The TRIPS Agreement, which came into effect on 1 January 1995, is to date the most comprehensive multilateral agreement on intellectual property. The areas of intellectual property that it covers are: copyright and related rights (i.e. the rights of performers, producers of sound recordings and broadcasting organizations); trademarks including service marks; geographical indications including appellations of origin; industrial designs; patents including the protection of new varieties of plants; the layout-designs of integrated circuits; and undisclosed information including trade secrets and test data.
The three main features of the Agreement are:
- Standards: The Agreement sets out the minimum standards of protection to be provided by each Member. Each of the main elements of protection is defined, namely the subject-matter to be protected, the rights to be conferred and permissible exceptions to those rights, and the minimum duration of protection.
- Enforcement: The Agreement lays down certain general principles applicable to all IPR enforcement procedures. In addition, it contains provisions on civil and administrative procedures and remedies, provisional measures, special requirements related to border measures and criminal procedures, which specify, in a certain amount of detail, the procedures and remedies that must be available so that right holders can effectively enforce their rights.
- Dispute settlement: The Agreement makes disputes between WTO Members about the respect of the TRIPS obligations subject to the WTO’s dispute settlement procedures.
The following provisions & measures in TRIPS are LDC Specific:
- Transitional period for implementing the Agreement (Article 66.1)
- Transitional period for pharmaceutical products
- Technical cooperation to implement the TRIPS Agreement (Art. 67)
- Technology transfer (Art. 66.2)
- Paragraph 6 system
Available Smooth Transition Procedures:
Utilization by LDCs:
The Agreement provides for certain basic principles, such as national and most-favoured-nation treatment, and some general rules to ensure that procedural difficulties in acquiring or maintaining IPRs do not nullify the substantive benefits that should flow from the Agreement. The obligations under the Agreement will apply equally to all Member countries, but LDCs are temporarily exempted from several disciplines. Additionally, special transition arrangements operate in the situation where a developing country (with specific arrangements for LDCs) does not presently provide product patent protection in the area of pharmaceuticals.
The TRIPS Agreement is a minimum standards agreement, which allows Members to provide more extensive protection of intellectual property if they so wish. Members are left free to determine the appropriate method of implementing the provisions of the Agreement within their own legal system and practice.
- TRIPS WTO Information & Resources Gateway
- TRIPS: What are intellectual property rights?
- The Doha Development Agenda (DDA) & AID for Trade: Finding the Policy Link
- Implementation of paragraph 6 of the Doha Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and public health
- A More Detailed Overview of the TRIPS Agreement
- Paragraph 18 of the Doha Ministerial Declaration