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Economic Aspects | Natural Resource Aspects | Institutional Aspects | Social Aspects |Tanzania

NATURAL RESOURCE ASPECTS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA

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AGRICULTURE

Decision-Making

Strategies, policies and plans

The Government of Tanzania has had an Agricultural Policy in place since 1983. Emphasis has been put on increased output and efficiency of agricultural production at the village level; timely delivery and efficient use of energy inputs into agriculture; increase in use of tractors and/or animal-drawn implements for farming; introduction of village-level transport and the use of small scale human or draught-animal-powered technologies; use of renewable energy resources; and introduction of improved efficiency barns for curing tobacco, drying tea, and smoking fish to reduce the use of woodfuel.

In its 1993 revised form, the policy has also underscored the promotion and adoption of environmentally friendly technology and methods through collaboration with other ministries and institutions, enhancing environmental awareness through education extension services, and undertaking further research and dissemination of sustainable agricultural practices.

The National Land Policy reinforces the objectives of the Agricultural Policy especially in the treatment of shifting cultivation which contributes to land and soil degradation. It is stipulated in the National Land Policy that shifting cultivation will be controlled through the allocation of land to peasants on a tenure basis.

Status

Agriculture is the mainstay of the economy. It employs about 80% of the work force and accounts for over 50% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) at factor cost and over 50% of foreign exchange earnings. It is also the major source of food supply and raw material for the industrial sector. Furthermore it provides the market for industrial products. The major export cash crops are cotton and coffee.

Agricultural sector development has been undertaken with the objective of increasing the production of food and cash crops in order to improve food security, generate foreign exchange, supply domestic industries with raw materials, and raise rural income levels to alleviate poverty. Short term policies in this sector have focused on removing price distortions and minimizing losses due to inefficiencies in marketing and in process industries respectively. Direct involvement and control of the agricultural sector by the Government has been reduced. Emphasis is being put on research and extension services.

This information was provided by the Government of the United Republic of Tanzania to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

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ATMOSPHERE

Decision-Making

Legislation, regulations and policy instruments

The Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer was acceded to by Tanzania on 7 April, 1993. The Montreal Protocol (1987) and the London Amendment (1990) to the Protocol were acceded to on 16 April, 1993. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) was signed by Tanzania on 12 June 1992, and ratified on 1 March 1996.

Strategies, policies and plans

In order to fulfill the obligations of the UNFCCC, a National Action Plan on Climate Change in Tanzania is under development. In addition, various studies have been undertaken by the Centre for Energy, Environment, Science and Technology (CEEST) on behalf of the Tanzania Government. An inventory of emissions by source and removal by sinks of greenhouse gases in the country has been completed based on 1990 data. A study on the technological and other options for the mitigation of greenhouse gases in Tanzania has also been completed. A study to assess the vulnerability and adaptation to climate change, including the impact of climate change on agriculture, grassland and livestock, as well as forestry, water, coastal resources, and health is being implemented.

Main Programmes

Activities in the area of pollution prevention and control include the promotion of awareness to users of chemicals in Lake Zone Regions; training of National Environmental Management Council (NEMC) staff on data base formulation and analysis related to pollution levels and control; preparation of environmental standards for water and air; and industrial pollution monitoring programmes in lake regions Morogoro and Dar es Salaam. These activities are funded by the Swedish International Development Agency (SIDA).

This information was provided by the Government of the United Republic of Tanzania to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

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BIODIVERSITY

Decision-Making

Legislation, regulations and policy instruments

The Convention on Biological Diversity was signed by Tanzania on 12 June 1992, and ratified on 1 March 1996. The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) was ratified by Tanzania on 29 November, 1979. Supporting CITES, the Regional Lusaka Agreement on cooperative enforcement operations directed at illegal trade in wild fauna and flora, adopted in 1994, was signed by Tanzania on 8 September 1994. The Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals, was adopted in 1979. The International Plant Protection Convention, was adopted in 1951. The Convention Concerning the Protection of the World's Cultural Heritage, adopted in 1972, was ratified by Tanzania on 20 November 1987.

The Convention on Biological Diversity gives an opportunity for Tanzania to contribute to the global initiatives for the conservation of biological resources and makes it eligible to benefit from technology transfer, financial assistance, scientific and research cooperation, and capacity building. In addition, Tanzania stands to benefit from other provisions of the Convention relating to: research and training; public education and awareness; the need for impact assessments with respect to projects that may threaten genetic resources, species, or habitat; exchange of information; and technical cooperation. These provisions provide avenues for the development of a technical, social and management infrastructure that is conducive to better protect Tanzanian biological diversity. It also creates a basis for exchange and cooperation among country parties.

CITES endevours to regulate and restrict trade in endangered species, both between member parties, and between member parties and non-members. The Convention covers both flora and fauna, including captive bred (non-wild) species. This Convention mandates signatories to establish a Management Authority responsible for issuing permits, and a Scientific Authority responsible to advise the Management Authority. Such advice might include whether export of a species would be detrimental to its survival. Pursuant to the Convention, Tanzania designated the Wildlife Division of the Ministry of Tourism and Natural Resources to be the Management Authority, while the Scientific Authority is an individual scientist. Tanzania has also in the recent past conducted a thorough wildlife sector review and assessment.

