UN Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs,
with support from the UN Population Fund (UNFPA)
MIGRATION NEWS Vol. 3, No. 7 July, 1996 Migration News summarizes the most important immigration and integration developments of the preceding month. Topics are grouped by region: North America, Europe, Asia, and Other. There are two versions of Migration News. The paper edition is about 8,000 words in length, and the email version about 15,000. The purpose of Migration News is to provide a monthly summary of recent immigration developments that can be read in 60 minutes or less. Many issues also contain summaries and reviews of recent research publications. Distribution is by email. If you wish to subscribe, send your email address to: Migration News <firstname.lastname@example.org> Current and back issues may be accessed via Internet on the Migration News Home Page--- http://migration.ucdavis.edu There is no charge for an email subscription to Migration News. A paper edition is available by mail for $30 domestic and $50 foreign. Make checks payable to UC Regents and send to: Philip Martin, Department of Agricultural Economics, University of California, Davis California 95616 USA. Migration News is produced with the support of the University of California-Berkeley Center for German and European Studies, the German Marshall Fund of the United States, and the Pew Charitable Trusts. ISSN 1081-9916 NORTH AMERICA Congress Works to Revise Immigration Law INS: Enforcement and Asylum Mexico: Voting Rights and Emigration California: Internal Migration and Strikes Immigration Update in New York, Florida and Illinois Caribbean/Central American Immigration EUROPE Asylum and Immigration Controls in EU Germans Consider Immigration Policy British Court Strikes Down Ban on Welfare France Criticized on Asylum Asylum in Netherlands and Sweden Seasonal Workers in Switzerland ASIA Foreigners in Japan at Record High Filipino Overseas Workers Foreigners in Hong Kong Face Uncertainty Taiwan Calls for Limits on Foreign Workers Malaysia Has Skilled Labor Shortages OTHER Australian Government Reacts to Immigration Poll Immigration Affects New Zealand Elections ________________________ NORTH AMERICA ________________________ Congress Works to Revise Immigration Law As Congress struggled to reconcile the immigration bills approved by the US House of Representatives in March, 1996, and by the Senate in May 1996, advocates flooded House-Senate conference committee members with arguments for and against specific provisions in one or both bills. The House is not expected to formally name the members who will serve on the conference committee until Congress returns from the July 4 recess, in part because, once the House names its conferees, a conference bill must be produced within a limited time. However, deals between likely House and announced Senate conferees are being worked out privately. The major provision attacked by admissionists and political liberals was the Gallegly amendment to the House bill, approved by a vote of 257 to 163 in March 1996. It would permit the states to deny unauthorized alien children free K-12 public education, as California has sought to do with Prop 187. Opponents of the Gallegly amendment argued that it was unfair to penalize children for the fact that their parents illegally brought them into the US, and pointed to the danger to US society of having uneducated children in its midst, and to the costs of verifying each child's legal status. In addition, immigration advocates tried to soften or eliminate the provisions of the House and Senate bills that would define the receipt of means-tested federal benefits by legal immigrants as violating the existing prohibition of becoming a "public charge," and thus making possible the deportation of legal migrants on that ground. Campaigning in California on June 19, Bob Dole, the Republican presidential candidate, endorsed the Gallegly amendment, saying that states should have the choice of denying public education to illegal alien children, since they bear the costs, which Dole put at $1.8 billion annually to California. Rep. Elton Gallegly (R- CA) introduced Dole and asserted that "it's time to stop making apologies for putting Americans first." House Speaker Newt Gingrich (R-Ga.) says that "offering free, tax-paid goods to illegals has increased the number of illegals." President Clinton has hinted that he will veto an immigration reform bill that includes the Gallegly amendment, a veto that some Republicans believe would hurt Clinton's chances of winning California in the presidential election. In this, Clinton had the support of 47 Senators, including five Republicans, who threatened on June 10 to vote against a final immigration bill that included the Gallegly amendment. Dole supported Prop 187 in 1994, which Clinton opposed. If the Gallegly amendment becomes law, and is upheld by a US Supreme Court reversal of the 1982 Plyler v Doe decision, states will be able to order K-12 schools to check the status of all enrolling students each year. Such checks would keep out the estimated 600,000 to 700,000 or 1.5 percent unauthorized children among the 45 million K-12 pupils in public schools. Another six million children who attend private schools would not be affected. The cost of educating illegal alien children in the US is $3 to $3.5 billion per year, based on an average cost of $5,000 per child per year. The Urban Institute estimated the number of illegal alien children in schools in the seven major immigrant states in 1994: California, 307,000; Florida, 97,000; Texas, 94,000; New York, 88,000; Illinois, 24,000; New Jersey, 16,000; and Arizona, 15,000. There was similar lobbying over the sponsorship and benefit changes included in the bill that affect legal immigrants. Under US immigration law, an immigrant is deportable if he/she becomes a "public charge" in the US. In order to secure an immigration visa for a relative, US-resident sponsors commonly sign an affidavit promising to support the immigrant once he/she is here. Under current practice, the US sponsor and the immigrant must have a combined income that is at least 100 percent of the income at the US poverty line for the US sponsor AND the immigrant(s) being sponsored. At the present time, that would be, for example, $18,220 for a US family of three sponsoring an immigrant couple-- five people in all. Many immigrants who are sponsored by US residents nonetheless apply for federally-funded benefits after they arrive. US courts have held that the sponsors' affidavits are not binding, so that the government cannot sue a US sponsor for the welfare benefits that were paid to an immigrant whom the sponsor promised to support. The pending immigration bills would raise the income required of US residents to sponsor an immigrant to 200 percent of the poverty line (House) or 125 percent of the poverty line (Senate), make the affidavits binding on the US sponsor, and deem or assume that the immigrant has access to the sponsor's income for the purpose of determining whether the immigrant is eligible for benefits. Advocates for immigration attacked the income requirement for sponsors, arguing that it would permit only "rich Americans" to sponsor immigrants. Another provision in the proposed law would permit the deportation of immigrants who received federal benefits for 12 months within the first five years in the US (Senate) or first seven years (House), the immigrant could be deported. Most groups favorable to immigration opposed this extension of the grounds for deportation, calling attention to the wide range of benefit claims that could lead to deportation, including e.g., federal student loans and job training programs, and outlining the health threat to US residents from immigrants who avoided obtaining subsidized medical care. Using cases of immigrants who received training or education and now are successful, advocates asked whether the US would really deport successful immigrants. For example, an estimated 500,000 legal immigrant college students receive $700 million in federal assistance each year, and many are employed by major US corporations. The Congressional Budget Office estimated that the proposed restrictions on immigrant access to benefits could save federal taxpayers up to $7 billion over seven years. Many members of Congress said that they supported the restrictions on immigrant access to federal benefits to balance the budget, not to discourage immigration. In attacking the denial of federally subsidized health benefits, advocates stressed that services such as public health cut public expenditures in the long run by minimizing the spread of communicable diseases, avoiding emergency room care for treatable diseases, and improving the health of US-citizen babies. One issue that arises in these proposed new restrictions on access to schools, benefits, and health is their administrative costs. Opponents of the restrictions argue that the cost of checking the legal status of pupils enrolling in school or seeking benefits would be formidable. Proponents of restrictions, on the other hand, argue that administrative costs would be a marginal addition to current screening procedures. Schools already verify age, residence, and immunization, for example, and the income of beneficiaries of means-tested programs is checked, since they will not be reimbursed if they provide benefits to persons with incomes above qualifying levels. This suggests two major considerations in evaluating the arguments. First, how much money would the restrictions save in the short and long runs? Second, would the benefit restrictions have as a side effect the discouragement of legal immigrants likely to need tax-supported benefits? The Gallegly amendment is perhaps the clearest example of a possible new trend in industrial democracies--use integration policy to affect immigration flows. The theory is that fewer benefits will discourage illegal immigrants from coming, or staying. Research suggests that illegal aliens generally come to the US for jobs, not welfare or other