda", Mr. Satish
Mehra, UNFPA Country Director, declared as the United Nations
Population Fund (UNFPA) and the Philippines Government signed last
25 May 1995 a package of projects amounting to US$26.7 million
assistance to the Philippine population programme over a five-year

     The agreement was signed, on behalf of the donor agency, by
the new UNFPA Country Director Satish Mehra, and on behalf of the
Philippines, by Socio-Economic Planning Secretary Cielito F. Habito
and Health Secretary Jaime Galvez Tan.

     Other signatories were Population Commission Executive
Director Cecile Joaquin-Yasay, Dr. Sylvia Guerrero of the
University of the Philippines Center for Women's Studies, Dr.
Conrado Lorenzo of the Philippine Center for Population and
Development, and heads of 18 government and nongovernment
     The current programme which has been approved addresses issues
pertaining to providing access to reproductive health and family
planning services, reducing infant child and maternal mortality,
bringing about gender equity and equality, improving the quality of
care, addressing the needs of adolescents, enhancing partnership
with NGOs, and focusing on problems relating to STDs and AIDS.    
     Receiving the largest share of $22.6 million of the UNFPA
assistance is the programme to strengthen the management and field
implementation of reproductive health and family planning to be
implemented by the Department of Health, two other government
agencies, 16 NGOs and 127 local government units.

     The programme on women's research, is aimed at developing the
information and research base needed for better understanding of
women, population and health issues, and in formulating and
implementing women-sensitive policies, programmes and projects.

     The population and development advocacy programme seeks to
increase public awareness and understanding of population and
development issues and to create a positive policy and programme
environment for sustaining initiatives in this area.

     Finally, the youth programme aims to assist the youth on how
to develop into responsible individuals and future parents through
projects that will strengthen the policy, planning and monitoring
of adolescent fertility and youth development programme and through
a guidance programme in the public high schools. 

     Project Document Drafted to Revitalize Population Education

     In the pipeline is the recently developed draft project
document aimed at revitalizing and strengthening the population
education in the country. It is now under review and approval. 

     To reactivate the population education programme, the project
calls for the issuance of an Executive Order by the Department of
Education, Culture and Sports to create a national Population
Education Centre and the establishment of 15 Regional Population
Education Offices and 133 population education desks at the
divisional level. This institutional network will ensure the
nationwide implementation of population education programme.

     It will also update and revise some existing curricula and
develop new teaching/learning materials for kindergarten,
elementary and university level as well as packages for learners
and fieldworkers of non-formal education. The first baseline
activities to accomplish this are to review the existing curricula
for population education messages from kindergarten to grade 11 and
university level as well as a survey to determine population
learning needs of pupils and teachers from kindergarten to
university level. 

     Training and re-training of project staff, trainors at
national and regional levels, 2000 new teachers and 1,000 formerly
trained teachers and 17 documentation/library assistants;
strengthening of its Documentation Centre and setting up an
information network will also be undertaken.

     Thus, by the end of the project, it is envisaged that about
half a million students and 2,500 educators would have increased
their knowledge and developed positive attitudes towards
population-related concepts.


Federated States of Micronesia 

               New PopEd Project Proposal Drafted 

     The College of Micronesia and the National Department of
Education has prepared a new population education proposal for an
umbrella project on population education in the formal education
system. Allan Kondo, the Population Education Adviser based in CST,
Suva assisted in the preparation of the project document.

     The project calls for the preparation of a population
education framework for the school system, development of lesson
plans/units and other instructional materials and incorporating
these into teacher's guides for each grade level.

     Before the preparation of instructional materials and
curriculum, the strategy calls for conducting surveys of students'
knowledge, attitudes, and practices in population-related issues,
surveys of parents' attitude on family life education and review of
population education materials produced in the previous cycle which
will serve as basis for materials and curriculum development.

     In the area of teacher training, the course in population
education and family life/sexuality education now being taught at
the College of Micronesia campus will be taught in other campuses
of other states to prepare teachers to teach, using the materials
developed. The institutionalization of two courses at each campus
will eliminate the need for separate in-service courses on these

Papua New Guinea

               Population Education in PNG Schools

     Population education in Papua New Guinea is introduced at the
primary or community school level and the secondary level. At the
primary school level, children are provided with population
concepts such as migration, shifting agriculture, population growth
rates, family health, nutrition, etc. in literacy, numeracy,
mathematics, and health subject. An integrated unit on Family Life
is presently being developed to be included in health, basic
technology and community life subjects.

     At the secondary levels, various population-related contents
are being taught under the subjects science, social science, home
economics and guidance from grades 7-10. These topics include
growth and reproduction, ecology, human geography, family life and
growth and welfare, migration, population policy, resources, land
use, and environment, changing society, health and hygiene,
marriage and romance, pregnancy, and responsible parenthood.

Solomon Islands

             Population Education in Primary School

     The fast growing birth rate of 3.5 per cent is becoming a
national concern in the country. In view of this, the Government
has taken several measures to address this issue. To start with, a
national population policy has been adopted and implemented.

     To enact this policy, a population education programme was
introduced for the first time into the formal education system.
This responsibility of developing the population education
curriculum for primary and secondary schools went to the Curriculum
Development Centre of the Ministry of Education and Human Resources

     The integration of population education into primary schools
will be a part of the Third Education Project of the World Bank
which is now in the early stage of implementation. Population
education has been incorpoarted into the primary school health
curriculum from Standard 1-6 which is currently being developed.

