ADVOCACY FOR POPULATION
AND
REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH :

AN INTRODUCTORY MANUAL FOR
ADVOCATES AND TRAINERS
PART 1: PREPARING THE GROUNDWORK

 

by

SUSAN B. ARADEON

ADVISER FOR POPULATION ADVOCACY & IEC
UNFPA COUNTRY SUPPORT TEAM
FOR THE SOUTH PACIFIC

 

January 2000

 

The views and opinions contained in this manual have not been officially
cleared and thus do not necessarily represent the position of the
United Nations Population Fund

 

 


TABLE OF CONTENTS

PREFACE

1. INTRODUCTION TO ADVOCACY

        1.1 The Basic Elements of Advocacy
        1.2 The Difference Between Advocacy and IEC (Information, Education & Communication)

2. DEFINE YOUR ADVOCACY GOAL AND OBJECTIVES

3. IDENTIFY YOUR ADVOCACY AUDIENCES

        3.1 Primary and Secondary Audiences
        3.2 Supporters, Opponents and Undecided People
        3.3 Audience Mapping

4. COLLECT DATA, INFORMATION & TESTIMONIES

        4.1 Persuasive Data and Information
        4.2 Background Information on Your Advocacy Audiences
        4.3 Audience Research Methods

5. PREPARE YOUR POSITION PAPER & FACT SHEETS

        5.1 Position paper
        5.2 Fact sheets

6. PREPARE TO HANDLE OPPONENTS

7. IMPROVE YOUR ADVOCACY SKILLS

        7.1 Interviews with the Media
        7.2 Personal Visits
        7.3 Public Presentation Techniques

8. CONCLUSION

BIBLIOGRAPHY

WORKSHEETS

Worksheet 1: Elements of an Advocacy Objective
Worksheet 2: Audience Map: Who Are Your Audiences?
Worksheet 3: Supporters Knowledge & Attitude Map:
Worksheet 4: Opponents Knowledge & Attitudes Map:


PREFACE

This is a do-it-yourself manual. The goal is to demystify advocacy and to enable people to become successful advocates. The objective is to assist concerned government officials and members of civil society to design and implement their own advocacy initiatives relatively easily and cheaply.

The manual is being developed and trialed as part of the technical assistance to the Regional Population and Reproductive Health Advocacy Sub-Programme funded by the United Nations Population Fund through its Sub-regional Office for the Pacific and executed by the Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC) (PMI/98/P01). Consequently, specific examples have been designed for population and reproductive health advocacy issues facing nations in the South Pacific but the manual can serve as a guide to advocacy for other issues in other places.

Concepts, approaches and language have been borrowed, adapted and reintegrated into this manual from the sources identified in the footnotes. In some cases, the only changes were minimal to simplify the language or streamline the approach. The great debt to the authors and funders of these publications and documents is acknowledged; nevertheless, responsibility for any errors resides with the author. Two non-UNFPA publications merit special mention:

                IPPF: Advocacy Guide, 1995 (researched by Cynthia Gibson)
                SARA/AED: An Introduction to Advocacy: Training Guide by Ritu R. Sharma

This Population and Reproductive Health Advocacy Manual is an evolving document. The current version only contains Part 1: Preparing the Groundwork. Part 2 has not yet been developed. Other chapters will deal with coalition building, participatory strategic planning, action planning, message development and delivery, fundraising, and evaluation. Interactive techniques for sensitising audiences to sexuality issues that are integral to reproductive health will also be addressed. Please adapt this working document to your needs and send your comments and suggestions for improvements. Registry@unfpacst.org.fj is the email address.

 

 

Suva, Fiji                                                                                                                      William J. House
January 2000                                                                                                                  Officer-in-Charge

 

 


1. INTRODUCTION TO ADVOCACY

1.1 The Basic Elements of Advocacy

Advocacy starts with a core group of people who share concerns about a particular issue and who are prepared to commit time, expertise and resources to bring about change. Advocacy core groups, advocacy goals and objectives, and advocacy environments vary widely. Therefore, the advocacy process is more like a network than a step-by-step process. Advocacy works best if advocates start from the particular, composite knowledge and skill base of the core group. To attract more advocates to your cause and to energise the advocacy group, it helps to start off with an activity with high visibility and high probability of success.