benefits, so the restrictions on benefits for legal immigrants may wind up pushing what is now in part a federal responsibility onto states, cities, and families without affecting the influx of illegal immigrants. Immigration may remain in the political spotlight during the summer of 1996 if Dole seriously tries to win California's 54 electoral votes, one-fifth of the number needed to be elected President. The Reform Party of Ross Perot may also keep immigration in the spotlight if it nominates as its presidential candidate Richard Lamm, the former governor of Colorado and an outspoken opponent of high levels of immigration. Eric Schmitt, "2 Senior Republican Lawmakers Buck Party to Oppose Effort to Bar Education of Illegal Aliens," New York Times, June 22, 1996. Maria L. LaGanga, "Dole Endorses Prop. 187 Limits on Schooling," Los Angeles Times, June 20, 1996. Thomas Edsall, "Dole Urges Illegal-Immigrant Curbs," Washington Post, June 20, 1996. John Marelius, "Dole would put Clinton on spot on immigration," San Diego Union-Tribune, June 20, 1996. Michael Doyle, "School ban may imperil immigration bill," Sacramento Bee, June 11, 1996. Marcus Stern, "Immigration bill turns into key election issue," San Diego Union-Tribune, June 2, 1996. Marguerite Abadjian, "US Immigration: New Bill to Cap Angry Debate," Inter Press Service, May 30, 1996. ________________________ INS: Enforcement and Asylum Border Control. On May 28, 1996, the INS announced that it was adding 185 agents to patrol the eastern parts of San Diego county to curb illegal alien entries from Mexico. In addition, 11 FBI agents have been assigned to deal with alien smuggling rings. Border apprehension data, released monthly, are now reported in the press. In May 1996, apprehensions were three percent below levels of twelve months earlier, the first decrease since the December 1994 peso devaluation. In the San Diego sector, 40,761 illegal aliens were apprehended in May 1996, versus 67,282 in May 1995; 6,078 in El Centro versus 4,271; 3,189 in Yuma versus 2,408; 28,604 in Tuscon versus 20,613; 13,435 in El Paso versus 10,722; 1,105 in Marfa versus 965; 11,338 in Del Rio versus 7,007; 11,828 in Laredo versus 9629; and 19,899 in McAllen versus 17,277. President Clinton requested $3.1 billion for the INS in FY97. The INS now has 5,200 Border Patrol agents, and 600 more are in training. One unanticipated effect of Operation Gatekeeper is that aliens attempting entry in eastern San Diego county have started fires in remote areas that are difficult for firefighters to reach. On June 5, 1996, supervisors declared an emergency in eastern San Diego county after 212 fires broke out between January and May 1996, up from 64 in the same period in 1995. San Diego county asked the federal government for funds and permission to build roads through environmentally sensitive areas to control the fires. In mid-June, five illegal aliens believed to be on the search for work in California were found dead in the Arizona desert, reminding observers that in July 1980, 13 Salvadorans died trying to cross the Organ Pipe National Monument south of Ajo, Arizona. The INS and Congress continue to debate how to best utilize additional personnel and money to reduce illegal immigration. Congress would like to see a concentrated effort to halt immigration at the border. The INS contend that they should make decisions regarding enforcement, and not be dictated to across the country by members of Congress. The INS and Congress are arguing over the fate of the San Clemente, California inland border checkpoint. On weekends, northbound traffic headed for Los Angeles can back up for hours on Interstate 5 as 100 Border Patrol agents inspect cars for illegal aliens-- illegal alien smuggling is concentrated on the weekends. The INS plans a $13-million project to add two lanes, an administrative office, and all-weather canopies for the Border Patrol agents. Legislation to fund the project required that construction begin by July 1 or the checkpoint would be closed down. Construction is not scheduled until the winter of 1996. The checkpoint faces a shutdown during construction or if the Border Patrol finds it cannot keep the lanes operating 24 hours a day, which is required by law. The Border Patrol hopes to use a clause in the legislation which says that if the July 1 deadline is not met, it can be circumvented if the attorney general certifies that "exigent circumstances" exist. The INS and Congress also continue to haggle over the construction of a fence through a 14-mile stretch of border between the Pacific Ocean and Otay Mountain. A May 30 National Public Radio story on illegal immigrants from Cotija, Michoacan, a town of 20,000 in summer, and 30,000 in Janaury, when migrants are home, reported that daily wages were $50 to $100 in the US, versus $5 in Cotija. On June 10, 1996, on his 24th visit to California since he took office in January 1993, President Clinton promised to do more to prevent illegal immigration and drug smuggling across the Mexico- US border. According to Clinton, since January 1995, 1,700 illegal aliens have been jailed in the United States after having slipped back into the country following their expulsions. The INS still has in custody some of the 286 Chinese aliens who were on the Golden Venture, the ship that went aground in New York harbor on June 6, 1993. An estimated 100,000 Chinese, some paying $25,000 to $35,000 each, are believed to be smuggled into the US each year. A Justice Department investigation found that senior officials of the INS transferred or released more than 100 illegal immigrants from detention in Miami in 1995 in order to hide overcrowding and understaffing from the Congressional Task Force on Immigration Reform. As a consequence, four senior INS officials were relieved of their supervisory duties. Many of the detainees who were released by INS were Cubans or Haitians had not received medical clearance or faced criminal charges. Employer Sanctions. The INS in October 1995 launched raids on some of the estimated 2,500 of the 6,000 sewing shops in New York City believed to be operating in violation of labor and immigration laws. There are believed to be some 22,000 garment contractors in the entire US. By June 2, 1996, 86 shops had been inspected in New York City. Forty-five INS inspectors, almost triple the usual 17 inspectors, apprehended 1,228 unauthorized workers. About 80 percent of the unauthorized workers apprehended were Mexicans or Salvadorans. The INS hopes that, by targeting industries known to employ unauthorized workers, it can make employers less likely to hire them, and that illegal aliens will thus be discouraged from coming to the US. INS therefore looks to the number of job slots freed up for workers legally resident in the US, and the wages that they can earn in these jobs, as measures of its success. The INS operates a pilot program in the New York garment industry that permits employers to check on the legal status of non-US citizens hired to work. In an account of June 3 critical of INS enforcement procedures, the New York Times reported that most of the illegal workers were released back on the streets the very day they were apprehended. During the first ten months of the factory inspection program, according to the report, only about 25 percent were detained for more than a few hours. Apprehended workers are often freed pending a hearing to determine whether they should be ordered to leave the US, a proceeding usually two to five months after their apprehension. The INS apprehended 12,000 illegal alien workers in US workplaces in FY95. Kathie Lee Gifford, a TV talk show host, found that fashions bearing her name were sewn in a New York City sweatshop. She held a joint press conference in June 1996 with Labor Secretary Robert Reich to announce a July 1996 conference in Washington DC to bring together retailers, manufacturers and celebrities to discuss how to fight sweatshops. Gifford earned $9 million in 1995 from her line of clothing. Two interesting aspects of the subject emerged. First, the garment industry is one of the few US industries in which someone can become a sizable US employer--with 25 or more employees--for an investment of less than $50,000. Poorly-capitalized sewing shops are vulnerable to market changes, as well as stepped up enforcement--many do not pay overtime wages on rush jobs from manufacturers for hot-selling garments. Second, there is a radical difference between New York state labor inspectors and INS workplace inspectors. The INS inspectors are concerned only about the workers' legal status, but not their wages or working conditions, while the state inspectors care about wages but not legal status. Indeed, in New York, California and other states with high levels of immigration, there is an explicit policy by state labor inspectors, who are often the most familiar with local employers, of NOT cooperating with the INS (the 800 federal labor inspectors are, on the other hand, obliged to report suspected immigration violations to the 300 INS inspectors nationwide). In many European countries, by contrast, the agency with the most labor market expertise, the labor agency, has responsibility for detecting and removing unauthorized workers from the work place. European labor agencies often see removing illegal workers as a means of protecting legal workers. The US-based National Labor Committee charged that half of the 29 sewing firms that make garments in Haiti for US firms such as Disney, JC Penny, and other US retailers pay less than Haiti's $2.40 per day minimum wage--workers are desperate for jobs, as unemployment is 75 percent. The National Labor Committee also accused Nike of paying Indonesian workers who make its athletic shoes $0.14 per hour; Nike countered that its Indonesian workers earn an average $0.50 per hour, double the national minimum wage, and receive free meals and health care. The group, Made in the USA, charged that basketball player Michael Jordan earns $ 20 million a year endorsing Nike sneakers, and claimed that this is more than the