ESA home Search Parliamentary services Research and analysis National governments Regional cooperation Development issues

National Implementation of Agenda 21

Republic of Croatia

COUNTRY PROFILE

IMPLEMENTATION OF AGENDA 21:
REVIEW OF PROGRESS MADE SINCE THE
UNITED NATIONS CONFERENCE ON
ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT, 1992

Information Provided by the Government of the Republic of Croatia
to the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development
Fifth Session
7-25 April 1997
New York

United Nations Department for Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development
Division for Sustainable Development
The Information contained in this Country Profile is also available on the World Wide Web, as follows:
http://www.un.org/dpcsd/earthsummit

Republic of Croatia

This country profile has been provided by:

Name of Ministry/Office: The State Directorate for Environment

Date:

Submitted by:

Mailing address:

Telephone: +385 1 6118 388, 6111 992

Telefax: +385 1 537 203, 6118 388

E-mail: name.surname@duzo.tel.hr

Note from the Secretariat: An effort has been made to present all country profiles within a common format, with an equal number of pages. However, where Governments have not provided information for the tables appended to Chapters 4 and 17, those tables have been omitted entirely in order to reduce the overall length of the profile and save paper. Consequently, there may be some minor inconsistencies among the formats of the different country profiles.

All statistics are rendered as provided by the respective Governments.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACRONYMS
FACT SHEET
AGENDA 21 CHAPTERS
2. International cooperation to accelerate sustainable development in developing countries and related domestic policies
3. Combating poverty
4. Changing consumption patterns
5. Demographic dynamics and sustainability
6. Protecting and promoting human health
7. Promoting sustainable human settlement development
8. Integrating environment and development in decision-making
9. Protection of the atmosphere
10. Integrated approach to the planning and management of land resources
11. Combating deforestation
12. Managing fragile ecosystems: combating desertification and drought
13. Managing fragile ecosystems: sustainable mountain development
14. Promoting sustainable agriculture and rural development
15. Conservation of biological diversity
16. Environmentally sound management of biotechnology
17. Protection of the oceans, all kinds of seas, including enclosed and semi-enclosed seas, and coastal areas and the protection, rational use and development of their living resources
18. Protection of the quality and supply of freshwater resources: application of integrated approaches to the development, management and use of water resources
19. Environmentally sound management of toxic chemicals, including prevention of illegal international traffic in toxic and dangerous products
20. Environmentally sound management of hazardous wastes, including prevention of illegal international traffic in hazardous wastes
21. Environmentally sound management of solid wastes and sewage-related issues
22. Safe and environmentally sound management of radioactive wastes
23-32. Major groups
33. Financial resources and mechanisms
34. Transfer of environmentally sound technology, cooperation and capacity-building
35. Science for sustainable development
36. Promoting education, public awareness and training
37. National mechanisms and international cooperation for capacity-building in developing countries
38. International institutional arrangements
39. International legal instruments and mechanisms
40. Information for decision-making

ACRONYMS

APELL Awareness and Preparedness for Emergencies at Local Level
CFC chlorofluorocarbon
CGIAR Consultative Group on International Agriculture Research
CILSS Permanent Inter-State Committee on Drought Control in the Sahel
EEZ exclusive economic zone
ECA Economic Commission for Africa
ECE Economic Commission for Europe
ECLAC Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean
ELCI Environmental Liaison Centre International
EMINWA environmentally sound management of inland water
ESCAP Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific
ESCWA Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia
FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
GATT General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
GAW Global Atmosphere Watch (WMO)
GEF Global Environment Facility
GEMS Global Environmental Monitoring System (UNEP)
GEMS/WATER Global Water Quality Monitoring Programme
GESAMP Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Pollution
GIPME Global Investigation of Pollution in Marine Environment (UNESCO)
GIS Geographical Information System
GLOBE Global Legislators Organisation for a Balanced Environment
GOS Global Observing System (WMO/WWW)
GRID Global Resource Information Database
GSP generalized system of preferences
HIV human immunodeficiency virus
IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency
IAP-WASAD International Action Programme on Water and Sustainable Agricultural Development
IARC International Agency for Research on Cancer
IBSRAM International Board of Soil Resources and Management
ICCA International Council of Chemical Associations
ICES International Council for the Exploration of the Sea
ICPIC International Cleaner Production Information Clearing House
ICSC International Civil Service Commission
ICSU International Council of Scientific Unions
IEEA Integrated environmental and economic accounting
IFAD International Fund for Agricultural Development
IGADD Intergovernmental Authority for Drought and Development
IGBP International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (ICSU)
IGBP/START International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme/Global Change System for Analysis, Research and Training
ILO International Labour Organisation
IMF International Monetary Fund
IMO International Maritime Organization
INFOTERRA International Environment Information system (UNEP)
IOC Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission
IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
IPCS International Programme on Chemical Safety
IPM integrated pest management
IRPTC International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals
ITC International Tin Council
ITTO International Tropical Timber Organization
IUCN International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources
MARPOL International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships
OECD Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development
PGRFA plant genetic resources for agriculture
PIC prior informed consent procedure
SADCC South African Development Co-ordination Conference
SARD sustainable agriculture and rural development
UNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
UNDP United Nations Development Programme
UNDRO Office of the United Nations Disaster Relief Coordinator
UNEP United Nations Environment Programme
UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
UNFPA United Nations Population Fund
UNICEF United Nations Children's Fund
UNIDO United Nations Industrial Development Organization
UNU United Nations University
WCP World Climate Programme (WMO/UNEP/ICSU/UNESCO)
WFC World Food Council
WHO World Health Organization
WMO World Meteorological Organization
WWF World Wide Fund for Nature (also called World Wildlife Fund)
WWW World Weather Watch (WMO)

FACT SHEET

NAME OF COUNTRY:

1. Name of Key National Sustainable Development Coordination Mechanism(s)/Council(s). A National Sustainable Development Coordination Mechanism has not been established.

Contact point (Name, Title, Office):

Telephone: +385 1 6118 388, 6111 992

Fax: +385 1 537 203, 6118 388

e-mail: name.surname@duzo.tel.hr

Mailing address: HR-10000 Zagreb, Ulica grada Vukovara 78.

2. Membership/Composition/Chairperson: Mr. Ante Kutle, M.D., Director

2a. List of ministries and agencies involved: Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ministry of Development and Reconstruction, Ministry of Economy, Ministry of Science and Technology, Ministry of Culture; Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Ministry of Labour and Social Welfare, State Directorate for Water, Ministry of Physical Planning, Building and Housing, State Bureau of Statistics, WHO Office Croatia, REC Croatia, Ericsson, Nikola Tesla, LTD, APO Waste Management Agency.

2b. Names of para-statal bodies and institutions involved, as well as participating of academic and private sector bodies: Kornelua Pintaric, Jura] Posaric, Silvana Curlin, Marina Musulin, Radovan Fuchs, Berislav
Skupnjak, Jasenka Necak, Valburga Kanazir, Stella Dolenec, Marija Vihovanec, Marina Deur,
Jasminka Radovic, Margita Mastrovic, Antun Paunovic, Zeljko Ostojic, Visnja Jelic-Muck, Renata
Sinovc evic, Damir Rumenjak, Matija Frankovic, Gordana Valcic, Jasminka Dinic, Lidija Pavic,
Dubravka Bacun, Ljiljanja Tuskan Turkovic, Senka Bosner, Vesna Koletic, Tijana Novakovic,
Nevenka Preradovic, Hrvojka Sunjic, Gordana Kolacko, Vis'nja Grgasovic, Vladimir Lokner, Zeljko Findri.

2c. Names of non-governmental organizations involved: No information.

3. Mandate role of above mechanism/council: No information.

4. If available, attach a diagram (organization chart) showing national coordination structure and linkages between ministries: No information.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 2: INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION TO ACCELERATE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES AND RELATED DOMESTIC POLICIES (with special emphasis on TRADE)

NATIONAL PRIORITY: Integration of trade and environmental policies
STATUS REPORT: The Republic of Croatia began preparations for GATT accession in 1993. The Joining procedure has been under way since 1993, with the view of Croatia becoming a permanent GATT and World Trade Organisation (WTO) member, respectively. The beginning of April saw the first session of the Working Group for the Reception of Croatia into WTO, which initiated multilateral negotiations.

In June and July 1996, Croatia forwarded a series of requested documents to the GATT Secretariat, which paved the way for the commencement of bilateral negotiations. In the meantime, Croatia also forwarded the proposal on initial tariff concessions, concerning goods whose custom duties would be lowered, with a view of thus becoming a WTO member.

Another Croatian obligation is the preparation and the submission of its proposal - the list of highest custom rates, together with the commitment of not raising custom duties above the established rates under any circumstances.

The Republic of Croatia undertook the obligation of elaborating the custom concessions proposal, which is an essential condition for the commencement of bilateral negotiations on tariff amounts for individual goods. Further, the government finds it necessary to open bilateral negotiations on custom concessions for goods and on access to service markets.

Croatia will base its future market policies upon politics and the implementation of agreements settled within the Uruguay Round of GATT negotiations. In this connection, the new Law on Trade, in force since the beginning of 1996, represents the implementation of market policy measures, particularly in the part concerning protection against dumping and subsidies, and other modes of protection.

A new round of negotiations within the Working Group was held in January, while the next session is scheduled for Autumn 1997.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information.

3. Major Groups: No information.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 3: COMBATING POVERTY

NATIONAL PRIORITY: (I) Activities and measures in lowering the unemployment rate

(II) Programme on the reconstruction of housing, economic and transport facilities

STATUS REPORT:

Focus of national strategy

The consequences of war and the economic problems emerging from the transformation of former public property, (i.e., that which is in the process of economic reform and the transformation of proprietorship), have lead to a decline in the standard of living of most of the population. The unemployed, the retired, the beneficiaries of various types of aid and social welfare, in conjunction with a portion of the employed and other persons (not counting refugees and exiles) find themselves in a particularly difficult position.

As a constituent part of the Stabilisation Programme, the Government of the Republic of Croatia initiated, in March 1993, a Social Programme, which encompasses, along with the social welfare area, portions of the employment, pension and disability insurance, health, child allowance, among other systems.

Along with the Social Programme, some new additional measures and forms of social welfare have been established. The rights and the forms of social welfare guaranteed to the beneficiaries are:

Payment in ready money:
- social minimum compensation
- regular financial help
- temporary financial help
- one-time financial help
- help in obtaining working and earning qualifications
- help and care bonus
- financial help for childrens'' equipment for a single unemployed parent
- one-time financial help for funeral expenses
- financial help for the personal needs of the beneficiary
- salary compensation for the parent of a severely handicapped child

Payment in kind:
- help in provisions
- help in fuel acquisition for the beneficiary of permanent financial help
- help in clothes and footwear acquisition
- help in the form of presents
- financial help for paying the public or communal company bills of singles
- help and care in the house
- help in food, clothes and footwear, help in other material goods from humanitarian
and state-operated sources (provision packages, public kitchens, clothes, footwear, and other material goods).

Unemployment is at the moment one of the most important problems of the Republic of Croatia. The law on employment (1996) therefore anticipates numerous insurance measures during employment,as well as active employment policy initiatives.

Status Cont'd

Highlight activities aimed at the poor and linkages to the environment

The Republic of Croatia is working on the elaboration of the national employment policy on the basis of the labour market survey with the help of the International Labour Association.

The objectives of the national employment policy measures are:
rapid employment of individual categories of the unemployed (the active participants and the invalids of war, demobilised members of the Croatian Army and Police);

implementation of educational activities which would solve the discrepancy between the
supply and the demand on the labour market;

ensuring the necessary spatial and professional mobility of the unemployed; by means of self-
employment, encourage craft services that are scarce in urban areas;

providing opportunities to unemployed persons without any work experience to obtain minimal experience
for the purpose of making all jobs more equitably accessible.

The Croatian Employment Agency has, by means of its active policy measures, embraced 4,887 persons in the first half of 1996, out of which 3,125 fall within, and 1,762 fall outside of the economic sector. The Agency will, during the 1997-1999 period, within its financial possibilities, conduct the following programmes:
- educational activities programmes
- employment programmes
- self-employment programmes
- spatial and professional mobility programmes
- programmes for the employment of individual groups of the unemployed
- programmes for the adaptation of work places for special groups of employed persons, and
- programmes referring to employed persons, if keeping a job is thereby secured, and if the job is economically justifiable.

The social welfare system affects pension insurance as well, owing to the considerable increase in the number of pensioners in contrast to the number of the employed persons, and considering the relatively low pensions. The pension and disability insurance system comprises the following protective social provisions:
- minimal pension
- protective bonus
- help and care allowance
- financial compensation for physical damage
- the right of the physically or mentally disturbed child to a job qualification
- guaranteed minimum pension
- monthly allowance of 100 kunas
- border-line sum of the lowest pension, amounting to 615 kunas (approx. 100 USD).

The social insurance system is expected to be partially changed, since the passing of the new Law on Social Welfare and the new Law on Pension and Disability Insurance is in progress.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information.

3. Major Groups: No information.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information.

NB: Developed countries, where domestic poverty alleviation is not a major concern may wish to briefly describe their position regarding global poverty alleviation.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1986
1990
1992
Latest 1995
Unemployment (registered with the Employment Agency)
121,735
195,466
261,050
249,070
Number of the recipients of social welfare
70,807

(1991
census)
80,710
199,312
Public spending on social sector %
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 4: CHANGING CONSUMPTION PATTERNS

NATIONAL PRIORITY: Stimulative measures implementation
STATUS REPORT:

National policy objectives/focus

In the past five-year period, the Republic of Croatia suffered severe destruction from war, human casualties and the devastation of settlements and economic facilities. Care of refugees and exiles, war damage clean-up activities, and solving numerous social and economic difficulties have been a priority of the government.