Developments and Trends in Population IEC

            Information, Education and Communication:
                     Knowledge that Empowers

     Information is perhaps the most powerful tool available to
people, one that opens up new possibilities for the exercise of
both rights and responsibilities.  This perspective on information
is at the heart of what is known as "IEC," or information,
education and communication; it is also the basis for the chapter
on these issues in the ICPD's Programme of Action.

     The two primary goals of IEC programmes are complementary: one
is to enhance the ability of couples and individuals to exercise
their basic right to decide freely and responsibly on the number
and spacing of their children.  The other is to raise awareness and
understanding about the relevance of population-related issues to
all levels of decision-making, whether personal, national or
international.  Information, education and communication programmes
inform and motivate people to make their own decisions freely and

     Population information covers a wide range of subjects, from
basic facts about rates of population growth and population size,
the health benefits of family planning, different family planning
methods, and the dangers of STDs, including HIV/AIDS, to more
complex material on the interrelationships between population and
the environment, including such issues as overconsumption and
waste.  Access to such information is empowering and enables
individuals to better understand - and participate more effectively
in - the decision-making process in their communities and

     Effective information, education and communication efforts
should utilize a range of communication channels, from one-on-one
counselling to formal school curricula, and include the use of the
mass media, traditional folk arts, and public fora such as seminars
and town meetings.  In schools and other educational institutions,
population issues can be incorporated into curricula for subjects
such as geography, social studies and biology.  The mass media -
newspapers, radio, film and television - are important carriers of
population information, as are more traditional media - puppet
shows, plays, and music or dance performances.

     With more than 2 billion radios in the world, roughly one for
every three people, and growing number of televisions, the
electronic media plays an increasingly important and influential
role in building awareness of population and other development
issues.  Radio and television soap operas featuring family planning
themes, popular songs on population-related issues, and phone-in
question-and-answer sessions have all had an impact in different
countries.  The use of such media can be very important where
literacy is low or where written information is not widely
circulated.  A TV soap opera series is credited with bringing
thousands to family planning clinics in Mexico, and night-time
drama series integrating family planning themes have proved
successful in Egypt, Nigeria and Turkey.

     Use of new communication technologies can also help bridge the
geographical, social and economic gaps that currently exist in
access to information around the world.  Television and computer
networks, global telephone systems, digital data transmission and
new multimedia technologies are all tools that people can use to
access the information they need.  Among the information networks
available to researchers and others interested in population are
the United Nations Population Information Network, with its
regional networks such as POPIN-Africa and Asia/Pacific POPIN.

     Targetting specific audiences, such as men, adolescents and
young couples, is crucial to the success of IEC programmes. 
Programmes for teenagers, for example, can communicate the health
and other risks associated with early pregnancy and childbearing. 
Schools are an important vehicle for reaching young people, while
less formal education on population issues can take place in the
workplace, health facilities, trade unions, community centres,
youth groups, churches, women's organizations, and through
vocational training and literacy programmes.  In all cases, the
design of information programmes should involve their target
audiences, particularly in the case of young people and men, so as
to better ensure the relevance of the information provided.

     At the core of successful IEC programmes are good
interpersonal communication and counselling skills, particularly
within the context of family planning and other health care
services.  Accurate information, relayed compassionately and with
sensitivity to a client's needs, can help to reduce anxiety and
ensure fully informed choice.  And, as with other aspects of
service provision, counselling skills are learned - a point
emphasized in the ICPD's Programme of Action, which urges
governments to give priority to the training and retention of IEC

     Finally, there is the overarching importance of education to
strengthen the individual's ability to cope with an increasingly
complex world.  The ICPD Programme of Action calls for a "new
global partnership among the world's countries and peoples, based
on a sense of shared but differentiated responsibility for each
other and for our planetary home."  A good quality and relevant
education is key to building that sense of responsibility, as well
as to the exercise of individual rights.

                                        Reproduced from Population 
                                         Issues Briefing Kit 1995, 
                                         p. 17-18. New York, UNFPA 

Five-Star Teaching Materials

         School Health Education to Prevent AIDS and STD

     A sample activity-oriented lesson from the Resource Package
for Curriculum Planners on School Health Education to Prevent AIDS
and STD produced by WHO and UNESCO is excerpted and presented here
to exemplify a different approach in teaching how to cope with
risky behaviour related to HIV/AIDS and human sexuality issues (see
review of the same publication in item 3 of the Publications In
Circulation section).  The teaching to prevent HIV/STD does not
merely aim at developing basic knowledge about the disease and
memorizing new information, but more importantly in developing
responsible behaviour and skills among the adolescents in dealing
with problems, in clarifying their attitudes and values and making
decisions based on rational and critical thinking.  The skills
relevant to HIV/AIDS preventive behaviours include self-awareness;
decision-making; assertiveness to resist pressure to indulge in
risky behaviours; and negotiation skills to ensure protected sex. 
Sample activities presented in this section deal with responding to
persuasion and being assertive to resist pressures to indulge in
risky behaviour.

             Publications in Circulation: A Review 

1.   A set of rural adult textbooks on population education for
neo-literates (comprising seven booklets on population situation,
population and nature, women and population, family life, family
economy, population and fertility and population and development).
Produced by the Adult Education Department of State Education
Commission, Beijing and Adult Education College, Harbin, People's
Republic of China, 1994. (In Chinese with English translation).