total annual payroll for the Indonesians who help make them. Nike subcontractors around the world must sign a Memorandum of Understanding that "strictly prohibits child labor, and certifies compliance with applicable government regulations regarding minimum wage, (and) overtime." Smuggling. The INS on May 29 announced that it had arrested a woman operating in Reynosa, Mexico, who was making over $1 million annually smuggling South Asians and Chinese into the US via Central America and Mexico. In December 1995, the INS estimated that up to 100,000 South Asians and Chinese may be smuggled into the US in this way each year. The Mexican legislature is considering increasing penalties for alien smuggling, and doubling the maximum prison term for alien smuggling to 20 years. Asylum. On June 13, 1996, the US Board of Immigration Appeals in an 11-1 decision granted asylum to a Togo woman who asked for asylum in the US because, she asserted, she faced female genital mutilation in Togo. A US immigration judge rejected her application for asylum in August 1995, but the ruling is binding on the nation's 179 immigration judges. The INS had asked the BIA to return the case to the immigration judge for rehearing after BIA adopted the INS position that asylum could be granted to women who fear forced mutilation without consent, and have no opportunity to move to avoid the practice, as to a city in their country. An estimated 85 million women, mostly in Africa, are believed to have been subjected to female genital mutilation. Begun in the 5th century BC, the custom is observed by Muslims, Christians and adherents of traditional religions in Africa and Asia. The Senate immigration reform bill would make mutilation of female genitalia a federal crime punishable by up to five years in prison, but would not make the threat of such mutilation the basis for an asylum claim. The INS reported in May 1996 that it processes 80 percent of the asylum applications it receives within 60 days after they are filed. William Branigin, "An Egregious Deception: INS Releases Detainees to Mask Crowding," Washington Post, June 21, 1996. Robert Jackson, "Togo woman granted US asylum to seek citizenship," Los Angeles Times, June 15, 1996. Celia Dugger, "After Raids on Illegal Garment, It's Business as Usual," New York Times, June 3, 1996. David Reyes, "Border Patrol Station Gets Help; Immigration: A $13-Million Project Aims to Expand Hours of San Onogre Checkpoint and to Reduce Motorists' Delays on Interstate 5," Los Angeles Times, June 4, 1996. "Cotija Workers Leave Mexico in Search of Work," All Things Considered (NPR), May 30, 1996. ________________________ Mexico: Voting Rights and Emigration Voting Rights. In mid-June, Mexico's major political parties, the ruling Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI), the left-leaning Democratic Revolutionary Party (PRD), and the conservative National Action Party (PAN), agreed to permit Mexican citizens living outside the country to vote in the next Presidential election, scheduled for 2000. There are at least 7 million Mexican nationals living in the US, and Mexicans abroad are expected to cast 1 to 5 million votes--there were 35 million votes cast in the 1994 Mexican Presidential election. It is not yet clear how Mexicans in the US would vote. US citizens abroad mail ballots to the US--some 2 million ballots were mailed to the US in 1992. However, Mexico's opposition parties oppose mail ballots, fearing fraud. How would US citizens react to Mexican candidates campaigning for votes in California and other places where Mexican nationals live? Some fear that Mexican flags would increase anti-Mexican sentiment in the US. Emigration. An analysis of Mexican data suggests that 55 percent of the Mexico-to-US migration between 1985 and 1990 was from an urban area of Mexico to an urban destination in the US. The National Institute for Statistics, Geography and Information (INEGI) estimated that Mexico had 91.1 million residents in 1995, up 10 million since 1990. Greater Mexico City, which includes 27 suburbs, was home to 16.4 million people - considerably fewer than previous estimates of 23 million residents. Labor Market. Mexico's economy shrank one percent in the first quarter of 1996, less than the three percent projected. However, many small businesses are struggling because of debts that they assumed in the boom year of 1994, and their debts have increased in 1995 and 1996. Interest rates are 30 percent for mortgages, and 50 percent for credit card debt. Mexico has 8 to 10 million workers in unions, but the most powerful union leader is Don Fidel Valazquez, leader of the three million strong CTM. The NAFTA-created Commission on Labor Cooperation in Dallas released its annual report on labor markets in Canada, Mexico, and the US in May 1996, and reported that real wages fell since 1984 in all three countries. In Mexico, for example, real wages fell sharply between 1984 and 1988, then began to increase in the late 1980s, and were above 1984 levels in 1994. However, in 1995, real Mexican wages fell again, to five percent below their 1984 levels. US real earnings were down eight percent between 1984 and 1995, and Canadian real earnings were unchanged. Mexico has the smallest proportion of full-time employees among NAFTA countries--57 percent, versus 84 percent in Canada and 91 percent in the US. In the US, 57 percent of the women in the labor force worked full time, versus 49 percent of the women in Mexico, and 37 percent of the women in Canada. Virtually all of the job growth between 1984 and 1995 in the US and Canada was in services, versus 81 percent of the job growth in Mexico. Forbes Magazine published an upbeat story on "Maquiladora-ville," or Tijuana, on May 6, 1996, which asserted that Tijuana's population of 1.5 million is growing by seven percent or 105,000 per year as Mexicans flock to Tijuana for maquiladora jobs. Forbes reported that many maquiladora workers live in shanty towns without running water, and that absenteeism and turnover are problems for factory managers. As of April 1996, 701,141 Mexicans were employed in maquiladoras, up 13 percent over April 1995. Grupo Beta. Mexico has special police units known as Grupo Alpha, Beta etc whose purpose is to prevent crimes being committed against aliens seeking to leave Mexico for the US. In June, 1996, Mexico announced the formation of a 20 to 30 person Grupo Beta Sur, an independent police force in the southern state of Chiapas. Mexico has criticized the US for videotaped beatings of illegal Mexican immigrants, but President Zedillo reportedly asserted that he fears "that one day they will make a video . . . of what happens when some of our Central American brothers are intercepted by Mexican authorities." Many of the smugglers who charge $1,000 each to smuggle Central Americans through Mexico and into the US are linked to criminal gangs. Mexico has been returning to Guatemala about 350 Central Americans daily. Mexico's National Migration Institute reported that 105,063 foreigners were deported from Mexico in 1995, including 575 from India and 184 from China. The fifth year of drought in Mexico may be increasing emigration pressure in Chihuahua, Sonora, Coahuila, Sinaloa, Tamaulipas, and Nuevo Leon. Many farmers have sold cattle rather than feed them-- contributing to lower US beef prices--and fewer acres of corn were planted because of the lack of water, increasing Mexican corn imports. There were widespread rumors in June of a possible coup against President Zedillo sometime after December 1, 1996. Under Mexican law, after a president has served at least two years of a six-year term, he can be replaced by a person from the ruling party. Reportedly, powerful PRI functionaries fear that continuing social chaos and a still stagnant economy will cause the PRI to lose badly in 1997 mid-term elections and would like to find a more attractive candidate to lead their party. Colin McMahon, "Mexico acts to solve its own border woes," Chicago Tribune, June 4, 1996. "Cotija Workers Leave Mexico in Search of Work," All Things Considered (NPR) May 30, 1996. Tim Shorrock, "Drop seen in real wages in all three NAFTA countries," Journal of Commerce, May 29, 1996. David R. Ayon, " Democratization Imperils US Latino Empowerment," Los Angeles Times, May 26, 1996. Bradford De Long, Christopher De Long, and Sherman Robinson, " The Case for Mexico's Rescue," Foreign Affairs, May, 1996 /June, 1996. ________________________ California: Internal Migration and Strikes Internal Migration. California in July 1995 had an estimated 32 million residents, reflecting 569,000 births in 1994-95, 222,000 deaths, 260,000 net foreign immigrants, and a net 334,000 California residents who moved to other states. According to a new analysis by the California Department of Finance, the net number of residents moving to other states exceeded the net number of immigrants to California in 1992-93, 1993-94, and 1994-95. California lost a net 143,000 residents to other states in 1995, reflecting the slowdown in the state's population growth in the first half of the 1990s. During the 1980s, California gained a net 1.25 million residents from the other 49 states. Between 1990 and 1995, California lost a net 1.55 million residents to other states. California gained a net 1.4 million immigrants in the first half of the 1990s, or almost 300,000 per year. California, which had an estimated population of 31.6 million in 1995, is expected to have 41 million residents in 2010. California's population growth is fueled by births (over 600,000 per year) and immigration (over 300,000 per year). In reviewing population growth since 1980, demographer Hans Johnson notes that California's population increased by 500,000 in 1980, a peak 900,000 in 1989, and then 100,000 in 1993. Johnson's estimates, based, inter alia, on the assumption that 91 percent of the 18 to 64 year-old residents have drivers' licenses, and treating net illegal immigration as a residual after all other factors affecting the number of California residents have been taken into