UN Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs,
with support from the UN Population Fund (UNFPA)

World Population Plan of Action

The electronic version of this document is being made available by

the United Nations Population Information Network (POPIN) Gopher of

the Population Division, Department for Economic and Social

Information and Policy Analysis.



      The World Population Conference,

      Having due regard for human aspirations for a better quality

of life and for rapid socio-economic development,

      Taking into consideration the interrelationship between

population situations and socio-economic development,

      Decides on the following World Population Plan of Action as

a policy instrument within the broader context of the

internationally adopted strategies for national and international


               A. BACKGROUND TO THE PLAN

      1. The promotion of development and improvement of quality of

life require co-ordination of action in all major socio-economic

fields including that of population, which is the inexhaustible

source of creativity and a determining factor of progress. At the

international level a number of strategies and programmes whose

explicit aim is to affect variables in fields other than population

have already been formulated. These include the Provisional

Indicative World Plan for Agricultural Development of the Food and

Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the United

Nations/FAO World Food Programme, the International Labour

Organisation's World Employment Programme, the Action Plan for the

Human Environment, the United Nations World Plan of Action for the

Application of Science and Technology to Development, the Programme

of Concerted Action for the Advancement of Women, and, more

comprehensively, the International Development Strategy for the

Second United Nations Development Decade. The Declaration on the

Establishment of a New International Economic Order and the

Programme of Action to achieve it, adopted by the United Nations

General Assembly at its sixth special session (resolutions 3201

(S-VI) and 3202 (S-VI) of 1 May 1974), provide the most recent

over-all framework for international co-operation. The explicit aim

of the World Population Plan of Action is to help co-ordinate

population trends and the trends of economic and social

development. The basis for an effective solution of population

problems is, above all, socio-economic transformation. A population

policy may have a certain success if it constitutes an integral

part of socio-economic development; its contribution to the

solution of world development problems is hence only partial, as is

the case with the other sectoral strategies. Consequently, the Plan

of Action must be considered as an important component of the

system of international strategies and as an instrument of the

international community for the promotion of economic development,

quality of life, human rights and fundamental freedoms.

      2. The formulation of international strategies is a response

to universal recognition of the existence of important problems in

the world and the need for concerted national and international

action to achieve their solution.  Where trends of population

growth, distribution and structure are out of balance with social,

economic and environmental factors, they can at certain stages of

development, create additional difficulties for the achievement of

sustained development. Policies whose aim is to affect population

trends must not be considered substitutes for socio-economic

development policies but as being integrated with those policies in

order to facilitate the solution of certain problems facing both

developing and developed countries and to promote a more balanced

and rational development.

      3. Throughout history the rate of growth of world population

averaged only slightly above replacement levels. The recent

increase in the growth rate began mainly as a result of the decline

in mortality during the past few centuries, a decline that has

accelerated significantly during recent decades. The inertia of

social structures and the insufficiency of economic progress,

especially when these exist in the absence of profound

socio-cultural changes, partly explain why in the majority of

developing countries the decline in mortality has not been

accompanied by a parallel decline in fertility. Since about 1950,

the world population growth rate has risen to 2 per cent a year. If

sustained, this will result in a doubling of the worlds population

every 35 years. However, national rates of natural growth range

widely, from a negative rate to well over 3 per cent a year.

      4. The consideration of population problems cannot be reduced

to the analysis of population trends only. It must also be borne in

mind that the present situation of the developing countries

originates in the unequal processes of socio-economic development

which have divided peoples since the beginning of the modern era.

This inequity still exists and is intensified by lack of equity in

international economic relations with consequent disparity in

levels of living.

      5. Although acceleration in the rate of growth of the world's

population is mainly the result of very large declines in the

mortality of developing countries, those declines have been

unevenly distributed. Thus, at present, average expectation of life

at birth is 63 years in Latin America, 57 years in Asia and only a

little over 46 years in Africa, compared with more than 71 years in

the developed regions. Furthermore, although on average less than

one in 40 children dies before reaching the age of 1 year in the

developed regions, 1 in 15 dies before reaching that age in Latin

America, 1 in 10 in Asia and 1 in 7 in Africa. In fact, in some

developing regions, and particularly in African countries, average

expectation of life at birth is estimated to be less than 40 years

and 1 in 4 children dies before the age of 1 year. Consequently,

many developing countries consider reduction of mortality, and

particularly reduction of infant mortality, to be one of the most

important and urgent goals.

      6. While the right of couples to have the number of children

they desire is accepted in a number of international instruments,

many couples in the world are unable to exercise that right

effectively. In many parts of the world, poor economic conditions,

social norms, inadequate knowledge of effective methods of family

regulation and the unavailability of contraceptive services result

in a situation in which couples have more children than they desire

or feel they can properly care for. In certain countries, on the

other hand, because of economic or biological factors, problems of

involuntary sterility and of subfecundity exist, with the result

that many couples have fewer children than they desire. Of course,

the degree of urgency attached to dealing with each of these two

situations depends upon the prevailing conditions within the

country in question.

      7. Individual reproductive behaviour and the needs and

aspirations of society should be reconciled. In many developing

countries, and particularly in the large countries of Asia, the

desire of couples to achieve large families is believed to result

in excessive national population growth rates and Governments are

explicitly attempting to reduce those rates by implementing

specific policy measures. On the other hand, some countries are

attempting to increase desired family size, if only slightly.

      8. Throughout the world, urban populations are growing in

size at a considerably faster rate than rural populations. As a

result, by the end of this century, and for the first time in

history, the majority of the word's population will be living in

urban areas. Urbanization is an element of the process of

modernization. Moreover, while in certain countries this process is

efficiently managed and maximum use is made of the advantages this

management presents, in others urbanization takes place in an

uncontrolled manner and is accompanied by overcrowding in certain

districts, an increase in slums, deterioration of the environment,

urban unemployment and many other social and economic problems.

      9. In most of the developing countries, although the rate of

urban population growth is higher than the growth rate in rural

areas, the latter is still significant. The rural population of

developing countries is growing at an average rate of 1.7 per cent

a year, and in some instances at a faster rate than that of the

urban population in developed countries.  Furthermore, many rural

areas of heavy emigration, in both developed and developing

countries, are being depleted of their younger populations and are

being left with populations whose age distribution is unfavourable

to economic development. Thus, in many countries, the

revitalization of the countryside is a priority goal.