Main Programmes

A number of programmes and projects supporting biodiversity in Tanzania result from international cooperation. The Lake Victoria Environmental Management Programme is a joint initiative of the three East African countries Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania. The objective is to implement a five year programme for strengthening regional coordination in the management of the Lake resources, including fisheries management, control of water hyacinth, management of water quality and land use, including wetlands. Formulation of the Programme was completed in December 1995. The project has secured funds from the World Bank and the Global Environment Facility (GEF) totalling US$20.4 million. A secretariat is in place and implementation of the project started in March 1997.

The long term goal of a capacity building for environmental management and pollution abatement project is to improve the environmental condition in Mwanza, and consequently Lake Victoria. The project, funded by the Danish International Development Agency (DANIDA), is to be implemented in 1998-2000. It will promote environmentally sustainable socio-economic strength and development through the preparation of a dynamic strategic development plan and investment strategy to address problems of soil erosion, water pollution, solid and hazardous waste, and industrial waste water. It also aims at increasing awareness and participation of stakeholders in the minimization and prevention of pollution.

The Lake Tanganyika biodiversity and pollution control project is a five year regional project of the riparian states of Burundi, Tanzania, Zaire, and Zambia. The project aims to control pollution and to prevent the loss of the exceptional diversity of Lake Tanganyika. The preparation process, approved in September 1995, has commenced. The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and GEF are the funding agencies for the project which is expected to cost US$10 million.

The overall objective of a National biological diversity country study project has been to gather and analyze biological and socio-economic data that would provide an information base for the development of national strategies, programmes, and action plans for the conservation and sustainable use of Tanzania's biological diversity. This study, covering the Tanzania mainland only, was undertaken between April 1995 to March 1996, with the consolidation of the report accomplished by October 1996. The study engaged local experts from Government and NGOs. The National Environment Management Council (NEMC) coordinated this project on behalf of the government.

Status

The extensive national parks, 'the Eastern Arc' mountains, wetlands, coastal forests, marine and fresh water systems as outstanding reservoirs of plant and animal species make Tanzania one of the world's greatest reservoirs of wildlife and biodiversity. Statistics indicate that of the 10,000 plant species so far recorded, over a quarter are endemic. Tanzania is also home to 31 endemic species of amphibians, 18 endemic species of lizards, 9 species of snakes, 10 bird species, forty percent of the world's wild coffee varieties, and about 80% of the famous African violet flowers.

Tanzania is a custodian of world heritage in the form of game reserves and national parks. The Selous Game Reserve, the Ngorongoro Crater and Serengeti National Park are World Heritage Sites. Lake Manyara National Park, the Ngorongoro Crate and Serengeti National Park have been designated as biosphere reserves. Land and natural resource use conflicts in buffer zones and poaching are major problems in these areas.

Technology

A study to develop a strategy for the conservation of coastal biological diversity of mainland Tanzania was completed by the Center for Environmental Engineering and Science Technologies (CEEST) under the auspices of the Tanzania Division of Environment, and funded by the World Bank. The study has identified some implications for specific biodiversity objectives in relation to sectoral programmes and forestry, agriculture, industry, and tourism interests in coastal Tanzania.

This information was provided by the Government of the United Republic of Tanzania to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

For access to the Web Site of the Convention on Biological Diversity, click here:
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DESERTIFICATION AND DROUGHT

Decision-Making

Legislation, regulations and policy instruments

The International Convention to Combat Desertification in Countries Experiencing Drought and/or Desertification Particularly in Africa was signed by Tanzania on April 16, 1997. The Convention is being implemented through a consultative and participatory process which gathers all concerned actors of civil society. It is seen as a springboard for a process of improving the standards of living of rural communities, particularly in arid and semi-arid areas of the country. The Convention also provides a focal point for coordination, planning, monitoring, and evaluation of the many, sometimes conflicting and overlapping projects, related to land degradation.

Strategies, policies and plans

The problems of land degradation and desertification continue to be major threats to the environment and have been identified as priority problems in the National Environmental Policy, the National Conservation Strategy for Sustainable Development (NCSSD), the National Environmental Action Plan (NEAP), and the Tanzania Forestry Action Plan (TFAP). Institutional arrangements for the implementation of the Convention have been finalized. A National Steering Committee has been established and is composed of members from relevant government ministries and departments. The Committee is charged with providing guidance and advising the government on the implementation of the National Plan to Combat Desertification (NAP). Both a National Secretariat and a National Technical Committee for the NAP process have been established. The Technical Committee is composed of representatives from the Government, NGOs, and the business community.

Main Programmes

Tanzania is already taking initiatives to implement interim measures called for under the resolution on "Urgent Action for Africa" which was adopted during the conclusion of the Convention in Paris in June 1994. For example, direct anti-desertification activities have involved the establishment of a drought and desertification control unit within the National Environment Management Council (NEMC), and the formulation of the NAP. In addition, the Government has taken a number of remedial measures to address the problem of desertification in the affected areas by launching conservation/control projects.