This means that any table of contents in an advocacy manual is arbitrary and implementation will not necessarily follow the order presented in the manual. The table of contents should really be a series of circles that are linked by crisscrossing lines as illustrated in Box 1: Chart of the Basic Elements of Advocacy. Where the lines represent the overlapping links between the basic advocacy elements as well as the order of their implementation. No two advocacy implementation charts would be the same if each advocacy core group were to lay down the crisscrossing lines that represent the time order and pattern it used for implementing the basic elements of advocacy. Some advocacy core groups might have considerable data and data expertise and they might want to begin by developing a position paper for public presentations. Others might already have a good network of concerned organisations and some experience with coalition-building. They might decide to postpone work on the position paper until a larger potential coalition has been brought together. Depending upon the available human and financial resources, many activities could be pursued simultaneously. Early on, goals and objectives need to be defined and audiences need to be mapped.

Basic Elements of Advocacy (8402 bytes)

1.2      The Difference Between Advocacy and IEC (Information, Education & Communication) 1

Advocacy and IEC are techniques used to attempt to change the behaviour of individuals and groups. These techniques reinforce each other. Advocacy creates a more favourable environment for motivating individuals and groups to change their behaviours. Thus, implementers of IEC (or health education or health promotion) benefit from advocacy. Advocates use IEC techniques for implementation. Both identify, segment and profile audiences; develop and deliver information and education; undertake research and monitor to refine their implementation activities; and, commission evaluation to measure the impact of their interventions. In addition to these IEC techniques, advocates build partnerships, alliances and coalitions and mobilise these supporters to advocate for their shared goal and objectives. They also dialogue and negotiate with people who oppose their position.

The major difference between advocacy and IEC lies in the categories of people they target and the expected goals/outcomes.

Box 2: The Differing Targets and Outcomes for Advocacy and IEC

  1. individuals with the objective of achieving a change in their personal
    • awareness
    • attitudes, beliefs and values
    • behaviour
  2. groups/communities with the objective of achieving a change in their group norms, their groups’
    • awareness
    • attitudes, beliefs and values
    • behaviour

    Advocacy Targets:

  3. leaders and decision-makers with the objectives of achieving a change in their
    • awareness
    • attitudes, beliefs and values
    • behaviour

    so they use their power/influence to introduce or re-orient a:

    • policy (or a group’s position on a specific issue)
    • programme or
    • legislation
      and
    • reallocate the necessary funds and personnel
  4. individuals and groups who can influence the leaders and decision-makers

 

2. DEFINE YOUR ADVOCACY GOAL AND OBJECTIVES2

An advocacy goal is a long term general aim to solve an outstanding issue, for example, to increase male involvement in order to improve the reproductive health of Samoan families. For each goal, several objectives need to be defined. An advocacy objective focuses on a specific action that an institution can take. This action is a specific measurable step towards the goal. To define your advocacy objectives, ask the following questions:

  • WHAT do we want to change?
  • WHO can make the change?
  • BY HOW MUCH?
  • BY WHEN?

Box 3: Sample Elements of an Advocacy Objective

(Goal: to increase male involvement in order to improve the reproductive health of Samoan families)

Elements

Specific Elements

WHAT do we want to change?

Reallocate funds and personnel to increase vasectomies

WHO can make the change?

MOH Policymakers & Private Doctors

BY HOW MUCH?

Increase % of couples protected by vasectomy from 7% to 15%

BY WHEN?

2 years

 

THE COMBINED ELEMENTS

Persuade MOH Policymakers & Private Doctors to allocate more funds and personnel to increase the percentage of couples protected by vasectomy from 7% to 15% within the next two years.

Source: Adapted from Sharma, SARA/AED Advocacy Training Guide, n.d.

Information needed to define an advocacy goal and objectives can usually be found in Government and civil society documents and research reports that raise and discuss health issues. Ministry strategic 5-Year plans, workplans, annual reports and workshop reports are good starting points. Additional information can be found in similar documents prepared by NGOs, agencies and donors involved with the issue.

Before embarking upon an advocacy programme, you need to form a small core team of advocacy initiators to make a preliminary estimate of the feasibility and scope of your advocacy initiative. Study the relevant documents and brainstorm to develop one or two preliminary advocacy goals and objectives. Then, check the preliminary objectives against the advocacy feasibility checklist (See Box 4). However, avoid becoming excessively attached to your chosen goal. For advocacy to be successful, a larger group or coalition of groups needs to go through the process of defining their goal and objectives. In the process, your objectives and goal may be modified.

