United Nations


Economic and Social Council

26 February 1996

Fourth session
18 April-3 May 1996

                Promoting education, public awareness and training

                          Report of the Secretary-General


                                                              Paragraphs  Page

INTRODUCTION ...............................................    1 - 3       3

      EXPERIENCE GAINED AND PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED ...........    4 - 35      3

      A.  Emerging trends in reorienting education towards
          sustainable development and heightening public
          awareness ........................................    8 - 31      4

      B.  Emerging trends in promoting training ............   32 - 35      9

      NATIONAL IMPLEMENTATION ..............................   36 - 64     10

      A.  Reorienting education towards sustainable
          development ......................................   36 - 57     10

          1.  School reform and curriculum reorientation ...   37 - 50     10

          2.  Promoting an interdisciplinary approach ......   51 - 53     13

          3.  Innovative communication activities and new
              information technologies .....................   54 - 57     13

      B.  Increasing public awareness ......................   58 - 64     14

          1.  Public awareness campaigns ...................   58 - 62     14

          2.  Developing local action plans ................   63 - 64     15

      ORGANIZATIONS ........................................   65 - 79     15

      A.  Women ............................................   66 - 69     15

      B.  Youth ............................................   70 - 73     16

      C.  Indigenous groups ................................   74 - 76     17

      D.  Strengthening links between science and education       77       18

      E.  Refugees .........................................   78 - 79     18


      A.  International meetings ...........................   80 - 85     18

      B.  International Commission on Education for the
          Twenty-first Century .............................   86 - 91     21

      C.  International organizations ......................   92 - 103    23


1.   In support of the report of the Secretary-General on promoting education,
public awareness and training (E/CN.17/1996/14), the present addendum
identifies the main policy issues and reviews progress achieved, experience
gained and problems encountered since the United Nations Conference on
Environment and Development (UNCED).  It offers an overview of developments
and activities at the international level, as well as those experienced by
individual countries and major groups, including non-governmental

2.   Both the report and the present addendum were prepared by the United
Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), as the
task manager for chapter 36 (Promoting education, public awareness and
training) of Agenda 21.  Both draw on the results of the inter-agency
consultation convened by UNESCO on the theme "Promoting education, public
awareness and training for sustainable development:  implementation of chapter
36 of Agenda 21" (Paris, 25 and 26 September 1995); the conclusions of an
international workshop of experts on the theme "Education and public awareness
for sustainable development", organized by the Czech Republic in cooperation
with UNESCO and the Department for Policy Coordination and Sustainable
Development of the United Nations Secretariat (Prague, 28 November-1 December
1995); and other consultations of experts and major groups.

3.   It is important to appreciate the broad scope of chapter 36 of Agenda 21,
which addresses three main issues:  reorienting education towards sustainable
development; increasing public awareness; and promoting training.  Particular
attention is paid to the issues of universal access to basic education;
education as a lifelong process; formal and informal learning processes;
curriculum revision and development; innovative vocational training;
in-service training of both workers and managers; and the professional
development of decision makers.  Emphasis is also placed upon the importance
of communication through all available channels, including the visual and
performing arts, folk media, and new interactive and multimedia possibilities. 
The numerous and diversified outlets for educational messages offered by
non-governmental organizations, business and industry, and the mass media are
also given wide recognition.  The wide scope of chapter 36 is essential for
the overall attainment of sustainability but also confronts international
agencies, national Governments, non-governmental organizations and the public
at large with a particularly challenging set of tasks. 


4.   At UNCED, Governments acknowledged and supported the fact that education
is crucial for promoting sustainable development and improving the capacity of
people to address and respond to environment and development issues.  The need
for public understanding, political support and personal action is widely
recognized in chapter 36 and nearly every other chapter in Agenda 21.  The
term "Education and training" is mentioned 617 times in Agenda 21; only the
term "governments" is used more often.  Education is central to achieving
environmental and ethical awareness, changing values and behaviours consistent
with sustainable development and improving skills, as well as for informed
public participation in decision-making. 

5.   The importance given to education in Agenda 21 has been reaffirmed,
broadened and deepened within the new international consensus and framework
for action that has emerged from the series of international conferences
organized by the United Nations after UNCED, in particular the International
Conference on Population and Development, the World Summit for Social
Development and the Fourth World Conference on Women.  "Education, public
awareness and training" is one of the few themes for which explicit
recommendations are contained in the action plans of each of these
conferences, as well as in the Convention on Biological Diversity, the United
Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the United Nations
Convention to Combat Desertification in all Countries Experiencing Serious
Drought and/or Desertification, particularly in Africa.  Implementation of
chapter 36 of Agenda 21 therefore needs to be integrated with the
implementation of the analogous recommendations within all these action

6.   Ironically, however, this wide recognition of the importance of education
is often overlooked or forgotten in developing or funding action plans at all
levels, from local government to international conventions.  Chapter 36 thus
risks becoming the forgotten priority of UNCED.

7.   Funding alone has not been the only impediment to the successful
implementation of this chapter.  Other major impediments have been the lack of
clarity of both the concept of sustainable development itself and an agreed
upon course of action.  These have been especially difficult for formal
education systems that are designed to teach or pass on a known body of
knowledge as opposed to an emerging concept.  It is difficult to retrain large
numbers of educators when there is a tremendous shortage of trainers who are
themselves only emerging in this new conceptual struggle.

         A.  Emerging trends in reorienting education towards sustainable
             development and heightening public awareness

8.   The main thrust of chapter 36 - to reorient education to address
sustainable development - is still sound.  The alternative to this, to create
an entirely new discipline and try to find room in already crowded timetables
and create teacher-training courses based on a nebulous concept would have
been a tremendous waste of resources.  Nevertheless, the reorienting itself
has been a daunting task for all nations.

9.   One of the first established disciplines to lead the reorientation was
environmental education (EE).  EE was recognized and developed into a
framework for protecting the environment after the United Nations Conference
on the Human Environment (Stockholm, 5-16 June 1972).  As a follow-up to that
Conference, the joint UNESCO/United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)
International Environmental Education Programme (IEEP) was created in 1975 to
develop a framework of pedagogical vision, understanding and goals for action. 
Around the world, public awareness campaigns were launched and information
disseminated through formal and non-formal education systems aimed at
environmental protection and related concerns.  

10.  By examining the following goals articulated for EE more than 20 years
ago, it is clear why EE has been closely aligned with the early work of
preparing education for sustainable development.  According to the Belgrade
Charter adopted by the International Environmental Education Workshop
(Belgrade, 13-22 October 1975) (see UNESCO(05)/C.61, vol. I, No. 1), the goals
of environmental education are:

     (a)  To foster clear awareness of and concern about economic, social,
political and ecological interdependence in urban and rural areas;

     (b)  To provide every person with opportunities to acquire the knowledge,
values, attitudes, commitment and skills needed to protect and improve the

     (c)  To create new patterns of behaviour for individuals, groups and
society as a whole towards the environment.