The following activities will be undertaken in the NAP process starting from 1997: inventory of key stakeholders; production and dissemination of information; awareness raising campaign; inventory of existing plans, programmes and projects relevant to desertification control; mobilization of financial resources for the implementation of the convention; institution strengthening; capacity building; and the development of programmes relevant to the NAP process.

The growing awareness of the problem of desertification has led to a number of new district and regional based programmes initiated through the Ministry of Tourism and Natural Resources. These projects include: Land Management Programme for Environment Conservation (LAMP) in Babati District; Kigoma and Rukwa Integrated Development Programme; Hifadhi Ardhi Dodoma (HADO) and Hifadhi Ardhi Shinyanga (HASHI), two soil and water conservation projects addressing forestry, land-use and livestock in an integrated fashion; Hifadhi Mazingira (HIMA) a regional based soil and water conservation programme in Iringa region; Soil Erosion Control and Agroforestry Programme (SECAP) in Lushoto, dealing with soil, land, and water conservation; Soil Conservation and Agroforestry Programme (SCAPA)in Arumeru, dealing with soil, and water conservation.

Status

The processes of land degradation are varied and may not be easily detected or measured. Its severity can be gauged from the red-brown colour of streams and in floods as the vital top-soil is washed away from upland areas. In other areas, silting of dams and reservoirs, and the bareness of the top soil in many fields are a manifestation of land degradation. The productivity of soils has been considerably reduced in many parts of Tanzania.

Land degradation also results from the removal of woody vegetation especially when the rate of removal is higher than the rate of regeneration. Only 3.2% of Tanzania is covered by closed dense forests. The remainder of forests comprise mainly of miombo woodlands and large areas of thorn-bush. According to the United Nations Sudano Sahelian Office (UNSO), about 33% of Tanzania is affected by desertification. The most affected areas are those in the arid, semi-arid, and dry sub humid areas with potential economic resources and biodiversity which are most vulnerable to land degradation.

Financing

In order to implement the Desertification Convention, particularly at the grassroots level in Tanzania, a financial mechanism will be established. The process of establishing a National Desertification/Environment fund has been started. A National Task Force has been formed and has been charged with carrying out consultations for the establishment of the fund. The fund is intended to support community level anti-desertification and drought mitigating activities. It is to be established as a trust, and will offer grants for the implementation of projects at grassroots level.

Cooperation

Since the first UN Conference on Desertification held in Nairobi, in 1977, the issue of desertification has been on the international agenda as a world wide economic, social, and environmental problem. The UNSO was set up to provide assistance to drought prone countries in West Africa, but later on expanded its assistance to cover 22 countries south of the Sahara and north of the Equator. Tanzania is one of these countries.

In Tanzania, the NAP process has been initiated and is being funded by the Danish International Development Agency (DANIDA). A Memorandum of Understanding to this effect was signed by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), UNSO, and the Government in 1996.

This information was provided by the Government of the United Republic of Tanzania to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

For access to the Web Site of the Convention to Combat Desertification and Drought, click here:

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ENERGY

Decision-Making

Strategies, policies and plans

In the energy-sector in Tanzania, a number of actions and programmes relevant to Agenda 21 have been initiated including the development of a National Energy Policy. The main objective of the policy is to establish an efficient energy production, procurement, transportation, distribution, and end-use system in an environmentally sound manner. This is to be accomplished through: exploitation of the abundant hydro-electric resources; development and utilization of natural gas resources; development and utilization of the coal resources; increased petroleum exploration activities to arrest wood fuel depletion by developing more appropriate land management practices and more efficient woodfuel use technologies; development and utilization of forest and agricultural residue for power and cooking energy production; minimization of energy price fluctuations; development of human resources for development of energy technologies; ensuring the continuity and security of energy supplies. The strategies for implementing the policy include: more efficient use of energy in the transport and industry sectors; rehabilitation of the electric power generation, transmission and distribution infrastructure; rehabilitation and rationalization of petroleum refining, storage and distribution infrastructure; promotion of alternative energy sources; development and dissemination of efficient woodfuel conversion and utilization technologies; and development and dissemination of simple and affordable kerosene stoves for rural and urban households.

In order to meet its energy policy objective, the Government intends to exploit the abundant hydroelectric potential and to develop other indigenous energy sources such as natural gas, coal and petroleum in collaboration with the private sector. The power sector is being restructured. Private participation in investment in the Songo Songo natural gas project is a precursor to wider private sector participation in the energy sector.

In the power sub-sector, a number of technological options have been proposed for implementation. These include: increasing the efficiency of the presently installed equipment and retrofitting the thermal power plants to improve their combustion efficiencies; retiring the less efficient plants in favour of more efficient ones and institution of demand side management; institution of fuel switching, for example, changing from industrial diesel oil to natural gas where feasible; and developing renewable energy sources, such as hydro, wind, biomass, and solar energy.