 

3. IDENTIFY YOUR ADVOCACY AUDIENCES3

3.1 Primary and Secondary Audiences

Changes must be made to achieve your objective. Identify the people who have the power to make or prevent these changes. These are the people you want to reach and convince to make the changes. They are your primary audience. Then identify the people who can influence these individuals in your primary audience. They are your secondary audience.

 

Box 4: Who are Your Advocacy Audiences?

Primary Audience: decision-makers with the power to affect the outcome of your objective directly

Secondary Audiences: individuals and groups that can influence the decision-makers (the primary audience)

Source: Adapted from Sharma, SARA/AED Advocacy Training Guide, n.d.

 

3.2     Supporters, Opponents and Undecided People

The people and groups in the primary and secondary audiences can be further divided into supporters, opponents and undecided. Many of the people in your audience will not yet clearly take a position on your objectives. Advocates work to move the primary and secondary audience into active supporters so that the objectives can be achieved and sustained.

Beneficiaries, the individuals and groups who will benefit from achievement of the objectives and goals, are an especially important advocacy audience. As supporters, they can become powerful and committed advocates. Their personal testimony can raise awareness and concern about the problems being addressed by your advocacy goal. However, some beneficiaries may become opponents and some may remain undecided or indifferent.

Some people may support one objective and be opposed to another objective for the same goal. For instance, in many countries the Catholic Church actively supports the goal of reducing family sizes and favours promotion of the benefits of smaller families but opposes promotion of contraceptives.

Box 5: What Is The Position Of Your Audience?

Supporters: individuals and groups who agree with your advocacy objectives and goal

Opponents: individuals and groups whose opposition to the objectives is already known

Undecided: individuals and groups who have not taken a position on the objective

 

3.3 Audience Mapping

Use the audience mapping process to identify and subdivide your advocacy audience into groups of people who share similar knowledge and attitudes about each advocacy objective. This information will assist you to develop your advocacy strategy. You will need to make three or four maps for each objective (see the corresponding sample maps, Boxes 8-10):

Map 1: Audience Map
Map 2: Supporters Knowledge & Attitudes Map
Map 3: Opponents Knowledge & Attitudes Map
Map 4: Undecided Peoples Knowledge & Attitudes Map (no sample provided)

To develop the Audience Map for each advocacy objective, brainstorm the titles and/or names of your primary and secondary audiences and your beneficiaries with a variety of concerned (See Map 1: Sample Audience Map). To identify the primary audience, think through the steps necessary to get your advocacy objective on the agenda and move it through the approval and implementation process. Brainstorm the names and titles of the key decision-makers in this process and fill in their names and titles. They are the primary audience.

To identify your secondary audiences, brainstorm the names and titles of the people who can influence the primary audience to act positively or negatively on the objective. Be as specific as possible. Fill in their names and titles.

After you have established your Audience Map, you need to subdivide your primary targets and secondary influentials into meaningful groups in terms of their knowledge, attitudes and behaviour. Colour code the Audience Map to distinguish the position of each person or group as follows:

  1. supporters/allies:         circle in green
  2. opponents:                  circle in red
  3. undecided:                  circle in blue

Then using this information, brainstorm the knowledge and attitudes of these groups onto a Supporters Knowledge & Attitudes Map and onto a Opponents Knowledge & Attitudes Map (See Tables 2 and 3 for sample maps and the Appendix for blank mapping charts). The Undecided Peoples Attitudes & Knowledge Map will be developed in the same manner. Ask actual beneficiaries to brainstorm their own knowledge and attitudes towards the objective. Questions to ask yourselves during brainstorming are provided in Boxes 5 & 6. When thinking about the primary audience, also ask yourselves why they have not already implemented your objective.

During initial development of these audience maps, you may find that there are many uncertainties. You will need to use the observation and the public information review or more formal research methods if funds can be obtained. Refer to Section 4 for more details.

Box 6: Questions for identifying your potential SUPPORTERS

  • Who supports the objective (or a closely related objective) already?
  • Who will benefit if your objective is achieved?
    • Directly as a beneficiary?
    • Indirectly as an implementer?
  • Will anyone benefit financially if your objective is achieved? Who?
  • Which government ministries, departments or agencies will gain if the objectives are achieved?
  • What civil society groups including religions will gain if the objective is achieved?
  • Which influentials will gain if the objective is achieved?
    • Government/political
    • Government/administrative
    • Traditional
    • Religious
    • NGO
    • Private sector
  • Do any officials philosophically support the objective?