     Five million of the 36 million illiterates in China are
expected to be neo-literates each year as a result of the anti-
illiteracy campaign held every year.  To improve further the
reading ability of neo-literates and enlarge their vocabulary,
reading materials are produced for them.  Such materials provide
suitable vehicles for promoting messages on population education.
Thus, this set of seven booklets on various topics of population
was produced.

     The topics dealt with in these seven booklets directly emanate
from China's present preoccupations: transition into market
economy, improving the low status of women and changing the value
of son preference, addressing problems emanating from environmental
degradation, feudal marriage practices, gender issues, and
improving conditions of family life and wealth as well as the
quality of life of the whole country. 

     Book One traces the history of population growth in the world
and China and outlines the consequences of rapid population growth
on the quality of life.  Book Two enumerates the various instances
of environmental problems that China is experiencing at present.
Book Three addresses the issues of women's status in a direct
manner.  Book Four provides advices on how to upgrade the quality
of family life.  Book Five addresses the issue of how families can
productively participate in the improvement of family economy in
line with China's transition to market economy.  Book Six focuses
on male and female reproductive systems, explaining how the
reproductive processes in each contribute to making a baby.  It
also briefly discusses the various means of contraception and gives
advise on pre-natal and post-natal health for pregnant women.
Lastly, Book Seven explains how the reduction of population can
contribute to quickening the pace of social and economic
development and raise the standards of living of the Chinese

     A discernable set of crucial issues serve as a continuous
thread that stitch several booklets together.  For example, women's
issues and family economy appear to be recurrent themes in several
booklets.  Book Three describes the heavy burden that women take on
in the family, the wrong reasons why preference for sons/males
persist in the rural areas, and enumerates how education,
employment, self-esteem, awareness of legal rights, better health,
delayed marriage, etc. can raise the standards of women's status in
society.  Then in Book Four, more concrete steps are proposed to
change feudal marriage practices such as forced arranged marriages
and dowry, promote delayed marriage, equality between husband and
wife, and other gender issues.  It further recommends that husband
and wife should take on equal role in a family, know something
about happy sex life, provide adolescence education to their
children, support the aged and throw away traditional ideas.
Similarly, Book Six contributes to the promotion of gender equality
by cautioning the readers that "if you know the reason for giving
birth to a boy or girl, you should not blame your wife for giving
birth to a girl."  By showing in scientific manner the fusion of
male and female chromosomes, it concludes that the father is the
determinator of the sex of the child.  Some statements though
provoke challenging, like when Book One says that "the population
situation in China is very serious because there are so many young
women in China". 

     With regard to market economy, two books advice families how
to involve every member in promoting family economy.  It tries to
show how poor families will not be able alleviate their poverty if
they continue to have large families and do not start thinking of
ways and means to augment their family income.  It recommends
various ways of earning extra income such as going into other jobs
during slack season in the farm, how to budget money rationally,
and how to get more profits by obtaining information on market
demands.  Saving is also encouraged. 
     The booklets are attractive, colourful, and the illustrations
well suited to the level of understanding of neo literates.  The
explanations though for some concepts are a little on the heavy and
technical side.  To strike a balance between the need to make
scientific explanations and simplifying the messages for the
benefit of neo literates, each explanation is supported by easy to
understand and simple drawings and carries balloons that
reinterpret the heavy explanation with one to two sentence-

     For copies, please write to the Adult Education Department of
State Education Commission, Beijing.  

2.   Translation series 3: consisting of Family happiness from Viet
Nam, two Instructional modules for AIDS education for Prathom five
and six from Thailand, and Population education: a textbook for
primary peasant schools from China.  Produced by UNESCO Regional
Clearing House on Population Education and Communication, 1995.
Translated into English.

     This package of four translated materials from China, Thailand
and Viet Nam constitutes another attempt of the Regional Clearing
House on Population Education to identify outstanding materials on
population education produced by countries in their national
languages and translated into English for wider sharing in the
region.  Described by a UNFPA Country Director as a "genuine TCDC"
type of activity, this package provides a vehicle for representing
and sharing good examples of work and expertise of the countries
among each other.  Not a few of these materials found their way
back into the national languages of many countries and then
reproduced for wider dissemination among their target audiences.

     This third series consists of four publications.  One is an
illustrated booklet entitled, "Family Happiness" produced by the
IEC Department of the National Committee for Population and Family
Planning.  It is a grassroots-based booklet meant to serve as a
reading material on maternal and child health and family planning
for each and every household in the seven UNFPA-covered provinces
in Viet Nam.  Easy to read and understand, it has four parts:
population and impacts of rapid population growth; family planning
and contraceptive methods, mother and child care and AIDS.  It has
been pre-tested several times, revised and improved.  Every
terminology, illustration and over-all presentation have
consequently become culturally sound and user-sensitive.  For the
present, it adequately provides basic information needed by
household audiences where fieldworkers are not readily available to
give further clarification.  It could also be used as a manual by
a fieldworker during their rounds of motivational sessions with
rural folks.