      10. For some countries international migration may be, in

certain circumstances, an instrument of population policy. At least

two types of international migration are of considerable concern to

many countries in the world: the movement of migrant workers with

limited skills, and the movement of skilled workers and

professionals. Movements of the former often involve large numbers

and raise such questions as the fair and proper treatment in

countries of immigration, the breaking up of families and other

social and economic questions in countries both of emigration and

immigration. The migration of skilled workers and professionals

results in a "brain drain", often from less-developed to

more-developed countries, which is at present of considerable

concern to many countries and to the international community as a

whole. The number of instruments on these subjects and the

increased involvement of international organizations reflect

international awareness of these problems.

      11. A population's age structure is greatly affected by its

birth rates.  For example, declining fertility is the main factor

underlying the declining proportion of children in a population.

Thus, according to the medium projections of the United Nations,

the population of less than 15 years of age in the developing

countries is expected to decline from an average of more than 41

per cent of total population in 1970 to an average of about 35 per

cent in 2000. However, such a decline in the proportion of children

trill be accompanied by an increase in their numbers at an average

of 1.7 per cent a year. The demand for educational services is

expected to increase considerably, in view of both the existing

backlog and the continuously increasing population of children

which ought to enter and remain in schools; therefore the supply of

educational services must be increased. With regard to the

population 15 to 29 years of are, an increase in both their

proportion and  number is expected in the developing countries. 

Consequently, unless very high rates of economic development are

attained in many of these countries, and particularly where levels

of unemployment and underemployment are already high, the

additional difficulties will not be overcome at least until the end

of this century. Furthermore, in both developed and developing

countries, the greatly changing social and economic conditions

faced by youth require a better understanding of the problems

involved and the formulation and implementation of policies to

resolve them.

      12. Declining birth rates also result in a gradual aging of

the population.  Because birth rates have already declined in

developed countries, the average proportion of the population aged

65 years and over in these countries makes up 10 per cent of the

total population, whereas it makes up only 3 per cent in developing

countries. However, aging of the population in developing countries

has recently begun, and is expected to accelerate. Thus, although

the total population of these countries is projected to increase by

an average of 2.3 per cent a year between 1970 and 2000, the

population 65 years and over is expected to increase by 3.5 per

cent a year. Not only are the numbers and proportions of the aged

increasing rapidly but the social and economic conditions which

face them are also rapidly changing.  There is an urgent need, in

those countries where such programmes are lacking, for the

development of social security and health programmes for the


      13. Because of the relatively high proportions of children

and youth in the populations of developing countries, declines in

fertility levels in those countries will not be fully reflected in

declines in population growth rates until some decades later. To

illustrate this demographic inertia, it may be noted that, for

developing countries, even if replacement levels of fertility

approximately two children per completed family - had been achieved

in 1970 and maintained thereafter, their total population would

still grow from a 1970 total of 2.5 billion to about 4.4 billion

before it would stabilize during the second half of the

twenty-first century. In these circumstances, the population of the

world as a whole would grow from 3.6 billion to 5.8 billion. This

example of demographic inertia, which will lead to a growing

population for many decades to come, demonstrates that whatever

population policies may be formulated, socio-economic development

must accelerate in order to provide for a significant increase in

levels of living. Efforts made by developing countries to speed up

economic growth must be viewed by the entire international

community as a global endeavour to improve the quality of life for

all people of the world, supported by a just utilization of the

world's wealth, resources and technology in the spirit of the new

international economic order. It also demonstrates that countries

wishing to affect their population growth must anticipate future

demographic trends and take appropriate decisions and actions in

their plans for economic and social development well in advance.


      14. This Plan of Action is based on a number of principles

which underlie its objectives and are observed in its formulation.

The formulation and implementation of population policies is the

sovereign right of each nation. This right is to be exercised in

accordance with national objectives and needs and without external

interference, taking into account universal solidarity in order to

improve the Quality of life of the peoples of the world. The main

responsibility for national population policies and programmes lies

with national authorities.  However, international co-operation

should play an important role in accordance with the principles of

the United Nations Charter.  The Plan of Action is based on the

following principles:

      (a) The principal aim of social, economic and cultural

development, of which population goals and policies are integral

parts, is to improve levels of living and the quality of life of

the people. Of all things in the world, people are the most

precious. Man's knowledge and ability to master himself and his

environment will continue to grow. Mankind's future can be made

infinitely bright;

      (b) True development cannot take place in the absence of

national independence and liberation. Alien and colonial

domination, foreign occupation, wars of aggression, racial

discrimination, apartheid and neo-colonialism in all its forms

continue to be among the greatest obstacles to the full

emancipation and progress of the developing countries and all the

people involved. Co-operation among nations on the basis of

national sovereignty is essential for development. Development also

requires recognition of the dignity of the individual, appreciation

for the human person and his self-determination, as well as the

elimination of discrimination in all its forms;

      (c) Population and development are interrelated: population

variables influence development variables and are also influenced

by them; thus the formulation of a World Population Plan of Action

reflects the international community's awareness of the importance

of population trends for socio-economic development, and the

socio-economic nature of the recommendations contained in this Plan

of Action reflects its awareness of the crucial role that

development plays in affecting population trends;

      (d) Population policies are constituent elements of

socio-economic development policies, never substitutes for them:

while serving socio-economic objectives, they should be consistent

with internationally and nationally recognized human rights of

individual freedom, justice and the survival of national, regional

and minority groups; 

      (e) Independently of the realization of economic and social

objectives, respect for human life is basic to all human societies; 

      (f) All couples and individuals have the basic right to

decide freely and responsibly the number and spacing of their

children and to have the information, education and means to do so;

the responsibility of couples and individuals in the exercise of

this right takes into account the needs of their living and future

children, and their responsibilities towards the community;

      (g) The family is the basic unit of society and should be

protected by appropriate legislation and policy; 

      (h) Women have the right to complete integration in the

development process particularly by means of an equal access to

education and equal participation in social, economic cultural and

political life. In addition, the necessary measures should be taken

to facilitate this integration with family responsibilities which

should be fully shared by both partners;

      (i) Recommendations in this Plan of Action regarding policies

to deal with population problems must recognize the diversity of

conditions within and among different countries;

      (j) In the democratic formulation of national population

goals and policies, consideration must be given, together with

other economic and social factors, to the supplies and

characteristics of natural resources and to the quality of the

environment and particularly to all aspects of food supply

including productivity of rural areas.  The demand for vital

resources increases not only with growing population but also with

growing per capita consumption; attention must be directed to the

just distribution of resources and to the minimization of wasteful

aspects of their use throughout the world;

      (k) The growing interdependence among nations makes

international action increasingly important to the solution of

development and population problems. International strategies will

achieve their objective only if they ensure that the

underprivileged of the world achieve, urgently, through structural,

social and economic reforms, a significant improvement in their

living conditions;

      (l) This Plan of Action must be sufficiently flexible to take

into account the consequences of rapid demographic changes,

societal changes and changes in human behaviour, attitudes and


      (m) The objectives of this Plan of Action should be

consistent with the purposes and principles of the Charter of the

United Nations, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and with

the objectives of the Second United Nations development Decade;

however, changes in demographic variables during the Decade are

largely the result of past demographic events and changes in

demographic trends sought during the Decade have social and

economic repercussions up to and beyond the end of this century.