Source: Adapted from Sharma, SARA/AED Advocacy Training Guide, n.d.

 

Box 7: Questions for identifying your potential OPPONENTS

  • Are any organisations or individuals opposed to your objective? Who? Why?
  • Which groups or individuals will lose if your objectives are achieved?
    • Money
    • Political power
    • Programme control
    • Followers
  • Which influentials will lose if the objectives are achieved?
    • Government/political
    • Government/administrative
    • Traditional
    • Religious
    • NGO
    • Private sector
  • Do any officials philosophically oppose the objective?

Source: Adapted from Sharma, SARA/AED Advocacy Training Guide, n.d.

 

Box 8/MAP 1: SAMPLE AUDIENCE MAP: WHO ARE YOUR AUDIENCES?
Are They Supporters, Opponents, Undecided? Are They Beneficiaries?

Advocacy Goal: Introduce compulsory sexuality education & counseling in all secondary schools.
Objective 1: Persuade the MOE to introduce sexuality education & counseling in all secondary schools within 3 years.

Primary Audience
Decision-makers
(insert names)

Secondary Audience Influentials
(insert position or titles)

Influentials’ Names
(insert)

Who Are Your Supporters and Opponents, and Your Undecided Audience?

Minister of Education

 

 

Head, National Curriculum Board of Studies

Prime Minister
Ministers of Finance & Health
Head Curriculum Development Division (CDD)
Religious leaders and organizations
National Curriculum Board of Studies
National and local Parent organizations (could be opposition)
Teachers union
Media : newspapers, radio & television
International Donors
Persons Previously Trained/Sensitized on Issue

 

 

 

Minister of Health

Prime Minister
International donors
Medical/Nursing NGOs
Medical/Nursing Training Institutions
Health workers union
Family planning association
National AIDS Control Programme

 
Chair, Council of Churches

Leaders of some major churches
Leaders of church lay organizations including youth groups

 
Chairs, Local Parent Teachers Associations

 

 
Chair, Youth Policy Committee

 

 

Who Are Your Beneficiaries?

Adolescents

 

Officers of youth groups

 

SOURCE: Adapted from Sharma, SARA/AED Advocacy Training Guide, n.d. (an adaptation of Policy Players: A Power Map for Advocacy)

KEY:
Supporters/Allies
Opponents
Undecided

 

Box 9/MAP 2: SAMPLE SUPPORTERS KNOWLEDGE & ATTITUDE MAP:
What Do Your Supporters & Beneficiaries Know and Think?

Advocacy Goal: Introduce compulsory sexuality education and counseling in all secondary schools
Objective 1: Persuade the MOE to introduce sexuality education & counseling in all secondary schools

What Do Your Supporters Know and Think?

Audience

Audience knowledge about issue/objective

Audience beliefs and attitudes about issue/objective

Issues that the audience cares about (may be unrelated to your issue)

KNOWS

THINKS

Has COMPETING ISSUES

Deputy Secretary of Education

Knows about SE,
Sensitised at AIDS Workshop

  • Supportive of increasing school SE

  • Concerned about need to sensitize and train teachers
  • New school reform plan

  • Technology for schools and science education

Minister of Health

 

 

Parent organizations

Know little about FLE or SE

  • Know that there are too many unplanned, premarital pregnancies
  • Concerned about STDs/AIDS
  • Good exam results

  • Rising school fees

Religious organizations

Anglican: Provides parental sexuality education

  • Want sexuality education in schools

What Do Your Beneficiaries Know and Think?

Adolescents

  • little concrete knowledge
  • some peer educators with Youth to Youth = good K
  • want SE
  • want peer resistance skills
  • want parents to provide SE
  • passing exams
  • work opportunities
  • their social life
SOURCE: Adapted from Sharma, SARA/AED Advocacy Training Guide, n.d. (an adaptation of Policy Players: A Power Map for Advocacy)

 

Box 10/MAP 3: SAMPLE OPPONENTS KNOWLEDGE & ATTITUDES MAP:
What Do Your Opponents Know and Think?