The deterioration of economic activities, decline in gross social product and decrease in energy consumption were consequences of the stated events. With the exception of war-stricken areas, the environment remained preserved due to the deterioration of economic activities, more than to the implementation of environmental protection measures.

In spite of all the difficulties, major shifts towards the sustainable development concept were realized through new Croatian laws and strategic documents. With the passing of a Declaration on Environmental Protection in 1992, the Croatian Parliament opted for the sustainable development of the country, based on an economy and industry oriented towards environmentally sound technologies.

One of the legally set objectives of environmental protection in Croatia is the promotion of the use of environmentally acceptable products and manufacturing procedures, and a harmonised relation between environmental protection and economic development.

The Environmental Label was created as one of the instruments for achieving a change in consumption patterns. It has been awarded since 1993 to the manufacturers of consumer goods which, in the process of manufacture, marketing, use and disposal after they have turned into waste, affect the environment in a considerably less harmful way than other uniform products (Rule Book on Environmental Label, 1996). The Environmental Label has a commercial character, with the aim of changing patterns of production and behaviour of buyers of consumer goods. Not being supported by fiscal policy incentive measures, the Environmental Label does not affect the selling price of the product using it.

Measures for organised collecting and re-use of waste have been established (The Law on Waste, 1995) with a view to reducing waste emerging from production and consumption . Manufacturers' responsibility for the collection and recycling of packaging waste has been separately regulated (Rule Book on Packaging Waste, 1996).

The law anticipates stimulative measures for the use of manufacturing procedures, manufacture and transport of environmentally the most acceptable products, and for the reclaim and re-use of products and packaging, together with tax, custom and other public duties exemptions (The Law on Environmental Protection, 1994). The anticipated incentive measures in the tax and customs systems are currently not feasible, since no necessary implementation regulations exist.

Concerning changing energy production and consumption patterns, the Republic of Croatia imports more than 40% of total energy supplies, while non-regenerative energetic resources (fossil fuels) are rather scarce. There are possibilities of exploiting large potentials of almost all kinds of regenerative resources (geo-thermal energy, energy of the sun and the wind, biomass etc.).

The objective of all the relevant factors in the Republic of Croatia is the gradual introduction of renewable energy resources in the Energy Supply System of the Republic of Croatia, and the commitment to achieving the maximum level of independence from imports.

Respecting the increasingly tough requirements regarding the protection of human health and the environment, and considering all external costs of energy production, Croatia has initiated an extensive reconstruction program, involving the energy supply system and policy, as a part of the general program of the reconstruction of the Republic of Croatia.

Considering the availability of natural resources, energy conservation and renewable energy sources will take a leading role in the renewal of the of the Croatian energy supply system.

National targets: No information

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The Parliament of the Republic of Croatia, the Government of the Republic of Croatia,

the State Directorate for the Environment, the Ministry of Finance, the Ministry of Economy and the Croatian Chamber of Economy.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information.

3. Major Groups: No information.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1985
1990
1992
Latest 1995
GDP per capita (current US$)
2161
5106
2079
3786
Real GDP growth (%)
-6.9
-11.1
+1.7
Electricity consumption in households (Kwh/inhabitant)
0.8779
0.9470
0.8461
0.9658
Motor vehicles in use per 1000 inhabitants
140
149
Electricity consumption in industry and mining to UCEA - 000 MWh
5.458
4.090
3.415

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 5: DEMOGRAPHIC DYNAMICS AND SUSTAINABILITY

NATIONAL PRIORITY: Population increase and improved demographic structure
STATUS REPORT:

The National Programme for Demographic Development, a strategic development document, was passed by the Croatian Parliament on January 18, 1996.

The Population of uninhabited areas has begun.

A three-year maternity leave for employed parents for every third and next child has been adopted.

The system of childrens' allowance is currently being changed.

The Law on the Status of the Parent-Educator is being changed.

The Government views population and fertility growth rates as too low. The Government's intervention in these areas includes activities to raise population and fertility growth rates.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure:


The Parliament of the Republic of Croatia
The Government of the Republic of Croatia
The Ministry of Development and Reconstruction

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues:
The Ministry of Development and Reconstruction
The Ministry for Labour and Social Welfare
The Ministry of Health
The Ministry of Education and Sports
The Ministry of Science and Technology
The Ministry of Privatization
The Ministry of Physical Planning, Building and Housing
The Ministry of Finance
The State Office for Family, Maternity and Youth

3. Major Groups: No information.

4. Finance: State budget, budgets of units of local government and self-government.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: Cooperation with UNICEF.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1990
1993
Latest 199_
Population (Thousands) mid-year estimates
Annual rate of increase (1990-1993)
Surface area (Km2)
Population density (people/Km2)
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 6: PROTECTING AND PROMOTING HUMAN HEALTH

NATIONAL PRIORITY: Healthy Environment for Everyone by the Year 2005
STATUS REPORT: In the new independent State, formed on the basis of the first multi-party democratic elections of 1990, the Croatian health system was established. New Croatian health legislation has been enforced, promoting the following priorities: universality of access, health promotion, and primary health care. Active involvement with the issues of the entire physical, chemical, biological, and social environment was also envisaged, according to not only the provisions of Alma Ata (Declaration on Primary Health Care, 1978), but of Agenda 21 as well.

The system of health financing also changed, in which two major propositions concerning equity and efficiency were given full consideration.

In the reporting period (1990-1995), Croatia was a victim of war aggression, which resulted in several tens of thousands of killed, disabled, and wounded. Material destruction was considerably great as well, including, inter alia, 16 entire hospitals. For that reason, great attention is given to the reconstruction of Croatian health care infrastructure, and to the provision of measures promoting general access to health services for all Croatian citizens, mostly through primary health care.

For reasons of scarcity of financial means (the latest data indicate that health appropriations have been reduced by 50% in comparison to 1990), numerous cost containment measures are being implemented, but despite that, numerous health gains have been simultaneously achieved due to the good organisation of health services. It should be noted that infant mortality rates have been reduced, which is generally accepted as a primary indicator of health status: before the war the infant mortality rate was 10.7. During the war period, it was 11.1 and 11.6 in 1991 and 1992 respectively, and was later reduced to 8.7 per 1000 live births in 1995.

There has also been an increase in life expectancy, from 72.5 (1990) to 73.1 (1994), accompanied by the decrease in the maternal mortality rate, from 10.83 to 10.3.

Additional data also point to the fact that health protection and health promotion measures proved to be effective, resulting in the improved health status. For instance, the number of deaths attributed to cardiovascular diseases was reduced from 528.1 to 518.2 per 100.000 inhabitants.

Health policy has been formulated in the new edition of the Croatian policy and strategy, "Health for Everyone by the Year 2005", confirming, in other words, the existence of a long-term health policy expanding into the next century.

Within the framework of such policy, due attention is being paid to environmental and health issues, encompassed in a separate chapter of the aforementioned edition.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The health system is designed in such a way as to ensure state involvement in all its structures, i.e. at the State level, at the County level of (21 in all), and at the level of local units of government and self-government. The so-called Administrative Councils are in charge of health care, being responsible for the functioning of health care, while their decisions are executed by institutional management. The Administrative Council is also in place as the strongest public insurance institution, covering mandatory health insurance. Additional health insurance is available as well, but only as a private one.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: In light of the fact that the most important aspect of capacity building is human capacity development, extensive training courses are being conducted within the framework of some internationally-sponsored projects (primarily by the World Bank and the WHO). Some 2000 health professionals participated therein in the course of 1996.

3. Major Groups: No information.

4. Finance: The state budget and the budgets of the units of local government and self-government.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: Regional and International cooperation is very prominent in all aspects of Croatian health policy enforcement. This is primarily evident in the area of cooperation with the World Bank and the WHO. With respect to the WHO, foremost consideration is to be given to collaboration in the area of enforcement of the so-called National Health and Environmental Action Programme, being prepared in compliance to with the decision of the II. Ministerial Conference on Health and Environment (Helsinki, 1994), and is to be finalized in the course of 1997. This programme envisages the close cooperation between all health-promoting and environment-promoting activities. There is a broad-spectrum of intersectoral cooperation within Croatia in this respect, including experts from health care areas, environmental protection, economy, industry, tourism, etc. Close collaboration is established internationally as well, primarily with the WHO, and recently with UNDP.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 1994
Life expectancy at birth

Male

Female

67.70

73.20

67.00

75.50
73.10

Infant mortality (per 1000 live births)
20.60
10.70
8.72
Maternal mortality rate (per 100000 live births)
4.4
10.83
10.30
Public Waste supply for households (total) in 000 m3
173.748
168.086
Discharge of waste water from public sewage systems in 000 m3
315.318
269.942
Purified waste water in 000 m3
45.720
58.055
Cardiovascular diseases mortality rate (per 100.000 inhabitants)
344.25
528.1
518.2
Melanoma mortality rate (per 100.000 inhabitants)
186.2
213.4
203.9

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 7: PROMOTING SUSTAINABLE HUMAN SETTLEMENT DEVELOPMENT

NATIONAL PRIORITY: Reparation of war damage, with a special emphasis on settlement reconstruction and return of the exiles
STATUS REPORT: The consequences of war have caused the abandonment of the destroyed areas and exerted pressure on cities.

A systematic reconstruction/creation of normal living and working conditions, and stimulative measures concerning the settlement of abandoned, destructed and devastated areas are currently under way.

The development of cities and other settlements so far is marked by underdeveloped infrastructure, the need for transformation of the economy, and for the improvement of environmental status. The inherited concepts of inadequate growth are being tested against the preparation and the elaboration of physical plans for cities and other settlements, aiming towards a more humane spatial arrangement and a more efficient functioning of urban systems.

Major thematic priority groups:
- return of the refugees and exiles
- renewal of the housing fund and the building system
- renewal and development of communal and social infrastructure, and the economy
- endangered environment clean-up.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The Ministry of Development and Reconstruction is conducting a National Reconstruction Programme, with the participation of other development entities. The Ministry of Physical Planning, Building and Housing, other ministries, state directorates and public companies work within their competencies.

In this area, the ministries administer and direct state level documents and policy implementation, involving representative bodies of local authorities. Institutions, in conjunction with expert and other bodies pertaining to Counties, Cities and Municipalities, function at the local level.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: The Institute of Physical Planning of the corresponding Ministry, prepares in cooperation with other institutions, documents on the physical reconstruction of settlements and acts as an intersectoral coordinator. The National Physical Planning Strategy and Programme are the basic documents encompassing integral development and physical planning issues and therefore, the issues of sustainable settlement as well. Single documents for particularly relevant and endangered areas, and those for large urban agglomerations, are to follow.

Local institutions develop their own plans and programmes, to be adopted by the representative bodies of the local authorities.

Specialised institutions, institutes, bureaus and expert departments of public companies are preparing and conducting special reconstruction and development programmes.

3. Major Groups: No information.

4. Finance: The state budget and the budgets of the units of local government and self-government.

5. Regional/International Cooperation:

International contracts, agreements and cooperation on the side of the Republic of Croatia
National Croatian Committee for HABITAT
The Association of Croatian Cities and Municipalities
Direct collaboration between cities (within Croatia and with cities in other countries)
EUROPAN Croatia

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1990
1995
Urban population in % of total population
51.3
(1991)
Annual rate of growth of urban population (%)
12.4%

(1981-91)
Largest city population (in % of total population) - Zagreb (city)
718,000
Metropolitan Area of Zagreb
935,000
Number of settlements in the Republic of Croatia
6,694
Number of cities
122
Number of cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants
4

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 8: INTEGRATING ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT IN DECISION-MAKING

(See pages vii and viii at the beginning of the profile)

NATIONAL PRIORITY: Establishment of the Ministry of Environment
STATUS REPORT: The conservation and use of natural and cultural wealth are decided upon by the Parliament,

of the Republic of Croatia and people, in accordance with the Constitution and the legislature. The Republic ensures the right of the citizens to a healthy environment. The citizens, state, public and economic authorities and associations are bound, within their authorities and activities, to take special care of the protection of the human environment and natural health

(according to the Constitution of the Republic of Croatia).

The Croatian Parliament is the citizens' representative body and the incumbent of the legislative authority. It consists of the Chamber of Representatives and the Chamber of Counties. The Chamber of Representatives is constituted of representatives elected directly by secret vote, based on the common and equal right to vote. Three delegates are elected from each of the Counties to the Chamber of Counties, directly, by secret vote of the citizens of a respective county, on the basis of a common right to vote. The Chamber of Representatives, inter alia, passes laws and decides on the state budget, supervising the work of the Croatian Government. The Chamber of Counties proposes bills to the Chamber of representatives and states opinions on the issues within the competence of the Chamber of Representatives.

The Croatian Government acts as the executive authority, and is constituted of the President, the Vice-Presidents, Ministers and other members.

Within the constitutionally guaranteed right to local government and self-government, the citizens decide on the local needs and interests, especially concerning physical and urban planning, settlements planning and housing, municipal activities, and protection and improvement of the natural environment. The units of local self-government are cities and municipalities, while the units of local government and self-government are counties with larger territories.