      15. Guided by these principles, the primary aim of this Plan

of Action is to expand and deepen the capacities of countries to

deal effectively with their national and subnational population

problems and to promote an appropriate international response to

their needs by increasing international activity in research, the

exchange of information, and the provision of assistance on

request. In pursuit of this primary aim, the following general

objectives are set for this Plan of Action:

      (a) To advance understanding of population at global,

regional, national and sub national levels, recognizing the

diversity of the problems involved; 

      (b) To advance national and international understanding of

the interrelationship of demographic and socio-economic factors in

development: on the one hand, of the nature and scope of the effect

of demographic factors on the attainment of goals of advancing

human welfare, and, on the other hand, the impact of broader

social, economic and cultural factors on demographic


      (c) To promote socio-economic measures and programmes whose

aim is to affect, inter alia, population growth, morbidity and

mortality, reproduction and family formation, population

distribution and internal migration, international migration and,

consequently, demographic structures;

      (d) To advance national and international understanding of

the complex relations among the problems of population, resources,

environment and development, and to promote a unified analytical

approach to the study of these interrelationships and to relevant


      (e) To promote the status of women and the expansion of their

roles, their full participation in the formulation and

implementation of socio-economic policy including population

policy, and the creation of awareness among all women of their

current and potential roles in national life;

      (f) To recommend guidelines for population policies

consistent with national values and goals and with internationally

recognized principles; 

      (g) To promote the development and implementation of

population policies where necessary, including improvement in the

communication of the purposes and goals of those policies to the

public and the promotion of popular participation in their

formulation and implementation;

      (h) To encourage the development and good management of

appropriate education, training, statistical research, information

and family health services as well as statistical services in

support of the above principles and objectives.


      1. Population goals and policies

(a) Population growth

      16. According to the United Nations medium population

projections, little change is expected to occur in average rates of

population growth either in the developed or in the developing

regions by 1985. According to the United Nations low variant

projections, it is estimated that, as a result of social and

economic development and population policies as reported by

countries in the Second United Nations Inquiry on Population and

Development, population growth rates in the developing countries as

a whole may decline from the present level of 2.4 per cent per

annum to about 2 per cent by 1985 and may remain below 0.7 per cent

per annum in the developed countries. In this case the world-wide

rate of population growth would decline from 2 per cent to about

1.7 per cent.

      17. Countries which consider that their present or expected

rates of population growth hamper their goals of promoting human

welfare are invited, if they have not yet done so, to consider

adopting population policies, within the framework of

socio-economic development, which are consistent with basic human

rights and national goals and values.

      18. Countries which aim at achieving moderate or low

population growth should try to achieve it through a low level of

birth and death rates. Countries wishing to increase their rate of

population growth should, when mortality is high, concentrate

efforts on the reduction of mortality, and where appropriate,

encourage an increase in fertility and encourage immigration.

      19. Recognizing that per capita use of world resources is

much higher in the developed than in the developing countries, the

developed countries are urged to adopt appropriate policies in

population, consumption and investment, bearing in mind the need

for fundamental improvement in international equity.

(b) Morbidity and mortality

      20. The reduction of morbidity and mortality to the maximum

feasible extent is a major goal of every human society. It should

be achieved in conjunction with massive social and economic

development. Where mortality and morbidity rates are very high,

concentrated national and international efforts should be applied

to reduce them as a matter of highest priority in the context of

societal change.

      21. The short-term effect of mortality reduction on

population growth rates is symptomatic of the early development

process and must be viewed as beneficial. Sustained reductions in

fertility have generally been preceded by reductions in mortality.

Although this relationship is complex, mortality reduction may be

a prerequisite to a decline in fertility.

      22. It is a goal of this Plan of Action to reduce mortality

levels, particularly infant and maternal mortality levels, to the

maximum extent possible in all regions of the world and to reduce

national and sub national differentials therein. The attainment of

an average expectation of life of 62 years by 1985 and 74 years by

the year 2000 for the world as a whole would require by the end of

the century an increase of 11 years for Latin America, 17 years for

Asia and 28 years for Africa.

       23. Countries with the highest mortality levels should aim

by 1985 to have an expectation of life at birth of at least 50

years and an infant mortality rate of less than 120 per thousand

live births.

      24. It is recommended that national and international efforts

to reduce general morbidity and mortality levels be accompanied by

particularly vigorous efforts to achieve the following goals:

      (a) Reduction of foetal, infant and early childhood mortality

and related maternal morbidity and mortality; 

      (b) Reduction of involuntary sterility, sub fecundity,

defective births and illegal abortions;

      (c) Reduction or, if possible, elimination of differential

morbidity and mortality within countries, particularly with regard

to differentials between regions, urban and rural areas, social and

ethnic groups, and the sexes;

      (d) Eradication, wherever possible, or control of infections

and parasitic diseases, undernutrition and malnutrition; and the

provision of a sufficient supply of potable water and adequate


      (e) Improvement of poor health and nutritional conditions

which adversely affect working-age populations and their

productivity and thus undermine development efforts

      (f) Adoption of special measures for reducing mortality from

social and environmental factors and elimination of aggression as

a cause of death and poor health.

      25. It is recommended that health and nutrition programmes

designed to reduce morbidity and mortality be integrated within a

comprehensive development strategy and supplemented by a wide range

of mutually supporting social policy measures; special attention

should be given to improving the management of existing health,

nutrition and related social services and to the formulation of

policies to widen their coverage so as to reach, in particular,

rural, remote and underprivileged groups.

      26. Each country has its own experience in preventing and

treating diseases. Promotion of interchange of such experience will

help to reduce morbidity and mortality.

(c) Reproduction, family formation and the status of women

      27. This Plan of Action recognizes the variety of national

goals with regard to fertility and does not recommend any world

family-size norm. 

      28. This Plan of Action recognizes the necessity of ensuring

that all couples are able to achieve their desired number and

spacing of children and the necessity of preparing the social and

economic conditions to achieve that desire.