ADVOCACY GOAL: Introduce compulsory SEXUALITY EDUCATION and COUNSELING in all secondary schools
Objective 1: Persuade the MOE to introduce sexuality education & counseling in all secondary schools

Audience

Audience knowledge about issue/objective

Audience

beliefs and attitudes about issue/objective

Audience cares about other issues (may be unrelated to your issue)

KNOWS

THINKS

Has COMPETING ISSUES

Minister of Education Not informed about SE;
Aware of past opposition
  • may be unwilling to consider increasing school SE
  • concerned about need to sensitize and train teachers
  • opposed to policy change without cooperation of civil society groups, esp???
  • New school reform plan
  • Technology for schools and science education
Traditional leaders Know little about contents of SE
  • have been opposed to SE in the past
  • research needed on current position
  • opposed to adolescents making their own decisions
  • opposed to women using contraceptives
 
Parent organizations Know little about FLE or SE
  • know that there are too many unplanned, premarital pregnancies
  • concerned about STIs/AIDS
  • Good exam results
  • Rising school fees
Religious organizations Catholic: Provides 3-hour FLE sessions to schools on request
  • opposes contraception;
  • opposes FLE operated by Government
 
SOURCE: Adapted from Sharma, SARA/AED Advocacy Training Guide, n.d. (an adaptation of Policy Players: A Power Map for Advocacy)

 

4. COLLECT DATA, INFORMATION & TESTIMONIES

4.1 Persuasive Data and Information

Successful advocates rely on well-researched data and information and on personal testimonies to persuade their audiences. People who are undecided or even opposed are frequently convinced by statistics that support an advocacy position. For instance, research that demonstrates that 30% of the men have had multiple partners in the last year forces people to begin seriously considering the threat of HIV/AIDS. Data and information on the local sexual patterns combined with data and information that describe the establishment of the epidemic in other countries with similar sexual patterns can be used to persuade opponents of condoms to support or at least refrain from publicly opposing condom promotion. However, this data needs to be presented sensitively by people who are respected by the condom opponents. Even more powerful is the personal testimony of a person living with HIV.

Facts

Personal stories and testimonies

4.2 Background Information on Your Advocacy Audiences

Successful advocates collect background information on their primary and secondary audiences so that they can strategically design and deliver messages to maximise the desired behavioural changes in their audiences.

Background information on your actual and potential supporters, opponents and beneficiaries to enable you

 

4.3 Audience Research Methods4

Use audience research in the preliminary stage of advocacy to identify and broadly profile your audiences and to create baseline information for future monitoring and evaluation research. Audience research begins with audience mapping. However, there will be many gaps in your knowledge. Use the observation and public information review methods to fill in the gaps fairly quickly and cheaply. To effectively convince your potential supporters and handle your opponents, find out everything possible about their position on your issue. Also find out about the personal backgrounds and affiliations of your opponents so that you can better understand their position.

If there are significant gaps in your information, seek funding to commission interviews, focus groups and surveys. Costs can be reduced somewhat by having existing staff carry out the research. However, you will need adequate funds and some expert advice to ensure that the research meets minimal quality standards. Research that is not credible wastes scarce funds.

Audience Mapping

The brainstorming method used to fill in the knowledge and attitudes of your audiences on the advocacy maps is the most efficient way to obtain information about your audiences and establish the gaps in your knowledge.

Observation

Public Information Review

Interviews

Focus Groups

Focus groups give an in-depth perspective on what people think and why. This method is particularly useful in testing advocacy messages. Focus groups are also useful in learning the language people use to think about topics and the breadth of their ideas about the topics.

Survey/Polls

Survey techniques are generally used to learn about large audiences such as "men", "parents" or "youth". Surveys can establish the prevalence of knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) that are known to exist among specific groups; however, they cannot uncover previously unrecognized KAP for these groups.

 

5. PREPARE YOUR POSITION PAPER & FACT SHEETS

5.1 Position paper

A position paper is a one-page statement of your organization’s position on a particular issue. A position paper is often used as the basis for describing your efforts to the public and to the media. Each person in your organization or advocacy coalition needs to know the group’s position on the advocacy goal and objectives almost by heart and be able to respond to questions without hesitation.

5.2 Fact sheets5

Fact sheets list facts about your issue or a particular topic. Fact sheets sum up the issues succinctly. They also frequently contain data that are of interest to the public. Fact sheets are extremely efficient ways to impart information to the public, the media, or policymakers.

When writing fact sheets, make sure you use the most current data you can find, and footnote or indicate where and from whom the data originated. This will greatly increase your credibility in the eyes of people who use the fact sheets.