11.  While the goals of environmental education call for understanding 
economic, social, political and ecological interdependence, the actual
practice of EE has focused largely upon the major concern of the
above-mentioned Conference, i.e. the environment and its protection.  With
UNCED came the concept of the dual goal of both ongoing development and
environmental stewardship.  In order to achieve this sustainability, the
educational effort needed to be broadened beyond the primary concern for the
environment.  After UNCED, the concept of human development as well as
economic development (goods and services) added a more complex meaning to the
concept of development than that portrayed by the media at UNCED.  This new
approach called for the integration of economics and a variety of social
sciences to try to provide a holistic meaning to sustainable development, a
picture that is still emerging. 

The critical concepts of social responsibility and social justice, ecological
and human interdependence, and the parallels of biological and cultural
diversity, to name a few, are difficult to comprehend when presented as
isolated subjects.  This broad grouping of disciplines, presented in a
holistic, interdisciplinary format, is often referred to as Education for
Sustainable Development (ESD).

12.  However, to develop ESD work must be done to determine exactly what it is
and what action it implies.  Some agreement needs to be reached about
appropriate concept topics for various grade levels that are representative of
the entire scope of ESD, human/social development, environmental protection
and economic development, which should be taught as an integrated concept. 

13.  One reason why such an integrated concept poses a problem for educators
at present is that there are so few good models of what both the formal
education and public awareness campaigns portray as exemplary behaviour. 
Schools are beginning to adopt environmentally responsible practices, but
contradictory behaviour and practices persist.  For example, cafeterias often
use disposable dishes and/or cutlery yet energy conservation and recycling
programmes that can actually generate revenue are often overlooked because of
a lack of investment capital or the fact that such a function has not been
foreseen in the distribution of professional responsibilities within the
educational system.

14.  Despite such constraints, the vital role of education and public
understanding is now being acknowledged as crucial to achieving educational
objectives with respect to sustainable development in all parts of society. 
All sectors of society are being drawn into the reform.  Governments are
discussing and in some cases already implementing national curriculum reform,
which involves the development of new teaching materials reoriented towards
sustainability.  The use of new technology is becoming more common because of
its powerful and potentially vast impact.  The transition from traditional EE
towards ESD is being accompanied by an adjustment in traditional science
education to incorporate education on sustainable development.  The knowledge
of indigenous traditional peoples provides unique information and concepts and
there is evidence of stronger international cooperation and many successful
regional efforts.  Perhaps most importantly, people are moving from general
environmental awareness to real action.

15.  Both formal and non-formal education play a vital role in forming
people's values and behaviour.  ESD should foster respect for cultural
differences and for the diverse pathways that people may choose to arrive at
their own solutions to sustainability.  As stressed at UNCED, the ultimate
goal is to educate the world's citizens to comprehend the relationship between
humans, the environment and development.  Consequently, public awareness and
understanding of sustainable development should be one of the highest
priorities in educational reform and training at the international, regional
and national levels.

16.  This understanding is an evolving lifelong educational process.  It is an
education and awareness that is reoriented towards ecological knowledge and
understanding; human development, including spirituality, values, ethical
responsibilities, respect for cultural diversity and a commitment to peace;
and an understanding of economic development.  This becomes a critical
foundation for society as the world moves towards sustainable development.

17.  Today, the vital role of education for achieving sustainability is
gaining wide recognition in many sectors of society.  An increasingly diverse
array of players, including business and industry, non-governmental
organizations, the media, indigenous groups and members of the performing arts
are becoming partners in a broad movement towards educational reform. 

18.  Chapter 36 draws attention to the need for basic education as a
prerequisite for environment and development education and a priority for many
countries of the world, linked to the overall effort to combat poverty.  The
World Conference on Education for All (Jomtien, Thailand, 1990), organized by
UNESCO, the World Bank, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and
the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), emphasized the fundamental
importance of achieving the goals of universal access to basic education and
the eradication of illiteracy; these objectives continue to be pursued. 
Strengthened by the profound conviction, now universally accepted, that such
goals remain a precondition for the achievement of sustainable living, steady
progress continues to be made worldwide in this regard.  Initiatives in a
number of developing countries are coupling basic education with information
programmes on population, development and environment. 

19.  Also important as a foundation for the construction of sustainable
development are several initiatives that have been launched to address the
need for scientific and technological literacy, such as Project 2000+,
launched by UNESCO and backed by a partnership of major intergovernmental
organizations and agencies, and committed to the target of establishing by the
year 2001 appropriate structures and activities to foster scientific and
technological literacy for all in all countries.

20.  National education curricula have come under close perusal in many
countries, and revisions are either in process or being planned.  To meet the
challenge of preparing young people to live in a rapidly changing and
increasingly global context, a broad range of social actors, including not
only teachers, parents and students but also community leaders, scientists,
professionals, indigenous peoples and policy makers, are being drawn into the
process of curriculum reform.  As might be expected, national Governments and
international organizations are playing a major role in this process, but
contributions are also forthcoming from professional educational associations,
non-governmental organizations and industry.

21.  A number of countries have begun innovative school programmes in
environmental activity work.  These action-oriented and hands-on approaches to
sustainable development learning encourage students to sample local water
sources, measure levels of pollution, analyse energy conservation efficiency
or survey day-to-day climatic conditions.  To make the link between local and
global activities, some of these initiatives use the Internet to link the data
sets fed onto the system by different student groups throughout the country,
and also use satellite information to provide pinpoint geographic positioning.

22.  Recent technological advances offer an unprecedented opportunity for
appreciating the complexity and unity of the global system, an opportunity
that may encourage a new global consciousness and drive the behavioural
changes needed to establish more sustainable lifestyles.  New information
technologies provide access to knowledge and information in a democratic
manner.  People can access knowledge bases, exchange research results and, by
integrating information from many places and many disciplines, arrive at
innovative solutions.

23.  The exploration of new information technologies, such as the Internet,
has only just begun, but there is global recognition that the implications of
such technologies for education in general and ESD in particular is enormous. 
At the same time, because such electronic networks have such a potentially
enormous reach and their content is augmenting not only rapidly but also in an
unregulated and sometimes opportunistic manner, concern has been expressed
from several quarters about maintaining information quality and accuracy and
avoiding commercial exploitation.  Another major problem is the lack of access
to such new communication technologies in many developing countries.