      29. Consistent with the Proclamation of the International

Conference on Human Rights, the Declaration on Social Progress and

Development, the relevant targets of the Second United Nations

Development Decade and the other international instruments on the

subject, it is recommended that all countries:

      (a) Respect and ensure, regardless of their over-all

demographic goals, the right of persons to determine, in a free,

informed and responsible manner, the number and spacing of their


      (b) Encourage appropriate education concerning responsible

parenthood and make available to persons who so desire advice and

the means of achieving it;

      (c) Ensure that family planning, medical and related social

services aim not only at the prevention of unwanted pregnancies but

also at the elimination of involuntary sterility and sub fecundity

in order that all couples may be permitted to achieve their desired

number of children, and that child adoption may be facilitated;

      (d) Seek to ensure the continued possibility of variations in

family size when a low fertility level has been established or is

a policy objective;

      (e) Make use, wherever needed and appropriate, of adequately

trained professional and auxiliary health personnel, rural

extension, home economics and social workers, and non-governmental

channels, to help provide family planning services and to advise

users of contraceptives;

      (f) Increase their health manpower and health facilities to

an effective level, redistribute functions among the different

levels of professionals and auxiliaries in order to overcome the

shortage of qualified personnel and establish an effective system

of supervision in their health and family planning services;

      (g) Ensure that information about, and education in, family

planning and other matters which affect fertility are based on

valid and proven scientific knowledge, and include a full account

of any risk that may be involved in the use or non-use of


      30. Governments which have family planning programmes are

invited to consider integrating and co-ordinating those services

with health and other services designed to raise the quality of

family life, including family allowances and maternity benefits,

and to consider including family planning services in their

official health and social insurance systems.  As concerns couples

themselves family planning policy should also be directed towards

the promotion of the psycho-social harmony and mental and physical

well-being of couples. 

      31. It is recommended that countries wishing to affect

fertility levels give priority to implementing development

programmes and educational and health strategies which, while

contributing to economic growth and higher standards of living,

have a decisive impact upon demographic trends, including

fertility. International co-operation is called for to give

priority to assisting such national efforts in order that these

programmes and strategies be carried into effect.

      32. While recognizing the diversity of social, cultural,

political and economic conditions among countries and regions, it

is nevertheless agreed that the following development goals

generally have an effect on the socio-economic context of

reproductive decisions that tends to moderate fertility levels:   

    (a) The reduction of infant and child mortality, particularly

by means of improved nutrition, sanitation, maternal and child

health care, and maternal education;

    (b) The full integration of women into the development process,

particularly by means of their greater participation in educational

social, economic and political opportunities, and especially by

means of the removal of obstacles to their employment in the

non-agricultural sector wherever possible. In this context,

national laws and policies, as well as relevant international

recommendations, should be reviewed in order to eliminate

discrimination in, and remove obstacles to, the education,

training, employment and career advancement opportunities for


    (c) The promotion of social justice, social mobility and social

development, particularly by means of a wide participation of the

population in development and a more equitable distribution of

income, land, social services and amenities;

    (d) The promotion of wide educational opportunities for the

young of both sexes, and the extension of public forms of

pre-school education for the rising generation;

    (e) The elimination of child labour and child abuse and the

establishment of social security and old-age benefits;

    (f) The establishment of an appropriate lower limit for age at


      33. It is recommended that Governments consider making

provision, in both their formal and non-formal educational

programmes for informing their people of the consequences of

existing or alternative fertility behaviour for the well-being of

the family, for educational and psychological development of

children and for the general welfare of society, so that an

informed and responsible attitude to marriage and reproduction will

be promoted.

      34. Family size may also be affected by incentive and

disincentive schemes. However, if such schemes are adopted or

modified it is essential that they should not violate human rights.

      35. Some social welfare programmes, such as family allowances

and maternity benefits may have a positive effect on fertility and

may hence be strengthened when such an effect is desired. However,

such programmes should not, in principle, be curtailed if the

opposite effect on fertility is desired.

      36. The projections in paragraph 16 of future declines in

rates of population growth, and those in paragraph 22 concerning

increased expectation of life are consistent with declines in the

birth-rate of the developing countries as a whole from the present

level of 38 per thousand to 30 per thousand by 19855 in these

projections, birth-rates in the developed countries remain in the

region of 15 per thousand. To achieve by 1985 these levels of

fertility would require substantial national efforts, by those

countries concerned, in the field of socio-economic development and

population policies, supported, upon request, by adequate

international assistance. Such efforts would also be required to

achieve the increase in expectation of life.

      37. In the light of the principles of this Plan of Action,

countries which consider their birth-rates detrimental to their

national purposes are invited to consider setting quantitative

goals and implementing policies that may lead to the attainment of

such goals by 1985. Nothing herein should interfere with the

sovereignty of any Government to adopt or not to adopt such

quantitative goals.

      38. Countries which desire to reduce their birth-rates are

invited to give particular consideration to the reduction of

fertility at the extremes of female reproductive ages because of

the salutary effects this may have on infant and maternal welfare.

      39. The family is recognized as the basic unit of society.

Governments should assist families as far as possible to enable

them to fulfil their role in society. It is therefore recommended


      (a) The family be protected by appropriate legislation and

policy without discrimination as to other members of society;

      (b) Family ties be strengthened by giving recognition to the

importance of love and mutual respect within the family unit;

      (c) National legislation having direct bearing on the welfare

of the family and its members, including laws concerning age at

marriage, inheritance, property rights, divorce, education,

employment and the rights of the child, be periodically reviewed,

as feasible, and adapted to the changing social and economic

conditions and with regard to the cultural setting;

      (d) Marriages be entered into only with the free and full

consent of the intending spouses;

      (e) Measures be taken to protect the social and legal rights

of spouses and children in the case of dissolution or termination

of marriage by death or other reason.

      40. It is also recommended that:

      (a) Governments should equalize the legal and social status

of children born in and out of wedlock as well as children adopted;

      (b) The legal responsibilities of each parent towards the

care and support of all their children should be established.