Main Programmes

Taka is a Swahili word for waste and Takagas is therefore gas from waste. The goal of the Takagas project is to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) in Tanzania by substituting bioenergy (methane gas and electricity), produced from anaerobic digestion of industrial and municipal waste in the Dar es Salaam area, for fossil fuels. Additional greenhouse gas reduction will be achieved by lowering the uncontrolled release of methane from improperly disposed organic waste. This will produce organic fertilizer. The plant will have the capacity to treat about 57 tonnes of organic waste per day, or about 3% of the daily waste generated in Dar es Salaam. The project combines methane emission reduction for GHG mitigation, with production of electricity, fuel for transport and fertilizer. The installed capacity of the biogas plant will be 1 MW. The project is being funded by the Global Environmental Facility (GEF) and the Danish International Development Agency (DANIDA). This project is a collaborative effort of the Ministry of Energy and Minerals, the Dar es Salaam City Council, and the University of Dar es Salaam.

Status

Domestic energy demand in Tanzania has been rising rapidly in recent years because of population growth. Tanzanian forests supply the bulk of the energy demand. Wood accounts for 90% of the total energy used in Tanzania. While the supply of fuelwood is dwindling, demand is rapidly increasing. More than 90% of the population depends on woodfuel energy.

Charcoal is used widely in urban centres with an estimated consumption of 392,000 tonnes per annum and charcoal burners/producers are licensed to burn charcoal in both public woodlands and productive forest reserves. Firewood is mostly used in rural and peri-urban areas.

In 1993 fuelwood consumption was estimated at 45 million cubic meters per annum, with a per capita wood consumption of 2.0 cubic meters of roundwood per annum. The rural areas alone consumed about 43.8 million cubic meters of firewood. By the year 2000, fuelwood demand is expected to surpass 60 million cubic meters. It was also estimated that an average of 45,000 trees of 0.2 cubic meters size were cut daily for fuelwood in the 1980s. Other uses of fuelwood include: fish smoking; salt pans; tobacco curing; bricks and tile kilns; pottery, ceramics, and kaolin production.

Technology

A survey of 20 selected industries to investigate the relationship between production and electricity costs, and sensitivity of production costs to changes in electricity tariff has been implemented by the Tanzania Industrial Research Organization (TIRDO). Walk-through audits, semi-detailed audits, and full energy audits for 41 industries have also been implemented by TIRDO. These activities have been sponsored by the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), the Tanzania Investment Bank (TIB), and the World Bank.

This information was provided by the Government of the United Republic of Tanzania to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

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FORESTS

Decision-Making

In Tanzania, the Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism is responsible for forest resources.

Legislation, regulations and policy instruments

The Forest Ordinance is the major legal instrument of the Tanzania forest policy. It covers the creation and declaration of forest resources. The requirements necessary for declaring an area as a forest reserve are spelled out. The Forest Ordinance is not meant as a policy instrument for the attainment of certain objectives. It is rather an administrative instrument which enables the establishment of reserves.

The Ministry responsible for forests has suggested the following amendments to the Forest Ordinance. The Ordinance will be extended to cover the establishment of institutions other than state forest reserves, such as village forest reserves, controlled areas, silvi-pastoral areas for pastoralists, etc. Minimum management standards for village and private forest lands will be included in the forest ordinance, with a provision that the Forest and Beekeeping Division supervises their enforcement. Key areas will be reserved for biological conservation as strict nature resources. Appropriate incentives in the form of subsidies, subsidized loans or tax reductions are considered desirable for fostering afforestation. The Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism will take the necessary action to implement these provisions.

Royalties and penalties in the Forest Ordinance Rules are established by the Government in such a way that fees are payable on non-plantation and plantation forest produce by types. These royalties are periodically adjusted. The fees neither reflect the value of forest products to the society nor the resource replacement cost. This contributes to deforestation and forest degradation. At the same time artificially low wood prices are hampering farmers to make investment in tree growing, due to low expected earnings. The Government will in the future subsidize conservation and not consumption.

Strategies, policies and plans

In Agenda 21, land and forest resources are covered under the sections on land resource management, deforestation, and desertification (2.10, 2.11, 2.12); and in the statement of Forest Principles. Tanzania has initiated actions towards incorporating environmental concerns in forestry. These initiatives include the review of sectoral policies (forestry, agriculture, land policy, etc.); and adoption of the Tanzania Forestry Action Plan (TFAP), the National Conservation Strategy for Sustainable Development (NCSSD), the National Environmental Action Plan, and the National Environmental Policy.

The first National Forest Policy was enunciated in 1953 and reviewed in 1963 to detail the manner in which forest and tree resources of Tanzania would be managed sustainably to meet the needs of society. The Forest policy is under review in order to reflect social, economic, cultural, and political changes that have taken place since then.

The 1953 Forest Policy objective was: "to demarcate and reserve in perpetuity, for the benefit of present and future inhabitants of the country, sufficient forested land or land capable of afforestation to preserve or improve local climates and water supplies, stabilize land which is liable to deterioration, and provide a sustainable yield of forest produce of all kinds for internal use and also for export."