     To contribute to addressing the increasing incidence of AIDS
cases in Thailand, the schoool sector has produced two modules on
AIDS education meant for grades five and six at the elementary
school level.  Both are aimed at developing the elementary
students' knowledge and understanding about AIDS, values and
attitudes, and behaviour that will ensure good quality of life and
healthy lifestyle and self-control in the face of temptations.
These modules offer more than other instructional materials on this
subject can.  First of all, the lessons do not only present
technical information on the epidemiological aspect of HIV/AIDS.
More importantly, they deal with the socio-cultural and behavioural
implications of HIV/AIDS.  In fact, majority of the lessons
directly take the students into assessing their present risky
behaviour that may lead them into contracting HIV/AIDS, their
attitudes towards their lifestyle and relationships with their
families and friends.  The lessons also examine their self-esteem
and care for their health and bodies, their moral values, as well
as their attitude towards those who have contracted HIV/AIDS.
Without dictating what is right and wrong and what should be and
should not be done, these lessons try to provide guidelines to
students on how to live one's life responsibly without fear and
possibilities of contracting HIV/AIDS and how to provide HIV/AIDS
persons with emotional support, sympathy, humane and non-
discriminatory treatment.  Secondly, the modules employ innovative
and participatory activities that help students to assess their
attitudes and behaviour through debates, role plays, values
clarifications, discussions, group work, meditation, and research.
To ensure proper use and application of lessons, the modules
provide clear and detailed instructions to the teachers on how to
integrate them into specific sub-units of two subjects in the
elementary school, namely, Character Development and Life
Experience.  Procedures are further given on the required time and
sequence of teaching the ten lessons in each of the two modules. 

     Last but not least, this package includes a textbook on
population education for use in secondary vocational schools which
serve as population education centres for young and middle-aged
peasants.  The booklet serves as a reading material for students.
It is peppered with illustrations that support each reading unit.
There are 45 reading units that deal with the following major
topics: population theory and situation, population policy,
population and development, environment, puberty, hereditary
eugenics, fertilization and contraception, family life education
and human sexuality.  The textbook is very comprehensive in its
coverage of population topics, although it would help promote
better continuity of ideas if the topics have been logically
grouped and sequenced.  The textbook's introduction claims that it
is a self-instructional book for people with elementary education
as well as those who have just completed litarcy classes.  If so,
there is room for further simplification of the text.

     For copies, please write to the Regional Clearing House on
Population Education an Communication, GPO Box 967, Phrakhanong,

3.   School health education to prevent AIDS and STD: a resource
package for curriculum planners (consisting of handbook for
curriculum planners, teachers' guide, and students' activities).
Produced by the World Health Organization and UNESCO, 1994.  In

     The basic rationale for producing these materials sets it
apart from other existing materials on HIV/AIDS.  Many existing
educational materials on HIV/AIDS merely provides the biological
and epidemiological information about HIV/AIDS.  As stated in the
introduction of this package, the goal of AIDS education is to
promote behaviour that prevents transmission of HIV/STD. 
Therefore, this package is concerned more with the development of
skills for responsible behaviour than with providing mere knowledge
about AIDS.  Mere provision of biomedical information on the
disease is not enough to convince people, especially young people,
to adopt healthy behaviour that prevent HIV/STD.  What is needed is
the motivation to act and skills to translate knowledge into

     This basic principle and goal is very much manifested in the
the lessons and activities contained in the three books for
curriculum developers, teachers and students.  The package does not
only contain lessons which impart knowledge on the nature,
transmission, prevention, and stages of the disease, sources of
help and how to care for people in the family who have AIDS but
also develop appropriate attitudes and skills.  The skills relevant
for HIV/AIDS preventive behaviours include: self-awareness,
decision-making, assertiveness to resist pressure to have sex,
negotiation skills to ensure protected sex, and practical skills
for effective condom use.  These skills are best acquired through
role plays of real-life situations.  With regard to attitudes, the
package is aimed at developing positive attitudes towards delaying
sex, personal responsibility, condoms as a means of protection,
social attitudes such as confronting prejudice, being supportive,
tolerant and compassionate towards people with AIDS.

     All the three materials follow the same programme.  The first
part provides basic knowledge on HIV/AIDS.  The second part deals
with responsible behaviour specifically on delaying sex.  The third
part is also on responsible behaviour but dealing with protected
sex and the last part is on giving care and support for people with

     The handbook for curriculum planners outlines the main steps
in curriculum planning, shares sample materials for introducing the
curriculum and teacher training and provides instruments (pre and
post-tests, feedback forms, interview schedules, and checklists)
that can be used for evaluating the programme.

     The teachers' guide provides the rationale for the programme,
describes the four units, objectives, and description of students'
activities. Most importantly, it guides the teachers on what kinds
of teaching methods to use that will allow maximum student
participation and rules on how to develop conducive classroom
atmosphere and deal with special problems.  The teachers are also
encouraged to use peer leaders and gives tips on how to select and
use good peer leaders.  For each student activity or lesson, the
teacher is guided on the purpose and how to do the activity in many
alternative ways.  It also gives instructions on how to deal with
special concerns about the activity.  For some lessons or
activities that need the involvement of peer leaders or parents,
additional information on their role is also given.  The teachers'
guide is easy to use, clear, and comprehensive without being

     The students' book makes use of various medium for presenting
the information and activities.  For example, Part One on basic
knowledge about HIV/AIDS are given through comic or illustrated
presentation, through stories, through tests, question and answer,
small group discussion, and through letters seeking advice.  The
rest of the sections on responsible behaviour and caring for people
with AIDS are developed through role plays, stories, discussions,
demonstrations, tests and multiple choices, assessment of various
scenarios, comic book presentation or illustrated stories, and
demonstration on how to use the condoms.  The students' book is fun
to use, well illustrated, readable and very participatory.        