In accordance with the structure of the state administration, individual administrative segments of environmental protection and sustainable development are scattered among different ministries and state directorates, e.g. for environmental protection, physical planning, nature protection,protection of soils and forests, protection against radiation, against pollution from ships, etc.

The integration of the stated activities from the environmental protection area in the Ministry of

Environment would enable cost reduction, improve planning and access to information, and the existent parallelisms of actions could be successfully avoided.

A good example of an integrative approach for economic development and environmental protection is the procedure of environmental impact assessment, implemented in Croatia since 1984. Consistent to the Law on Environmental Protection (1994), such an assessment ensures the realization of the preventive principle, through compliance and adjustment of the planned intervention, construction, facilities renewal or activities with the reception capacity of the environment of the particular area. A survey on environmental impact must be provided by the subject in charge of the planned environmental intervention. A panel discussion is conducted in the area to be affected by the environmental intervention, with the purpose of evaluating the survey.

The strategic documents on development, elaborated in the Republic of Croatia during the past five-year period, take into account the integration of environment and development components, reflected, for example, in the 1996 Strategy on Physical Planning, accepted by the Government.

The Croatian Parliament adopted on February 28, 1997 the National Programme on Sustainable Island Development. The first and the main goal has been defined: sustainable development of the Croatian islands. The National Programme on Sustainable Development is being prepared by the working group consisting of scientists, experts, representatives of ministries and other governmental bodies, coordinated by the Ministry of Development and Reconstruction.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure (please also refer to the fact sheet): The Croatian Parliament, the Government, the Parliamentary Board for Physical Planning and Environment, the governmental bodies within their respective domains, the units of local government and self-government. No entity has been established for integrating environment and development in decision-making.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: Governmental bodies, scientific institutes, local NGOs, etc.

3. Major Groups: No information.

4. Finance:
"Environment for Europe" Process
Environmental Action Programme for Central and Eastern Europe Danube River Basin Environment Programme.
Mediterranean Action Plan
Croatia is a Party to numerous International conventions, protocols and agreements.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 9: PROTECTION OF THE ATMOSPHERE

NATIONAL PRIORITY: Achieving the Category I of Air Quality - Clean or Slightly Polluted Air - in the entire State Territory within the next 10 Years
STATUS REPORT:

The Republic of Croatia is a Party to the following international treaties:

Montreal Protocol on Substances Depleting the Ozone Layer (1991)

- London Amendments to the Montreal Protocol on Substances Depleting the Ozone Layer

(1994)

- Copenhagen Amendments to the Montreal Protocol on Substances Depleting the Ozone Layer

(1996)

- The latest report to the Montreal Protocol Secretariat was submitted in 1996.

- The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (1996) The report will be submitted in the course of the year 1997.

Vienna Convention on the Protection of Ozone Layer (1991)

Conventions on the Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (1991)

- Protocol to the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution on Long-term

Financing of the Cooperative Programme for Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long-range

Transmission of Air Pollutants in Europe (EMEP Protocol 1991)

- Protocol to the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution on further Reduction

of Sulphur Emissions (1994)

- The latest report to the Executive Body of Convention was submitted in 1996.

Additional comments relevant to this chapter

The Regulations of the Republic of Croatia:
The Law on Air Quality Protection (1995);
By-law on Recommended and Limit Values of Ambient Air Quality (1996).

With the purpose to implement the Montreal Protocol in the Republic of Croatia, a National Programme Body has been set up by the Government, consisting of experts with extensive experience and knowledge that contribute to the harmonisation of Croatian interests with the requirements of the Montreal Protocol.

The State Directorate for Environment (SDE), authorised to enforce the provisions of the Montreal Protocol, in conjunction with the National Programme Body and under the professional and financial support of UNEP, prepared a Country Programme for Phasing Out Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer.

Status Cont'd

The SDE is providing professional assistance to users of substances that deplete the ozone layer regarding the alternatives to such substances. In the course of 1996, a process was initiated to formulate regulations to fully govern the issues of import and consumption of these substances, as well as of the products containing these substances. Moreover, the top-priority projects for the substitution of substances that deplete the ozone layer were identified. They are scheduled to start early in 1997 and to last for three years.

Through its competent authorities, the Republic of Croatia is systematically educating employees, by organizing seminars and courses within and outside educational institutions, to work with the substances that deplete the ozone layer.

Permanent promotional activities in mass media are helping to raise the awareness of co-responsibility of the state of environment, thus preparing the public for the benefits which will inevitably arise in the course of withdrawal of these substances from use.

The Republic of Croatia entered the activities concerning climate change issues by signing the Convention on Climate Change in 1992, and ratifying it in 1996. During the past period, two pilot-projects were elaborated in cooperation with UNEP, concerning the survey of the consequences of global climate change in the Adriatic area, in the Cres-Losinj Archipelago and in the Bay of Kastela. The draft document "Croatian Climatic Project by 2000" has also been elaborated, which would further encompass the following surveys: study of climate change mechanisms, joining the global climate monitoring system, elaboration of the model for the assessment of greenhouse-gas contribution of Croatia, elaboration on the sub-project on the possibility of reducing greenhouse-gas concentrations, and the elaboration of the sub-project on economic effects arising from climate change in Croatia, as well as the prevention of such effects.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The Croatian Parliament, the Croatian Government, the State Directorate for Environment, the Ministry of Health, the Ministry of Economy, the State Bureau for Standardization and Metrology, the State Weather Bureau and the units of local government and self-government.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: The basic legislative framework for the implementation of the policy of air quality protection and improvement in Croatia is the Law on Air Quality Protection, in force since 1995. The Law establishes some basic principles of the implementation of air quality protection. It regulates the establishment of national and local air quality monitoring networks, the mode of area classification with regard to air quality, the need for developing programmes for endangered areas, as well as for the stationary sources of air pollution. It also introduces the obligation to keep records of the sources of emissions and monitor stationary source emissions, and to supply the units of local self-government with the relevant data.

Croatia can provide accurate air quality indicators for the past few years which undoubtedly testify to the status of air quality in the Croatian territory, except for certain industrial zones burdened by out-of-date technology. Facing the difficulties caused by the consequences of war and neglected economic development during its many years within the former Yugoslavia, Croatia is unfortunately not in a position to resolve this issue on its own.

Annual reports on air pollutant emissions are being prepared in Croatia since 1993. These reports include the following substances: S02, NOx, N20, CH4, CO, C02, NH3, NMVOC and heavy metals (Pb, CD and Hg). Croatia, with its three local air quality monitoring stations, participates within the Global Environmental Monitoring System (GEMS), with its two tropospheric ozone monitoring stations within EUROTRAC Monitoring Network, and with its two background air pollution monitoring stations within the EMEP Protocol.

3. Major Groups: Governmental bodies play the leading role in air protection programmes, and the ever-growing involvement of non-governmental associations is stimulating the passage of regulations that govern the obligation to protect air quality.

4. Finance: The state budget finances the national network for air quality monitoring, while the budgets of units of local government and self-government finance local networks for air quality monitoring. The polluter, the owner and/or the user is responsible for the financing of measures to reduce air pollution caused by stationary sources.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: For the purpose of the effective implementation of the Montreal Protocol, 1996 saw the signing of the Agreement on Financial and Professional Support for the Elaboration of Projects for Phasing Out the Consumption of Substances Depleting the Ozone Layer in the Republic of Croatia, between Croatia and UNEP.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 1995
CO2 emissions (eq. million tons)
24
16
SO2 (kilo tons)
180
63
NOx "
83
55
CH4 "
169
247
Consumption of ozone depleting substances (metric tons)
1382
732
Expenditure on air pollution abatement in US$ equivalents (million)
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 10: INTEGRATED APPROACH TO THE PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT OF LAND RESOURCES

NATIONAL PRIORITY: Capacity-building within planning institutions at the local level, completion of new regulations
STATUS REPORT: The Republic of Croatia is currently establishing a new physical planning system based on the new geo-political status and territorial organisation. The Law on Physical Planning, passed in 1994, establishes an integrated approach to planning through the elaboration of physical plans and other similar documents.

Changes in the physical outlook are considerable, due to the consequences of war. The physical plans created before the establishment of the sovereign and independent Republic of Croatia are still in use.

The Physical Planning Strategy was elaborated as a basic document of the integrated approach to planning. The Physical Planning Programme is still in process, and the government is preparing the establishment of an integrated information system for monitoring the physical conditions in the country.

Major thematic priority groups in physical planning:
- population and settlements
- use and protection of resources
- infrastructure and physical economy
- problem areas: war-stricken, border and rural regions, coastal areas, islands, among other areas.

Most of the units of local self-government have elaborated and submitted "Reports on the Physical Conditions and the Programme of Measures to Improve Physical Conditions" as the basic physical planning document defined by the law. County Physical Plans, being the basic physical plans on the local level, are in the preparatory stage.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The Institute for Physical Planning of the Ministry of Physical Planning, Building and Housing prepares documents on integrated physical-planning at the state level, conducts expert and public panel discussions and directs them to the enactment procedure (to the Croatian Government, the Croatian Parliament), thus simultaneously performing intersectoral coordination.

The Ministry of Development and Reconstruction is in charge of national programmes for special areas.

At the local level, County Institutes for Physical Planning (in the City of Zagreb - The Town Institute for Physical Planning) elaborate and propose physical planning documents, to be adopted by the representative bodies of the Counties (and of the City of Zagreb).

The municipalities and the cities develop plans in conjunction with authorised planning enterprises, to be passed by their representative bodies.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: At the state level- The Institute for Physical Planning of the Ministry of Physical Planning, Building and Housing: the elaboration of the Physical Planning Strategy and Programme of the Republic of Croatia, and of the physical planning documents (urban development), for areas of special interest for the State (National Parks Plans, and plans for other unities).

The City of Zagreb - The Bureau for Development Planning: The City of Zagreb Physical Plan, general and other physical plans.

At the local level - 21 County Bureau for Physical Planning: County Physical Plans and other plans in the County areas.

Other competent institutions and bureaus elaborate physical plans of cities and municipalities, and other detailed plans.

3. Major Groups: No information.

4. Finance: The state budget, the budgets of the units of local government and self-government, public companies development funds and funds from other development subjects.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: Activities within the following associations: the Alps-Adriatic, the Danube Region Community Programme, UNEP Sea and Coastal Areas Programme Centre, intergovernmental commissions and task forces, HABITAT, and other UN institutions.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 11: COMBATING DEFORESTATION

NATIONAL PRIORITY: (I) Protection against Forest Fires, (II) Forest Soil Conservation and Restoration
STATUS REPORT: After the first democratic elections in 1990, the Croatian Parliament issued the Law on Forests, according to which one public forestry enterprise ("Croatian Forests") was established. This concept was chosen in order to: (1) balance the monetary value of work in forest activities, regardless of the productive potentials which condition the income of a particular forest region, and (2) to protect the ecological function of forests with less market value by allocating financial resources among different forest regions. It is difficult to evaluate forestry trends by institutional, managerial or market developments, because it is often impossible to compare either quality or quantity indicators taken today with those before the restructuring of the economy. Short-term prospects are submitted to reconstruction and remediation of war damages but with the respect of sustainable management principles. 79% of forests in Croatia are managed by the state enterprise "Croatian forests", 2% are managed by non-forest organisations (such as directorates of protected areas and scientific institutions) and 19% belong to private owners (small-scale family holdings). "The Croatian Forests" provide about 80% of wood production in Croatia. The remaining 20% are mostly cordwood and fuelwood, cut by small private forest owners. The sustainability of forests is ensured by annual cut that must be significantly lower than annual volume increment (36.2% in 1995; growing stock was 247 420 000 m3 and annual volume increment was 7 188 000 m3).

Condition of Forests: The condition of forests in 1995 worsened in relation to previous years. Crown transparency higher than 25% was found in 30% of the sampled broad-leaved trees while 45% of conifers were severely damaged. Oaks (Quercus petraea and Q. robur) and fir (Abies albal) are the most affected ones in the broad-leaved and conifer tree species. Forest condition in Croatia was estimated by the method of the Institute for World Forestry in Hamburg. According to the list of forest degradation by countries, conceived at the 11th meeting of European and North-American Experts in Jirovishte (Czech Republic), Croatia takes the 17th place in Europe.

Education: Karlovac Secondary School of Forestry, Faculty of Forestry (University of Zagreb).

Science: Jastrebarsko Forestry Institute, Zagreb Faculty of Forestry; Split Institute for Adriatic Cultures and Karst Improvement, and Croatian Academy of Science and Art.

Programmes: "Croatian Forests" consists of forest management areas/directorates (15). Each management area is divided into several forest offices (170 altogether). A Forest office manages one or more forest management units (basic forest territorial and organisational unit; 624 altogether).

Each unit operates according to the management programme, harmonised with the Forest Management Areas Programme. The latter is supported by the national strategic directives. It contains economic and development policies of the area, in accordance with sectoral plans (land use, water management and management of protected areas). All forest management programmes relate to the period of 20+20 years and are subject to revision every 10 years. They must be approved by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. These programmes are the basis of annual management plans.

The most important issue in Croatia is reconstruction and restoration of areas damaged by the war. The Ministry of Development and Reconstruction is implementing the programmes for revitalisation of these areas, in which forestry issues are included as well.