account, suggest that there was very high unauthorized immigration to California in the late 1980s, as well as a high outmigration of US-born residents to other states. Estimates of illegal immigration based on apprehension data, by contrast, report declining illegal immigration in the late 1980s. In the March 1995 CPS, there were 23 million foreign-born persons in the US, including 6.7 million who were born in Mexico, 1.2 million born in the Philippines, 0.8 million born each in Cuba and China, and more than 0.6 million each born in Canada, El Salvador, and Germany. Two-thirds of the Mexican immigrants reported that they arrived since 1980--2.6 million in the 1980s, and 1.7 million or 345,000 per year in the 1990s. The employment-to-population ratio of recent immigrants is declining. In 1960, 93 percent of the 18-64 foreign-born males who arrived in the previous five years and were not in school were employed or looking for work, 88 percent in 1970, 81 percent in 1980, and 80 percent in 1990. Immigrant Strikes. In Los Angeles, a month-old boycott by many of the 6,500 largely immigrant truck drivers at the port in Long Beach fizzled out, as most truckers returned to work. The drivers are considered "independent contractors" by the firms that hire them to deliver freight. The truckers agreed to stop delivering freight when they were promised $25 per hour if they forced shipping firms to use a single trucking company. It appears that, in the future, pressure on the truck drivers will grow as more shipping companies transfer containers directly from ships to rail cars for distribution throughout the US. Los Angeles handles about 25 percent of US ocean-going freight. Also in Los Angeles, nine Chinese immigrants who had been smuggled into the US, and were being held hostage until their relatives in Fujian came up with more money to pay the smugglers, escaped after shooting one of the smugglers. The nine had paid $3,000 of the $15,000 fee in China, and the smugglers demanded an additional $20,000 once the Chinese were in Los Angeles. Mounted Los Angeles police were used in a first-ever effort in mid-June to patrol a popular gathering spot for day laborers in the western San Fernando Valley, on Fallbrook Avenue south of Ventura Boulevard in Woodland Hills. Gathering on a street corner to look for work is not illegal in Los Angeles. Criminal Aliens. The California State Senate rejected a nonbinding resolution urging Congress to station an immigration officer are each jail in California to make sure illegal immigrants who are arrested are deported. The Anaheim Police Officers Association asked their city council to pass a resolution that called for federal legislation to make it a felony offense to be in the US without the proper documentation and to allow local, county and state law enforcement agencies to arrest suspected illegal immigrants. Benefits and Costs. A new study by the Tomas Rivera Center found that, over the course of their lifetimes, immigrants contribute more in taxes to California than they cost in government services. The report found that the average immigrant costs the state of California about $62,600 in educational expenditures. However, when lifetime tax payments are adjusted to reflect what is repaid solely in education taxes, the immigrant will return about $89,437. According to the study, taxes for education plus those for social programs are $24,493 for legal immigrants, and $7,890 for illegal aliens. About nine percent of the foreign-born mothers aged 14 to 44 were on AFDC, compared to 11 percent of the native-born mothers in the same age group. Polls suggest that, from 1965 to 1993, the proportion of Americans favoring increased immigration has been stable at about seven percent. The number of respondents favoring less immigration, however, rose from 33 percent in 1965 to 61 percent in 1993. A December 1995 Roper poll reported that 70 percent of the respondents favor fewer than 300,000 immigrants a year. Sixteen percent of a 500-person sample of Latinos in Los Angeles metro area reported experiencing racism or discrimination in the US. The sample was composed of 55 percent legal immigrant, 29 percent US citizens and 16 percent unauthorized immigrants. Nearly 10,000 immigrants took their oaths of citizenship on June 19 in the first of several mass ceremonies planned in Los Angeles. In June, 1996, 38,000 new citizens are expected take the oath in Southern California. The seven-county southern California region is expected to account for nearly one-third of a record one million new citizens nationwide. The rise in the number of immigrants seeking citizenship is attributed to several factors including increased the anti- immigrant initiatives and proposed legislation to reduce benefits for legal and illegal immigrants. Economic Growth. California's economy appears to be rebounding. The unemployment rate dropped to 7.5 percent in April 1996, and about 561,000 net new jobs have been added in California since January 1993--at current rates, California is adding about 300,000 net new jobs per year, or almost 1,000 per day. California received an average $4853 in federal spending for each of its 31.4 million residents in 1995, less than the $5161 US average. Half of the $152.5 billion in federal payments were Social Security checks. Marcus Stern, "Operations dispute could close I-5 checkpoint at San Clemente," San Diego Union-Tribune, June 21, 1996. Duke Helfand, "Citizenship Surge Sweeps Southland," Los Angeles Times, June 20, 1996. Alan Eyerly, "Officers Ask tougher Laws on Illegals," Los Angeles Times, June 18, 1996. Marla Jo Fisher, "City may study plan for arrest of illegals," Orange County Register, June 19, 1996. "State Senate Rejects Conroy Bill Requesting INS Officers At Jails," Los Angeles Times, May 31, 1996. ________________________ Immigration Update in New York, Florida and Illinois New York City Mayor Rudolph Giuliani on June 6 criticized Bob Dole for supporting immigration legislation that would restrict federal aid to immigrants. According to Giuliani, Republicans should not follow public opinion polls that show broad support for measures to curb illegal immigrants, and to reduce assistance for immigrants. Giuliani also criticized a provision of the pending immigration bill that would require state and local agencies to notify the INS if they detect illegal aliens. New York has since 1984 prohibited city agencies from cooperating with the INS. Huntington Station in Long Island, New York has been battling concentrations of day laborers at city corners--one street corner has between 125 to 150 men each day looking for jobs. Local business owners say the immigrant workers are dangerous, because they stand on a traffic island during the rush hour. Business leaders tried to move the day laborers to a park down the street, but local residents said they didn't want unemployed men hanging around the children's park and near the school bus stop. A compromise was made to move the day laborers to a parking a lot a block away from the park, but no one told the immigrant workers, who remain on the traffic island. Attorney General Janet Reno and Florida Governor Lawton Chiles announced in May the expansion of programs to halt illegal immigration into Florida, including an airport court at Miami International Airport to deal with foreigners who arrive in the US without proper documents. The INS will also establish a detention center at the airport. Chiles announced that he will soon sign an executive order forbidding the state to contract with any employer known to hire illegal immigrants. On June 17, Chiles traveled to Haiti to discuss illegal immigration with Haitian President Rene Preval. Immigration lawyers are increasingly filing petitions for dependency for minor children who are abandoned in the US by parents who send them to the US to live with relatives. The ward of the state procedure was developed to help social workers get US children out of abusive homes, but the INS grants immigrant status to minors whom US courts declare to be wards. The Farmworkers Coordinating Council in Boynton Beach says that "hundreds" of 10 to 17 year-old minors who left their families in Mexico or Central America are working in South Florida agricultural fields. The Latino Institute and the Urban Institute issued a report on May 16 estimating that the 244,000 unauthorized immigrants in Illinois pay about $547 million annually in taxes, and receive $238 million in services--virtually all of the expenditures were for providing K-12 education to an estimated 33,000 unauthorized children at an average annual cost of $7,000. There are believed to be about 138,000 unauthorized Mexicans in Chicago, followed by 47,000 Poles. The seven taxes included in the study are federal and state income, state and local sales, property, Social Security and Unemployment Insurance. The social-service programs include Supplemental Security Income; Aid to Families with Dependent Children; Aid to Aged, Blind and Disabled; Transitional Assistance; Medicaid; and K-12 public education. On April 29, 1996, a Save Our State-Arizona initiative was filed with the Arizona Secretary of State's Office. If organizers obtain the 112,961 valid signatures to place the measure on the November election ballot, Arizona voters will decide whether to make employers who knowingly hire illegal immigrants legally liable for damages. The initiative would also create a state "verification center" to determine whether job applicants have legal documents. Peter Wallsten, "Chiles to meet in Haiti on immigration," St. Petersburg Times, June 15, 1996. Eric Schmitt, "Giuliani Criticizes G.O.P. and Dole on Immigration," New York Times, June 7, 1996. Ching-Ching Ni, "Corner of controversy/Laborers Shape-Up Spot Troubles Townsfolk," Newsday, June 3, 1996. Ellen Debenport, "Efforts redouble to bar illegal aliens," St. Petersburg Times, May 30, 1996. Melita Marie Garza, "All immigration called US economic plus," Chicago Tribune, May 16, 1996. Bill Douthat, 3Legal loopholes can be lifeline for young immigrants,2 Palm Beach