     The other nice feature of the package is the format and
layouting used to make the books easy to apply and follow.  Every
aspects or parts of the content are clearly diferentiated from each
other; the use of different sizes and shapes of letterings promotes
its readability and attractiveness; and illustrations generously
enhance the package's acceptability.

     For copies, please write to WHO/GPA Documentation Centre, 1211
Geneva 27, Switzerland.

4.   Family life: a teaching guide for secondary schools (6 guides
with three themes for Forms 5 and 6).  Produced by the Family Life
Unit, Ministry of Education, Fiji, 1994.  In English.

     For curriculum and teaching/learning materials whose contents
are mostly knowledge base and their pages overflowing with text,
their days seem to be numbered. More and more materials produced by
national population education projects in the region employ more
innovative participatory approaches. The presentation or
development of lessons springs from activities, not from lectures.
The set of teaching guides on family life for secondary schools
produced by the Family Life Unit of the Ministry of Education from
Fiji is a good example of this trend. 

     The set of six teaching guides are grouped into three themes,
namely, family roles and responsibilities, human growth and
development, and family life values and the quality of life. These
three themes are developed very logically with sequential
presentation of concepts appropriate for the level of understanding
and experiences of the various level of students targetted. Each
theme consists of major topics which are grouped into two and
presented into two teaching guides--one for Forms 3 and 4 and the
other for Forms 5 and 6. Under family roles and responsibilities,
for example, for the lower grades (3 and 4), simple concepts are
taken up, i.e., family as a social unit, needs, roles and
responsibilities, communication and decision-making while for the
higher levels (5 and 6), more in-depth treatment of communication
and decision-making are taken up. Under human growth and
development, the students in Forms 3 and 4 receive the basic ideas
about self image, growing up, human sexuality, personalities,
forming relationship and social pressures while the upper secondary
students go into more details with regard to emotional, physical
and mental changes that take place during puberty, the processes of
human reproduction, human sexuality and personalities. Under family
life values and the quality of life, the lower level students
discuss practical expressions of love, boy-girl relationships,
marriage and responsible parenthood. The upper level students go
into discussion of AIDS, drugs, teen-age pregnancies, family crises
and abnormal behaviours.

     What is different about this set of teaching guides from the
previous materials produced in this area is that it addresses
directly and in a straightforward manner the practical problems
being encountered in life by the adolescents in Fiji. These are
therefore reflected in the topics/contents of the teaching guides.
Otherwise, most materials will deal with the theoretical knowledge
about family life, excerpting articles and papers of academic
scholars and researchers and presented in very philosophical and
academic way. Instead, to develop students' ability to rationalize,
critically weigh pros and cons, and make decisions for themselves
in order to solve their day-to-day problems in adolecent life, the
teaching guides concentrate a lot on skills formation,
i.e.,effective communication skills, decision-making, skills in
forming and maintaining relationships, dealing with group
presssures, expressing love, and developing positive attitudes,
etc., rather than knowledge development. For after all, family life
education is a practical life-oriented concern.

     There is also much good to say with regard to the innovative
methodologies used in teaching these problem-oriented topics.
Almost all of the lessons start with an activity or activities by
the students. Various lessons are opened through group discussions,
role playing, case study, presentation by a guest speaker from the
community, and filling out of worksheets which serve as springboard
for discussion. Reading of stories after which the students give
their reactions, film showing or presentation of newspaper
clippings, brainstorming and other similar methods that promote
full student participation are also employed. It could be concluded
that around a large part of time devoted to teaching each lesson
involves student participation with the teacher facilitating,
clarifying, elaborating, enriching and summarizing conclusions
reached by the students. 

     For copies, please write to the Family Life Unit, Ministry of
Education, Suva, Fiji.

Guidelines from UNFPA

     APPROACHES TO ADOLESCENTS: Audience-Specific Strategies

     As advocated in the ICPD Programme of Action, UNFPA is
increasing its attention to adolescents. In order to communicate
effectively and to respond to adolescents' reproductive health
needs, IEC and health personnel must have a clear picture of this
important audience and how it is sub-divided. This Technical Note
has been prepared by O.J. Sikes, Chief of the Education,
Communication and Youth Branch, Technical and Evaluation Division.
It explains how the IEC technique of audience segmentation can be
used when working with adolescents as a means for facilitating
communication with this diverse group.

     Numerous organizations have an interest in, and work with,
adolescents.  Population organizations have a particular (albeit
not exclusive) interest: their reproductive health, with emphasis
on the prevention of early pregnancy.  In order to address
reproductive health issues effectively, it is essential that IEC
and service personnel have a clear picture of the persons most
affected by them.  In short, who is involved in early pregnancy (or
likely to experience it), and what are the conditions under which
it occurs?

     Traditionally, adolescents have been treated as homogenous
group.  They are not.  The age-range alone is enough to indicate
their heterogenous nature.

     The age range for adolescence is generally between 10 and 19
years of age, but age alone is not sufficient to determine
membership in this group.  "True adolescence ... being the period
of physical, psychological and social maturing from childhood to
adulthood, may fall (outside this) age range.  The development that
takes place in adolescence is generally uneven, in that physical
maturity may well be achieved in advance of psychological or social
maturity; in most societies, in fact, reproductive capability is
now established at an earlier age than in the past."

     Putting young people into "boxes" with parameters as
unreliable as age, is not always useful.  At the same time, a clear
picture of this audience is a prerequisite to serving them well.