      41. Governments should ensure full participation of women in

the educational, social, economic and political life of their

countries on an equal basis with men. It is recommended that: 

      (a) Education for girls as well as boys should be extended

and diversified to enable them to contribute more effectively in

rural and urban sectors, as well as in the management of food and

other household functions;

      (b) Women should be actively involved both as individuals and

through political and non-governmental organizations, at every

stage and every level in the planning and implementation of

development programmes, including population policies;

      (c) The economic contribution of women in households and

farming should be recognized in national economies;

      (d) Governments should make a sustained effort to ensure that

legislation regarding the status of women complies with the

principles spelled out in the Declaration on the Elimination of

Discrimination against Women and other United Nations declarations,

conventions and international instruments, to reduce the gap

between law and practice through effective implementation, and to

inform women at all socio-economic levels of their legal rights and


      42. Equal status of men and women in the family and in

society improves the over-all quality of life. This principle of

equality should be fully realized in family planning where each

spouse should consider the welfare of the other members of the


      43. Improvement of the status of women in the family and in

society can contribute, where desired, to smaller family sizes and

the opportunity for women to plan births also improves their

individual status. 

(d) Population distribution and internal migration

      44. Urbanization in most countries is characterized by a

number of adverse factors: drain from rural areas through migration

of individuals who cannot be absorbed by productive employment in

urban areas, serious disequilibrium in the growth of urban centres,

contamination of the environments inadequate housing and services

and social and psychological stress. In many developing countries,

adverse consequences are due in large part to the economic

structures resulting from the dependent situation of those

countries in the international economic system; the correction of

these shortcomings requires as a matter of priority the

establishment of equitable economic relations among peoples.

      45. Policies aimed at influencing population flows into urban

areas should be co-ordinated with policies relating to the

absorptive capacity of urban centres as well as policies aimed at

eliminating the undesirable consequences of excessive  migration.

In so far as possible, those policies should be integrated into

plans and programmes dealing with over-all social and economic


      46. In formulating and implementing internal migration

policies, Governments are urged to consider the following

guidelines, without prejudice to their own socio-economic policies:

      (a) Measures should be avoided which infringe the right of

freedom of movement and residence within the borders of each State

as enunciated in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and

other international instruments; 

      (b) A major approach to a more rational distribution of the

population is that of planned and more equitable regional

development, particularly in the advancement of regions which are

less favoured or developed by comparison with the rest of the


      (c) In planning development, and particularly in planning the

location of industry and business and the distribution of social

services and amenities, Governments should take into account not

only short-term economic returns or alternative patterns but also

the social and environmental costs and benefits involved as well as

equity and social justice in the distribution of the benefits of

development among all groups and regions;

      (d) Population distribution patterns should not be restricted

to a choice between metropolitan and rural life: efforts should be

made to establish and strengthen networks of small and medium-size

cities to relieve the pressure on the large towns, while still

offering an alternative to rural living;

      (e) Intensive programmes of economic and social improvement

should be carried out in the rural areas through balanced

agricultural development which will Provide increased income to the

agricultural population, permit an effective expansion of social

services and include measures to protect the environment and

conserve and increase agricultural resources;

      (f) Programmes should be promoted to make accessible to

scattered populations the basic social services and the support

necessary for increased productivity, for example, by consolidating

them in rural centres. 

      47. Internal migration policies should include the provision

of information to the rural population concerning economic and

social conditions in the urban areas, including information on the

availability of employment opportunities.

      48. In rural areas and areas accessible to rural populations,

new employment opportunities, including industries and public works

programmes, should be created, systems of land tenure should be

improved and social services and amenities provided. It is not

sufficient to consider how to bring the people to existing economic

and social activities; it is also important to bring those

activities to the people.

      49. Considerable experience is now being gained by some

countries which have implemented programmes for relieving urban

pressures, revitalizing the countryside, inhabiting sparsely

populated areas and settling newly reclaimed agricultural land.

Countries having such experience are invited to share it with other

countries. It is recommended that international organizations make

available upon request coordinated technical and financial

assistance to facilitate the settlement of people.

      50. The problems of urban environment are a consequence not

only of the concentration of inhabitants but also of their way of

life which can produce harmful effects, such as wasteful and

excessive consumption and activities which produce pollution. In

order to avoid such effects in those countries experiencing this

problem, a development pattern favouring balanced and rational

consumption is recommended.

(e) International migration

      51. It is recommended that Governments and international

organizations generally facilitate voluntary international

movement. However, such movements should not be based on racial

considerations which are to the detriment of indigenous

populations. The significance of international migration varies

widely among countries, depending upon their area, population size

and growth rate, social and economic structure and environmental


      52. Governments which consider international migration to be

important to their countries, either in the short or the long run,

are urged to conduct, when appropriate, bilateral or multilateral

consultations, taking into account the principles of the Charter of

the United Nations, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the

relevant resolutions of the United Nations system and other

international instruments, with a view to harmonizing those of

their policies which affect these movements. It is recommended that

international organizations make available upon request

co-ordinated technical and financial assistance to facilitate the

settlement of people in countries of immigration.

      53. Problems of refugees and displaced persons arising from

forced migration, including their right of return to homes and

properties, should also be settled in accordance with the relevant

principles of the Charter of the United Nations, the Universal

Declaration of Human Rights and other international instruments.

      54. Countries that are concerned with the outflow of migrant

workers and wish to encourage and assist those remaining workers or

returning workers should make particular efforts to create

favourable employment opportunities at the national level. More

developed countries should co-operate, bilaterally or through

regional organizations and the international community, with less

developed countries, to achieve these goals through the increased

availability of capital, technical assistance, export markets and

more favourable terms of trade and choice of production technology.

      55. Countries receiving migrant workers should provide proper

treatment and adequate social welfare services for them and their

families, and should ensure their physical safety and security, in

conformity with the provisions of the relevant conventions and

recommendations of the International Labour Organisation and other

international instruments.

      56. Specifically, in the treatment of migrant workers,

Governments should work to prevent discrimination in the labour

market and in society through lower salaries or other unequal

conditions, to preserve their human rights, to combat prejudice

against them and to eliminate obstacles to the reunion of their

families. Governments should enable permanent immigrants to

preserve their cultural heritage inter alia through the use of

their mother tongue. Laws to limit illegal immigration should

relate not only to the illegal migrants themselves but also to

those inducing or facilitating their illegal action and should be

promulgated in conformity with international law and basic human

rights. Governments should bear in mind humanitarian considerations

in the treatment of aliens who remain in a country illegally.     

      57. Since the outflow of qualified personnel from developing

to developed countries seriously hampers the development of the

former, there is an urgent need to formulate national and

international policies to avoid the "brain drain" and to obviate

its adverse effects, including the possibility of devising

programmes for large-scale communication of appropriate

technological knowledge mainly from developed countries to the

extent that it can be properly adjusted and appropriately absorbed.