Post, May 11, 1996. _______________________________ Caribbean/Central American Immigration More than 435,000 Cubans--about four percent of that nation's population-- applied in the US visa lottery that closed April 30, 1996 for about 6,000 slots to enter the US. The lottery is part of a 1994 agreement between the United States and Cuba to allow at least 20,000 Cubans a year to immigrate to the United States. In 1995, over 190,000 Cubans applied for US immigration visas, and 5,398 were granted visas. Since early 1996, more than 60 Cubans arrived in Jamaica seeking political asylum. The Jamaican government is considering the approval of a draft agreement to repatriate the illegal Cuban immigrants. The document was signed by Cuban officials on May 15. The 60 illegal Cuban immigrants join another 60 who arrived on the island between 1994 and 1995. Some of the original asylum seekers were given work permits and visas. Some have fled Jamaica for Puerto Rico rather than risk repatriation to Cuba. There are an estimated 200,000 to 400,000 Haitians in the Dominican Republic at any one time, working mainly on sugar and rice plantations. On April 30, some Haitians living illegally in the Dominican Republic were repatriated. Immigration is one of the many points of tension between the Spanish-speaking Dominican Republic and Creole/French-speaking Haiti. In Haiti, the government is worried about "hundreds" convicted criminals begin returned from the US, Canada, and France, where many resume their lives of crime with drive-by shootings, carjackings, and kidnappings. The risk of arrest for crime is low in Haiti, given a newly formed, inexperienced police force, and an overwhelmed justice system. The proportion of foreign workers in Bermuda has risen to 22 percent of the workforce; there were 7,521 foreigners and 26,612 Bermudans employed in 1995. In January 1995, Costa Rica began to tighten checks on Nicaraguans who enter the country. Costa Rica estimates that 475,000 Nicaraguans live in Costa Rica, more than half of them illegally. Tensions flared in March 1995, when Nicaragua detained 13 Costa Rican border guards that it maintained chased a Nicaraguan into the country. In June 1995, Costa Rica announced plans to grant six-month temporary work permits to some of the 175,000 Nicaraguans who come into the country every year as seasonal farm workers for the sugar cane and coffee harvests --the Costa Rican government gives the permits to employers, who in turn give them to foreign workers. "Six Cuban refugees repatriated," Reuters, June 21, 1996. "Cuban asylum seekers deported from Bahamas," Agence France Presse, June 18, 1996. "Cuba waits for Jamaica to approve repatriation pact," Reuters, June 6, 1996. _______________________________ EUROPE _______________________________ Asylum and Immigration Controls in EU Asylum. The number of asylum seekers in the 15 EU member states, plus Norway and Switzerland, decreased by 11 percent to 290,000 in 1995, down from 325,000 in 1994, according to a report by Eurostat. Germany received 47 percent of the asylum applications in 1995, up from 41 percent in 1994. Western Europe, Australia, Canada and the US received a total of 468,000 asylum applications in 1995. The number of asylum applicants from ex-Yugoslavia and Romania fell in 1995, but there was an increase in applicants from Turkey, Iraq, and Pakistan. EU Immigration Controls. The Guardian newspaper reported in June that interior and justice ministers in November 1993 planned for a "Fortress Europe" policy on immigration. According to the Guardian, the plan to fingerprint all asylum seekers in the EU was launched in the summer of 1993, and approved by the EU Council of Ministers in November 1995. Eastern European nations have displaced developing African and Asian nations as the major source of foreign prostitutes in Western Europe, according to the European Commissioner for Justice, Anita Gradin at a June 17 press conference. Some 200,000 to 500,000 women are involved. Many are young; 75 percent were under 25 in one study, including many aged 15 to 18. Most traveled to Western Europe on tourist visas. In Germany, foreign prostitutes make up about 75 percent of the total, in Italy, 80 percent, and in Austria, 85 percent. Many countries want penalties for smuggling aliens increased. Drug smuggling typically results in prison terms of 10 to 12 years, versus one to two years for smuggling aliens. Studies released by the European Commission have found that there is growing collusion between drugs and arms traffickers and those involved in smuggling women. EU states were urged to offer special protections to women willing to testify against traffickers. Women are still being recruited in the developing countries such as Ghana, Nigeria, Morocco, Brazil, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Philippines and Thailand to work as prostitutes in Europe. Jobs. At the Justice and Home Affairs Council in Luxembourg on June 4, the British government blocked an EU proposal to establish Europe-wide sanctions against employers who hire illegal immigrants. Between 1974 and 1992, about 30 million net new private sector jobs were created in the US and Canada, versus five million in the EU. "Immigration: Legal cooperation," European Information Service, June 15, 1996. Tony Bunyan, 3Fortress Plans Exposed,2 Guardian, June 10, 1996. "Former Communist states now biggest source of trafficking in women," Agence France Presse, June 10, 1996. _______________________________ Germans Consider Immigration Policy Immigration Policy On June 18, German President Roman Herzog called for immigration in order to increase the size of the working population and thus save Germany's pension system. In a speech to the German Federation of Industry (BDI) in Bonn, Herzog said that "an active immigration policy," plus raising the retirement age and increasing the number of women working, were essential to preserving Germany's social welfare state. The Free Democrats (FDP) on June 10, 1996 called for permitted annual level based in part on conditions in the German labor and housing market. Such a system would open new doors to immigrants wishing to move to Germany. Under current immigration law, foreigners can settle in Germany if they are joining their families or if they are successful asylum seekers (ethnic Germans from the ex-USSR can also settle in Germany as German citizens). The FDP also called for easier naturalization for foreign children born in Germany. Party leader and Foreign Minister Klaus Kinkel asserted that "It must be easier for foreigners whose lives center on Germany in the long term to have access to German citizenship," suggesting that third-generation foreigners born in Germany should become Germans by birth. Kinkel also said that "Germany needs an overall concept for immigration and integration." Chancellor Kohl's Christian Democrats (CDU) oppose set levels of immigration, and the secretary general of the CDU sister party, the CSU, Bernard Protzner, said that "Germany is not a land of immigration, and we will not make it into one. There will be no such law (annual immigration levels) as long as the CSU can help it." There are about seven million foreigners living in Germany with 81 million German residents, about one-fourth of the foreigners were born in Germany. Chancellor Helmut Kohl agreed in 1990 to accept for humanitarian reasons an unlimited number of Jews from what was the Soviet Union. More than 45,000 Jews and their relatives have come to Germany, and another 41,000 have been approved for entry when they wish. In May, there was talk that the government would soon limit Jewish immigration from the ex-USSR, in part because of a rash of forged documents in which people claimed to be Jews, but the rumors were denied by the government. Development Aid Minister Carl-Dieter Spranger said that, because there was no quota on the number of Jews who could move to Germany from the ex-USSR, Germany might come into "conflict with Israel which regards itself as the homeland for the Jews." Austrian Freedom Party (FPO) leader Joerg Haider on June 14, 1996 called for unemployed foreigners to be deported. There are an estimated 36,000 unemployed foreigners in Austria. Vietnamese. On June 18, 1996, Vietnam announced that it was ready to accept more than 2,000 Vietnamese living in Germany, taking the first step toward fulfilling a July 21, 1995 agreement to take back by the year 2000 up to 40,000 of its citizens who live in Germany without residence permits in exchange for $140 million in German aid. The agreement called for returning 2,500 Vietnamese in 1995, and 5,000 in 1996. There were 96,032 Vietnamese registered in Germany's Auslaenderzentralregister on December 31, 1995, including 38,166 without residence permits. Most of those to be returned to Vietnam are Vietnamese who applied for asylum-- only 5,000 are former East German contract workers. In addition, there may be another 2,000 to 20,000 "illegal Vietnamese" in Germany. Hanoi was criticized by the German government for delays in accepting Vietnamese being returned from Germany. So far, only 89 Vietnamese have been returned, and 65 of them were convicted criminals sent home under a separate clause of the July 1995 agreement that permits the expedited deportation of criminals. According to the German government, some 8,100 Vietnamese have registered to go home. Vietnam, which is also experiencing the return of 35,000 boat people in southeast Asia, insists on verifying that all persons returning are Vietnamese. Neighbors of Germany worry that, if the German government gets tough with the Vietnamese staying in Germany, some may move to Hungary, Poland and the Czech Republic. Ethnic Germans. On May 31, the German government promised to continue to allow ethnic German migrants to enter the country. The German government announced that it would prefer that the 500,000 ethnic Germans living in Kazakhastan remain there, but that they can migrate to Germany if they must. Over 200,000 ethnic Germans from Kazakhastan, where wages average $100 per