     While attempting to limit adolescence to a specific age group
may be problematic, it is not the only complicating factor in
designing approaches to reach young people.  Adolescents are a
diverse group comprised, for example, of in-school and out-of-
school adolescents, married and unmarried adolescents, those at
risk of early pregnancy, i.e. sexually active, and those who are
not.  This diversity requires that they be sub-divided (or
segmented) into clear categories if their problems are to be
clearly identified and adequately addressed.

     Rather than think of adolescents as a major part of a UN work
plan category, it may be more useful to think in terms of
adolescents as a target group or audience.  This sets the stage for
audience segmentation.

     Once properly segmented, what had been an unwieldy, large
group, becomes a number of more easily definable, manageable,
smaller groups.  Below, four major sub-groups are suggested: "in
school", "married or engaged", "in union", and "other sexually
active".  This breakdown is intended to make it easier for
reproductive health professionals and IEC specialists to establish
a framework for meeting the needs of adolescents, i.e. to determine
the relative feasibility of working with specific groups, assign
priorities, determine who is where (location), and prepare the path
to reach them.

     These categories are not mutually exclusive.  Some school
students may be married, some may be in union, and so forth.  To
further complicate matters, each of these categories may have sub-
categories, as will be pointed out below.

     The significance of each group and sub-group for reproductive
health, will change from one culture to the next.  There may be a
larger portion of married adolescents in South Asia than in South
America, to cite just one example.  Residence (rural, urban,
marginal) will also make a difference.  Once the types of groups
are clear, data on them will reveal the relative importance of each
for programme purposes.

(1)  In school

     The group that is easiest to identify (and locate) is made up
of adolescents who are in school.  One obvious way to reach them is
through the school system.  The details of how this is done are
more complex than may appear on the surface.  Policy-makers must be
convinced, curriculum decisions made and materials developed,
teachers trained properly to deal with new and sometimes sensitive
topics, etc.  Still, large numbers of adolescents may be reached
through this channel.

     This particular group may be sub-divided again, into those who
are at risk of early pregnancy and those who are not.  These two
sub-groups' needs are different, and the educational responses to
meeting those needs will be different.

     One identifiable factor associated with susceptibility to
early pregnancy is difficulty adjusting to and learning in a
classroom.  Children who are labeled as "disruptive" or
"problematic children" often suffer from learning disorders.  They
frequently drop out of school.  They may be able to function
successfully outside the classroom, but often in ways that are not
socially acceptable.  Drug abuse, crime and early pregnancy may
result.  Special approaches will have to be developed to reach
these adolescents who are a particularly high-risk group.

     Other students, who may not have learning disabilities, may be
sexually active and, therefore, at risk of early pregnancy.  To the
extent that they remain faithful to one partner for an extended
period (which is often the case), they reduce the risk of
contracting STDs.  Risk of pregnancy, however, is high, and
increases dramatically in the absence of knowledge and access to

     Adolescents who are in-school and at risk of pregnancy will
need special attention.  In addition to class work, individual
counselling may have an impact.  Careful selection and training of
appropriate school personnel and peer counsellors will be needed in
order to enhance communication with adolescents who need guidance.

     Also, health services should complement those services and
activities provided by the schools and youth groups, by providing
contraceptives, STD/HIV and other reproductive related screening
and treatment as well as prenatal care for those adolescents who
are pregnant.

     Many adolescents are not at risk of early pregnancy, because
of their young age, and/or the fact that they have not yet
initiated sexual activity.  They need programmes that prepare them
for future reproductive responsibility and to develop the basic
understanding of population issues they will need in order to
function effectively as adults (future parents, teachers, business
leaders, civil servants, policy makers, etc.).  The work schools do
in this regard can and should be complemented by organized youth
groups that function outside the school system.

(2)  Married or engaged

     A second major sub-grouping is made up of married adolescents. 
Marriage before age 20 is common in many parts of the world.  The
health risks associated with young maternal age are present whether
or not the young mother is married.  A great deal of work remains
to be done to convince many individuals (including some health and
education professionals) of this fact, due to many years of
tradition which encourages early marriage, and/or early pregnancy
within marriage.

     Many in-laws and neighbours exert pressure on couples to have
their first child early.  Health workers who have not been trained
adequately sometimes turn away young nulliparous couples who seek
family planning, saying "Come back after you've had a few
children".  Young couples who learned in school that planning the
first birth was good for them, may be frustrated when challenged by
health personnel to justify their request for services.

     Still, married adolescents are a group that is reachable and
a number of governments are actively pursuing them as a target
audience.  Most such programmes address young people who have
married recently or, ideally, are preparing for marriage.  The
channels to reach this group vary according to the country, but
"engaged" couples can usually be identified by outreach workers, if
trained to do so.  Prior preparation, giving thought to the
implications of planning the first pregnancy, birth spacing and
eventual family size, may begin in schools.

(3)  In union

     Those couples who are "in union", i.e. living together without
a marriage license, pose a more formidable challenge than the other
two groups because they are less easy to identify.  Outreach
workers can also be trained to find and work with couples in union.

     This is important because it involves one of the groups of
adolescents that has always been difficult to reach: unmarried,
out-of-school adolescents.

     Without contraception, young couples that are married or in
union, with a monogamous and relatively stable relationship, are
more likely to experience early pregnancy than their peers who are
sexually active but not tied to one partner.  On the other hand,
individuals having more than one partner are more likely to
contract STDs and HIV/AIDS, and pregnancy may occur as well.