24.  The knowledge of indigenous/traditional peoples about the natural
environment and sustainable lifestyles can prove to be an invaluable and
inspiring resource that emphasizes the cultural diversity of human strategies
for sustainable living.  Such initiatives promote a broader appreciation of
the need to adapt sustainable development thinking to local cultural,
socio-economic and ecological contexts.

25.  If sustainability is to be achieved in agriculture, ESD must reach the
population that is economically active in agriculture, which will number some
1.18 billion by the year 2000.  For farming communities, agriculture case-
studies help understand how the policies, programmes and activities of
national agricultural extension systems correspond with the management of
natural resources for sustainable agricultural production and food security. 
Environmentally friendly farming practices, such as integrated pest management
and integrated plant nutrition, are being promoted in Asian and African

26.  International cooperation in the area of ESD is gathering momentum,
catalysed by a number of significant international conferences and workshops
on the theme since UNCED, as well as by incisive evaluations and
recommendations, such as that provided by the International Commission on
Education for the Twenty-first Century led by Mr. Jacques Delors.  In
recognition of the central importance of ESD, UNESCO established in 1994 the
Transdisciplinary and Inter-agency Cooperation Project on the theme
"Environment and population, education and information for development (see
section IV below for more detailed information on these recent developments in
international cooperation).  

27.  Sensitizing the public at large to environment and development concerns
remains an important prerequisite for attaining sustainable development, which
has been accomplished through a wide variety of channels, targeting many
different sectors of society.  One of the main objectives has been to instill
a sense of local environmental responsibility, while empowering individuals
with the knowledge that they can act to improve the quality of their local

28.  Campaigns for public awareness and action have led to the creation of
partnerships among business leaders, community organizations, policy makers
and educators.  In developing countries, communities mobilized through the
joint efforts of neighbourhood associations, church groups, schools,
non-governmental organizations, industry and Governments, have come to
understand the processes of waste disposal, water quality and energy use, and
have applied such knowledge to improve the quality of their urban environment.

29.  Mass media is obviously a partner of particular importance for raising
public awareness and changing attitudes towards environment and development. 
In many countries, evaluations are being conducted of the media as a tool for
facilitating the exchange of information and promoting public understanding.
Governments, non-governmental organizations and other organizations are
learning how to ensure the exchange of appropriate information on the subjects
of environment, population and sustainable development, and how to further
their messages using the media.

30.  The role of the media was analysed at the Interregional Workshop on
Reorienting Environmental Education for Sustainable Development (Athens, 26-30
June 1995).  Addressing in particular the issues of information quality and
the identification of target audiences, the workshop participants made the
following observations and recommendations:

     (a)  All forms of media should be considered, including television (TV),
radio, newspapers, folk arts, festivals, pamphlets, posters and bill boards; 

     (b)  Environmental news for the most part covers catastrophes.  There is
a need to bring environmental education information and stories to prime-time
TV and radio in order to provide a broader and more balanced coverage;

     (c)  A gap persists between scientific knowledge and the information
transmitted by the popular press.  This may be attributed to the lack of
knowledge and training of press practitioners, who are unable to grasp the
full significance or meaning of the information that they have to present;
     (d)  Training is needed at three levels:  to encourage specialists to
provide appropriately packaged information to the media, to help
non-governmental organizations bridge the gap between specialists' knowledge
and that of audiences, and to assist media practitioners in their task of
providing information to audiences in a comprehensible manner; 
     (e)  For certain international TV networks, training workshops on
environmental education should be organized for media professionals in order
that they may prepare short clips on relevant subjects to fill unscheduled
time on their stations.  Such initiatives can be organized by non-governmental

31.  Awareness campaigns for the general public and training programmes to
enable teachers to interpret media messages could also be undertaken.  At the
grass-roots level, communities should be encouraged to establish their own
centres for environmental education and produce their own programming.

                     B.  Emerging trends in promoting training

32.  Training at all levels is deemed essential to meeting the challenges of
sustainable development.  Changing production and consumption patterns, the
development and transfer of environmentally sound technologies, efforts to
alleviate poverty and increase employment, the revision of formal and
non-formal education programmes to provide education for sustainable
development, all these matters and many others demand a major training effort. 
Throughout Agenda 21, training is repeatedly recognized to be a major concern. 
It is dealt with in numerous chapters, including chapter 37, which deals with
capacity-building, chapter 35, which deals with science for sustainable
development, and each of the topical chapters.  The training issue - in terms
of policy and action - is dealt with in detail in the reports on these various
chapters that are before the Commission; only training directed explicitly
towards ESD is dealt with in the present addendum.  

33.  Training and retraining for sustainable development is directed at
different audiences:  pre-service, for learners still in the formal education
environment; in-service, for individuals already on the job, including
employees of municipalities, education institutions, public agencies,
organizations and non-governmental organizations; and the training of
trainers, for producing individuals capable of training and educating others. 
The training of policy makers is a particularly important area that has
received only limited attention to date.  Furthermore, since many
environmental problems remain poorly understood even by experts in the field
it is particularly challenging to provide decision makers with both the latest
information and at the same time a subtle appreciation of the current limits
of scientific knowledge.

34.  Training activities assisted by IEEP at the regional and national levels
have been primarily aimed at teachers and teacher-trainers.  This initial
series of workshops has triggered many others, as countries have reproduced
materials and format and taken the initiative to reach out to very diverse
target groups.  In the area of sustainable agriculture, UNDP has succeeded
through agro-ecological training, participatory research, field demonstration
modules and policy advocacy in disseminating sustainable agricultural
practices among traditional farmers.  Another indication of progress achieved
is provided by the decision of the International Labour Organization (ILO) to
integrate environment and sustainable development considerations into training
activities in all of its programme areas.  The ILO facilitates training
workshops around the world on such issues as environmental legislation,
environmentally sound technologies, environmental awareness, teacher training
and information exchange.

35.  The current period of the restructuring and globalization of economies
also requires new efforts to promote a flexible and adaptable workforce. 
Despite progress in this area, much more will be required through the
collaboration of Governments, industry, trade unions, local communities and
consumers.  Greater efforts must be made to facilitate practical, vocational
and management training activities that reflect environment and sustainable
development priorities.  Trained workers can train fellow workers on the job
cheaply and effectively.


             A.  Reorienting education towards sustainable development

36.  Some illustrative examples of reorienting education towards sustainable
development that may be of interest to other countries are provided below.

                  1.  School reform and curriculum reorientation

37.  In an effort to revitalize public education, many countries are reviewing
school curricula to ensure that they are well suited to serve students and
society in a world of rapid change and in anticipation of the next millennium.

Evaluation of the concept of ESD and the manner in which it may be integrated
into revised and innovative educational programmes is a major consideration. 
Formal education programmes are addressing the issue of sustainable
development in order that students may be informed, concerned and equipped
with appropriate skills and lifestyle habits for the future.  For the first
time, efforts are being made to reform curricula, with input from a broad
array of people, including students, parents, community leaders, indigenous
peoples, policy makers and educators. 