 

6. PREPARE TO HANDLE OPPONENTS6

Advocacy frequently generates opposition. Your opponents work just as diligently as you do to present their position as the correct one. Your opponents may negatively portray or publicly denounce your organization and its activities, and, in some cases, you personally. These tactics

Whether the opposition is mild or strong, you should be prepared to address it in a way that is most beneficial to your own efforts. To do this effectively you must undertake thorough opponent research and use this information to prepare your position paper. You will also need to inform the public of your findings about your opponents so the public can place your opponents’ position in proper context. The public needs to know how your opponent has opposed your issue and why his or her efforts will have a negative effect on your community.

To lessen the influence of (and potential influence of) your opponents:

Plan campaigns carefully

Take clear positions on all aspects of your issue  right at the start of a campaign. Base your public positions on your well-researched, carefully worded position paper. Try to meet hard-core opposition head-on. Failure to oppose your opponents will

Prepare for questions and criticisms. The more knowledgeable and professional you appear, the more trust and support you will engender and the less damage the opposition will inflict. Don’t get caught off-guard and appear confused.

Handle attacks by the religious community with great sensitivity. Try not to directly challenge or criticize the religious group that attacks you. In most cases, it is best not to respond at all. Such attacks may include

Weigh the benefits and disadvantages of responding to negative campaigns since doing so can sometimes attract even more media coverage for the other side.

Avoid hostility and/or name-calling. People will respect you more if you can respond evenly and objectively in the face of adversity.

Make the results of your opponent research known to the public so the public can evaluate your opponents and their position

Prepare a media strategy to use in response to negative campaigns against you. Even though the press and the public may be aware that negative campaigns are being instituted solely to discredit your efforts, it is still important to publicise this and to respond, when appropriate.

 

7. IMPROVE YOUR ADVOCACY SKILLS

7.1 Interviews with the Media 7

Appearing on radio and television shows is one of the most effective and cheapest ways to get your message across. Select spokespersons who will come across well on radio or television. Use spokespersons who are both knowledgeable and articulate. Some people, no matter how knowledgeable, will always appear inhibited or unnatural, while others will appear overconfident and strident.

Before you agree to any interviews, make sure you know:

Find out what the interview situation will be like.

Have your own agenda; direct or redirect the discussion.

Develop and practice assertive responses.

Think About Your Visual Presence

Practice Conveying a Pleasing Confident Manner

7.2     Personal Visits8

 

7.3     Public Presentation Techniques

Communicate visually to get and keep your audience’s attention. If the audience is not attracted to you, or don’t like your appearance, they will find it difficult to relate to you or to believe that you have knowledge and authority.

Appearance                  Professional
Posture                         Erect, Head up
Facial expression        Smile, Be expressive
Eye contact                  Make eye contact with 2-3 people in the audience;
                                     don’t look over the people’s heads
Movement                    Avoid distracting rocking, pacing, etc.
Gestures                       Natural with arms at side or hands steepled

    Practice good vocal communication techniques

Pitch of the voice        Low, rich
Projection                    Emphasize important words
Pace                             2 minutes = a bit more than 1 double-spaced page
                                     10 min = almost 3 single-spaced pages
                                     Or 135-140 words per minute
Pauses                          2 seconds for emphasis; 8 seconds after asking for a response.
Inflection                     Drop at end of sentence
Enunciation                  Clear, adding all word endings (ings)
Expression                    Avoid monotone; let your attitude show!
Volume                          So that all can hear all words

 

Studies have shown that you have only two to four minutes to get the attention of the audience (not more than one single-spaced page). If you have not been able to make a favourable impression in that time, you will probably not be able to hold the attention or motivate the audience.

Generate Rapport and Elicit Questions from the Group

  • Encourage two-way communication from the outset. It is perfectly acceptable to start a session by answering questions or by asking questions of the audience. In this way, it becomes clear at the outset that the communication will flow in both directions.
  • Wait eight seconds after asking for a question or audience response.
  • It takes courage for many to stand up or speak out. Others need more time to formulate the question. Some are embarrassed to speak in front of others.
  • Make it possible for questions to be written out as well as spoken from the floor. The shy persons will feel more comfortable if they can remain anonymous. The less confident person will benefit from having the time to write and edit a question.
  • If persons have introduced themselves at the beginning, remember their interests, work, or concerns. During the meeting, ask them specifically for input on areas you remember are in their field. This takes concentration on the part of the speaker. Making some notes may help, as you are listening to them. Do not just go through the motions of an introduction session if you don’t plan to learn from it.