Major Legislative Developments: Privatisation of non-forestry organisational units of the state-owned enterprise "Croatian Forests" was approved by the Decision of the Parliament in 1995. Denationalization of forests and forest land is considered by the Parliament as an especially delicate issue.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Forestry Department, is responsible for the forestry sector. It co-operates predominantly with the State Directorate for the Natural and Cultural Heritage of the

Ministry of Culture, responsible for protected areas and wildlife preservation; the State Directorate for the Environment, the State Directorate for Waters and the Ministry of Physical Planning, Civil Engineering and Housing.

Legislation: Forestry, and other activities concerning forests and forest land, are regulated by the Law on Forests (revised in 1993). The following legislation also (in)directly affects forests: The Law on Environmental Protection (1994); The Law on Nature Protection (1994); The Law on Waters (1995); The Law on Hunting (1994) and Ordinance regarding Changes in the Law on Hunting (1996); The Law on Protection against Fire (1993); The Law on Physical Planning (1994).

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: The total number of trained foresters employed is about 11,000.

3. Major Groups: No information.

4. Finance: Each economic subject in Croatia is obliged to pay 0.07% of the total income into the fund for

afforestation of new areas. Forest owners also contribute to the fulfillment of the Management programmes for private forests by paying 20% of the income made by selling wood from even aged forests, and 15% of income from selection forests or the forests on karst. There has been no international funding so far. A fact that should be emphasized is the war in Croatia (1991- 1996). Military activities were especially intensive in the most forested areas. Damages in the forestry sector (except for the UNTAES zone) are estimated to about 140 065 260 DM. The total amount of war damage will be known after the reintegration of the UNTAES zone. From the beginning of the war till 1995, "Croatian Forests" invested 33 711 621 DM in the reconstruction of buildings, roads, machinery and afforestation projects.

The World Bank provided a loan of 42.000.000 US$ for The Coastal Forest Reconstruction and Protection Project.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1985
1990
Latest 1993
Forest Area (Km2)
2,458
2.491
Protected forest area
447
Roundwood production (solid volume of roundwood without bark in mill m3)
4,669
4,877
3,136
Afforestation (ha/annum)
8,131
4,525
5,070
Number of employees in the forestry sector
16,000
15,000
11,000
Share of forestry sector in GNP*
1.06
1.01
Income from export of forest products (% of the total)
0.4
0.8
0.1
* Comparison is uncertain due to transitional changes (different calculation methods)

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 12: MANAGING FRAGILE ECOSYSTEMS: COMBATING DESERTIFICATION AND DROUGHT

NATIONAL PRIORITY: Desertification is not a priority problem
STATUS REPORT:

The International Convention to Combat Desertification in Countries Experiencing Drought and/or Desertification

Particularly in Africa was signed in 1994, but not ratified.

Additional comments relevant to this chapter The National Action Programme to combat desertification has not been prepared or completed, mostly because desertification is not recognized as a priority problem in Croatia. Measures from Agenda 21 and the Convention have been incorporated in many sectoral sustainable development programmes and strategies, particularly concerning the Adriatic coast and the islands.

Special attention is being paid to activities and measures for sustainable land management, soil conservation against erosion, agricultural activities, conservation of biological diversity, protection against forest fires, afforestation, protection and management of water resources, island settlements, etc.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information.

3. Major Groups: No information.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 199_
Land affected by desertification (Km2)
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 13: MANAGING FRAGILE ECOSYSTEMS: SUSTAINABLE MOUNTAIN DEVELOPMENT

NATIONAL PRIORITY: Commencement of the Sustainable Development Planning for Mountainous Areas.
STATUS REPORT: Forests of the central mountainous region are severely endangered by air pollutants, especially through transboundary transport. Unwise wood cutting, deforestation and the enlargement of agricultural areas have aggravated erosion and landslides.

A part of the mountainous region is the Dinaric Karst Region, a highly sensitive system, registered as a part of world natural heritage (locus typicus). The region is characterised by a complex regime of peculiar karst water circulation, as well as by over 8,000 underground caverns registered, and by this point, only partially explored. The biodiversity of habitats, genetic richness with endemic and relict plants, arthropods, freshwater fish and reptiles make the Dinaric Karst Region one of the richest endemic centres of European flora and fauna.

A number of species of flora and fauna, and several national protected areas in the mountainous

part have been placed under protection by the Law on Nature Protection. Despite the fact that the protection of special areas is very well regulated, the implementation thereof and management of the parks are not satisfactory, and call for a revision.

Many strategic documents foresee the mountainous area of Croatia as a future item for considerable planning. The Physical Planning Strategy, for example, in the Chapter "Measures requested to amend the physical planing system" mentions the necessity of the elaboration of a National Programme for Mountainous Areas. This Programme requires sustainable agriculture and tourism development and the revitalisation of the natural and cultural heritage.

The Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry is already applying the Stimulative Financial Measures Programme to small agricultural farms development, which includes the development of farms in mountainous areas.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: Governmental bodies, directions for protected areas, and local authorities in their respective domains. Specific coordinative body for the development of mountainous regions has not been established.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information.

3. Major Groups: No information.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 14: PROMOTING SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT

NATIONAL PRIORITY: Support for Private Family Farms Based on Sustainable Agriculture
STATUS REPORT: The position of Croatia is such that influences of several types of climate meet and mingle, and therefore natural vegetation is highly diverse. Similarly, Croatia is a natural compendium of soil types. All the diversities and wealth of natural conditions of Croatia are reflected in the regionalization of Croatian agriculture. Regional differences are the main characteristics of Croatia's rural environment. There are three main agricultural regions (with subregions): the Pannonian, the Mountainous and the Mediterranean.

The level of pollution from agricultural production is moderate. In fact, there are regions in Croatia which are proposed to start the development of production of ecologically pure agricultural products (e.g. parts of the mountainous region, where the production is traditionally extensive, with minimum use of pesticides and mineral fertilizers). On the other hand, ex-social sector areas (predominantly in the Pannonian region, still contain higher rates of pesticide and mineral fertilizer use and are oriented towards the implementation of sustainable agricultural production.

The actions for promoting sustainable agricultural and rural development described in Agenda 21 are included in "The Strategy of Sustainable Agricultural Development in the Republic of Croatia," prepared by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry with assistance from the FAO. The key element in the Strategy is the harmonization of Croatian agricultural policy with the Guidelines of the GATT Uruguay Round, and the formulation of long term-measures. The main objective of the Strategy is "the promotion of efficient production and marketing of agricultural products, in order to improve the welfare of farmers and consumers, to contribute to the growth of the Croatian economy, to protect natural resources and ensure the competitiveness of the Croatian agricultural products on the world market. In achieving this objective, special emphasis should be put on private family farms which are the basis of Croatian agriculture."

In all of Croatian Counties, the Farmers Extension Services, the Veterinary Services and the Livestock Breeding Services were established to advise and help farmers. In this regard, the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry has started a Farmer Support Services Project. The project would support the transition of the agriculture sector by providing technology-related support services that are relevant to private farmers. The aim is to improve the income of the private farming community and increase its productivity and hence the competitiveness of the sector. The project would change the mode of technical service deliveries to private farming communities and restructure and strengthen institutions to meet the needs of the market economy. The project has six components: (I) Extension, (II) Research, (IlI) Animal Health, (IV) Pasture and Fodder Development, (V) Seed Industry Development, and (VI) Policy Analysis Support.

Tourism and agriculture are Croatian strategic priorities, and they belong to the activities of special importance for the long-term development of Croatia. Tourism utilises large quantities of agricultural products, and food and drink for tourist consumption, thus representing an important market. Having this in mind, many farmers have shown a considerable interest in the production of eco-products over the past two years, but it is still necessary to prepare the legal framework for eco-agricultural production.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, the Department of Agriculture, is the competent governmental body. In order to achieve sustainability, cooperation between governmental bodies is a necessity (i.e. The State Directorate for Environment, The State Directorate for Water, and Ministry of Culture - The Directorate for Natural and Cultural Heritage, etc.).

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: The Faculty of Agronomy, the Veterinary Faculty and the Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics/University of Zagreb, the Split Institute for Oceanography and Fishery, the Faculty of Agriculture/University of Osijek, the Osijek Institute of Agriculture, the Croatian Bank of Plant Genes in Zagreb, "Croatian Waters" public enterprise, "Rudjer Boskovich" Institute in Zagreb, Croatian Livestock and Breeding Centre and Agriculture Extension Service, Special Waste Agency, Croatian Public Health Institute, NGOs etc.

3. Major Groups: No information.

4. Finance: A new financing and agricultural development system are being considered by the Parliament. The fund

will be based on taxes (sold agricultural products), land leases and credits (banks and international funds). Economic support for the privatization of the former state-owned companies will be provided by EBRD.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: Regional co-operation: Alps-Adriatic and Danube Regional Community Programme. International cooperation: restoring of olive-groves in the Adriatic Region (FAO programme), Emergency Reconstruction Loan (World Bank Project), implementation of the Farmer Support Services Project (World Bank Project), implementation of the Wholesale Market Programme in Croatia (EBRD Project) and several bilateral projects with neighbouring countries.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1985
1990
Latest 1996
Agricultural land (Km2)
3,235
3,220
2,357
Agricultural land as % of total land area
57.2%
56.9%
56.7%
Agricultural land per capita
0.45
Consumption of mineral fertilizers (t)
589,265
517,955
316,937
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 15: CONSERVATION OF BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY

NATIONAL PRIORITY: Inventory of Biological Diversity
STATUS REPORT:

The Convention on Biological Diversity was signed in 1992 and ratified in 1996.

The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora:

Additional comments relevant to this chapter

The basic national legislative framework for the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity is the Constitution of the Republic of Croatia (1992), which promotes the preservation of the natural and human environment as the highest values of the State.

The Law on Environmental Protection (1994) states that the main goals of environmental protection are creating conditions for sustainable development, permanent conservation of authenticity of natural communities, biodiversity, and the conservation of environmental stability.

The Law on Nature Protection (1994) emphasizes some general principles of nature protection, one of the most important being ensuring the rational utilisation of nature and its resources, without significant damage and annihilation of its parts, and with the least possible disturbance of the balance of its components. The Law protects the significant and highly valuable natural entities and regions. Approximately 7.5% of the state territory is protected. The structure of national and nature parks illustrates the richness and the diversity of Croatian nature. Three of the National Parks are situated on the Adriatic islands (Kornati, Brijuni, Mljet) including the surrounding sea, two of them illustrate hydrographic and morphological curiosities (Plitvice lakes, the river Krka), while the two of them are typical mountainous areas (Risnjak and Paklenica). Three of the parks of nature are typical mountainous areas (Velebit, Biokovo and Medvednica), one of them is insular (Telascica), while two of them represent the biological richness of lowland marshy areas (Kopacki nt and Lonja Plains). The Plitvice lakes are on the UNESCO World Natural Heritage List, the Velebit mountain is on the UNESCO Biosphere Reservations List (UNESCO "Man and Biosphere" Scientific Programme - MAB), while four of the areas are on the Ramsar Convention list (Kopacki rit, Lonja Plains, Neretva River Delta and Crna Mlaka/ Black Puddle). Areas of protected nature in Croatia have suffered considerable war damage, which has not yet been thoroughly assessed.

Legal obligation for the Environmental Impact Assessment was created in 1984, and it is conducted as a constituent part of the pre-investment survey preparation procedure, concerning the construction of facilities and other environmental interventions. According to the Regulation on Environmental Impact Assessment, identifying the processes and activities which have or are likely to have significant adverse impact on biodiversity form an integral part of the pre-investment surveys procedure, together with the establishment of prevention and reduction measures.

Apart from the in-situ protection measures for flora and fauna species and for important nature areas, ex-situ measures for the conservation of biodiversity are also being undertaken.

Croatian Bank of Plant Genetic Resources has already started working, and so has the Animal Genes Conservation Bank, in cooperation with FAO.

Many sectoral laws regulate the use of natural resources, such as water, sea, forests, soil, and biological diversity. They are in the competence of different governmental bodies and do not appropriately consider environmental aspect in the concept of sustainability. The enforcement and practical implementation of already existing provisions should be more efficient.

Inventory of biological diversity data has not been established yet, but the process has started as part of the National Strategy for the Conservation and Sustainable Use of Biodiversity, which is currently being prepared. Identification of the components of biodiversity has been established only for higher plants and mammals, which comprise only a small part of Croatian flora and fauna. An ecosystem and habitat inventory has not yet been established. All the indicators of the status of biodiversity, i.e. data on eco-systems, vegetation, flora and fauna, will make a constituent part of the Informational System for Environment, to be established by the State Directorate for Environment.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The administrative structure charged with biodiversity issues belongs within the competence of several ministries and governmental bodies (i.e. environment, nature protection, forestry, water, agriculture, physical planning etc.). Coordination between responsible ministries should be improved.

The Directorate for the Protection of Cultural and Natural Heritage under the Ministry of Culture is the competent governmental body for the implementation of the Law on Ratification of the Convention on Biological Diversity. The Directorate will establish a coordinative body among different ministries to implement the CBD.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: CARNet, Croatian Academic and Research Network: Croatian Informational Service for Biological Diversity, address: http: pubwww.srce.hr/botanic/, e-mail: Sven Jelaska@public.srce.hr, Faculty of Natural Science and Mathematics, University of Zagreb. The Croatian Informational Service for

Biological Diversity is the National Focal Point for Exchange Mechanisms within the Convention

on Biological Diversity.

