Agreement on Agriculture: Recognition of interests in negotiations (Article 20 & the Preamble):

The Agreement on Agriculture (AoA) initiates a reform process aimed at establishing a “fair and market-oriented agricultural trading system” through negotiations on market access, domestic support and export subsidies, the “three pillars” of the AoA (Article 20).

WTO Members agreed to continue the reform process through negotiations noting that commitments under the reform programme should be made in an equitable way among all Members, having regard to non-trade concerns, including food security and the need to protect the environment; having regard to the agreement that special and differential treatment for developing countries is an integral element of the negotiations, and taking into account the possible negative effects of the implementation of the reform programme on least-developed and net food importing developing countries.

Available Smooth Transition Procedures:

Utilization by LDCs:


  1. UNDERSTANDING THE WTO: The Agreements on Agriculture: Fairer Markets for Farmers
  2. URUGUAY ROUND AGREEMENT: Agreement on Agriculture
  3. Committee on Agriculture: Special Session 26–28 March 2001
  4. Continuing the Reform Process in Agriculture: Article 20 Issues