38.  More and more countries are developing and publishing teacher modules and
educational packets using environmental information.  As few environmental
education programmes exist for the time being, one solution is to incorporate
material, as appropriate, into existing subject areas, such as science, social
studies, geography, global studies, environmental studies, health and
population education.  Another approach is to address sustainable development
concerns as part of a broad restructuring and reform of educational systems
during which educational goals and curricula will be revamped.

39.  Despite the challenging socio-economic and technological situations that
they are facing, many countries with economies in transition are making
education for sustainability a priority.  Their actions include the
development of interdisciplinary education and training programmes and
research projects, as well as the establishment of international cooperation,
networks, databases and publications on the subject of ESD. 

40.  The North American Association for Environmental Education (NAAEE) is
developing guidelines to assist educators in the design and selection of
environmental education materials.  Referred to as national standards, such
guidelines allow the assessment of quality without limiting the teacher's
flexibility in controlling content, teaching techniques or other aspects of
instruction; the standards are based on seven criteria.

41.  At a regional workshop held in Dakar, from 22 to 26 May 1995 and
organized by UNESCO, specialists from 10 sub-Saharan countries developed new
curriculum guidelines to mobilize educators and decision makers towards
sustainable development.  The material was designed to accommodate the diverse
cultural realities of the region, including anglophone and francophone
countries, and to integrate environment, population and development
perspectives into school curricula.

42.  UNESCO and the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) are working with
national Governments in Latin American countries to incorporate population,
family planning and reproductive health education into the curricula of basic
and teacher training programmes, drawing attention to the intricate links
between demography, education and environment.  The development of teaching
aids and materials, curriculum revision and extensive teacher training has
involved community members in project design and implementation.

43.  To ensure that graduates in the year 2000 will be well prepared for the
future, the Toronto Board of Education has undertaken educational reform to
integrate sustainability into the existing education system of the city.  A
massive community consultation involving all sectors, from students and
parents to the public at large, was launched to address the question:  What
should students know, do and value by the time they graduate from school?  The
result was the development of six basic "graduation outcomes", which have
become the basis for major curriculum reform, shifting the focus away from the
traditional core subjects of language, mathematics, history etc.  In the new
vision, the essence of sustainability is integrated into every aspect of the

44.  Where training courses or materials are in short supply or unavailable,
teachers are using documents from numerous sources, such as the media,
textbooks produced by non-governmental organizations, and teaching packs
developed and supplied by industrial firms with an interest in protecting the

45.  Non-governmental organizations are also involved in the development of
educational materials.  The World Resources Institute has developed a series
of teacher guides that address global trends in environment and development. 
The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) and the International Union for the
Conservation of Nature (IUCN) continue to be major producers of relevant
materials at the international level, while hundreds of non-governmental
organizations are active in most countries.

46.  In addition to the traditional books, a variety of material that is
educational, practical and communicative is being developed with new
technology in the form of databases, video cassettes and CD-ROMs.  Users of
such materials must none the less remain alert about their authors as well as
their motives for distributing the information:  the accuracy and potential
bias of information should be reviewed on a regular basis.

47.  A resolution by the European Parliament has led to an increase in
pan-European environmental education projects.  The new vision led to an
increase in the number of places available for degrees in environmental
studies at the university level.  In addition, teacher training in
environmental studies is increasing in training colleges and universities.

48.  The Environment and School Initiatives Project of the Organisation for
Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) involves 19 countries in an
international curriculum development project in which each country has created
its own network of schools.  Students and teachers study local environmental
problems and create a local environmental knowledge base on which to build
understanding and sense of responsibility.

49.  In Indonesia, the Population and Environmental Education Research Centre
of the Institute of Teacher Training and Education is developing a curriculum
guide for pre-service and in-service teachers in order to enable them to
incorporate ESD in their programmes.  Similar initiatives within the IEEP
framework are also being carried out in Argentina, China, Nigeria, the United
Republic of Tanzania and Uganda. 

50.  Efforts are under way to mobilize the educational community to understand
and support the changes that will be required to accommodate the concept of
sustainable development.  One such initiative, entitled "Education 21" and led
by UNED-UK (United Nations Environment and Development-United Kingdom), has
proposed that the education community be given major group status for the
implementation of Agenda 21.

                    2.  Promoting an interdisciplinary approach

51.  Establishing an interdisciplinary approach in education is a difficult
challenge, both conceptually and institutionally.  Educators and trainers need
to carefully conceptualize the overall interdisciplinary approach, and must
also be able to relate it to everyday life situations.  Institutions are
having trouble establishing the interdisciplinary cooperation that is needed
to deal with the complex issues of sustainable development.  This problem is
further complicated by the administrative challenge of pooling or sharing
funds that are still allocated on a departmental or sectoral basis.

52.  A European Commission report describes progress made since 1992 by its
member States in developing an interdisciplinary approach, including awarding
attendance at training courses; motivating teachers via local, national or
international projects; the introduction of progressive training cycles of
one, two or three years; the integration of training time into school hours;
the development of specific courses for head teachers; integrating
environmental education into compulsory training; making retraining compulsory
for all teachers; financial assistance; increasing the number of university
summer schools; and developing distance-learning where possibilities for
travel are limited.

53.  Under the leadership of IEEP, workshops for educators were carried out in
51 countries in 1995.  In most cases, such workshops represented an initial
phase of training, and it remains the responsibility of each nation to allow
the trainees to work together to enhance concepts, produce materials and train
others.  It is intended that the small groups involved will remain in contact
with each other both within their countries and at the international level in
order that they may take part in the conceptual growth of ESD while adapting
it to their local situations.

            3.  Innovative communication activities and new information

54.  Traditional communication vehicles, such as posters, theatre,
storytelling and a resurgence in world-wide interest in traditional knowledge,
folk art etc., remain extremely valuable in reaching large audiences.  New
information technologies also need to be recognized as potentially important
tools for significant impact that carry the messages of sustainable
development much faster and farther than more conventional methods.

55.  The rapid expansion of new communication technologies in many countries,
in particular developed countries, facilitates the rapid dissemination of
ideas and materials that can be adapted to local linguistic and cultural
contexts:  the numerous logistical problems associated with traditional
printing and shipping can be eliminated, allowing for the rapid modification
of materials, including translation and local reproduction. 