3. Major Groups: The Faculty of Natural Science and Mathematics in Zagreb, the Rudjer Boskovich Institute in Zagreb and Rovinj, Split Institute for Oceanography and Fishery, Osijek Faculty of Pedagogy, Zagreb Museum of Natural History, Croatian Group "Wolf, Our Beautiful Country" Nature Lovers Movement, Croatian Biological Society, etc.

4. Finance: The state budget, the budgets of the units of local government and self-government. In 1996, Croatia submitted a funding application to the World Bank/GEF for financing the National Strategy and Action Plan for Biological and Landscape Diversity. The grant was approved in February 1997, amounting to 102,000 US$.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1992
Latest 1996
Protected area as % of total land area
445.888(ha)

7.88%
Number of rare and endangered flora taxa (Red book)
226
Number of protected flora species
44
Number of protected fauna species
406

+ all migratory birds
and Cetaceans

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 16: ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT OF BIOTECHNOLOGY

NATIONAL PRIORITY: Control over the Release of Genetically Modified Organisms into the Environment
STATUS REPORT: Croatian pharmaceutical and food industries, as well as scientific institutions, use biotechnological methods in the research and production of pharmaceuticals and food. Genetic manipulations on living organisms are also performed within those procedures.

Some of the legally active regulatory mechanisms governing the production and the use of living, genetically modified organisms, prescribe the obligation of reporting their production to the competent authorities. However, no control or monitoring system concerning the release of genetically modified organisms into the environment has been established.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: Several governmental bodies within their respective domains: the Ministry of Economy (Industry), the Ministry of Health, the Ministry of Science and Technology, the Ministry of Economy, the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, the State Directorate for Environment, the Directorate for the Protection of Cultural and Natural Heritage under the Ministry of Culture.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information.

3. Major Groups: Research institutes, industry.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 17: PROTECTION OF THE OCEANS, ALL KINDS OF SEAS, INCLUDING ENCLOSED AND SEMI-ENCLOSED SEAS, AND COASTAL AREAS AND THE PROTECTION, RATIONAL USE AND DEVELOPMENT OF THEIR LIVING RESOURCES

NATIONAL PRIORITY: (I) Prevention of Pollution from Ships and from the Land Based Sources

(II) Construction of Waste Water Treatment Facilities in Settlements and Coastal Industry

STATUS REPORT:

The UN Convention on the Law of the Sea: succession in 1991.

See also the attached tables on the next pages.

No information.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The State Directorate for the Environment and the Ministry of Physical Planning, Civil Engineering and Housing are in charge of integrated coastal area management planning.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: Croatia applies the best available technology to identify and prevent the pollution of the marine environment.

3. Major Groups: Governmental bodies, units of local government and self-government, scientific and research

institutions, NGOs.

4. Finance: Approximately US $ 1 mill is spent annually for the operation of cleaning vats and the prevention of pollution of the marine environment.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: Croatia, as the signatory of the Barcelona Convention on the Protection of the Mediterranean against Pollution, cooperates at the international level within the framework of the MAP, and especially with its Regional Centre - REMPEC/Malta, the Especially Protected Areas Centre in Tunis, and the PAP/RAC in Split, which deals with the integrated area-specific environmental management.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 1994
Catches of marine species (metric tons)
34,901
16,560
Population in coastal areas
1,419,616*
1,510,415*
Population served by waste water treatment (% of country's

total population)

6.0
10.2
Discharges of oil into coastal waters (metric tons)**
no
information
30,000
Releases of phosphate into coastal waters (metric tons)**
11,452
Releases of nitrate into coastal waters (metric tons)**
106,405
Other data

* 1981 and 1991 census

** estimate

Chapter 17 (Oceans) Continued:

Check the boxes in the column below left: Check the boxes in the column below right:
For level of importance use: For level of implementation use:
*** = very important *** = fully covered
** = important ** = well covered- gaps being addressed
* = not important * = poorly covered
N = not relevant O = not covered; N = not relevant

TABLE I. THE FOLLOWING ACTIVITIES HAVE BEEN CONSIDERED BY THE APPROPRIATE COORDINATING MECHANISM FOR INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF COASTAL AND MARINE AREAS AND THEIR RESOURCES.

LEVEL OF

IMPORTANCE
ACTIVITY AS DESCRIBED IN AGENDA 21
LEVEL OF

IMPLEMENTATION
***
a. Preparation and implementation of land and water use and siting policies.
**
***
b. Implementation of integrated coastal and marine management and sustainable development plans and programmes at appropriate levels.
*
**
c. Preparation of coastal profiles identifying critical areas including eroded zones, physical processes, development patterns, user conflicts and specific priorities for management.
*
***
d. Prior environmental impact assessment, systematic observation and follow-up of major projects, including systematic incorporation of results in decision-making.
***
***
e. Contingency plans for human induced and natural disasters.
**
***
f. Improvement of coastal human settlements, especially in housing, drinking water and treatment and disposal of sewage, solid wastes and industrial effluents.
*
**
g. Periodic assessment of the impacts of external factors and phenomena to ensure that the objectives of integrated management and sustainable development of coastal areas and marine environment are met.
*
**
h. Conservation and restoration of altered critical habitats.
*
***
I. Integration of sectoral programmes on sustainable development for settlements, agriculture, tourism, fishing, ports and industries affecting the coastal areas.
*
**
J. Infrastructure adaptation and alternative employment.
*
**
K. Human resource development and training.
*
**
L. Public education, awareness and information programmes.
*
**
M. Promoting environmentally sound technology and sustainable practices.
0
**
N. Development and simultaneous implementation of environmental quality criteria.
*

TABLE II. TECHNOLOGY (MARINE ENVIRONMENT)

LEVEL OF

IMPORTANCE
ACTIVITY AS DESCRIBED IN AGENDA 21
LEVEL OF

IMPLEMENTATION
**
A. Apply preventive, precautionary and anticipatory approaches so as to avoid degradation of the marine environment, as well as to reduce the risk of long-term or irreversible adverse effects upon it.
*
**
B. Ensure prior assessment of activities that may have significant adverse impacts upon the marine environment.
***
***
C. Integrate protection of the marine environment into relevant general environmental, social and economic development policies.
*
**
D. Develop economic incentives, where appropriate, to apply clean technologies and other means consistent with the internalization of environmental costs, such as the polluter pays principle, so as to avoid degradation of the marine environment.
*
**
E. Improve the living standards of coastal populations, particularly in developing countries, so as to contribute to reducing the degradation of the coastal and marine environment.
*
**
F. Effective monitoring and surveillance within the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of fish harvesting and transportation of toxic and other hazardous materials.
*

TABLE III. SEWAGE RELATED ISSUES

LEVEL OF

IMPORTANCE
ACTIVITY AS DESCRIBED IN AGENDA 21
LEVEL OF

IMPLEMENTATION
***
A. Sewage related problems are considered when formulating or reviewing coastal development plans, including human development plans.
**
B. Sewage treatment facilities are built in accordance with national policies.
**
***
C. Coastal outfalls are located so as to maintain acceptable level of environmental quality and to avoid exposing shell fisheries, water intakes and bathing areas to pathogens.
**
***
D. The Government promotes primary treatment of municipal sewage discharged to rivers, estuaries and the sea, or other solutions appropriate to specific sites.
**
***
E. The Government supports the establishment and improvement of local, national, subregional and regional, as necessary, regulatory and monitoring programmes to control effluent discharge. Minimum sewage effluent guidelines and water quality criteria are in use.
**

TABLE IV. OTHER SOURCES OF MARINE POLLUTION, THE GOVERNMENT HAS:

LEVEL OF

IMPORTANCE
ACTIVITY AS DESCRIBED IN AGENDA 21
LEVEL OF

IMPLEMENTATION
***
A. Established or improved upon, as necessary, regulatory and monitoring programmes to control emissions, including recycling technologies.
**
***
B. Promoted risk and environmental impact assessments to help ensure an acceptable level of environmental quality.
**
***
C. Promoted assessment and cooperation at the regional level, where appropriate, with respect to the input of point source pollutants from the marine environment.
*
**
D. Taken steps to eliminate emissions or discharges of organohalogen compounds from the marine environment.
0
**
E. Taken steps to eliminate/reduce emissions or discharges or other synthetic organic compounds from the marine environment.
0
**
F. Promoted controls over anthropogenic inputs of nitrogen and phosphorous that enter coastal waters where such problems as eutrophication threaten the marine environment or its resources.
*
**
G. Taken steps to develop and implement environmentally sound land-use techniques and practices to reduce run-off to water courses and estuaries which would cause pollution or degradation of the marine environment.
0
**
H. Promoted the use of environmentally less harmful pesticides and fertilizers and alternative methods for pest control, and considered the prohibition of those found to be environmentally unsound.
*
**
I. Adopted new initiatives at national, subregional and regional levels for controlling the input of non-point source pollutants which require broad changes in sewage and waste management, agricultural practices, mining, construction and transportation.
*
N
J. Taken steps to control and prevent coastal erosion and siltation due to anthropogenic factors related to, inter alia, land-use and construction techniques and practices.
N

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 18: PROTECTION OF THE QUALITY AND SUPPLY OF FRESHWATER RESOURCES: APPLICATION OF INTEGRATED APPROACHES TO THE DEVELOPMENT, MANAGEMENT AND USE OF WATER RESOURCES

NATIONAL PRIORITY: (I) Water Supply to the Danube Basin Region in Croatia (II) Construction of Public Sewage System with Municipal Waste Water Treatment Facilities with Minimum Charge of 50.000 ES
STATUS REPORT: The systematic organization for the implementation of Agenda 21 in the field of water management in Croatia has not been carried out, nor have funds for that purpose been secured in the state budget.

A new Law on Waters and the Law on Water Management Financing were passed in 1995. The Law on Waters regulates the mode and conditions of water management, concerning use, protection and regulation of watercourses. The principles of water management are defined according to the uniformity of water system and sustainable development, satisfying the needs of the present generation, and at the same time not threatening the right and the possibilities of the future ones to exercise the same privileges.

The protection of waters against pollution is realized through control over water quality status and pollution sources, through prevention, limitation and prohibition of actions having possible adverse effects on water quality.

The classification of waters defines water categories correspondent to water quality conditions, in terms of their general ecological functions, and for their purposeful use. The classification is established on the basis of limited values of individual substances and other water properties, and by various indicator types: physical, oxygen regimes, nutritious substances, heavy metals, organic compounds, microbiological and biological indicators and radioactivity. Water protection is carried out according to the State Water Protection Plan and County Water Protection Plans.

The following conventions significant to water management were ratified in 1996: the Convention on Co-operation in the Protection and Sustainable Use of the Danube River Basin, and the Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakes. Bilateral treaties on the regulation of water management relations have been signed with the neighbouring states: Hungary, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Slovenia.

Long term objectives for the sustainable development of water management in the Republic of Croatia include:
1. complex research to prepare basic data, keeping records
2. elaboration of water management plans based on technical and economic analysis
3. adjustment of water supply and sewage systems with ecological, social, infrastructure, and economic development requirements
4. regulation of watercourses, construction of water protection systems in the catchment areas of major state and regional watercourses
5. raising the water supply level from the public water supply system from the present 63% to 90%
6. development of agricultural land irrigation
7. increase in the level of protection of freshwater and the sea against pollution

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The Croatian Parliament, the Government, the State Directorate for Waters.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: Croatian waters: i.e. the legal entity in charge of water management, the national Council for Waters, municipal companies in cities and municipalities.

3. Major Groups: No information.

4. Finance: Financial funds for water management are provided from the water funds and fees paid by the beneficiaries of the water system.

Sources of funds:
- water fund,
- water use fee,
- water protection fee,
- gravel and sand excavation fee,
- catchment area water management fee,
- budget of local units of government and self-government,
- other sources (state budget, donations, loans by local and foreign banks such as WB, EBRD).

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 199-
Fresh water availability (total domestic/external in million m3)
Annual withdrawal of freshwater as % of available water
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 19: ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT OF TOXIC CHEMICALS, INCLUDING PREVENTION OF ILLEGAL INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN TOXIC AND DANGEROUS PRODUCTS

NATIONAL PRIORITY: Improvement and Enhancement of the System of Environmentally Sound Management of Chemicals
STATUS REPORT: Legislative, administrative, and technical infrastructure for the environmentally sound management of chemicals has been established in the Republic of Croatia as a constituent part of the infrastructure for productive and reproductive chemical industry, of mass consumption, and for the activities that depend on chemicals. This infrastructure provides the basis for the management of drugs, industrial chemicals, artificial fertilizers, plant-protecting chemicals, toxicants and dangerous chemicals, as well as for chemical emissions into the working and living environment.

A system for the control of the transport of chemicals that are severely restricted due to their harmful effects on human health and environment has been developed. Lists of 656 toxic chemicals, 112 drugs and 540 plant-protection chemicals, of 96 severely restricted chemicals with a limited usage due to their adverse effects on the ozone layer, and of 295 types of hazardous waste that can be put on the market with the permission of the competent authority have been established.

In September 1996, the government of the Republic of Croatia formed a Commission for the Environmentally Sound Management of Chemicals, as an advisory board to solve the main problems related to management of chemicals. The Commission consists of appointed members, representatives of administrative bodies competent for safe management of chemicals, and representatives of the Croatian Chamber of Economy. Representatives of professional institutions, non-governmental associations and experts in particular fields join the Commission when needed. The Commission submits annual reports of its activities to the Government. The State Directorate for Environment is the National Focal Point for the coordination of activities regarding the environmentally sound management of chemicals.