The draft national forest policy of 1994 has a broad objective of managing forest resources sustainably. As Agenda 21 stresses, it is important to ensure a rational and holistic approach to the sustainable and environmentally sound development of forests. More specific objectives of the draft policy are aimed at:

Main Programmes

Forestry development in the country is centered around the implementation of the TFAP. Contained in the TFAP is a forestry development programme with eight action areas: a) sustainable land husbandry; b) community and farm forestry; c) forest management; d) bioenergy development; e) forest industries; f) beekeeping; g) wildlife management; and h) conservation of ecosystems and biodiversity.

One of the important projects in implementing TFAP has been the Forest Resources Management Project. The objective of the project is to improve the management of the forest and woodlands by strengthening the capacities of institutions responsible for developing and implementing forest and land policies. The project is also aimed at increasing the participation of the private sector and local communities in the management of forest resources. The components of the project include, among others: National Reconnaissance Level Land Use and Resource Mapping; establishment of a Tanzania Natural Resource Information Centre; forest resource management in Tabora, Mwanza, Singida and Shinyanga; improvement and monitoring of royalty collection; and capacity building and infrastructure support.

The number of forestry-related projects has increased significantly during TFPA implementation. There are more than 120 forestry-related projects either being implemented or planned. However, implementation success varies. Some programmes, such as land husbandry, and community and farm forestry have progressed well, largely due to donor interest.

Forest research is being carried out by the Tanzania Forestry Research Institute (TAFORI) and the Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA). The forest research programme of TFAP is based on TAFORI's master plan. This programme is made up of the following elements: a) scientific research in protected forests and woodlands (Eastern Arc, miombo woodland, lowland forests and mangroves); b) silviculture and ecology of non-protection forests and woodlands (Eastern Arc, semi-arid zone and miombo); c) agro-silvopastoral production systems and soil conservation (Eastern arc, lowland forests, semi-arid zone, miombo woodland); d) tree breeding (in all major zones); e) silviculture and ecological management in plantations (highlands, semi-arid zones, Lake zone); f) soils and plantation nutrition (highland plantations, Eastern Arc, lowland forests and for community forestry in all zones); g) growth and yield studies (in plantations); h) forest protection (all zones); and i) timber utilization.

Status

Land and forest resources are the main natural endowments of Tanzania. However, it is estimated that the country's forest area has declined from 44,300,000 ha or 50% of total land area in 1938 to 33, 096,000 ha or 43% of total land area in 1987. Currently forests are estimated to cover 33.5 million ha. Causes of deforestation are mainly heavy pressure from agricultural expansion, livestock grazing, wildfire, over-exploitation of wood resources for various purposes, and other human activities. There are no reliable figures on deforestation in Tanzania although according to United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) estimates, it ranges from 130,000 to 500,000 ha per annum. The major effect of deforestation is the deterioration of the ecological system with resulting negative impacts on soil fertility, water flows, and biological diversity.

Domestic energy demand in Tanzania has been rising rapidly in recent years because of population growth. Tanzanian forests supply the bulk of the energy demand. Wood accounts for 90% of the total energy used in Tanzania. While the supply of fuelwood is dwindling, demand is rapidly increasing. More than 90% of the population depends on woodfuel energy.

Charcoal is used widely in urban centres with an estimated consumption of 392,000 tonnes per annum and charcoal burners/producers are licensed to burn charcoal in both public woodlands and productive forest reserves. Firewood is mostly used in rural and peri-urban areas.

In 1993, fuelwood consumption was estimated at 45 million cubic meters per annum, with a per capita wood consumption of 2.0 cubic meters of roundwood per annum. The rural areas alone consumed about 43.8 million cubic meters of firewood. By the year 2000, fuelwood demand is expected to surpass 60 million cubic meters. It was also estimated that an average of 45,000 trees of 0.2 cubic meters size were cut daily for fuelwood in the 1980s. Other uses of fuelwood include: fish smoking; salt pans; tobacco curing; bricks and tile kilns; pottery, ceramics, and kaolin production.

Frequent ground fires in some areas reduce the regeneration rate and the variety of woodland plants. Forest fires are rampant particularly in natural forests where monitoring is very difficult . The national capacity to fight fires is quite limited both technically and financially.

Challenges

Over the past three decades, perspectives on the role of the forest have changed considerably. There is also pressure arising from the ever increasing demand for woodfuels, fodder, timber and forest land for other uses, especially agriculture. The challenge now is how to manage the forest resources as a national heritage on an integrated basis in order to optimize their environmental, economic, social, and cultural benefits.

This information was provided by the Government of the United Republic of Tanzania to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

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FRESHWATER

Decision-Making

Strategies, policies and plans

The overall national objective of the Water Policy is to provide adequate clean and safe water within easy reach, to satisfy other water needs, and to protect water sources. Specific environmental objectives of the water policy include: protection of water catchment areas; promotion of efficient use of water; promotion of efficient water treatment, and waste water treatment; promotion of water recycling; institution of water charges that reflect full value of water resources; prevention of water pollution; and improved management and conservation of water bodies and wetlands.

Main Programmes

The river basin management and small-holder irrigation improvement project aims to strengthen national capacity to manage water resources, and to address national water-related environmental concerns and those in the Rufiji and Pangani River Basins. Furthermore, it is intended to improve irrigation efficiency of selected small-holder traditional irrigation schemes in the river basins. The project is financed by the International Development Association (IDA) and implemented by the Ministries of Water and Agriculture.