      58. Developing countries suffering from heavy emigration of

skilled workers and professionals should undertake extensive

educational programmes manpower planning, and investment in

scientific and technical programmes. They should also undertake

other programmes and measures to better match skills with

employment opportunities and to increase the motivation of such

personnel to contribute to the progress of their own country.

Measures should be taken to encourage the return of scientists and

skilled personnel to specific job vacancies.

      59. Foreign investors should employ and train local personnel

and use local research facilities to the greatest possible extent

in conformity with the policies of the host country. Subject to

their consent, the location of research facilities in host

countries may aid them to a certain extent in retaining the

services of highly skilled and professional research workers. Such

investment should, of course, in no circumstances inhibit national

economic development. International co-operation is needed to

improve programmes to induce skilled personnel to return to, or

remain in, their own countries.

      60. Where immigration has proved to be of a long-term nature,

countries are invited to explore the possibilities of extending

national civil rights to immigrants.

      61. The flow of skilled workers, technicians and

professionals from more developed to less developed countries may

be considered a form of international co-operation. Countries in a

position to do so should continue and increase this flow with full

respect for the sovereignty and equality of recipient countries.

      62. Countries affected by significant numbers of migrant

workers are urged, if they have not yet done so, to conclude

bilateral or multilateral agreements which would regulate

migration, protect and assist migrant workers, and protect the

interests of the countries concerned. The International Labour

Organisation should promote concerted action in the field of

protection of migrant workers, and the United Nations Commission on

Human Rights should help, as appropriate, to ensure that the

fundamental rights of migrants are safeguarded. 

(f) Population structure

      63. All Governments are urged, when formulating their

development policies and programmes, to take fully into account the

implications of changing numbers and proportions of youth,

working-age groups and the aged, particularly where such changes

are rapid. Countries should study their population structures to

determine the most desirable balance among age groups. 

      64. Specifically, developing countries are urged to consider

the implications which the combination of the characteristically

young age structure and moderate to high fertility has on their

development. The increasing number and proportion of young persons

in the populations of developing countries requires appropriate

development strategies, priority being accorded to their

subsistence, health, education, training and incorporation in the

labour force through full employment as well as their active

participation in political, cultural, social and economic life.

      65. Developing countries are invited to consider the possible

economic, social and demographic effects of population shifts from

agriculture to non-agricultural industries. In addition to fuller

utilization of labour and improvements in productivity and the

levels of living, promotion of non-agricultural employment should

aim at such changes in the socio-economic structure of manpower and

population as would affect demographically relevant behaviour of

individuals. All countries are invited to consider fully giving

appropriate support and assistance to the World Employment

Programme and related national employment promotion schemes.

      66. Similarly, the other countries are urged to consider the

contrary implications of the combination of their aging structure

with moderate to low or very low fertility. All countries should

carry out as part of their development programmes, comprehensive,

humanitarian and just programmes of social security for the


      67. In undertaking settlement and resettlement schemes and

urban planning, Governments are urged to give adequate attention to

questions of age and sex balance and, particularly, to the welfare

of the family.                               2. Socio-economic


      68. This Plan of Action recognizes that economic and social

development is a central factor in the solution of population

problems. National efforts of developing countries to accelerate

economic growth should be assisted by the entire international

community. The Implementation of the International Development

Strategy for the Second United Nations Development Decade, and the

Declaration and the Programme of Action on the New International

Economic Order as adopted at the sixth special session of the

General Assembly should lead to a reduction in the widening gap in

levels of living between developed and developing countries and

would be conducive to a reduction in population growth rates

particularly in countries where such rates are high.

      69. In planning measures to harmonize population trends and

socio-economic change, human beings must be regarded not only as

consumers but also as producers. The investment by nations in the

health and education of their citizens contributes substantially to

productivity. Consequently, plans for economic and social

development and for international assistance for this purpose

should emphasize the health and education sectors. Likewise,

patterns of production and technology should be adapted to each

country's endowment in human resources. Decisions on the

introduction of technologies affording significant savings in

employment of manpower should take into account the relative

abundance of human resources. To this end it is recommended that

efforts should be intensified to determine for each country the

technologies and production methods best suited to its working

population situation and to study the relationship between

population factors and employment.

      70.  It is imperative that all countries, and within them all

social sectors, should adapt themselves to more rational

utilization of natural resources, without excess, so that some are

not deprived of what others waste.  In order to increase the

production and distribution of food for the growing world

population it is recommended that Governments give high priority to

improving methods of food production, the investigation and

development of new sources of food and more effective utilization

of existing sources.  International co-operation is recommended

with the aim of ensuring the provision of fertilizers and energy

and a timely supply of food-stuffs to all countries. 

      3.  Promotion of knowledge and policies

      71.  In order to achieve the population objectives of this

Plan of Action and to put its policy recommendations adequately

into effect, measures need to be undertaken to promote knowledge of

the relationships and problems involved, to assist in the

development of population policies and to elicit the co-operation

and participation of all concerned in the formulation and

implementation of these policies.

(a)  Data collection and analysis

      72.  Statistical data on the population collected by means of

censuses, surveys or vital statistics registers, are essential for

the planning of investigations and the provision of a basis for the

formulation, evaluation and application of population and

development policies.  Countries that have not yet done so are

urged to tabulate and analyse their census and other data and make

them available to national policy-making bodies in order to fulfil

these objectives.

      73.  It is up to each country to take a population census in

accordance with its own needs and capabilities.  However, it is

recommended that a population census be taken by each country

between 1975 and 1985.  It is also recommended that those censuses

give particular attention to data relevant to development planning

and the formulation of population policies.  In order to be of

greatest value, it is recommended that the data be tabulated and

made available as quickly as possible, together with an evaluation

of the quality of the information and the degree of coverage of the


      74.  All countries that have not yet done so are encouraged

to establish a continuing capability for taking household sample

surveys and to establish  a   long-term plan for regular collection

of statistics on various demographic and interrelated

socio-economic variables, particularly those relating to the

improvement of levels of living, well-being and level of education

of individuals factors which relate closely to problems affecting

population.  All countries are invited to co-operate with the World

Fertility Survey.

      75.  In line with the objectives of the World Programme for

the Improvement of Vital Statistics, countries are encouraged to

establish or improve their vital registration systems as a

long-term objective, and to enact laws relevant to the improvement

of vital registration.  Until this improvement is completed, the

use of alternative methods is recommended, such as sample surveys,

to provide up-to-date  information on vital events.

      76.  Developing countries should be provided with technical

co-operation, equipment and financial support to develop or improve

the population and related statistical programmes mentioned above. 