The main goal of chemicals management is the enhancement and permanent improvement of legislative, administrative, institutional and technical infrastructure for the systematic and coordinated implementation of environmentally sound management of chemicals of all parties, in accordance with the needs of the Republic of Croatia and its international obligations. The following priorities were identified within the scope of the main goal:

improvement and enhancement of the System for the Safe Management of Chemicals
elaboration of the Programme of risk reduction-oriented measures
improvement of the work on chemical dangers assessment
coordination of classification, packaging and marking of chemicals
improvement of the work on measures to prevent illegal trade in toxic and hazardous chemicals
exchange of relevant information regarding the safe management of chemicals.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The Environmentally Sound Management of Chemicals is in the competence of 16 administrative bodies, and is regulated by 86 legal documents.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: With the 16 administrative bodies, another 13 institutions, 4 NGOs and 10 of the largest (out of the total of 275) companies are the most responsible for the safe management of chemicals.

3. Major Groups: Governmental bodies: The State Directorate for Environment, the Ministry of Science and Technology, the Ministry of Education and Sports, the Ministry of Development and Reconstruction, the Ministry of Economy, the Ministry of Maritime Affairs, Transportation and Communication, the Ministry of Finance, the Ministry of the Interior, the Ministry of Defence, the Ministry of Labour and Social Welfare, the Ministry of Health, the Ministry of Physical Planning,

Civil Engineering and Housing, the State Bureau of Standardization and Metrology, the State Bureau of Statistics.

Institutions: Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Faculty of Natural Science and Mathematics, Faculty of Medicine, Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, Faculty of Agriculture, Faculty of Veterinary, the "Rudjer Boskovich" Institute, Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Zagreb Veterinary Institute, Institute for Security Research, Quality Testing Institute, Croatian Biological Society, Croatian Association for Water and Sea Pollution, Croatian

Association of Chemical Engineers, Chemical Industry Association of the Croatian Chamber of Economy.

4. Finance: A Draft National Action Programme and a funding request of 979,636 US$ for the 1997-1999 period have been submitted to the Government of the Republic of Croatia.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: Numerous activities in the field of safe management of chemicals, many of them initiated by different international centres, such as UNEP/RPTC, WHO, ILO, YFCS, FAO, OECD, have been performed.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 20: ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT OF HAZARDOUS WASTES, INCLUDING PREVENTION OF ILLEGAL INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN HAZARDOUS WASTES

NATIONAL PRIORITY: (I) Setting the Disposal Recovery Sites in the Vicinity of Waste Generation Sites (II) More Recovery Plants
STATUS REPORT:

The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal was signed in 1989 and ratified in 1994.

The latest information was provided to the Basel Convention Secretariat in 1996.

It was estimated that about 200,000 tones of hazardous waste were produced in 1994.

The main legislation concerned is:
- The Law on Waste (1995),
- Rule-Book on Waste Types (1996),
- List of Legalized Professional Institutions with Authority for Certifying Physical and Chemical Properties of Wastes (1996).

The following is under preparation:
- A Rule-Book on the Necessary Equipment Applied to Facilities and Buildings for the Storage, Recovery or Disposal of Hazardous Waste.

Major waste categories: EWC code 13 00 00, O5 00 00, 10 00 00, 11 00 00.

The main method of disposal: landfills, incineration.

System of collecting: The waste producer is obliged to take care of waste himself, to store it and also to organize the transport of waste to the landfill, or to the site of disposal/recovery.

Capacities Technologies: Liquid fuel combustion chambers with the capacity of MW or greater used for waste oils and emulsions; internal incineration is performed for industry, hotels and hospitals - capacity up to 2,500 kg /day.

Additional comments relevant to this chapter


- The import of hazardous waste into Croatia is forbidden by law.
- Permission of the State Directorate for Environment of Croatia is necessary for the export as well as the transit of hazardous waste across the Croatian territory.
- The system of transboundary waste movement control has been established including the system of information exchange with the Customs Office.
- The State Directorate for Environment is the Competent Authority and the Focal Point according to Article 5 of the Basel Convention.
- Advisory service about waste management legislation, for all the interested parties, is also provided by the State Directorate for Environment.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The Parliament, the Government, the State Directorate for Environment.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information.

3. Major Groups: No information.

4. Finance: Service charges or fees.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: There is no international or regional cooperation in waste management.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 1994
Generation of hazardous waste (t)
357,000
200,000
Import of hazardous wastes (t)
Export of hazardous wastes (t)
no data
6,540
Area of land contaminated by hazardous waste (km2)
Expenditure on hazardous waste treatment (US$)
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 21: ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT OF SOLID WASTES AND SEWAGE-RELATED ISSUES

NATIONAL PRIORITY: Creation of Integrated Waste Management System and Legislation
STATUS REPORT: It was estimated that about 5,200,000 tonnes of waste were produced in Croatia in 1994.

The main legislation concerned is:
- The Law on Waste (1995),
- Rule-Book on Waste Types (1996),
- Rule-Book on Packaging Waste (1996)
- List of Legalized Professional Institutions for Certifying Physical and Chemical Properties of Waste (1996).

The following are under preparation:
- By-Law on Necessary Equipment Applied to Facilities and Buildings for Storage, Recovery or Disposal of Hazardous Wastes,
- Rule-Book on Necessary Conditions Applied to Buildings for Storage and Recovery of Wastes, to Categories, Procedures, Closing and clean-up of Landfills, and to Qualifications for Waste Managers.

Major waste categories: EWC Code 02 00 00, 17 00 00, 20 00 00, 03 00 00, O5 00 00

The structure of waste:
- municipal: 611,000 tonnes
- industrial: 4,601,000 tonnes (agriculture + forestry + mining + industry)
- hazardous waste: approx. 200,000 tonnes

The main method of disposal: landfilling.

System of collecting: gathering solid waste, transportation to the disposal sites, transfer stations for secondary raw materials

Number of landfills: 120 official landfills.

Characteristics of landfills : various size, mostly not properly facilitated

According to the facilities five main types of official landfills exist:
- disposal sites without filling plans, spreading and compacting of waste,
- disposal sites with partial spreading and compacting of waste,
- disposal sites with immediate or periodical waste incineration after dumping (islands and coastal areas),
- disposal sites with spreading and compacting of wastes and aftercare covering with inert materials,
- sanitary landfills fulfilling all criteria.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The Parliament, the Government, the State Directorate for Environment, units of local government and self-government.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: Disposal sites with the capacity up to 8,000,000 tonnes (for 11,000,000 m3).

3. Major Groups: No information.

4. Finance: The utility services concept, service charges or fees.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No regional or international cooperation on wastes exists, with the exception of the implementation of legislation.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 1994
Generation of industrial and municipal waste (t)
5,200,000
Waste disposed(Kg/capita)
Expenditure on waste collection and treatment (US$)
Waste recycling rates (%)
Municipal waste disposal (Kg/capita/day)
0.62
Waste reduction rates per unit of GDP (t/year)
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 22: SAFE AND ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES

NATIONAL PRIORITY: Establishment of Infrastructure for the Management of Radioactive

Waste and Protection against Radiation

STATUS REPORT: According to IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency), the Republic of Croatia is a B type

country (broad use of radiation sources in industry, medicine and research, but without operational research or commercial nuclear reactors). Types and quantities of radionuclides used are equivalent to the level of industrial development of Croatia. Industrial usage comprises several hundred different gauges and measurement systems for gammaradiography with sealed radiation sources; in medicine sealed and open sources are used for diagnostic purposes (10 nuclear medicine centres) as well as in the radiotherapy (6 centres engaged in teletherapy and 3 engaged in brachitherapy).

In several institutes radionuclides are used for research purposes (tracer techniques, calibration, research, irradiation of medical equipment and food, etc). Several tens of thousands of radioactive smoke detectors and several hundred of radioactive lightening rods are installed in the facilities throughout the country.

Most of the activities using radionuclides generate radioactive waste. Spent sealed sources are considered a problem requiring special attention. There is no radioactive waste disposal site in Republic of Croatia. Presently, radioactive waste is collected and placed at two national storage facilities run by research institutes.

A Hazardous Waste Management Agency (Croatian abbr. APO) was founded by the Government's decision, in order to manage hazardous and radioactive waste. A major issue is the planned construction of LL/ILW repository for radioactive waste, generated by routine operation from the decommissioning of NPP Krsko. The plant was built as a joint venture of Croatia and Slovenia in 1984.

The Republic of Croatia, being a newly created state in transition, still does not have an adequate legislative framework and regulatory system needed for supporting an efficient radioactive management system, although with its present resources (human and technical capacities) this could be achieved.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information.

3. Major Groups: No information.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTERS 23-32: MAJOR GROUPS

The role of major groups are also covered under the various chapters of Agenda 21. The following is a summary of main objectives outlined in Agenda 21. Please check the appropriate boxes and describe briefly any important steps or obstacles.

STATUS REPORT ON PARTICIPATION BY MAJOR GROUPS AT THE

NATIONAL AND LOCAL LEVELS
Ch. 24: GLOBAL ACTION FOR WOMEN TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND EQUITABLE DEVELOPMENT.

The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women was ratified on 8, October, 1991.

24.a Increasing the proportion of women decision makers: See below

24.b assessing, reviewing, revising and implementing curricula and other educational material with a view to promoting dissemination of gender-relevant knowledge. Curricula and educational material : No information.

24.c and 24.d formulating and implementing policies, guidelines, strategies and plans for achievement of equality in all aspects of society including issuing a strategy by year 2000 to eliminate obstacles to full participation of women in sustainable development. Policies/strategies etc.: No information.

24.e establishing mechanisms by 1995 to assess implementation and impact of development and environment policies and programmes on women: No information.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page): The Republic of Croatia has ratified the Convention on the Elimination of all the Forms of Discrimination of Women, in effect here since October 8, 1991. It has also made its First Report on the Application of the Convention and forwarded it to the United Nations.

The Government of the Republic of Croatia has one female Vice President, and two female ministers. Women represent 4.41% of the Parliament's Chamber of Counties, and 7.1% of the Parliament's Chamber of Representatives.

In relation to the year 1994, there have been no changes in the gender composition of the Government, while the Parliament has seen a slight increase in the percentage of women (it used to be 5.1 % in the Chamber of Representatives and 2.2 % in the Chamber of Counties).

There is no data on the percentage of women at the decision-making level in counties or districts.

The Government of the Republic of Croatia founded the Government's Commission for Equality, with the objective of creating a general National Policy for the Improvement of the Status of Women, which should follow the guidelines created by the Action Platform of the Fourth World Conference on Women. The Commission will cooperate with non-governmental organizations in the creation of this policy, and also receive full assistance from the European Council.

Clearly one of the main tasks in the Republic of Croatia is increasing the number of women participating in political life.

STATUS REPORT ON PARTICIPATION BY MAJOR GROUPS AT THE

NATIONAL AND LOCAL LEVELS
Ch. 25: CHILDREN AND YOUTH IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT.

25.a establishing processes that promote dialogue between the youth and government at all levels and mechanisms that permit youth access to information and opportunity to present their views on implementing A21 : No information.

Describe their role in

the national process:

25.b reducing youth unemployment: No information.

25.c ensuring that by year 2000 more than 50% of youth -- gender balanced -- have access to appropriate secondary education or vocational training : No information.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page): No information.

STATUS REPORT ON PARTICIPATION BY MAJOR GROUPS AT THE

NATIONAL AND LOCAL LEVELS
Ch. 26: RECOGNIZING AND STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF INDIGENOUS PEOPLE AND THEIR COMMUNITIES.

26.a establishing a process to empower indigenous people and their communities -- through policies and legal instruments: No information.

26.b strengthening arrangements for active participation in national policies : No information.

26.c involving indigenous people in resource management strategies and programmes at the national and local level : No information.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page): No information.

Ch. 27: STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS: PARTNERS FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT.

27.a developing mechanisms that allow NGOs to play their partnership role responsibly and effectively : No information.

27.b reviewing formal procedures and mechanisms to involve NGOs in decision making and implementation : No information.

27.c promoting and allowing NGOs to participate in the conception, establishment and evaluation of official mechanisms to review Agenda 21 implementation : No information.

27.d establishing a mutually productive dialogue by 1995 at the national level between NGOs and governments : No information.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page): According to the list supplied by the State Directorate for Environment there are 188 non-governmental organizations engaged in environmental and nature protection in the Republic of Croatia. NGO activities and their good intentions would yield better results if their status and their organizational framework could be determined on a long-term basis.

NGOs are registered according to the Law on Citizen's Associations and Social Organizations since 1990. The Ministry of Administration is responsible for developing the Law on Associations. Public criticism on the draft bill was based on the fact that its provisions and acts were not specific enough.

The Law on Environmental Protection (1994) relates to future regulations that should create a legislative framework for the increased public involvement in environmental affairs. According to certain existing regulations, the public is supposed to be involved in some decision-making processes (Rule Book on Environmental Impact Assessment).

There is no legislative obligation for the cooperation of governmental and non-governmental organizations or for the participation of NGOs in decision-making. However, there is cooperation in the environmental sphere, mostly limited to individual cases, and non-institutionalized.

Cooperation of governmental institutions, mainly The State Directorate for Environment (SDE), and environmental NGOs, exists various forms. Documents of greater significance have been presented and discussed between SDE and NGOs. SDE also cooperates and assists in different NGO activities and has provided financial support for a few of them. The Ministry of Development and Reconstruction offers financial and other support to NGOs in environmental projects.