Status

Water is an indispensable resource for all living organisms. It provides life to animals and plants, and it is an important input to human development. Aquatic resources in Tanzania include: fresh water ecosystems, wetlands, lakes and rivers. These resources provide the livelihood and food source for a significant part of the population. They also contribute to the tourist industry. Concerns over aquatic resources in Tanzania arise because of such practices as environmentally destructive fishing using dynamite, excessive trawling, chemical poisoning, and use of small mesh size nets. Ground water is a key source of water for both rural and urban areas in Tanzania. It is the source of water for the municipalities of Arusha, Dodoma, and Mtwara. Shallow aquifers are emphasized for water supply because they are less costly. However, their vulnerability to pollution is high.

The increased pressure on surface water is due to a number of factors. Surface water levels are reported to have been decreasing because of loss of vegetation cover and changes in land use patterns, resulting from population increases. Rivers which used to be perennial have become intermittent. While irrigation is expected to increase, unregulated abstraction of water is already a source of concern in all major river basins. The demand for water in a number of major urban centres is increasing because the population is also increasing at a fast rate.

In urban areas the largest use of water is household consumption. In Dar es Salaam, for example, domestic consumption accounts for approximately 70% of the total water used. Industry typically accounts for about 10-20% of total consumption. The demand for water exceeds supply in most urban centres. In rural areas water is used primarily for domestic purposes and for livestock. The total amount of irrigated land remains limited despite considerable potential, particularly within the major river basins such as the Pangani and Rufiji. Nationally approximately 150,000 ha are under irrigation. Irrigated areas are usually small scale projects with predominant crops of rice and sugar cane. The development potential for irrigation is large, with almost 900,000 ha being suitable. Over 50% of this total is in the Rufiji River Basin, where water allocation conflicts are already evident. In addition, some 80,000 ha are located in the Ruvu Basin, the current source of water for Dar es Salaam, and another 85,000 ha in the nearby Wami Basin.

Water is also used for the production of electricity. Eighty percent of installed electric generation capacity relies on hydropower. The two large projects, Mtera and Kidatu in the Rufiji River Basin, account for most of the hydropower capacity (280MW), while four smaller projects in the Pangani Basin account for approximately 70MW. Conflicting priorities of water use in the Rufiji Basin, combined with the effects of land degradation on sustained low flows and low precipitation, have created water shortages.

Barely 65% of urban and 43% of rural residents in Tanzania have access to potable water within 400 metres. Thus, providing safe drinking water, and environmentally acceptable sanitation and sewage treatment remain priority issues in Tanzania.

Tanzania shares a number of water bodies with neighboring countries. Of these, Lake Victoria, has a serious pollution problem. Untreated discharges of sewage from the country's second largest city of Mwanza reach the lake. In addition, large textile and tannery mills discharge toxic substances and oxygen demanding pollutants. Coffee processing, cotton processing, cotton ginneries, vegetable oil mills, cosmetics industry, soap and fish processing plants discharge oxygen demanding wastes into the lake catchment area.

Lake Victoria appears to be susceptible to eutrophication due in part to the introduction of the Nile Perch. The number of small fish which controlled algae blooms has been severely reduced, as they are food for the perch. This "food web" change indicates that more extensive pollution control measures are needed if oxygen deficiencies are to be improved. Frequent fish kills following alga blooms have been reported in Uganda, Kenya, and Tanzania and the invasion of water hyacinth is evident everywhere. Other sources of contamination include mercury waste coming from mining areas in the lake basin, and run-offs from the overuse of agro-chemicals and fertilizer in cotton production. A joint international effort to reduce pollution loading in the lake, and better manage fishing and other activities is being supported by the World Bank and the Global Environment Fund.

Irrigation is an important aspect of water use because of the variability inherent in Tanzania's rain-fed production systems, which create problems of shortages of the main food crops in years of inadequate or poorly timed rainfall. Irrigation is not yet widespread, but where it is used regulation of water consumption is a problem. Small holder farmers, who account for about 80% of water abstraction for irrigation, use traditional furrows which are prone to excessive leakage, poor drainage and water logging.

Information on areas under irrigation, and water abstraction from rivers and aquifers is sparse and unreliable. It is estimated that some 150,000 ha are under irrigation by small holder farmers, using "run of the river" techniques. Another 40,000 ha are located in large centrally managed schemes. The main crops produced in irrigated areas are rice and sugar cane. In addition, there are a few farms in the Moshi-Arusha area producing irrigated flowers and vegetables for the foreign market. All in all, the area which has potentially for irrigation in Tanzania is large, possibly as much as 900,000 ha.

Challenges

The Ministry of Agriculture, with assistance from the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the United Nations Development Programme, has been reviewing experience with irrigation projects. The conclusions reached are that:

  1. emphasis should remain on existing small holder schemes, and future development should be based on stage improvement and expansion of existing local technology, which allow farmers to adapt at their own pace. Equal emphasis should be given to operational and extension support to farmers at existing schemes;
  2. projects undertaken to-date have been too sophisticated, requiring expensive structures and massive capital outlays. The funds for completing these projects have often not materialized, causing a waste of resources invested in unused, and uncompleted schemes; and
  3. for small holder irrigation schemes to succeed, management of water and land use should be in the hands of associations representing the interests of small scale farmers.