month, emigrated to Germany in 1994-95. The head of Kazakhastan's Council of Germans has said that the discussion in Germany about restricting ethnic German immigration has triggered a rush of emigration from the country. The opposition Social Democrats proposed limiting the influx of ethnic Germans from the former Soviet Union. According to reports, Foreign Minister Kinkel explained to a class of 20 young ethnic Germans that " roast chickens will not fly into your open mouths" in Germany. He then asked who wanted to remain in Kazakhastan, and only the teacher did. Bosnians. In June, 1996, Interior Minister Kanther announced that the repatriation of Bosnians in Germany would be delayed from July 1, 1996 to October 1, 1996. The repatriation is expected to take 12 months. However, each of Germany's 16 states makes the decision on when to return Bosnians, so that return policies can and do vary by state. The Bosnian government has demanded that Germany help to pay for the cost of resettling returning Bosnians, and that the government determine where in Bosnia its returning Bosnians are sent. Some of the one million Bosnians outside Bosnia fear that if they vote in elections scheduled for September 14, 1996, they may lose their right to remain in the country where they are taking refuge. Germany anticipates an easier return of 130,000 persons to Serbia/Yugoslavia. The Yugoslav government is not demanding compensation to accept the return of its nationals, and has said that young men who went to Germany to avoid military service will not be punished. Labor Market. On May 28, 1996, German employers rejected the Entsendegesetz, a proposal to require foreign workers from other EU countries to be paid at least the German minimum wages of DM 18.60 ($12) per hour in construction in West Germany, and slightly less in the former East. Construction employers favored the effort to prevent social dumping, but employers from metal and textile industries feared that the construction Entsendegesetz might set a precedent for their industries. There are 350,000 unemployed German construction workers. British and Irish workers earning between DM22 and DM35 an hour are getting twice what they would at home, but far less than the DM 65 labor cost of German workers. Pubs serve as informal labor exchanges. There were 3.8 million unemployed workers in Germany in May 1996, a 10 percent unemployment rate. One study found that 20 percent of new PhDs seeking academic jobs are unemployed. "German president calls for immigration," Deutsche Presse-Agentur, June 18, 1996. "Austria extreme right winger wants jobless foreigners deported," Deutsche Presse-Agentur, June 14, 1996. Douglas Busvine, "Bonn says it will keep door open to Kazakh Germans," Reuters, May 31, 1996. Andrew Nette, "Vietnam-Germany: Vietnamese Gang Violence Rankles Relations," Inter Press Service, May 29, 1996. ______________________ British Court Strikes Down Ban on Welfare A Court of Appeal on June 21 by a 2 to 1 vote struck down as "uncompromisingly draconian" a rule that, beginning in February 1996, denied welfare benefits to 8000 asylum seekers who did not apply for asylum upon their arrival in the UK. The purpose of the restriction was to save about L200 million per year. According to the judges, the lack of benefits meant that it was "not merely difficult but totally impossible for them to remain here to pursue their asylum claims." A High Court ruling dating in 1803 obliges the British government to assist "poor foreigners" while their claims to settle in Britain were determined. Asylum seekers are not allowed to work in the UK, and private help for them is limited, according to the ruling. The ruling was, in effect, a finding that Social Security Secretary Peter Lilley had adopted regulations that went beyond the underlying law, and ordered Lilley to review a denial of benefits to a 25 year old Zairean woman. Lilley said he feared the judgment would result in "a fresh flood of bogus claimants" for asylum, and indicated that the decision would be appealed to the House of Lords. Home Secretary Michael Howard withdrew other rules also aimed at making it harder for asylum seekers to remain in the UK. Under the withdrawn rules, asylum applicants could be removed from the UK if they made mistakes on the new application forms. In a report on the three million minority residents in the UK, the 212,000 black Africans were found to be the best educated, largely because restrictive immigration policies keep out unskilled workers. The 840,000 Indians and 477,000 Pakistanis in Britain are poised to become solid members of the middle class, largely because of their high level of education. The 500,000 Afro- Caribbean persons in the UK are mostly working class, working for wages and living in social housing. The British Home Office estimated that employers would spend 13.5 million pounds verifying the legal right to work of newly-hired employees in the first year, and then 11 million pounds per year. The UK is considering introducing employer sanctions. Alan Travis, "Judges Scorn Asylum Policy," The Guardian, June 22, 1995. Robert Lindsay, "Howard backs down on immigration," The Lawyer, June 11, 1996. Alan Travis, "Howard Talks Down Measures Britain Will Seek to Block," The Guardian, June 4, 1996. ______________________ France Criticized on Asylum The International Federation of Human Rights Leagues (FIDH) in mid-June criticized France for increasing the hurdles to asylum seekers. It asked France to grant asylum to Algerians who felt threatened by either the government or fundamentalists. The UN Human Rights Commission in April, 1996 made similar criticisms. The number of asylum requests in France has been falling, from 61,422 in 1989 to 20,170 in 1995. About 24 percent of the asylum applications handled in 1994 were approved, versus 27 percent in 1993. On June 15, some 5,000 to 10,000 people marched through Paris to demand an amnesty in the form of residency rights for settled illegal migrants. They also demanded residency rights for illegal migrants who have married foreigners legally resident in France, and for illegal alien parents of children born in France. The National Front, led by Jean-Marie Le Pen, is France's third biggest party, after the ruling conservatives of President Jacques Chirac and the Socialists. The National Front blames the three million immigrants in France for the country's 12 percent unemployment rate. Le Pen continues to insist that "One cannot make a French people from massive immigration... people need a certain homogeneity...just because this immigration is done without weapons doesn't mean it isn't an invasion." When asked in a May 26, 1996 interview how many immigrants that France should accept, Le Pen replied " Zero, zero, zero, excepting individual cases of people who would have shown their merit regarding our country, who bring proof of ties here." Le Pen advocated in a speech talking about potential immigrants: "Don't come to our country. We can't take you in and, henceforth, you will not have access to any of the social advantages. If you want to come here as tourists, we'd like that very much. But we can't pay for your children's schools or your medical care. Not for any of it." Morocco, a country of 29 million with a per capita income of $1000, expects to receive about $1.2 billion in remittances in 1996, only half 1980s levels. There are more than 2.1 million Moroccans living in Europe, most in France. The country has become a natural transit point for African illegal immigrants seeking to enter illegally into Europe. "Human Rights groups slams French asylum curbs," Reuters, June 17, 1996. Scott Kraft, " Jean-Marie Le Pen: The strong voice of France's far right," Los Angeles Times, May 26, 1996. ______________________ Asylum in Netherlands and Sweden Some 14,509 asylum seekers were removed from the Netherlands in 1995, compared with 13,293 in 1994. About 29,250 people applied for asylum in 1995, down from 52,576 in 1994. The government spent 2 billion guilders on the asylum system in 1995. A survey reported that 85 per cent of the asylum seekers from Bosnia-Herzegovina in the Netherlands want to stay indefinitely. Asylum seekers whose applications are rejected, but who cannot be returned, are granted permanent resident status after three years, but this may soon be raised to five years. Sweden received 9,000 applications for asylum in 1995, down from 37,500 in 1993, and granted 3,500 of the 1995 applicants residence permits on humanitarian grounds. Although Sweden has granted some foreigners refuge on humanitarian grounds because their asylum cases took too long to process, Sweden is considering eliminating both humanitarian and de facto refugee asylum. "Slightly more refugees repatriated in 1995," ANP English News Bulletin, June 12, 1996. "Sweden planning to abolish humanitarian asylum," Deutsche Presse-Agentur, June 5, 1996. ______________________ Seasonal Workers in Switzerland In 1993, nearly one million foreigners were employed in Switzerland, primarily in jobs described as the "three D's," -- dirty, difficult and dangerous. Nearly 60 percent of the foreigners working in Switzerland are in the construction industry, according to the Bureau of Foreign Affairs. Switzerland has among the most restrictive immigration laws on the Continent. Migrants are allowed to bring their families to the country only if they can prove that they have enough money and housing. Workers are not allowed to change jobs unless there is a medical reason for doing so. Switzerland, which narrowly rejected a vote to join the European Economic Area in 1992, is negotiating the free entry of EU nationals and a road transport agreement with the EU. Brussels wants the Swiss to eliminate work permit quotas for EU citizens within three years and is prepared to concede a safeguard clause allowing controls to be reimposed if there is a large influx of illegal immigrants. The Swiss government is willing to ease restrictions on EU nationals followed by a possible abolition of work permit quotas and freedom of movement for EU citizens