STATUS REPORT ON PARTICIPATION BY MAJOR GROUPS AT THE

NATIONAL AND LOCAL LEVELS
Ch. 28: LOCAL AUTHORITIES' INITIATIVES IN SUPPORT OF AGENDA 21.

28.a encouraging local authorities to implement and monitor programmes that aim to ensure participation of women and youth in local decision making : No information.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page): No information.

Ch. 29: STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF WORKERS AND THEIR TRADE UNIONS.

29.a full participation of workers in implementation and evaluation of A21 : No information.

29.b (By year 2000, (a) promoting ratification of ILO conventions; (b) establishing bipartite and tripartite mechanism on safety, health and sustainable development; (c) increasing number of environmental collective agreements; (d) reducing occupational accidents and injuries; (e) increasing workers' education and training efforts : No information.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page): The Republic of Croatia has by this point ratified 56 conventions of the International Labour Organization, among which are all the so-called basic conventions or the conventions on basic human rights in the field of labour.

The government cannot estimate what the number of conventions ratified until the year 2000 will be, but the possibility of acceptance of a certain number of new ones is being discussed.

An important role in the said process will be played by the Social Economic Council, which is, as a tripartite body, being established at the national level.

The Republic of Croatia has altered the complete labour legislation, thus increasing the role of employees, even in work safety. The new Law on Work Safety anticipates the election of an employees' representative for work safety, having a wide range of authority. In addition, all employees are bound by the law to perform their jobs with proper care, in accordance with the rules of the work safety.

STATUS REPORT ON PARTICIPATION BY MAJOR GROUPS AT THE

NATIONAL AND LOCAL LEVELS
30: STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY.

30.a increasing the efficiency of resource use, including reuse, recycling, and reduction of waste per unit of economic output : No information.

30.b encouraging the concept of stewardship in management and use of natural resources by entrepreneurs : No information.

List any actions taken in this area: No information.

30.c increasing number of enterprises that subscribe to and implement sustainable development policies : No information.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page): During the year 1996, the first year of peace, some important initiatives were set in motion:

1. Founding of the Croatian Business Council for Sustainable Development. The founder is a group of nineteen of Croatia's leading firms and companies. Various industrial and service areas are represented on the Council. The founding companies, along with other companies, accept the principles of the Business Charter on Sustainable Development and are gradually building them into their dealings;

2. Launching of the Technical Committee 207 (TC) within the State Bureau of Standardization and Metrology. Its domain is environmental management, encompassing a number of ISO 14000 standards. The representatives of some leading Croatian organizations partake in the work of TC. They are interested in working there, as well as in the acceptance of standards, since some ten companies have started the preliminary activities for the implementation of an environmental management system, and some have already obtained pre-certification according to ISO 14001

3. Founding of the Cleaner Technologies Centre, the Centre for the Transfer of Technologies, and a few others. The leading Croatian organizations and degree-granting educational institutions are involved here as well;

4. Launching of waste exchange activities based on the commercial supply/demand principle within the Croatian Chamber of Economy. The number of Croatian organizations partaking in waste exchange activities is continually increasing.

5. The number of products with an "Environmentally friendly" label has increased. An Environmental Label is awarded to manufacturers of consumer goods that have reduced adverse impacts of their products on the environment.

6. A number of educational initiatives organized by Croatian and international institutions, such as workshops, seminars, symposiums and debating tables, covering the following topics: environmental management system, eco-efficiency implementation in business, implementation of legal regulations, e.g. of the Law on Waste;

7. Many organizations inform their workers on environmental and sustainable development topics through their in-house journals (e.g. in PLIVA, INA, Ericsson-Nikola Tesla, LTD -- five years of the regular monthly column,"Earth*Man*Environment").

STATUS REPORT ON PARTICIPATION BY MAJOR GROUPS AT THE

NATIONAL AND LOCAL LEVELS
Ch. 31: SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL COMMUNITY.

31.a improving exchange of knowledge and concerns between s&t community and the general public.

Scientific community has already established ways in which to address the general public and deal with sustainable development: No information.

31.b developing, improving and promoting international acceptance of codes of practice and guidelines related to science and technology and its role in reconciling environment and development: No information.

Brief comments on this chapter not already described in chapter 35 (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page): No information.

Ch. 32: STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF FARMERS.

32.a promoting and encouraging sustainable farming practices and technologies: No information.

32.b developing a policy framework that provides incentives and motivation among farmers for sustainable and efficient farming practices : No information.

32.c enhancing participation of organizations of farmers in design and implementation of sustainable development policies : No information.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page): No information.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 33: FINANCIAL RESOURCES AND MECHANISMS

Financial resources and mechanisms are also covered under each sectoral chapter of Agenda 21 where relevant. This summary highlights broader national financial policies, domestic and external (including ODA)

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

CHANGES IN NATIONAL BUDGET TO ADDRESS SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: No information.

NEW ECONOMIC INSTRUMENTS: No information.

ELIMINATION OF ENVIRONMENTALLY UNFRIENDLY SUBSIDIES: No information.

Investments in Environmental Protection According to the Type of Investor8 (in US$)
1993
1994
1995
Realized Investments
A - Total Investments
1,319,841,368
1,605,434,283
2,003,493,549
B - Investments for environmental protection
27,498,810
23,108,254
39,336,571
Percentage of all investments (B/A x 100)
2.09%
1.44%
1.97%
Manufacturing and Mining
5,107,285
3,108,204
6,456,150
Agriculture and fishing
114,455
50,493
87,396
Forestry
20,717,705
12,920,440
18,881,646
Water Management
172,852
--
173,972
Building Engineering
68,792
__
14,715
Transport and Communications
25,455
207,461
29,330
Trade
114,548
160,988
Tourism
454,618
14,184
Intellectual Services, Crafts
22,162
23,987
Utility Services
700,938
6,617,572
13,553,918
Education and Culture
--
4,925
139,444
Recalculation: average exchange rate of the National Bank of Croatia

Source: The State Bureau of Statistics

8) Gross fired capital formation in environmental protection includes investment in land, facilities, equipment and tools for collection, transportation, processing, storage and disposal of waste, investment in reducing or protection of surface water from waste waters, investment in reducing, avoiding or eliminating noise; investment in eliminating avoiding or reducing polluting substances from waste gases in the air, investments in protection of soil and surface water and protection of nature and landscape.

ODA policy issues

Croatia is a recipient country of ODA.

Environmental Financing from the State Budget

STATE BUDGET
1995 PLAN
1996 PLAN
1997 PLAN
Total State Budget
5,947,907,478
6,122,138,191
6,586,586,167
Share for environmental protection:
- amount
2,204,285
2,090,514
2,218,545
- percentage
0.037%
0.034%
0.034%
Recalculation: average exchange rate of National Bank of Croatia for the year

Source: Official Gazette No. 105/95; 9/96 and 111/96.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
ODA funding provided or received (Total US$million)
Average for 92-93
Average for 94-96
Net flow of external capital from all sources as % of GDP
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 34: TRANSFER OF ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND TECHNOLOGY, COOPERATION AND CAPACITY-BUILDING

Transfer of environmentally sound technology, cooperation and capacity-building is also covered under each sectoral chapter of Agenda 21 where relevant. This summary highlights broader national policies and actions relating to chapter 34.

NATIONAL PRIORITY: Promotion of more Active Involvement of Young Educated Experts, with the View to the Development of the Republic of Croatia
STATUS REPORT ON LINKS BETWEEN NATIONAL, REGIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL INFORMATION NETWORKS/SYSTEMS:

MEANS OF IMPLEMENTATION: The introduction of environmentally sound technologies (EST), as well as sustainable development in Croatia's economic development scheme, is an integral part of science and technology policy which is under the responsibility of the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST). This policy is concentrated mainly on environmental protection, monitoring and the introduction, transfer and commercialisation of new environmentally friendly technologies generated in the public research sector. EST links to the policy of business sector and industry are still very weak. From the point of view of science and technology policy, the incentives for integrating EST, clean technologies and sustainable development in shaping the global future of Croatia are given in the National Science and Research Programme for the period of 1996-98. The Programme was approved by the Croatian Parliament in February 1996 and it acts as the official framework for creating and practising technology policy based on clean technologies and sustainable development. The Croatian scientific and technological community is vitally interested in international or regional R&D cooperation concerning EST as well as the dissemination and exchange of information. So far, Croatian scientists have been cooperating in several projects related to environmental protection in the framework of COST Programme Mediterranean Action Plan and other bilateral and multilateral Programmes (EUROTRAC; CITAIR, etc). It is worth mentioning that Croatia's scientific community is completely integrated into the international informational network through CARNet as the Croatian part of Internet. In addition, MOST has taken a part in the creation of a Programme of Development of Information Infrastructure for Environmental Management in cooperation with a number of governmental and public bodies in charge of environmental protection. All these institutions comprise a national network for environmental protection and clean technology promotion and development.

To encourage EST and environmental protection in general, MOST is supporting a number of national research projects, international cooperative projects, and more than 30 study Programmes of environmental protection at universities. A special graduate study program for environmental protection at the Faculty of Chemical Engineering in Split was established at the beginning of 1982, and so far 30 graduates have acquired a diploma in Environmental Protection.

Through supporting research projects and study Programmes at faculties which are in close connection to eco-efficiency topics and clean production processes, the Ministry of Science and Technology is forcing the "eco-climate" in Croatia. A substantial part of eco-efficiency, like Total Quality Management (TQM), enhancing corporate productivity despite reduced resources and business innovations in general, are promoted through special courses at universities and recently, at the newly established Centre for Technology Transfer. However, the steps towards eco-efficiency in Croatia, as well as in other countries, start from the inherited economic system which did not take into account sustainable development. Therefore, to make university studies, training courses and achievements in EST viable and efficient, a break with the usual business

mentality is needed, as well as a tight industrial policy regarding eco-efficiency.

Technological modernisation and support of technology-based small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) is recognized as a significant factor of the technological and economic competitiveness of Croatia. Based on the National Science and Research Programme, MOST is implementing a National Network of Technology Centres made up of a range of institutions directed towards the development, transfer, introduction, and financing of new technologies, with an emphasis on SMEs development. The Centre for Technology Transfer at the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture in Zagreb

Status Cont'd

has been recently established, while the two technology centres at the university centres of Spilt and Rijeka are scheduled for official registration and opening. Forcing businesses based on EST as well as transfer of EST from the research sphere to SMEs should be one of the primary tasks of such centres. In addition, the special Fund for supporting technology-based business, similar to a seed-capital fund, will be created in the framework of a project under the name "Business-Innovation Centre - Croatia".

Croatia will not stop the import of foreign technology and knowledge, but, as it is stated explicitly in the National Programme, "(...) all imported technologies and know-how should be environment-friendly (...)", and "preferably institutions should be set up to assist the import or export of technology, primarily specialized agencies, for transfer which would be operated by market principles".

Describe any work being undertaken at the national or local level regarding efforts to promote clean production processes and/or the concepts of eco-efficiency. These processes may include training, preferential financial arrangements, information dissemination and changes in legal or regulatory frameworks.

No information.

Provide information on the adoption of environmental management systems. National reaction to environmental management system standards such as the ISO 14000 Series and others. Please note efforts made at the national level to promote their adoption and the creation of certification infrastructure in order to facilitate access to these standards to local industry.

See Chapter 30 for information on this subject.

List and describe programs or work under way to facilitate the transfer of ESTs to small and medium sized enterprises. Please note efforts to facilitate access to financial resources and other transfer strategies.

No information.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 35: SCIENCE FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

NATIONAL PRIORITY: Implement the Scientific Results in Practice, for the Purposes of Sustainable Development
STATUS REPORT ON NATIONAL SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE, RESEARCH NEEDS AND PRIORITIES:

the environmental protection and research of the Adriatic sea and other natural resources are set up as the research priorities of national significance within a list of 13 research fields defined by the National Science and Research Programme. Research connected to these priorities is principally oriented toward the protection of Croatia's natural resources, primarily of the Adriatic Sea and its coastal areas, as well as towards water and air pollution, ecosystem and biodiversity research, and falls, thus, into the following categories:
- marine research,
- monitoring the quality of surface and underground water,
- monitoring the radioactivity of waters, soil and air,
- monitoring ground air quality,
- developing the technological principles for water purification processes,
- organizing data banks and developing computer models for pollutant cycles and dispersion
- modelling of absorption processes and the distribution of micro-elements at the solid/liquid interfaces, and
- transport of atmospheric pollutants and smog formation

The distribution and the fate of radionuclides and micro-constituents in natural aquatic systems, including surface and underground waters, is a major activity involving several laboratories. The Rudjer Boskovich Institute and its laboratories in Zagreb and Rovinj are national centres licensed to monitor the radioactivity of water, soil and biota. The Zagreb laboratory is the main national centre for using radionuclides in tracing the underground movement of water and serves as the national focal point to monitor radioactivity in accidental situations.

Field research is followed by the development of mathematical models for the dispersion of pollutants in surface and groundwater, particularly with respect to the supply of drinking water from underground reservoirs in urban areas. A corollary activity, using the same advanced computer systems, is the systematic storage and retrieval systems for environmental data.

Waste water purification technologies in Croatia are partly of domestic design and partly imported. The evaluation of chemical engineering principles and the appropriate technologies for water purification and waste water treatment are part of a permanent project. The approach is based on analytical techniques and studies of chemical reactions forming the basis for chemical water conditioning.