A ranking of potential projects has been made, and a small holder-focused irrigation rehabilitation and development programme has been proposed. In order to carry out such a programme, it is proposed that the key responsibilities for operational support and extension services be provided at the zone level (bringing together similar regions). The Ministry of Agriculture will strengthen its capacity to coordinate irrigation activities and provide assistance at the design and construction stage. Projects will be carried out in Moshi, Morogoro, Tabora, Mbeya, Mwanza, and Mtwara zones.

This information was provided by the Government of the United Republic of Tanzania to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

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LAND MANAGEMENT

Decision-Making

Strategies, policies and plans

In order to guide and regulate the allocation, ownership, use, management, and administration of land, land use planning is also essential. The National Land Use Planning Commission (NLUPC) has undertaken a number of initiatives which are all in accord with Agenda 21. These include, among others, the preparation of the Northern Zone Physical Plan, covering administrative areas of Tanga, Kilimanjaro, and Arusha regions; the preparation of village land use plans for villages in Dodoma district; Urambo District land use plan; and Southern Zone Land Use Plan, covering Lindi, Mtwara, and Ruvuma.

Tanzania is characterized by a very unstable land tenure system. For sustainable and systematic utilization of land and land based natural resources, a land policy is essential. Therefore, in 1995, the new Land Policy was adopted. The policy addresses the challenges facing land-based environments like wetlands, valleys, migration corridors, and buffer zones. Pastoral tenure is also articulated in the Policy. The Ministry responsible for lands is working on translating this policy into legislation.

The NLUPC has also conducted research on the development of land use planning and land tenure systems in Tanzania. The main objectives of this study were to review existing land use planning activities and recommend an action oriented approach to benefit land users; develop a basic framework of land and agricultural legislation in order to iron out conflicts of land uses and ownership; examine pastoral land problems and recommend possible solutions to pastoral land ownership and management; examine environmental programmes in relation to land use planning; review sociological issues in land use management and recommend areas of law review; and identify areas for capacity building.

The study has resulted in the drafting of a national strategy for land delivery. The strategy will reduce competition on land use and stimulate sustainable land use development and natural resource utilization.

Status

Land degradation is reducing the productivity of soils in many parts of Tanzania. Soil loss has been measured in Shinyanga region over a long time period. Rates in the 1970's were twice the rates of the early 1960's (105 tons/ha/year, 1960-1965; 224 tons/ha/year, 1970-1980). Measurements in Dodoma, Morogoro, and Arusha regions suggest similar high rates of soil loss.

A number of factors contribute to land degradation. These include, among others, inappropriate cultivation techniques; a growing population; growing energy requirements; over stocking; and insecure land tenure. In the densely populated highland areas, the average farm size has decreased. In some areas, stocking rates have risen well beyond the carrying capacity of the rangelands.

The expansion of agriculture has often taken the form of shifting cultivation which is detrimental to vegetation. Traditionally, farmers in Tanzania practice shifting cultivation or "slash and burn" agriculture. Under this system a family can grow crops on the same plot of land for two to three years only and must then move on to another plot, leaving the previous one to lie follow. Due to population pressure, however, the long periods of fallow with short periods of farming have been replaced by long periods of farming with short fallow periods. This practice does not allow sufficient time for revegetation and recovery of soil fertility. As a result, large tracts of land have lost their vegetation cover and are exposed to further degradation through soil erosion, or infestation by weeds, pests, and diseases. This decrease in yields often makes the clearing of more virgin forest land increasingly necessary. Shifting cultivation has also resulted in encroachment of natural forest reserves.

About half of the land area of Tanzania can be categorized as grazing land, but 60% of this is tsetse fly infested. Livestock is therefore concentrated in the semi-arid savanna areas of north and central Tanzania, where grasses are associated with widely scattered shrubs and stunted trees. Two fifths of the livestock population is concentrated in Arusha, Shinyanga, and Mwanza regions, which account for only one fifth of the human population. In many regions the livestock population far exceeds the carrying capacity of the land resulting in overgrazing. In Shinyanga, especially Meatu district, and Mbulu in Arusha region, the excess is reported to be over 200%.

This information was provided by the Government of the United Republic of Tanzania to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

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MOUNTAINS

No information is available.

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OCEANS AND COASTAL AREAS

Decision-Making

Legislation, regulations and policy instruments

The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea was ratified by Tanzania on 30 September 1985. Other relevant Conventions or Treaties to oceans and coastal area management in Tanzania include: the Convention on the Continental Shelf, adopted in 1958; The Convention on the High Seas, adopted in 1958; the International Convention for the Protection of Pollution from Ships, adopted in 1973; and the International Convention on Oil Pollution Preparedness, Response and Cooperation, adopted in 1990.