56.  Since April 1995, students in hundreds of schools in the United States of
America and other countries have been involved in the first stages of the
Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) project. 
GLOBE is designed to enable students from a large geographic region to collect
and share data on local environmental conditions.  Through this hands-on
experience, students learn to assess their own natural environment, and by
linking the data sets via the Internet are able to observe the growth of their
collective knowledge, animated by sophisticated, computer-generated

57.  To help teachers integrate education for sustainable development into
their curriculum and to stimulate active participation by school children and
the community, Costa Rica implemented an innovative programme on the
interactive use of radio.  The use of this technology provided teachers with
an easily accessible and affordable teaching tool, and introduced
environmental themes to children of 11 to 13 years of age.

                          B.  Increasing public awareness

                          1.  Public awareness campaigns 

58.  Public awareness and public-action campaigns have often had a major
impact on policy decisions and on society as a whole.  Examples are emerging
of innovative country projects which demonstrate that by generating awareness,
public support can be mobilized and increasing pressure for change exerted.

59.  The European Commission has developed a comprehensive communication and
public awareness plan that has focused during the past four years on three
target groups:  journalists, specialized groups and the general public.  They
have been creating links between the following groups:  public authorities;
public and private enterprise; non-governmental organizations; trade unions;
professional associations; and the general public. 

60.  New partnerships are forming to organize public awareness and public
action campaigns.  Business leaders in the private sector are joining forces
with policy makers, educators and the public to implement joint programmes. 
For example, a combination of public and private-sector partners, supported by
UNESCO, has launched a project entitled "The nature of the landscape" in an
effort to organize clean-up campaigns in three major shantytowns of Brazil. 
Through formal and informal programmes, the people of these communities learn
to understand waste disposal, water quality and energy use problems, and as a
result are empowered to create their own solutions.

61.  In order to improve the quality of life in the impoverished districts of
Medelli'n, Colombia, the city's municipal authorities in cooperation with
UNESCO are producing a document featuring the different actions undertaken in
the framework of the Integrated Programme for the Advancement of Medelli'n's
Underprivileged Districts (PRIMED).  PRIMED was launched to provide an
interdisciplinary approach to the multiple socio-economic and environmental
problems facing communities.  It focused on administrative decentralization,
field work, information dissemination and the definition of realistic goals
that are feasible for local authorities.  The programme has already been
implemented in 15 localities within the city and various educational and
informative publications have been published.

62.  UNESCO is working in the area of media and the arts with the One World
Broadcasting Group.  One World, comprised of national public broadcasters
across the world, will produce One World Global Magazine, a television series
that will address global sustainable development issues related to
environment, human rights and development.  The pilot programme, completed in
late 1995, is to be followed by 11 additional programmes.

                         2.  Developing local action plans

63.  While some progress has been made, the comprehension of sustainable
development is still limited, particularly true at the community and municipal
levels, and among local decision makers.  ESD must address a broad spectrum of
issues that are of direct concern to local communities and must not confine
itself to global issues, which often seem beyond individual comprehension and
local spheres of action.  As much as possible, the objectives of ESD should be
determined locally, while at the same time respecting a global minimum of
universally accepted concerns.

64.  One example of how to convey global sustainable development messages and
make them relevant at the local level is taking place in Canada:  basing
themselves on the book Rescue Mission Planet Earth, a consortium of more than
40 federal and provincial government agencies, educational organizations,
members of the private sector and youth groups have created a pedagogical
insert designed by Canadian youth entitled the "Canadian youth action guide". 
In early 1996, the book and insert are to be distributed to every school in
the country, as well as to numerous youth and community agencies.  Youth
themselves will be mobilized and empowered to initiate thousands of action
plans that address key environmental and sustainability issues in their
communities.  The young people will share their experiences with others via a
special Internet linkage. 


65.  Major groups and non-governmental organizations are mobilizing and
networking to become more effective channels for communicating information
about sustainable development.  In order to revitalize education efforts, such
major groups and non-governmental organizations are coordinating efforts with
government organizations, ministries of education, institutes for teacher
training, ministries of environment and numerous local organizations. 

                                     A.  Women

66.  Women's groups continue to play a very significant role in the quest for
sustainability.  Their actions have an impact at every level of society, from
practical household management and village reform to the international level.
One of the central items adopted in the Platform for Action adopted by the
Fourth World Conference on Women deals with the environment.  The Conference
also called for equal access to education and training for girls and women,
also a major goal of chapter 36 of Agenda 21. 

67.  Within IEEP, a number of activities have taken place targeted on women. 
A pilot project in Pakistan on promoting the role of women in fostering
education for sustainable development, which began in 1994, has involved women
and girls from 30 families in the province of Punjab.  The results of the
research were disseminated to policy makers and to non-governmental
organizations.  An international symposium on empowering women through
environment and population education for sustainable development was held in
Islamabad, Pakistan from 4 to 9 December 1994.  The results of the symposium,
technical papers and country reports were disseminated for use in environment
and population activities involving women as major leaders and beneficiaries. 
A regional training workshop on environmental communication for women in
household and community water management in the Arab States was held in
El-Kharga City, Egypt from 10 to 14 December 1995.  The workshop aimed to help
women become more efficient in their use of household and community water
resources, and to put the media institutions working with them in a better
position to influence women in this respect, using environmental
communication.  An environmental communication strategy was drawn up that
could be applied at the community level.  In Malawi, a three-day workshop was
organized in January 1994 for curriculum developers, women communicators,
non-formal educators, rural development advisers, health and nutrition
educators etc. to consider the theme "Role of rural women in sustainable

68.  The United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM) has an umbrella
programme entitled "Africa women act on Agenda 21" to promote and strengthen
the contributions of African women to ecosystem management, the control of
environmental degradation and the enhancement of biological diversity.  The
importance of women's indigenous knowledge for achieving sustainable
development has been recognized, and will be used with other information in
designing projects and activities.

69.  With respect to health, the World Health Organization (WHO) recently
produced and distributed an anthology with a teacher's guide, on the theme
"Women, health and environment".

                                     B.  Youth

70.  Youth constitute a particularly important audience for education for
sustainable development.  Not only do they represent a third of the world's
population and over half of the population in many developing countries but
they will become the future caretakers of the planet.  Many of the fundamental
reorientations in social behaviour that are needed to establish truly
sustainable lifestyles will only be attained through the thoughtful education
of today's youth and their capacity for resourcefulness, innovation and

71.  In an effort to bridge the gap between global issues and local concerns,
UNESCO, UNEP, UNDP and UNICEF are supporting the Non-Governmental
Organizations Rescue Mission to involve young people in the implementation of
Agenda 21.  A book accessible to a youthful audience, Rescue Mission Planet
Earth:  A Children's Version of Agenda 21 was published in 1994, and 10,000
youth from approximately 100 countries contributed, in addition to 50 experts. 
The book, launched and produced by Peace Child International, has been
published in 17 languages.  The network has now expanded to include some 500
groups in 120 countries.  To promote the book and mobilize youth to take
action towards sustainable development, UNESCO is now working with Rescue
Mission on other projects in Pakistan, China, South Africa and France, as well
as in the African region through the Fond de De'veloppement pour la
Coope'ration in Belgium and regional African non-governmental organizations. 