The detection and estimation of oganophosphous and organchlorine compounds entering the environment as pesticides or industrial discharges (PBs, dioxins) require complex biochemical methods and specific monitoring Programmes. These Programmes have been aimed at monitoring persistent compounds in surface and ground waters, rain and snow, as well as critical biological fluids: human milk, serum, and urine. Environmental research is also being pursued though the study of atmospheric reactions including ozone initiated smog formulation, a field of chemical kinetics in the gaseous phase, and part of the EUROTRAC (European Experiment on Transport and Transformation of Environmentally Relevant Trace Constituents in the Troposphere over Europe) Programme. Monitoring of atmospheric pollutants for various microenvironments and human populations to assess levels of exposure has taken place. Research in this field involves atmospheric gaseous and particulate pollutants, indoor and outdoor sampling, frequencies and seasonal variations in concentrations, with the aim to introduce, regulate and enforce preventive and prophylactic measures.

Finally, the least developed research field is the one connected to EST because of the lack of financing and human resources. Therefore, we believe that this segment should be developed mostly by the business sector and industry, based on the economic and financial consequences of introducing eco-efficiency.

STEPS TAKEN TO ENHANCE SCIENTIFIC UNDERSTANDING, IMPROVE LONG TERM SCIENTIFIC ASSESSMENT, BUILDING OF CAPACITY AND CAPABILITY: No information.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS8
Year
Number of scientists, engineers and technicians engaged in research and experimental development # 19--
Total expenditure for research and experimental development (US$eq.) $ 19--
Other data

In 1996 the number of scientists, engineers and technicians engaged in environmental scientific projects was 70 and total expenditures for environmental scientific projects were 300,000,00 US$.

1977/78
1996
Number of graduates in the environmental and developmental field (Level 6)
41
67
Number of full time researchers scientists and engineers engaged in R&D
/
70

8) Only the data for research projects dealing with environmental protection, sustainable development and related new technologies financed by the Ministry of Science and Technology are included.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 36: PROMOTING EDUCATION, PUBLIC AWARENESS AND TRAINING

NATIONAL PRIORITY: Environmental Education as an Integral Part of Standard Education
STATUS REPORT:

a) Reorientation of education towards sustainable development

The State Directorate for Environment and the Ministry of Education and Sport established the Environmental Education Training Team, with the primary objective of making environmental education an integral part of standard education in elementary and secondary schools and also to establish different methods of education according to the principles of sustainability. Specialized meetings, workshops and training of teachers for environmental education will be organized during the following year.

b) Increasing public awareness The State Directorate for Environment (SDE) works on the development of an information system for raising public awareness and knowledge on the environment, and on SDE activities in that area. During the past six years the SDE has being issuing the monthly "Environment" magazine, intended for a broad reading public, including elementary school students, leaders of eco-sections, NGOs and governmental bodies, to journalists, companies, institutes and environmental experts. It provides various environmental information, gives recommendations, praise, advice from the environmental area and provides reviews of important environmental events in Croatia and abroad. Communication with readers is established through polls and correspondence. Various stickers, posters and picture postcards are sometimes prepared as an enclosure to the magazine.

The SDE also issues periodicals and translations of booklets, supporting the active contribution of NGOs. SDE organizes or supports various meetings, events and Programmes.

April 1996 saw the First Croatian Congress on Environmental Education, organized in cooperation with the Ministry of Education and Sport. The same Ministry assists in the introduction of the GLOBE Programme in all Croatian schools.

Since 1993, annual prizes and awards for achievements in environmental protection are being given as an incentive for valuable contributions in this area. The State Directorate awards the prizes on the 5th of June, the World Environment Day, together with holding the traditional press-conference. For 1996, prizes were awarded for the conservation of biodiversity, for tourism, agriculture and forestry, water and sea protection, and education.

c) Promoting training No information.

ROLE OF MAJOR GROUPS: No information.

FINANCING AND COST EVALUATION OF THE LABOUR ACTIVITIES: No information.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 199-
Adult literacy rate (%) Male
Adult literacy rate (%) Female
% of primary school children reaching grade 5 (1986-97)
Mean number of years of schooling
% of GNP spent on education
Females per 100 males in secondary school
Women per 100 men in the labour force
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 37: NATIONAL MECHANISMS AND INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION FOR CAPACITY-BUILDING IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

National capacity building is also covered under sectoral chapters.

Donors: You may wish to describe here how Agenda 21 has influenced your ODA policies in this area.

Developing countries: You may wish to describe any new national mechanisms for capacity building - and any changes in technical cooperation.

NATIONAL PRIORITY: Capacity-Building for Sustainable Development
STATUS REPORT ON NATIONAL ENDOGENOUS CAPACITY BUILDING: A number of ministries and governmental authorities of the Republic of Croatia are in charge of specific activities as described in Agenda 21. According to the state administrative structure, the State Directorate for Environment is in charge of the activities related to general environmental policy within the realization of conditions for sustainable development.

In order to prepare the Croatian delegation for the UN General Assembly Special Session on the Implementation of Agenda 21 (New York, June 1997), the Croatian Government has, at the session held on 27 February 1997, appointed the Working Group for the Preparation of the Report on the Implementation of Agenda 21 in Croatia. The Working Group integrates governmental bodies responsible for the regulation of individual economic, social and other issues, and for environmental protection, and is constituted of the representatives of ten ministries and state directorates: the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of Reconstruction and Development, the Ministry of Culture, the Ministry of Labour and Social Welfare, the Ministry of Economy, the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, the Ministry of Science and Technology, and the State Directorate for Waters. The coordinator of the Working Group is the State Directorate for Environment. The cooperation of governmental bodies in approaching the concept of sustainable development is thus, successfully continued.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 38: INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS

Ch. 38: Brief summary of any particular UN System response affecting this country/state:

1. UNEP/MAP has financed the Influence of Climatic Changes on the Cres-Losinj Archipelago Project, according to the contract of 199, amounting to 40,000 US$.

2. METAP/WB - financing Natural and Historical Resources Management of the Cres-Losinj Archipelago Project, according to the contract of 1992, amounting to 110,000 US$ and 58,111 XEU.

3. METAP/EIB - financing a project of Waste Management Systems in the Area of Kvarner Bay and Istria, according to the contract of 1994, amounting to 100,000 US$.

4. MAP - MED POL Programme support, according to the 1995 contract, amounting to 60,000 US$.

5. UNOPS - The State Directorate for Environment has received financial support for its two employee salaries, for a period of two years, and computer and communication equipment for the implementation of the Danube Basin Environment Programme, according to the 1995 contract, amounting to 35,196 US$.

6. UNIDO will finance two projects related to the substitution of ozone depleting substances in industry in 1997 (estimated project costs are 250,000 US$ - irreversible Multilateral Fund sources for the implementation of the Montreal Protocol).

7. UNEP IE will finance, in the 1997-2000 period, a project for Institutional Strengthening aimed at the implementation of the Montreal Protocol, related to the ozone, and the project for Collection and Recovery of Waste Generated from Ozone Depleting Substances (estimated project costs amount to 250,000 US$ - irreversible Multilateral Fund sources for the implementation of the Montreal Protocol).

8. UNEP IE - 1996 saw the elaboration of the National Programme for Phasing Out Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer - amount of 15,000 US$ (irreversible Multilateral Fund sources for the implementation of Montreal Protocol).

This report states only the data on the funds acquired by the State Directorate for Environment. Apart from those, considerable funds were attributed directly to scientific research institutes and to governmental bodies, as a means of support to research projects and to travel arrangements for the purpose of participation in environmental conferences.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 39: INTERNATIONAL LEGAL INSTRUMENTS AND MECHANISMS

Ch. 39: International Legal Instruments are covered under the relevant sectoral chapters. This is a listing of major agreements/conventions (not already covered) entered into and relevant to Agenda 21:

Air/Atmosphere

Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (Geneva, 1979)

Protocol to the 1979 Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution on Long-term Financing of the Cooperative Programme for Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long-range Transmission of Air Pollutants in Europe (EMEP) (Geneva, 1984)

Protocol to the 1979 Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution on Further Reduction of Sulfur Emissions (Oslo 1994)

Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer (Vienna, 1985)

Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (Montreal, 1987)

Amendment to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (London, 1990)

Amendment to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (Copenhagen. 1992)

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (Rio de Janeiro, 1992)

Nature/Biodiversity


International Convention for the Protection of Birds (Paris, 1950)

Convention on Wetlands of International Importance Especially as Waterfowl Habitat (Ramsar, 1971)

Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage (Paris, 1972)

International Plant Protection Convention (Rome, 1951)

Convention on Biological Diversity (Rio de Janeiro, 1992)

Agreement on the Conservation of Cetaceans of the Black Sea, Mediterranean Sea and Contiguous Atlantic Area (Monaco, 1992)

Waste Hazardous Substances

Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal (Basel, 1989)

European Agreement Concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road (ADR) (Geneva, 1956)

International Convention for Safe Containers, 1972 and Changes of 1981, 1983, 1991


Ch. 39:

Prevention and help in case of accidents

Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment in a Transboundary Context (Espoo, 1991)

Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (Vienna, 1986)

Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident (Vienna, 1986)

Cooperation Agreement on the Forecast, Prevention and Mitigation of Natural and Technological Disasters Among the Government of the Republic of Austria, the Government of the Republic of Croatia, the Government of the Republic of Hungary, the Government of the Republic of Italy, the Government of the Republic of Poland, and the Government of the Republic of Slovenia (Vienna 1992)


Civil Liability

International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage (Brussels, 1969)

International Convention on the Establishment of an International Fund for Compensation for Oil Pollution Damage (Brussels, 1971)

Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage (Vienna, 1963)

Sea

Convention for the Protection of the Mediterranean Sea Against Pollution (Barcelona, 1976)

Protocol for the Prevention of Pollution of the Mediterranean Sea by Dumping from Ships and Aircraft (Barcelona, 1976)

Protocol Concerning Cooperation in Combating Pollution of the Mediterranean Sea by Oil and other Harmful Substances in cases of Emergency (Barcelona, 1976)

Protocol for the Protection of the Mediterranean Sea Against Pollution from Land-based sources (Athens, 1980)

Protocol Concerning the Mediterranean Specially Protected Areas (Geneva, 1982)

Protocol for the Protection of the Mediterranean Sea Against Pollution Resulting from Exploration and Exploitation of the Continental Shelf and the Sea-bed and its Sub-soil (Madrid, 1994)

Ch. 39:

International Convention Relating to Intervention on the High Seas in Cases of Oil Pollution Casualties (Brussels, 1969)

International Convention for Prevention of Pollution from Ships (Marpol Convention) 1973 with Annexes I, II, III, IV, V with Changes of 1984, 1985, 1987, 1989, 1990

Protocol of 1978 Relating to the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (London, 1978)

Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Waste and Other Matters (1972)

United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (1982)

Protocol Relating to Intervention on the High Seas in cases of Pollution by Substances Other than Oil (London, 1993)

Waters

Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakes (Helsinki, 1992)

Convention on Cooperation for the Protection and Sustainable Use of the Danube River (Sofija, 1994)

Bilateral treaties in the area of environmental protection

Agreement on Water Management Relations between the Government of the Republic of Croatia and the Government of the Republic of Hungary (Pecuh, 1994)

Agreement on Water Relations Management between the Government of the Republic of Croatia and the Government of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Dubrovnik, 1996)

Yugoslavian-Italian Agreement on Co-operation in the Protection of Adriatic Sea Water and Coastal Areas from Pollution (Succession) (1974)

Agreement on Water Relations Management between the Government of the Republic of Croatia and Government of the Republic of Slovenia (Zagreb, 1996)

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 40: INFORMATION FOR DECISION-MAKING

This chapter is also covered under sectoral and other chapters of this profile. The matrix below gives an overview of how national authorities rate the available information for decision making.

Rating of available data and information suitable for decision-making

Agenda 21 Chapters
Very
good
Good
Some good
data but
many gaps
Poor
Remarks
2. International cooperation and trade
X
3. Combating poverty
X
4. Changing consumption patterns
X
5. Demographic dynamics and sustainability
X
6. Human health
X
7. Human settlements
X
8. Integrating E & D in decision-making
X
9. Protection of the atmosphere
X
10. Integrated planning and management of land resources
X
11. Combating deforestation
12. Combating desertification and drought
X
13. Sustainable mountain development
X
14. Sustainable agriculture and rural development
X
15. Conservation of biological diversity
16. Biotechnology
X
17. Oceans, seas, coastal areas and their living resources
X
18. Freshwater resources
X
19. Toxic chemicals
X
20. Hazardous wastes
X
21. Solid wastes
X
22. Radioactive wastes
X
24. Women in sustainable development
X
25. Children and youth
X
26. Indigenous people
X
27. Non-governmental organizations
X
28. Local authorities
X
29. Workers and trade unions
X
30. Business and industry
X
31. Scientific and technological community
X
32. Farmers
X
33. Financial resources and mechanisms
X
34. Technology, cooperation and capacity-building
X
35. Science for sustainable development
X
36. Education, public awareness and training
X
37. International cooperation for capacity-building
X
38. International institutional arrangements
X
39. International legal instruments
X
40. Information for decision-making
X

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1993
Latest 199-
Number of telephones in use per 100 inhabitants
Other data

Home | Search | Parliament | Research | Governments | Regions | Issues


Copyright United Nations
Department of Economic and Social Affairs
Comments and suggestions: esa@un.org
Last updated 1 November 1997