The Convention for the Protection, Management and Development of the Marine and Coastal Environment of the Eastern African Region (the Nairobi Convention), was adopted on 21 June 1985 and acceded to by Tanzania on 1 March 1996. This regional Convention includes two Protocols and an Action Plan. The objective of the Convention is to ensure sound environmental management of the maritime and coastal areas of the East African region. It provides a framework for the protection and development of marine and coastal resources. The protocols focus on the conservation of flora and fauna and on measures for combating marine and coastal pollution.

The Convention is an initiative considering the economic and social value of the Eastern African marine and coastal environment, the unique hydrographic and ecological characteristics of the region, local shortcomings in the integration of environmental protection in national planning, and the inability of the more broad-based environmental conventions "to entirely meet the special requirements of the Eastern African region."

Tanzania stands to benefit from the Convention and its Protocols. Priority areas include coastal management, pollution monitoring, contingency planning to combat marine pollution, coastal erosion, and environmental impact assessment. Parties cooperate in information sharing on the conservation and management of natural resources, and exchange expertise within the sub-region.

In 1994, the Marine Parks and Reserve Act (No. 29 of 1994) was enacted. This new Act aims, inter alia, to protect, conserve, and restore the species and genetic diversity of living and non-living marine resources and the ecosystem processes of marine and coastal areas. It also marks the beginning of the enactment of environmental legislation which includes community-based conservation through the involvement of villagers and local resident users dependent on a marine park or marine reserve. These stakeholders are involved in all phases of the planning, development and management of the particular marine park or reserve, and share in the benefits of its operation as a protected area. The Mafia Marine Park is the first marine park to be established in the country.

This information was provided by the Government of the United Republic of Tanzania to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

To access the Web Site of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, click here:

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TOXIC CHEMICALS

Status

Recognizing the dangers of releasing pollutants into the atmosphere, the chemical industry in Tanzania has embarked on identifying and reducing pollutants by adding effluent treatment and scrubbing units to existing processes. A few operators have succeeded in optimizing operations in order to reduce fugitive emissions and waste generations. An example is the introduction of membrane separation to replace mercury-based techniques in the calor-alkali industry. Some firms have been able to substitute dangerous organic chemicals and trichloroethylene with less hazardous alternatives.

This information was provided by the Government of the United Republic of Tanzania to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

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WASTE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS

Solid Waste and Sanitation

Decision-Making

Strategies, policies and plans

The provision of environmentally acceptable sanitation and sewage treatment, together with access to safe drinking water remain priority issues in Tanzania. Specific environmental objectives of the Water Policy include promotion of efficient use of water; promotion of efficient water treatment, and waste water treatment; promotion of water recycling; institution of water charges that reflect full value of water resources and; prevention of water pollution.

Main Programmes

Taka is a Swahili word for waste and Takagas is therefore gas from waste. The goal of the Takagas project is to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) in Tanzania by substituting bioenergy (methane gas and electricity), produced from anaerobic digestion of industrial and municipal waste in the Dar es Salaam area, for fossil fuels. Additional greenhouse gas reduction will be achieved by lowering the uncontrolled release of methane from improperly disposed organic waste. This will produce organic fertilizer. The plant will have the capacity to treat about 57 tonnes of organic waste per day, or about 3% of the daily waste generated in Dar es Salaam. The project combines methane emission reduction for GHG mitigation, with production of electricity, fuel for transport and fertilizer. The installed capacity of the biogas plant will be 1 MW. The project is being funded by the Global Environmental Facility (GEF) and the Danish International Development Agency (DANIDA). This project is a collaborative effort of the Ministry of Energy and Minerals, the Dar es Salaam City Council, and the University of Dar es Salaam.

This information was provided by the Government of the United Republic of Tanzania to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

Hazardous Waste

Decision-Making

Legislation, regulations and policy instruments

The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal was acceded to by Tanzania on 7 April 1993. The Bamako Convention on the Ban of the Import into Africa and the Control of Transboundary Movement and Management of Hazardous Wastes within Africa was adopted in 1991. Tanzania ratified the Convention on 7 April 1993. The Bamako Convention takes its cue from the Basel Convention on the control of transboundary movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal (1989). In addition, the Organization of African Unity (OAU) decided to formulate a legal framework that would complement the Basel Convention. The latter does not prohibit exports of hazardous wastes from industrialized countries to developing countries.

Whereas the Basel Convention explicitly excludes radioactive wastes within its scope of application, the Bamako Convention has expressly included such wastes within its regulatory ambit. Again, this Convention prohibits importation or exportation to Africa of hazardous substances banned or refused registration in the country of manufacture on account of human health or environmental concerns. Thus, the Government of Tanzania banned importation of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) into the country. The Bamako Convention also makes illegal trafficking of hazardous wastes a criminal offence and extraditable among parties. Parties also committed to establish appropriate national legislation to prevent and punish illegal traffic. Tanzania has yet to enact such legislation.

This information was provided by the Government of the United Republic of Tanzania to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

For direct link to the Web Site of the Basel Convention, click here:

Radioactive Waste

No information is available.

This information was provided by the Government of the United Republic of Tanzania to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

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