(4)  Other sexually active

     This category may include individuals with very different
characteristics.  Some may be school students, others "street
children".  Some may be children of single mothers (daughters of
women who become pregnant without being married, and who grow up
without the support of a father, run a higher than average risk of
repeating the pattern and becoming adolescent mothers).  Some may
be employed (and accessible through their workplaces).

     The category will include pregnant adolescents and adolescents
who have delivered recently.  While working with these particular
young people will, by definition, not help them postpone the first
pregnancy, which should be a primary concern, proper attention can
help them postpone subsequent pregnancies.  They are comparatively
easy to identify, especially if they are undergoing prenatal care
or if recent births are registered in some way.  Part of the
attention they require will be education regarding early child care
and development.

     Each of these four main categories of adolescents, in
particular, offers an entry point for IEC.  But further refinement
is needed to determine (1) whether other such important "groups"
exist and (2) the extent of the problem in each group.  Two types
of data are needed: one to give an overview of the situation, e.g.
number of births to adolescents and/or age-specific fertility rate;
the second, to physically locate the individuals/couples in need of
attention, e.g. through clinic records designed for this purpose,
community surveys or censuses and health and social workers trained
to observe and collect this information.

     It is reasonable to assume that easy-to-identify, high-risk
categories such as children of single mothers or those with
learning difficulties, may not be where the largest numbers of
early pregnancies occur.  There may be relatively few adolescents
in these high risk categories to start with.  Their actual numbers
need to be determined, the individuals identified and concerted
attention given, precisely because the chances that they will
experience an early pregnancy are so great.  However, data should
also be carefully analyzed to determine where most early
pregnancies occur outside of these obvious groups.

     Married couples and those living together have already been
mentioned.  IPPF estimates that, in less developed world, only
about 17 per cent of married women ages 15 to 19 use
contraceptives.  They can, and should, receive priority attention
in all reproductive health programmes.  These two groups will
account for the largest number of births to adolescents.

     What about the remainder of the adolescent population?  Most,
such as those participating in organized groups, will not be likely
to get pregnant early.  Others will, and they need focussed

     In order to have an impact on adolescent fertility, each
country will have to analyze its situation in terms of births to
the groups mentioned here: married, in union, in school (with its
sub-categories), and other sexually active (street children,
pregnant youth and youth who have delivered recently).  An analysis
of those who are currently unmarried but pregnant or recently
delivered may reveal other significant groupings which lend
themselves to educational interventions.

     Once these analyses are complete, health providers and IEC
specialists will be in a position to set priorities on the basis of
relative numbers, the perceived degree of severity of the problem
in each case and the feasibility of devising strategies to reach
those in need.  The next step is to proceed with strategy
development for the best ways of reaching the priority groups

     While this preliminary work will allow interventions to be
more focussed and, hopefully, more effective, all adolescents will
need information on reproductive health, and these general needs
should not be forgotten as we look for better ways to meet the
specific needs of high-risk groups.

From the Desk of TSS/CST Advisers

            Content of Educational Programmes for Men

      This has been extracted from the "Lessons Learned from      
             UNFPA/ILO Programmes About Reaching Men

                 by Catherine Hein, ILO, Geneva

     Based on previous experience in UNFPA/ILO projects in Asia,
Middle East and Africa, it can be affirmed that men all tend to be
interested in learning about sexual matters and contraception. 
Therefore providing easily understood information is important and
where reading skills permit, leaflets should be given which can be
consulted or shown to others.

     Cultural sensitivity of motivational messages is to some
extent ensured by the use of peer educators so men are talking to
similar men.  Also peer pressures from other men may be maintaining
some undesirable behaviour and can be combatted in this way -
combined with legitimization by mass media.

     Entertaining stories which can be presented in many ways
(flipcharts, audio cassettes, theatre groups, puppets, story
teller, videos etc.) are a good way of broaching sensitive topics
and stimulating discussion.  However men can be sensitive to
anything perceived as an attack on them and good humour is an
essential ingredient.  It is important that the goal of educational
activities is seen as stimulating reflection and discussion rather
than persuading and convincing to adopt ready-made solutions.

     Some of the main themes which have been emphasized in visual
or oral materials targeted at men are:

     -    the pride of a father whose children are healthy and well 
          fed - the important thing being quality not quantity.  A 
          scenario developed by a UNFPA/ILO project with co-
          operatives in rural Niger, for example, emphasizes how 
          Bako feels proud when his three children are well dressed 
          and there is more than enough milk to feed them and how 
          later he feels angry and depressed when his nine children 
          are sickly, and there is not enough milk to feed them nor 
          cash for medicine.

     -    children are no longer the wealth that they used to be  
          but rather a drain on resources.  In the Niger scenario, 
          Bako complains that children no longer want to work in  
          the fields and as soon as they can they leave for Cote  

     -    women's health can be seriously impaired by frequent and 
          closely spaced pregnancies which affects their ability to 
          cope with existing children, domestic chores and other  

     -    harmony at home is the result of good planning of       
          resources and child bearing.  This message is appropriate 
          for young men and appeals to their responsibility as head 
          of household.

     -    if women (wives) are reluctant about sexual relations,  
          maybe they are afraid of getting pregnant.  Sexual      
          relations will be more enjoyable if you use

     -    your wife will stay young much longer if you make sure  
          her pregnancies are spaced.  In some cultures, this may 
          be important for men's pride.