72.  Children's Paradise Village Activities was started in Japan to provide an
environment for experimental learning and to foster the desire of children to
live in harmony with nature and human society.  There are five target
age-groups, starting from four years and continuing up to 28.  Organized by
the Yamagishism Life Demonstration Community Centres, there are now programmes
in South Korea, Brazil, Switzerland, Germany and the United States.

73.  To raise awareness about environmental conservation, a three-day
programme for teachers was organized by Youth In Environment in Nepal. 
Concepts of environment and integration of environmental concerns in education
were made clear to the participants through theoretical, as well as practical
means.  Field visits, demonstrations, exhibitions, cultural programmes and
debates were introduced to a select group of teachers from local schools.  In
order to broaden the impact, the programme received coverage in the press. 

                               C.  Indigenous groups

74.  Only recently have scientists and educators begun to appreciate the great
value and vast extent of indigenous systems of environmental knowledge and
management systems.  This knowledge, variously referred to as traditional
ecological knowledge (TEK) or indigenous knowledge (IK), encompasses the rich
history, collective understandings and symbolic thought of traditional
societies living in close relationship with natural ecological systems. 
Incorporated into formal and non-formal education, TEK and the unique
human-nature relationships underlying such knowledge systems can inspire
insightful and innovative solutions to the daunting challenge of devising
development strategies that are ecologically, economically and culturally

75.  Programmes that incorporate TEK are developing in many forms.  Teaching
materials are being developed that integrate the expertise of indigenous
people.  Technical support is being provided to train indigenous staff so that
education programmes can be decentralized and self-sufficient.  Attention is
paid to including women in training programmes, in recognition of the key role
that they often play in preserving the cultural values, rights and history of
their communities.

76.  One example is work with traditional/indigenous knowledge systems taking
place at the University of Cali, Colombia.  A multimedia (video and CD-Rom)
and book package for the general public is being produced on the theme of
"Sustainable development", as practised by indigenous cultures throughout
Latin America, using water as an example.  Another initiative in Colombia is
that of the Colombian National Commission for UNESCO, which is developing a
video for students and teachers at the primary school level on the traditional
knowledge of indigenous communities of the Andean region and its importance
for maintaining a centuries-old, sustainable way of life.

               D.  Strengthening links between science and education

77.  The Committee on Capacity Building in Science of the International
Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU) has drawn attention to the serious gap
between science and education.  The Committee has developed a proposal for a
new programme on capacity-building in science that would incorporate
sustainable development considerations.  The programme would establish a
clearing-house for primary school science education, build a network of
organizations and set up national committees for capacity-building in science
within national organizations adhering to ICSU.

                                   E.  Refugees

78.  The number of refugees in the world currently number about 25 million,
many of whom will spend a considerable portion of their lives in this
situation.  In addition, many children will spend the majority of their
formative years as refugees.  79.  A new need has arisen for refugee training
in various social skills and education for sustainable development so as to
reduce tension in camps and to prepare refugees for their return.  In refugee
camps throughout the world, the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner
for Refugees (UNHCR) has been encouraging environmental education activities,
both formally through primary school curricula and non-formally through
awareness-raising campaigns linked to environmental initiatives conducted by
implementing partners. 


                            A.  International meetings

80.  Since UNCED, several international conferences, workshops, congresses and
consultations have been held to evaluate the current status of environmental
and development education and suggest its future direction.  Presentations and
discussions at such events have addressed the opportunities and obstacles that
face education for sustainable development both within school systems and in
non-formal education.  They have dealt with the concept of growth and
sustainable development; sustainability as it relates to health, population
and social development; public awareness actions; and linkages with other main
programme areas of Agenda 21, such as changing consumption patterns and
combating poverty.  In the field of economics, several conferences have
focused on the concept and practice of total cost accounting.

81.  The World Congress for Education and Communication on Environment and
Development (ECO-ED), (Toronto, 17-22 October 1992), sponsored by UNESCO, UNEP
and the International Chamber of Commerce, launched the concept of ESD to over
4,500 participants from 87 countries immediately after UNCED.  ECO-ED examined
for the first time the role of education and public awareness in achieving
sustainable development, and involved not only educators and communicators but
also Governments, the academic community, business and industry, and the arts.
ECO-ED II is now being organized by UNESCO and Canada as a "virtual
conference" via the Internet.

82.  An inter-sessional workshop of international experts on the theme
"Education and public awareness for sustainable development" was organized by
the Czech Republic in Prague (28 November-1 December 1995).  A set of
recommendations were formulated for consideration by the Commission at its
fourth session as part of its review of chapter 36.  It was recommended that:

     (a)  Countries develop guidelines and national action plans for ESD;

     (b)  National Governments cooperate closely with the major groups in
developing information and education policies and in setting conditions for
implementing sustainable development at the local level and/or in consumer

     (c)  UNESCO, in cooperation with other United Nations and non-United
Nations institutions, including non-governmental organizations, develop and
disseminate a more detailed yet easily understandable concept of ESD,
especially regarding content.  In particular, research into, debate on and
dissemination of ESD materials on environmental economics and the new
paradigms that are emerging to take account of the trade-offs between natural
and produced capital should be encouraged;

     (d)  The composition of national committees on sustainable development
should represent the different fields of knowledge, including indigenous
fields, that contribute to sustainable development, and should also include
representatives of the ESD system.  In particular, national education
authorities and the scientific community should be encouraged to give more
attention to facilitating an interdisciplinary approach to the complex issues
related to sustainable development;

     (e)  UNESCO, UNDP and task managers of other relevant chapters of
Agenda 21, in cooperation with national Governments, should explore ways and
means of reaching individual households (which hold roles as both consumers of
natural resources and stewards of the environment) with information on
practical ways to implement sustainable development; 

     (f)  In developing changes to the United Nations guidelines for consumer
protection, important opportunities for highlighting ESD messages should be
taken into account, especially when addressing consumer education and
information programmes;

     (g)  ESD messages should be included in a variety of educational
programmes to give everyone the knowledge to participate actively in creating
his or her own sustainable lifestyle;

     (h)  Local, national, and international administrations should offer
targeted programmes of ESD, especially specific training for decision makers;

     (i)  Primary, secondary and tertiary programmes should offer ESD within
their curricula;

     (j)  Public awareness and action programmes should be encouraged,
utilizing all traditional communication methods, the mass media and emerging
communication technologies to create an impact on policy decisions concerning
sustainable development;

     (k)  More collaboration should be facilitated between industrialized
countries and developing countries in their efforts to promote ESD, while
recognizing that addressing global issues could be a shared responsibility;

     (l)  Multilateral institutions, bilateral governmental agencies and
private organizations should be encouraged to reallocate existing resources,
identify new resources and increase coordination to support the
above-mentioned efforts.  Local and national resources should be committed,
revitalized and mobilized, especially local educational institutions;

     (m)  The recommendations of the Prague workshop should be taken into
account in conducting the 1997 overall review by the Commission of the
implementation of Agenda 21, with special reference to chapter 36.