Provision for data-gathering assistance should cover fully the need

for evaluating, analysing and presenting the data in a form most

appropriate to the needs of users.

      77.  Governments that have not yet done so are urged to

establish appropriate services for the collection, analysis and

dissemination of demographic and related statistical information.

(b)  Research

      78.  This Plan of Action gives high priority to research

activities in population problems (including unemployment,

starvation and poverty) and to related fields, particularly to

research activities that are important for the formulation,

evaluation and implementation of the population policies consistent

with full respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms as

recognized in international instruments of the United Nations. 

Although research designed to fill gaps in knowledge is very urgent

and important high priority should be given to research oriented to

the specific problems of countries and regions, including

methodological studies.  Such research is best carried out in the

countries and regions themselves and by competent persons

especially acquainted with national and regional conditions.  The

following areas are considered to require research in order to fill

existing gaps in knowledge:

    (a)  The social, cultural and economic determinants of

population variables in different developmental and political

situations, particularly at the family and micro levels;

    (b)  The demographic and social processes occurring within the

family cycle through time and, particularly, in relation to

alternative modes of development;

    (c)  The development of effective means for the improvement of

health, and especially for the reduction of maternal, foetal,

infant and early childhood mortality;

    (d)  The study of experiences of countries which have major

programmes of internal migration with a view to developing

guidelines that are helpful to policy makers of those countries and

of countries that are interested in undertaking similar programmes;

    (e)  Projections of demographic and related variables including

the development of empirical and hypothetical models for simulating

possible future trends

    (f)  The formulation, implementation and evaluation of

population policies including:  methods for integrating population

inputs and goals in development plans and programmes; means for

understanding and improving the motivations of people to

participate in the formulation and implementation of population

programmes; study of education and communication aspects of

population policy; analysis of population policies in their

relationship to other socio-economic development policies, laws and

institutions, including the possible influences of the economic

system on the social, cultural and economic aspects of population

policies; translation into action programmes of policies dealing

with the socio-economic determinants of fertility, mortality,

internal migration and distribution, and international migration;

    (g)  The collection, analysis and dissemination of information

concerning human rights in relation to population matters and the

preparation of studies designed to clarify, systematize and more

effectively implement those human rights;      (h)  The review and

analysis of national and international laws which bear directly or

indirectly on population factors;

    (i)  The assessment and improvement of existing and new methods

of fertility regulation by means of research, including basic

biological and applied research; the evaluation of the impact, both

in short-term and long-term effects, of different methods of

fertility regulation on ethical and cultural values and on mental

and physical health; and the assessment and study of policies for

creating social and economic conditions so that couples can freely

decide on the size of their families;

    (j)  The evaluation of the impact of different methods of

family planning on the health conditions of women and members of

their families;

    (k)  The interrelationships among patterns of family formation,

nutrition and health, reproductive biology, and the incidence,

causes and treatment of sterility; 

    (l)  methods of improving the management, delivery and

utilization of all social services associated with population,

including family welfare and, when appropriate, family planning;

    (m)  Methods for the development of systems of social,

demographic and related economic statistics in which various sets

of data are inter linked, with a view to improving insight into the

interrelationships of variables in these fields.

    (n)  The interrelations of population trends and conditions and

other social and economic variables, in particular the availability

of human resources, food and natural resources, the quality of the

environment, the need for health, education, employment, welfare,

housing and other social services and amenities, promotion of human

rights, the enhancement of the status of women, the need for social

security, political stability, discrimination and political


    (o)  The impact of a shift from one family size pattern to

another on biological and demographic characteristics of the


    (p)  The changing structure, functions and dynamics of the

family as an institution, including the changing roles of men and

women, attitudes towards and opportunities for women's education

and employment; the implications of current and future population

trends for the status of women; biomedical research on male and

female fertility, and the economic, social and demographic benefits

to be derived from the integration of women in the development


    (q)  Development of social indicators, reflecting the quality

of life as well as the interrelations between socio-economic and

demographic phenomena should be encouraged.  Emphasis should also

be given to the development of socio-economic and demographic


      79.  National research requirements and needs must be

determined by Governments and national institutions.  However, high

priority should be given, wherever possible, to research that has

wide relevance and international applicability.

      80.  National and regional research institutions dealing with

population and related questions should be assisted and expanded as

appropriate.  Special efforts should be made to co-ordinate the

research of those institutions by facilitating the exchange of

their research findings and the exchange of information on their

planned and ongoing research projects. 

(c)  Management, training, education and information

      81.  There is a particular need for the development of

management in all fields related to population, with national and

international attention and appropriate support given to programmes

dealing with its promotion. 

      82.  A dual approach to training is recommended:  an


programme for training in population matters concomitant with

national and regional training programmes adapted and made

particularly relevant to conditions in the countries and regions of

the trainees.  While recognizing the complementarity of these two

approaches, national and regional training should be given the

higher priority.

      83.  Training in population dynamics and policies, whether

national, regional or international, should, in so far as possible,

be interdisciplinary in nature.  The training of population

specialists should always be accompanied by relevant career

development for the trainees in their fields of specialization. 

Training should deal not only with population variables but also

with interrelationships of these variables with economic, social

and political variables.

      84.  Training in the various aspects of population

activities, including the management of population programmes

should not be restricted to the higher levels of specialization but

should also be extended to personnel at other levels, and, where

needed, to medical, paramedical and traditional health personnel,

and population programme administrators.  Such training should

impart an adequate knowledge of human rights in accordance with

international standards and an awareness of the human rights aspect

of population problems. 

      85.  Training in population matters should be extended to

labour, community and other social leaders, and to senior

government officials  with a view to enabling them better to

identify the population problems of their countries and communities

and to help in the formulation of policies relating to


      86.  Owing to the role of education in the progress of

individuals and society and the impact of education on demographic

behaviour, all countries are urged to further develop their formal

and informal educational programmes; efforts should be made to

eradicate illiteracy, to promote education among the youth and

abolish factors discriminating against women.

      87.  Educational institutions in all countries should be

encouraged to expand their curricula to include a study of

population dynamics and policies, including, where appropriate,

family life, responsible parenthood and the relation of population

dynamics to socio-economic development and to international

relations.  Governments are urged to co-operate in developing a

world-wide system of international, regional and national

institutions to meet the need for trained manpower. Assistance to

the less developed countries should include, as appropriate, the

improvement of the educational infrastructure such as library

facilities and computer services.

      88.  Governments are invited to use all available means for

disseminating population information.