     -    planning one's family is part of men's responsibility.  
          This is a common message which sometimes is illustrated 
          by showing the consequences of men being irresponsible. 
          In this form the message may be threatening.  More      
          positive ways can be found of expressing this and linking 
          good planning in the family with good planning at work, 
          in football or of crops.  In fact, it is a message that 
          most men would agree with in many cultures.  Although   
          they may feel that contraceptive use is the women's     
          problem since most methods apply to women (the condom   
          being seen as a protection from STDs and HIV in extra-  
          marital relations) the majority of men feel that they   
          should be the ones who decide whether to use or not.  It 
          may therefore be important that they have some feeling it 
          was their idea otherwise they may feel their authority is 
          being questioned.  While appealing to male identities   
          which emphasize dominance and authority over women and  
          unilateral decision-making is not desirable, one can not 
          expect such attitudes to change easily and therefore they 
          must be taken in account.

     Lack of communication between husband and wife as concerns
sexual relations, birth spacing and family size is a major barrier
to joint decision-making in many countries.  It also makes it
easier for women to say that men want many children and are against
contraception and for men to say that women are against.

     Some countries have been coming to the conclusion that one
must include some activities involving couples in order to help
break down barriers and misunderstandings and have a real impact on
behaviour.  In the Philippines, some companies have been inviting
spouses to meetings as they feel this generates greater interest
and makes behaviour change more likely.  The Zimbabwe Confederation
of Trade Unions has concluded that its HIV prevention activities
targeting men and women as individuals were less effective than
couples' workshops (Dehwe, 1994).

     Anecdotal reports from the Central African Republic, for
example, also suggest that such meetings can promote a process of
communication even if indirect.  The men are usually on one side
with the women and young children on the other side.  Wives can
raise issues which may be for the benefit of their husband without
breaking the taboo of addressing him directly.

     Nevertheless, the Organisation Syndicale des Travailleurs du
Cameroun experienced difficulties with mixed groups discussing
sexual matters as the women seemed to be embarrassed and unwilling
to talk.  Cultural factors are no doubt important in deciding
whether couples' meetings are appropriate but if the meeting is
conducted sensitively there may be more scope for this approach
than is generally thought.  In any case, there are numerous non-
sexual family issues which can be usefully addressed.  Ways of
conducting meetings for couples is a subject on which much more
information is needed from different cultural settings.

              Recent Population Education Documents


     Australian Council for Educational Research.  Teaching
adolescents about contraception, by Mary Mannison, and June Morris. 
Victoria, 1991.  274 p.

     Australian Council for Educational Research/New Zealand
Council for Educational  Research.  Best of set: families & school. 
Victoria/Wellington, 1994.  1 packet of leaflets.

     SOURCE:   Australian Council for Educational Research Ltd.   
               Redford House
               Frederick Street
               Hawthorn, Victoria 3122

     Lucas, David, and Paul Meyer, eds.  Beginning population
studies.   2nd ed. Canberra, National Centre for Development
Studies, Australian National  University, 1994.  199 p.

     SOURCE:   National Centre for Development Studies
               Australian National University
               GPO Box 4
               Canberra, A.C.T. 2601

CHINA, People's Republic of

     Harbin Adult Education College.  A set of rural adult school
textbooks of population  education: for neo-literates.  Beijing,
Adult Education Department, State Education Commission, 1994.  8
vols., illus.  In English and Chinese.

     SOURCE:   Adult Education Department
               State Education Commission
               37 Damacung Hutong, Xidan
               Beijing 100816
               People's Republic of China


     India.  State Resource Centre, Mysore.  Reading materials for
neo-literates.  Mysore, Karnataka, State Adult Education Council,
1995.  26 booklets.  In Indian dialect (Karnataka)

     SOURCE:   State Resource Centre
               Karnataka State Adult Education Council
               50 Chitabhanu Road, A-B Block,
               Kuvempunagar, Karnataka, India


     Mackey, Lesley, and Alison Cleland.  Challenges and change: a
sexuality education programme for adolescents.  Auckland, New
Zealand Family Planning Association, 1994.  97 p.

     SOURCE:   The Resource Unit
               New Zealand Family Planning Association
               30 Ponsonby Road, Auckland
               New Zealand


     National Workshop [on] Environment and Population Education
and Information for Human Development, Quezon City, 21-23 November
1994.  Report of the Workshop.  Quezon City, Institute for Science
and Mathematics Education Development, University of the
Philippines, 1994.  50 p.

     SOURCE:   Institute for Science and Mathematics Education
               University of the Philippines
               Diliman, Quezon City


     Thailand.  Ministry of Education.  Curriculum Development
Centre.  [Population education lesson plan for hill tribe students:
primary grades] Bangkok, 1994. 278 p.  In Thai.

     SOURCE:   Curriculum Development Centre
               Department of Curriculum & Instruction Development 
               Ministry of Education
               928 Sukhumvit Road
               Bangkok 10110, Thailand


     UNESCO.  Regional Clearing House on Population Education and
Communication.  Population education accessions list, July-December
1994.  Bangkok, 1995.  141 p.

          Population Education Newsletter and Forum, Special issue 
          1995.  Bangkok, 1995.  19 p.

               P.O. Box 967
               Prakanong Post Office
               Bangkok 10110

For further information, please contact: popin@undp.org
POPIN Gopher site: gopher://gopher.undp.org/11/ungophers/popin
POPIN WWW site:http://www.undp.org/popin