83.  A Commonwealth intergovernmental environmental education workshop, held
in Bradford, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, 23-27 July
1995, to assess progress since the above-mentioned workshop held in Belgrade
in 1975 and celebrate the twentieth anniversary of IEEP, drew attention to:

     (a)  At the primary level:  certain principles and skills concerning
environment and sustainable development need to be introduced in order to
change values and perceptions;

     (b)  At the secondary level:  ministries of education need to be
supportive of EE and to make the necessary modifications to examinations and
curricula.   Within schools, there needs to be a whole school approach,
teachers need to act as role models and non-governmental organizations and
communities need to be involved;

     (c)  At the tertiary level:  interdisciplinary bodies are needed.
Certificate and/or EE modules are needed as attachments to degree courses.
Universities need to have an environmental policy in terms of curriculum,
research, and action.  EE should permeate existing courses.  And academics
should be integrated into the decision-making process;

     (d)  Non-formal education:  there needs to be support and training for
environmental educators for the media, religious groups and decision makers;
the documentation and dissemination of environmental education programmes and
resources; the monitoring and evaluation of EE programmes; increased funding;
the development of appropriate resource materials and technology; the
incorporation of traditional knowledge into EE programmes; and the integration
of environmental dimension in all socio-economic activities.

84.  The Interregional Workshop on Reorienting Environmental Education for
Sustainable Development (Athens, 26-30 June 1996) advocated the use of
research and experimentation on a short and long-term basis as a key element
for the future progress of environmental education.  The following conclusions
were drawn:

     (a)  Little research and experimentation is being undertaken world wide,
and information/results from what is being undertaken is difficult to access;

     (b)  Long-term benefits of EE research and experimentation are not fully
recognized by user groups or funders;

     (c)  Research and experimentation on environmental education can be done
at various levels:  the academic/research level on the
theoretical/developmental aspects; the non-governmental organization level on
practical approaches and experimentation; the school level on learning
approaches; and the community level on fostering partnerships.

85.  Major recommendations from other conferences or related events include:

     (a)  Facilitate the reorientation of all areas of education towards ESD;

     (b)  Retrain teachers and instructors to incorporate sustainability

     (c)  Respect and incorporate traditional/indigenous ecological knowledge
into curricula;

     (d)  Use new technology:  connect trainers to the Internet system;

     (e)  Mobilize all sectors of society, whether agriculture, industry,
health or other.  Work with non-governmental organizations and business to
develop guidelines that can be adapted to local contexts.  United Nations
agencies should establish links with industry;

     (f)  Recognize the need for social marketing and work with the media to
convey the message;

     (g)  Change production and consumption patterns.

                 B.  International Commission on Education for the
                     Twenty-first Century

86.  At the request of UNESCO, the International Commission on Education for
the Twenty-first Century, comprised of 14 individuals of diverse national,
cultural and professional backgrounds and led by the former president of the
European Community, Mr. Jacques Delors, has examined the challenges facing
education in the future; a report to be published in April 1996 will put
forward to policy makers at the highest level the recommendations of the
International Commission for action.  The work of the International Commission
provides an important overall framework for change, including the
reorientation of education towards sustainable development.

87.  The stated objective of the International Commission is to identify the
main trends influencing education, bearing in mind economic growth and the aim
of sustainable development.  The Commission emphasizes the growing role that
education will be required to play in addressing emerging social concerns.  It
calls for a new humanism to safeguard against the unintended consequences of
technology-based, competition-driven and media-dominated societies, which may
lead to the dehumanization of values and culture.

88.  The International Commission proposed that the four pillars of education
for the twenty-first century be:  (a) learning to know, (b) learning to do,
(c) learning to be and (d) learning to live together.  In the light of the
growing threats to peaceful coexistence on the basis of ethnic, religious or
national differences, the International Commission emphasized the great
importance of the fourth pillar.  Guided by the recognition of a growing
global interdependence and a shared analysis of the risks and challenges of
the future, a new spirit of cooperation and cohabitation could be created that
would induce people to manage their differences in an open and peaceful

89.  In its summary report of November 1995, the International Commission
noted a general disillusionment with economic and social progress.  Such
disillusionment was evident in rising unemployment and the exclusion of
growing numbers of people in the affluent countries, and was demonstrated by
the continuing inequalities in development throughout the world.  While
humankind was increasingly aware of the threats facing its natural
environment, the resources needed to put matters right had not yet been
allocated, despite a series of international meetings, such as UNCED, and
despite the serious warnings of natural disasters or major industrial
accidents.  The truth was that the concept "economic growth regardless" could
no longer be viewed as the ideal way of reconciling material progress with
equity, respect for the human condition and respect for the natural assets
that we had a duty to hand on in good condition to future generations. 

90.  The International Commission emphasized the central role that education
must play, insisting that such major challenges must be a concern in
educational policy-making, and that it must not fail to highlight the ways in
which educational policies could help to create a better world, by
contributing to sustainable human development, mutual understanding among
peoples and a renewal of practical democracy.

91.  The International Commission noted the growing need, in the political and
economic spheres, to resort to international action in order to find
satisfactory solutions to problems of a global dimension.  It developed
several recommendations, including calls for:

     (a)  A policy of strong encouragement for the education of girls and
women, following on the recommendations of the Fourth World Conference on

     (b)  The allocation of a minimum percentage of development aid (a quarter
of the total) to fund education:  this adjustment in favour of education
should also apply to international funding institutions, first and foremost
the World Bank, which already had an important role;

     (c)  The further development of debt-for-education swaps to offset the
adverse effects on State education expenditure of adjustment policies and
policies for reducing internal and external deficits;

     (d)  The widespread introduction of the new technologies of the
information society in all countries in order to prevent the growth of yet
another gap between rich and poor countries;

     (e)  Enlisting the outstanding potential of non-governmental
organizations, including grass-roots initiatives, which could provide valuable
support to international cooperation in education.

                          C.  International organizations

92.  Within the United Nations system, there has been significant progress
since UNCED to reorient existing programmes and to launch new initiatives.  