within five years. The Swiss foreign minister did not promise that the talks with the EU would lead to the free circulation of people along EU lines. The proposals were blasted by industrialist and SVP member of Parliament Christoph Blocher, who said that any deals with Brussels on lifting immigration limits must be voted by referendum of the Swiss voters. The majority of the Swiss say they favor allowing EU nationals to live and work in Switzerland without restrictions. Even the four coalition parties, employers and unions support unrestricted living and work for EU nationals. Should the Swiss government alienate public opinion during the trade negations by moving too boldly, it could affect two referendums relating to Europe expected to be voted on in Spring, 1998. One referendum relates to a pro-European bid to restart EEA talks and the other is the Blocher demand that any negotiations on EU entry must get prior approval from the voters. Francis Williams, "Survey--Switzerland: Looking for the right way in," Financial Times, April 15, 1996. Cathryn Prince, "Migrant workers find work but no welcome," Christian Science Monitor, April 3, 1996. "Switzerland Offers Compromise in EU Trade Talks," Reuters, April 3, 1996. _______________________________ ASIA _______________________________ Foreigners in Japan at Record High The Japanese government reported that the number of registered alien residents in Japan was over 1.3 million at the end of 1995, accounting for a record 1.09 percent of the country's population. The number of North and South Korean residents declined about 1.5 percent over 1994 levels, and their share of the number of alien residents fell from 80 percent in 1985 to 64 percent in 1990, and to 48 percent in 1995. The number of Filipino residents dropped by 13 percent from the year before, primarily due to a sharp fall in the number of people entering Japan with permits to work as entertainers, such as singers and dancers. The number of foreigners visiting Japan fell to 3.3 million in 1995, down from a peak 3.6 million in 1992. Japanese traveling abroad, by contrast, jumped to 15.3 million. Foreigners denied entry into Japan in 1995 at ports of entry increased by 33 percent over 1994 levels. The Japanese Justice Ministry announced on June 23 that there was a 15.5 percent decline in the number of illegal immigrants who were deported in 1995. Of the 55,470 deported, 49,434 were illegally employed in Japan. The Justice Ministry attributes the decline in illegal employment to tighter controls and fewer jobs due to a prolonged recession. Among the foreigners illegally employed in Japan, South Koreans were the most numerous, followed by mainland Chinese, Thais and Filipinos. Over 65 percent of the illegal workers were male. About 40 percent of the illegally employed females came from Thailand and the Philippines. Japan is considering allowing visa-free entry to holders of Hong Kong's Special Administrative Region (SAR) passports. Currently, Hong Kong residents need a visa to enter Japan-- 48 countries have been given visa-free status by Japan. About 93,000 Hong Kong people visited Japan in 1995. "Illegal immigrants deported by Japan fall in 1995," Reuters, June 23, 1996. Chris Yeung, "Japan may lift visa requirements for SAR," South China Morning Post, June 18, 1996. "Foreigners in Japan Hit Record in '95," Jiji Press Ticker Service, June 18, 1996. "More than 55,000 illegal immigrants deported in 1995," Japan Economic Newswire, June 23, 1996. "Registered alien residents in Japan top 1.36 mil.," Japan Economic Newswire, June 22, 1996. "Visas exemption for HK residents after 1997 urged," Xinhua News Agency, June 17, 1996. _______________________________ Filipino Overseas Workers The Philippines, the major emigration nation in Asia, believes that there are at least 5,000 illegal aliens living in the country who were granted visa extensions in 1973, and then stayed in the country illegally after their extended visas expired. Most are believed to be businessmen with investments in the country. The Philippines is offering an amnesty through the Alien Social Integration Act for some of the estimated 70,000 illegal aliens in the country. The Philippines' Bureau of Immigration and Deportation announced on June 5 the creation of a special task force to process the amnesty applications of undocumented residents. The task force, composed of two immigration lawyers and eight intelligence agents, will process applications from illegal aliens with no criminal record who entered the country on or before June 30, 1991. Each principal applicant will be required to pay US $7,923, spouses, US $2,154, and children US $1,192. Through the collection of fees, the task force hopes to raise 4 to 6 billion pesos by the end of the alien integration period of December 21, 1996. As of June 1996, only 7,000 aliens applied for amnesty. An estimated 13,000 Filipinos managed to leave Davao illegally for jobs in Malaysia, Indonesia or Taiwan in 1996. According to reports, many Filipinos who pay money to smugglers to take them abroad lose their money when the smuggler disappears before transporting them. One report says that, in Davao, Filipinos are asked to pay 90,000 pesos (US $3,440) for the chance to "directly work abroad," with a money-back guarantee in case of problems. In May, Philippine authorities seized an Indonesian-registered boat carrying 24 Filipino workers without proper permits. Despite a Filipino government ban on the deployment of maids to Singapore, Filipino domestic workers still head for that island nation. The Filipino government announced the ban after the hanging of Filipino domestic worker Flor Contemplacion for murdering her employer. A Filipino maid earns about S$280 per month in Singapore. A Philippine government official says that between 100 to 200 Filipino maids arrive in Singapore each week. A UN report indicates that about 55 percent of the four to five million Filipinos working abroad are women. Unemployment in the Philippines is about eight percent, but according to some estimates, if all the overseas workers stayed at home, unemployment would be 11 or 12 percent. Leticia Perez, "Filipino maids still heading for Singapore," Straits Times (Singapore), June 15, 1996. "55 more maid agencies accept new contract," Straits Times (Singapore), June 15, 1996. "Tackling Abuse of Workers," Chicago Tribune, June 9, 1996. "Immigration bureau to crack down on illegal aliens," Japan Economic Newswire, June 5, 1996. "Philippines human smuggling continues," United Press International, May 21, 1996. "The lost daughters," The Economist, May 11, 1996. _______________________________ Foreigners in Hong Kong Face Uncertainty Foreigners working in Hong Kong face uncertainty despite Chinese promises to permit them to live and work in the future Special Autonomous region (SAR) after July 1, 1997. What worries foreigners is that the promise has not been explained fully, nor put into writing. Some foreigners, such as those working in politically-sensitive jobs, including journalists, fear that work permits may be delayed or refused. According to research by the Baptist University's Hong Kong in Transition Project, nearly one fifth of the Hong Kong residents have the option of emigrating. Many countries, such as Australia, New Zealand and Canada, have developed emergency plans to cope with a mass exodus. A newspaper in Canada recently reported a secret Canadian government plan to evacuate hundreds of thousands of Canadians from Hong Kong. Other observers believe that officials in Hong Kong's nearby Chinese provinces will pressure the government to send Chinese workers to Hong Kong. There are still 16,000 Vietnamese in Hong Kong, and the government is attempting to send all of them back to Vietnam by July 1, 1997. About 1,400 Vietnamese were returned in May 1996. Chinese vegetable growers are taking advantage of the ease with which they can travel by sea between China and Hong Kong--many Chinese vegetable growers use speedboats to take their produce to Hong Kong. Richard Ingham, "Foreign workers fret about their future in post- handover Hong Kong," Agence France Presse, June 22, 1996. Yojana Sharma, "Hong Kong: Residents Ready to Move should Things Turn Sour," Inter Press Service, June 17, 1996. Peter Humphrey, "China smugglers cruise Hong Kong's leaky sea border," Reuters, June 3, 1996. "Hong Kong sends 376 Vietnamese boatpeople home," Reuters, June 6, 1996. Ron Arculli, "The import of a good labour scheme," South China Morning Post, June 6, 1996. _______________________________ Taiwan Calls for Limits on Foreign Workers The Council for Economic Planning and Development called for a limit on the number of foreign laborers in Taiwan. The CEPD reported that imported labor is one of the main factors behind the increasing unemployment in the manufacturing and construction sectors. The Directorate General of Budget, Accounting and Statistics reported that unemployment was 2.25 percent in March, the highest rate in nine years. The CEPD believes that there are signs that foreign workers are replacing natives in the labor market. Growing unemployment, the council reports, is closely related to the increasing numbers of foreign workers on the island. A CEPD official notes that the number of foreign workers has increased sharply since the beginning of the second half of 1995; at the same time, the unemployment rate has grown significantly. On May 29, a Council of Labor Affairs panel concluded that the ceiling for foreign workers should be cut from the current 65 percent of a company's work force to 50 percent. The Council of Labor Affairs is also planning to raise the vocational stabilization fee that Taiwanese employers of foreign workers are charged. The vocational stabilization fund was set up in August 1992 to raise money to help unemployed Taiwan workers, and to narrow the wage gap between local and foreign workers. One manufacturing representative proposed that the government set up a special zone where only foreign workers would be hired in order to alleviate labor shortages. He reported