      89.  Governments are invited to consider the distribution of

population information to enlighten both rural and urban

populations, through the assistance of governmental agencies. 

      90.  Voluntary organizations should be encouraged, within the

framework of national laws, policies and regulations, to play an

important role in disseminating population information and ensuring

wider participation in population programmes, and to share

experiences regarding the implementation of population measures and


      91.  International organizations, both governmental and

non-governmental, should strengthen their efforts to distribute

information on population and related matters, particularly through

periodic publications on the world population situation, prospects

and policies, the utilization of audio-visual and other aids to

communication, the publication of non-technical digests and reports

and the production and wide distribution of newsletters on

population activities. Consideration should also be given to

strengthening the publication of international professional

journals and reviews in the field of population.

      92.  In order to achieve the widest possible dissemination of

research results, translation activities should be encouraged at

both the national and international levels.  In this respects the

revision of the Multilingual Demographic Dictionary 1/ and its

publication in additional languages are strongly recommended.

93.  The information and experience resulting from the World

Population Conference and the World Population Year relating to the

scientific study of population and the elaboration of population

policies should be synthesized and disseminated by the United


(d)  Development and evaluation of population policies

      94.  Where population policies or programmes have been

adopted, systematic and periodic evaluations of their effectiveness

should be made with a view to their improvement. 

      95.  Population measures and programmes should be integrated

into comprehensive social and economic plans and programmes and

this integration should be reflected in the goals,

instrumentalities and organizations for planning within the

countries. In general, it is suggested that a unit dealing with

population aspects be created and placed at a high level of the

national administrative structure and that such a unit be staffed

with qualified persons from the relevant disciplines.


      1.   Role of national Governments

      96.  The success of this Plan of Action will largely depend

on the actions undertaken by national Governments.  To take action,

Governments are urged to utilize fully the support of

intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations. 

      97.  This Plan of Action recognizes the responsibility of

each Government to decide on its own policies and devise its own

programmes of action for dealing with the problems of population

and economic and social progress.  Recommendations, in so far as

they relate to national Governments, are made with due regard to

the need for variety and flexibility in the hope that they may be

responsive to major needs in the population field as perceived and

interpreted by national Governments. However, national policies

should be formulated and implemented without violating, and with

due promotion of, universally accepted standards of human rights.

      98.  An important role of Governments with regard to this

Plan of Action is to determine and assess the population problems

and needs of their countries in the light of their political,

social, cultural, religious and economic conditions; such an

undertaking should be carried out systematically and periodically

so as to promote informed, rational and dynamic decision-making in

matters of population and development.

      99.  The effect of national action or inaction in the fields

of population may, in certain circumstances, extend beyond national

boundaries; such international implications are particularly

evident with regard to aspects of morbidity, population

concentration and international migration, but may also apply to

other aspects of population concern.

      2.   Role of international co-operation

      100. International co-operation, based on the peaceful

coexistence of States having different social systems, should play

a supportive role in achieving the goals of the Plan of Action. 

This supportive role could take the form of direct assistance,

technical or financial, in response to national and regional

requests and be additional to economic development assistance, or

the form of other activities, such as monitoring progress,

undertaking comparative research in the area of population,

resources and consumption, and furthering the exchange among

countries of information and policy experiences in the field of

population and consumption.  Assistance should be provided on the

basis of respect for sovereignty of the recipient country and its

national policy. 

      101. The General Assembly of the United Nations, the Economic

and Social Council, the Governing Council of the United Nations

Development Programme/United Nations Fund for Population Activities

and other competent legislative and policy-making bodies of the

specialized agencies and the various intergovernmental

organizations are urged to give careful consideration to this Plan

of Action and to ensure an appropriate response to it.

      102. Countries sharing similar population conditions and

problems are invited to consider jointly this Plan of Action,

exchange experience in relevant fields and elaborate those aspects

of the Plan that are of particular relevance to them. The United

Nations regional economic commissions and other regional bodies of

the United Nations system should play an important role towards

this end.

      103. There is a special need for training in the field of

population.  The United Nations system, Governments and, as

appropriate, non-governmental organizations are urged to give

recognition to that need and priority to the measures necessary to

meet it, including information, education and services for family


      104. Developed countries, and other countries able to assist,

are urged to increase their assistance to developing countries in

accordance with the goals of the Second United Nations Development

Decade and, together with international organizations, make that

assistance available in accordance with the national priorities of

receiving countries.  In this respect, it is recognized, in view of

the magnitude of the problems and the consequent national

requirements for funds, that considerable expansion of

international assistance in the population field is required for

the proper implementation of this Plan of Action.

      105. It is suggested that the expanding, but still

insufficient, international assistance in population and

development matters requires increased co-operation; the United

Nations Fund for Population Activities is urged, in co-operation

with all organizations responsible for international population

assistance, to produce a guide for international assistance in

population matters which would be made available to recipient

countries and institutions and be revised periodically.

      106. International non-governmental organizations are urged

to respond to the goals and policies of this Plan of Action by

co-ordinating their activities with those of other non-governmental

organizations, and with those of relevant bilateral and

multilateral organizations, by expanding their support for national

institutions and organizations dealing with population questions,

and by co-operating in the promotion of widespread knowledge of the

goals and policies of the Plan of Action, and when requested, by

supporting national and private institutions and organizations

dealing with population questions.

      3.   Monitoring, review and appraisal

      107. It is recommended that monitoring of population trends

and policies discussed in this Plan of Action should be undertaken

continuously as a specialized activity of the United Nations and

reviewed biennially by the appropriate bodies of the United Nations

system, beginning in 1977.  Because of the shortness of the

intervals, such monitoring would necessarily have to be selective

with regard to its informational content and should focus mainly on

new and emerging population trends and policies.

      108. A comprehensive and thorough review and appraisal of

progress made towards achieving the goals and recommendations of

this Plan of Action should be undertaken every five years by the

United Nations system.  For this purpose the Secretary-General is

invited to make appropriate arrangements taking account of the

existing structure and resources of the United Nations system, and

in co-operation with Governments.  It is suggested that the first

such review be made in 1979 and be repeated each five years

thereafter.  The findings of such systematic evaluations should be

considered by the Economic and Social Council with the object of

making,  whenever necessary, appropriate modifications of the goals

and recommendations of this Plan.

      109. It is urged that both the monitoring and the review and

appraisal activities of this Plan of Action be closely co-ordinated

with those of the International Development Strategy for the Second

United Nations Development Decade and any new international

development strategy that might be formulated.

    1/ United Nations publication,  Sales No. 58.XIII.4.

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