 

8. CONCLUSION

Part 1: Preparing the Groundwork for Advocacy has offered some (but not all) the techniques successful advocates use in the beginning stages of advocacy. An expanded version of Part 1 as well as Part 2 will be included on this web-site in the future.

 


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UNFPA/TSS System Thematic Workshop, "Applications of IEC and Advocacy to Reproductive Health," WHO/Geneva, 26-30 October 1998.

VeneKlasen, Lisa. Policy Players: A Power Map for Advocacy Planning. Washington DC: InterAction (www.InterAction.org), 1995.

Yisa, Barnabas, "Creating Enabling Environment for Reproductive Health Programme: Advocacy Strategies for Reaching Legislators and Policy Makers". A Discussion Paper presented at the UNFPA TSS System Thematic Workshop on "Applications of IEC and Advocacy to Reproductive Health," WHO/Geneva, 26-30 October 1998.

 


WORKSHEETS

1. ELEMENTS OF AN ADVOCACY OBJECTIVES CHART

2. ADVOCACY AUDIENCE MAP

3. ADVOCACY SUPPORTERS MAP

4. ADVOCACY OPPONENTS MAP

 

Worksheet 1: Elements of an Advocacy Objective

Goal:

 

Elements

Specific Elements

WHAT do we want to change?

 

 

 

 

 

WHO can make the change?

 

 

 

 

 

BY HOW MUCH?

 

 

 

 

 

BY WHEN?

 

 

 

 

 

THE COMBINED ELEMENTS

 

 

 

 

 

Source: Adapted from Sharma, SARA/AED Advocacy Training Guide, n.d.

 

 

 

 

 

Worksheet 2: Audience Map: Who Are Your Audiences?

Are They Supporters, Opponents, Undecided? Are They Beneficiaries?

Advocacy Goal:
Objective:

Primary Audience
Decision-makers
(insert names)

Secondary Audience
Influentials
(insert position or titles)

Influentials’ Names
(insert)

Who Are Your Supporters and Opponents, and Your Undecided Audience?

   

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Who Are Your Beneficiaries?

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

SOURCE: Adapted from Sharma, SARA/AED Advocacy Training Guide, n.d. (an adaptation of Policy Players: A Power Map for Advocacy)

 

 

 

Worksheet 3: Supporters Knowledge & Attitude Map:

What Do Your Supporters & Beneficiaries Know and Think?

Advocacy Goal:

Objective:

What Do Your Supporters Know and Think?

Audience

Audience knowledge about issue/objective

Audience beliefs and attitudes about issue/objective

Issues that the audience cares about (may be unrelated to your issue)

KNOWS

THINKS

Has COMPETING ISSUES

 

 

 

 

 

 

     

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

     

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

     

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

     

What Do Your Beneficiaries Know and Think?

 

 

 

 

 

 

     
SOURCE: Adapted from Sharma, SARA/AED Advocacy Training Guide, n.d. (an adaptation of Policy Players: A Power Map for Advocacy)

 

 

 

Worksheet 4: Opponents Knowledge & Attitudes Map:

What Do Your Opponents Know and Think?

ADVOCACY GOAL:

Objective:

Audience

Audience knowledge about issue/objective

Audience beliefs and attitudes about issue/objective

Audience cares about other issues (may be unrelated to your issue)

KNOWS

THINKS

Has COMPETING ISSUES

     

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
     

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
     

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
     

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
SOURCE: Adapted from Sharma, SARA/AED Advocacy Training Guide, n.d. (an adaptation of Policy Players: A Power Map for Advocacy)

Footnotes

1 Adapted from Kumah, "Advocacy for Gender, Population and Development," 1996.

2 Adapted from Sharma, SARA/AED Advocacy Training Guide, n.d.

3 Adapted from Sharma, SARA/AED Advocacy Training Guide, n.d.

4 Adapted from Sharma, SARA/AED Advocacy Training Guide, n.d.

5 IPPF Advocacy Guide, 1995

6 IPPF Advocacy Guide, 1995

7 IPPF Advocacy Guide, 1995; Mike Shaw Presentation, 1998

8 IPPF Advocacy Guide, 1995