93.  IEEP, launched in 1975 in the aftermath of the United Nations Conference
on the Human Environment, has been working since UNCED to adapt its work
programme to implement the recommendations of chapter 36.  The main focus of
IEEP is on: 

     (a)  Developing general environmental and development awareness;

     (b)  Improving information and knowledge;

     (c)  Refining concepts, methods and approaches;

     (d)  Incorporating environment, development and population dimensions
into the educational process of all countries;

     (e)  Promoting new values, attitudes and behaviours;

     (f)  Fostering ethical responsibilities;

     (g)  Promoting commitments for actions for the protection and improvement
of the environment;

     (h)  Stimulating participation in sustainable development decision-making
and activities;

     (i)  Improving the quality of life.

94.  The work of IEEP falls under four broad categories:

     (a)  In research and experimentation, pilot projects and case-studies are
under way in countries throughout the world, including case studies on the
state of EE in nine high population countries (Bangladesh, Brazil, China,
Egypt, India, Indonesia, Nigeria, Pakistan, Russia);

     (b)  Curriculum and materials development has focused on introducing the
concept of sustainable development into educational materials, including the
publication of four new modules for secondary schools on the themes of
freshwater resources, biological diversity, global change and oceans, and
coastal regions and their resources;

     (c)  For the training of personnel, numerous seminars and workshops have
been organized at the regional, national and municipality levels in a number
of countries, such as Bangladesh, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ghana, India,
Latvia, Namibia, the Philippines and Thailand.  Emphasis has been given to
training teachers and teacher trainers;

     (d)  For exchange of information and experience, the primary vehicle
remains the quarterly newsletter Connect, published in 8 languages.

95.  In mid-1995, the third external independent evaluation of IEEP was
undertaken, which concluded that the interest in and opportunity for education
for sustainable development have never been greater in all regions of the
world.  However, numerous changes are recommended to update and improve the
content and delivery of IEEP, taking full advantage of its 20 years of work.

96.  Since 1994, within UNESCO the IEEP has been incorporated into the new
transdisciplinary and inter-agency cooperation project on the theme
"Environment and population, education and information for development (EPD)";
the project was set up by UNESCO to reorient and integrate UNESCO work on
implementing chapter 36 of Agenda 21, together with the implementation of the
action plans of the above-mentioned major United Nations conferences, as well
as the recommendations on education and information that appear in the
above-mentioned conventions on biological diversity, climate change and
desertification.  EPD experiments with and promotes new modes of action that
cross traditional conceptual and institutional lines.  Another pre-existing
cooperation project was also incorporated within EPD:  the UNESCO-UNFPA
project on the theme "Action on population, information, education and
communication", which serves as basis for integrating environment and
population concerns.  The expertise and experience of these two undertakings,
combined with the scientific backstopping provided by the five UNESCO
intergovernmental programmes in the field of environment and development and
by UNESCO work in culture and communication provide an interdisciplinary base
from which to explore new avenues for promoting education for sustainable
development and an integrated follow-up to major United Nations conferences in
the area of education and information.

97.  In 1995, discussions began to improve cooperation within the United
Nations family with respect to education, public awareness and training, and
to develop a new initiative for joint action that will build substantially on
the 20 years of experience acquired within IEEP.  The new cooperative
arrangement will provide common elements in terms of the content and
methodology that could be applied and adapted by countries, major groups and
local communities to further public understanding and action.  Partners from
outside the United Nations system could also be associated with the new

98.  Since UNCED, UNDP has adopted the attainment of sustainable human
development as its primary objective.  UNDP has initiated 11 new interregional
and regional activities that were dedicated to or included environmental
education, training, education and awareness-raising components.  One
initiative, PULSE (Pioneering Useful and Learning Strategies in Basic
Education), served as the link between the World Conference on Education for
All and UNCED conferences.  The Africa 2000 and Asia Pacific 2000 initiatives,
begun before 1992, reflect nevertheless the objectives of Agenda 21.  UNDP,
together with UNEP and the United Nations Institute for Training and Research,
has sponsored an environmental management training course that promotes
general awareness of the sustainable development perspective.

99.  Sustainable Agriculture Networking and Extension (SANE) was created by
UNDP to enhance capacity-building and human resource development in the area
of sustainable agriculture through agro-ecological training, participatory
research, the implementation of field demonstrations modules and policy
advocacy.  The SANE project links non-governmental organizations,
universities, international/national research centres, the Food and
Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and other organizations
concerned with food production and environmental preservation.  Nine countries
were selected to participate in the programme, and after one year of
operation, the programme is seeing positive results, i.e., the
systematization, analysis and dissemination of successful sustainable
agricultural practices used by traditional farmers in the Lao People's
Democratic Republic.  Regional and local training occurs via workshops,
seminars, short courses, internships and study tours to examine the
effectiveness of educational methodologies.  Materials are produced and
distributed as widely as possible.

100. The ILO has given priority to relevant follow-up activities on chapter 36
of Agenda 21, particularly on training.  At its tripartite advisory meeting on
environment and the world of work, held in Geneva, the ILO recommended that
such activities should integrate environment and sustainable development
considerations into training activities in all ILO programme areas, including
those for women and workers' and employers' education activities.  Particular
emphasis should be given to the training of trainers' programmes.  Working
both on its own and in conjunction with other agencies, the ILO facilitates
numerous training workshops around the world, focusing on such issues as
environmental legislation; environmentally sound technologies; environmental
awareness; teacher training; and information exchange.

101. The World Health Organization (WHO) has implemented numerous health
training programmes to service many sectors of society and many regions
throughout the world.  WHO subjects include environmental health teacher
training; environmental epidemiology; and human exposure assessment.  As
follow-up to UNCED, WHO has created a project to support countries in the
development of national plans for human resources development in environmental
and occupational health, in collaboration with UNEP and the United States
National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, with pilot programmes in
Mexico, Cuba and South Africa.

102. Educational materials are being developed in a project sponsored jointly
by WHO, CRE-Copernicus (Association of European Universities-Cooperation
Programme in Europe for Research on Nature and Industry through Coordinated
University Studies), UNEP and UNESCO-UNITWIN with the goal of improving
environmental health teaching in universities.  The project includes the
production of a text and teaching kit, as well as the sponsorship of two
teacher-training workshops to field test the materials for university

103. ICSU, in an interdisciplinary approach, has developed a set of materials
on the subject of global change for students and teachers at the senior
secondary or early university levels.  The materials allow science teachers to
introduce or illustrate principles that are presented in an existing course
but in a new and exciting global change context.  ICSU has proposed a
programme on capacity- building in science to focus on primary-level science
education, the isolation of scientists and public awareness of scientific
issues.  In both materials and programmes, the connections between the science
of the environment and the requirements of sustainable development are



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Date last posted: 3 December 1999 10:25:35
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