that about 30,000 Taiwan companies have set up operations on the Chinese mainland to take advantage of the lower labor and land costs there. Some 78,000 Taiwanese emigrated in 1995, versus 42,000 in 1994, mostly to the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa. "Labor Council Plans Further Cut in Foreign Worker Quotas," China Economic News Service, June 18, 1996. "Labor Council to Raise Fees Employers Pay to Hire Foreigners," China Economic News Service, June 15, 1996. "Foreign Workers, China Economic News Service, June 13, 1996. Philip Liu, "CLA Curtailing Foreign Labor Supply," Business Taiwan, June 10, 1996. "Limits on Foreign Labor Urged," Business Taiwan, June 3, 1996. _______________________________ Malaysia Has Skilled Labor Shortages One electronics industry estimate predicts that an additional 50,000 qualified engineers will be needed by 2000 in order to sustain the country's industrial growth rate. The skills shortage is expected to increase labor costs. The government argues that foreign companies are exaggerating the labor shortage to persuade the government to allow more foreigners into the country. The government adds that it is ready to admit foreigners to fill highly skilled jobs, such as running wafer fabrication plants, but it is against any wider relaxation of controls over foreign workers. Some foreign managers complain that, unless the labor shortages abate, their expansion will slow. Nearly 650 Indonesian illegal immigrants detained in a Malaysian camp ended a 28-hour hunger strike on June 19. The Indonesians were protesting what they called a "forced overstay" by the Malaysian authorities. About 3,000 Filipinos are currently in Malaysian jails for illegally entering the country. Immigration officials, and the Philippine military, which has a joint border patrol agreement with Malaysia, said that up to 100 Filipinos enter Malaysia's eastern provinces each day. According to the Malaysian Foreign Affairs Department, there are about 80,000 Filipino nationals in Malaysia, 90 percent of whom are Muslim Filipinos. Spot checks of night market traders will be conducted in the state of Selangar in order to reduce the number of illegal immigrants. The Malaysian government has found that a large number of illegal immigrants are conducting business at night markets in Gombak, Jajang and Bangi. Guy de Jonquireres, "Malaysia 1996: Held back by a skills shortage," Financial Times, June 19, 1996. "Indonesian illegals on hunger strike in Malaysia," Reuters, June 18, 1996. "Some 3,000 Filipinos in Malaysian jails, UPI, June 18, 1996. Ahmad Suffian, "Checks on illegals at night markets," New Straits Times, June 3, 1996. _______________________________ OTHER _______________________________ Australian Government Reacts to Immigration Poll On June 17, the Australian government announced that it will cut the intake of refugees and humanitarian migrants from 15,000 to 12,000 in 1997, but maintain overall immigration at 98,000. The government will increase the number of people accepted under family reunification and skilled categories by 3,000. The announcement follows the leaking of a confidential Cabinet report that the government was considering cutting the humanitarian and refugee to 10,000. In June 16 by-elections in Australia's Blaxland, two anti- immigration candidates garnered 22 percent of the vote, up from the 2.5 percent showing in the federal elections just three months ago. A report in the Sydney Morning Herald says that the vote was not so much anti-immigrant, but an indication that the Liberals and the Democrats decided not to contest the election. The report concludes that immigration is not a burning issue in the country. Other immigration critics say the results show that the major political parties are out of step with public opinion on immigration. According to the results of a Herald-AGB poll released on June 19, Australians think their country is accepting too many immigrants, especially from Asia. About 65 percent of 2,063 people polled thought that immigration was too high; three percent favored more immigration. Some 88 percent said there were too many Asian immigrants. About 25 percent of immigrants come from Asia. A government official said that the poll accurately reflects the need to improve the balance between the skills program and family reunification. According to unpublished government estimates, the number of immigrants entering Australia under the family reunification program is expected to jump to 58,000 in 1996, up from 44,500 in 1995. Much of this increase reflects the surge in spouse or parent sponsorship by former Chinese students who participated in the Tiananmen Square demonstrations. About 37,000 students were granted permanent residency in Australia. A recent report by Bureau of Immigration, Multicultural and Population Research shows that 50 percent of all arrivals to New South Wales come from Asia, primarily Southeast Asia. New South Wales is the most populous Australian state, home to 33 percent of Australians. In 1992, New South Wales attracted 43 percent of Australia's immigrants. The number of Singaporeans in Australia doubled from 3,176 in 1976 to 6,397 in 1992, and the number of Malaysian immigrants increased ninefold, from 9,179 in 1966 to 84,000 in 1992. Nearly 80 percent of the Malaysia immigrants are ethnic Chinese. Singaporeans and Malaysians typically enter the medical, dental, architectural and engineering professions. The largest group of Asian immigrants are from Vietnam. Most immigrants from Singapore, Hong Kong, and Malaysia arrive as professionals or under business immigration programs. Most Vietnamese came as refugees, and are credited with bringing Buddhism to Australia. The Vietnamese and Chinese migrants are in the lower socio-economic groups, and tend to cluster in inner-city areas. A report by Monash University found that an Australian government proposal to block migrants from receiving welfare benefits for two years would reduce short-term costs, but not prevent a long-term welfare problem. The government has proposed extending its six- month waiting period for immigrants to receive welfare benefits. Under the proposal, those entering under the refugee and humanitarian program would still receive immediate access to benefits. The report found that one-third of the recently arrived immigrants depend on welfare payments after entering the country, and at lease 25 percent continue to depend on welfare during their second year in the country. The Australian government is trying to pass new laws to stop the Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission from telling detained illegal immigrants about their rights. Currently, the HREOC delivers sealed envelopes to detained illegal immigrants spelling out their rights, including the right to request an attorney. By law, illegal immigrants can gain access to a lawyer only if they make a specific request. Paul Chamberlin, "Migrant Reunions at Risk," The Age, June 20, 1996. Mark Riley, "Australia: New Move Against Illegal Immigrants," Sydney Morning Herald, June 21, 1996. Mark Riley, "Doubt over savings to be made on migrant welfare," Sydney Morning Herald, June 20, 1996. Stepan Kerk Yasharian, "Immigration as needs be," Sydney Morning Herald, June 20, 1996. Liam Fitzpatrick, "Job fears spark tough view on immigration," South China Morning Post, June 20, 1996. Michelle Grattan, "Australia: Most Say Migrant Intake is Too High, The Age, June 19, 1996. Michael Millett, "White Australia Alive and Kicking," Sydney Morning Herald, June 19, 1996. Philip Cornford, "Anti-migrant vote no surprise," Sydney Morning Herald, June 18, 1996. ______________________ Immigration Affects New Zealand Elections Polls suggest that New Zealand might elect a part-native Maori, Winston Peters, as an anti-Asian prime minister, and give a significant number of seats to the three-year old New Zealand First (NZF) party on October 12, 1996. A June 1996 poll found that the ruling National Party had 43 percent support among voters, NZF 25 percent and Labour 16 percent. Saying that "New Zealand should be for New Zealanders," Peters has called for an immigration moratorium and limits on foreign investment. New Zealand, which rarely receives international news coverage, finds itself in the news because of the rise of the New Zealand First party's immigration policies. The Wall Street Journal, which has carried many complimentary stories about the country's fee-market economic policies, recently described New Zealand in an editorial as "the modern face of anti-immigration discrimination." The number of people applying to migrate to New Zealand fell dramatically after the government changed immigration policies in October, 1995. There were only 11 applications in the business investor category between January and May, 1996, a 96 percent fall from the 330 business investor applicants for the same period last year. New business investment residents brought $394 million to New Zealand in 1995, 82 percent was from North Asians. The minimum investment was raised to $750,000 last year, and with only 11 applicants, the total amounts to only $8.2 million. New Zealand officials attribute some of the decline in business immigrant applications to recent anti-immigrant comments by political candidates and new regulations which require an applicant to own more than 25 percent of the enterprise and pass an English language test. Applicants in the general skills category were down 70 percent to 2,403 in the first five months of 1996, versus 8,093 applicants in the same period of 1995. The number of general immigration applications is increasing month-by-month, with 306 in January 1996 to 642 in May. Audrey Young, "New Zealand: Business-base Immigration Slows to a Trickle," New Zealand Herald, June 21, 1996. Rufus Dawe, "New Zealand: Our Xenophobic Heritage," National Business Review, June 21, 1996. Bernard Orsman, "Gov' Slow on Immigration Research," New Zealand Herald, June 17, 1996. Graeme Hunt, "Asia Takes Note of Rising NZ Xenophonia," National Business Review, May 17, 1996.