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NATURAL RESOURCE ASPECTS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN ROMANIA

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AGRICULTURE

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

No information is available. 

Status 

A priority for the Romanian Government is the sustainable development of agriculture, which includes the following objectives:


A special effort is being undertaken by the Forestry and Agriculture Academy which coordinates certain programs of sustainable agriculture. There are regulations regarding the utilization of chemicals in agriculture according to environmental laws and scientific research.

Soil resources in Romania are extremely important because 62% of the total area of the country is agricultural land. Agriculture contributes 20% to the national income. Non-agricultural lands grew by 400,543 ha between 1989 and 1994; about 246.126 ha of this area is covered with buildings, roads and non-productive lands. The agricultural lands productivity is diminished by 20-30% due to certain limiting factors as chemical pollution due to the unreasonable utilization of fertilizers and pesticides, emissions of heavy metals and hydro carbonates. In drought periods, agricultural productivity diminishes severely in the affected areas.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies 

No information is available. 

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 



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This information is based on Romania's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update:  April 1997

To access the FAOSTAT Data Base for information by country, item, element and year, click here:
Click here to link to the Biosafety Information Network and Advisory Service (BINAS), a service of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), which monitors global developments in regulatory issues in biotechnology.
Click here to link to Country and Sub-regional Information on Plant Genetic Resources of the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations.
Click here to go to Web Site of the Codex Alimentarius Commission, which includes information on the Codex Alimentarius and the Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme.
Click here to access the Web Site of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR).
Click here to access the sixteen international agricultural research centers that are members of the CGIAR.

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ATMOSPHERE

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

Ministries of: Health (MoH); Transportation (TM); and Industry and Trade (MIT).

MWFEP is the competent authority for ongoing policy and further legislation concerning the atmosphere protection in order to meet Government policy in environmental protection field and international requirements.  MWFEP was established around the country’s 42 Environmental Protection Agencies (EPA) in each county according to the Romanian territorial development plan.

To adopt new legal regulations is necessary to install an Inter-Ministerial Working Group. 

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

MWFEP Strategy for EU legislation approximation on Air Quality and Climate Change Sector.

Greenhouse gas emissions:

The Romanian Government’s target is to stabilize carbon dioxide emission after 2000 at the 1989-year level. A national policy for Climate Change is focused on reduction of GHG has not been yet finalized.   The First National Communication on Climate Change determined a survey of relevant activities. It was approved by the Government and became an effective instrument for the implementation of the Frame Convention on Climate Change, the ongoing adoption of Kyoto Protocol.

Terrestrial and marine resource development for greenhouse gas sinks:

Has not been yet finalized.

Substances that deplete the ozone layer:

Has not been yet finalized.

Transboundary air pollution:

The Romanian Government’s target is to implement the Law 8/1991, which ratified the Long-Range Tranboundary Air Pollution Convention, and it’s Protocols on short-term limit 2004.

Romania will ratify the Espoo Convention 9 (transboundary pollution). This convention is in Parliament.

Mitigating ozone depletion:

Reduction of ODS consumption by at least 50% until 2005 in comparison with the consumption mean values between 1995 - 1997.

Mitigating transboundary air pollution:

Reduction of dioxide sulfide with 30%, nitrogen dioxide with 20%, ammonia 330% and VOC 15% until 2010 compare with 1990 level.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement

Romania is one of the countries that ratified the Aarhus Convention on Access to information, public participation in decision-making and access to justice in environmental matters.  In addition, the Romanian Environmental Law had special provisions about public, NGO’s, local authorities, trade unions, business and industry representatives, scientific communities involvement in environmental decision-making.  Presently, Romanian Law provisions do not include any compensations or other forms of protection to professional groups affected by the atmosphere pollution.

Programmes and Projects   

National Research and Development Institute for Environmental Protection is aimed to promoting a better understanding of environmental evolution at local, regional and national level, developing research programs and projects in order to improve measures taken to establish the frame lines to adopt reduction plans and strategies.

Status   

According to the 1999 Romanian Environmental Status Report, the major pollutant sources are still working against  measures with a negative impact that reach critical levels with economical, social and ecological impact.   After the 1999-year the green-house gas emissions levels are decreasing not only because of industrial activity decrease, but especially due to reduction emission programs implementation.  1999 was a very important year regarding the ODS’s situation due to a freeze of ODS’s consumption, especially for the saturated hydrocarbons with chlorine and fluoride at the 1995-1997 years levels.

The new evaluation conducted in the year 2000, in addition to the 1999 Romanian Environmental Status Report on the green-house gas level was 69229 Gg a decrease from 1994 levels. 

Challenges  

According to the 1999 Romanian Environmental Status, the air quality in urban areas is mostly affected by the traffic and industrial activities with major effects for five counties situated in the NW part of the country where the sanitary maximum admissible values are exceeded for all quality indicators.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

Environmental Protection Law no. 137/1995 provide that all social and industrial activities must create awareness by public announcements and will start or close some installations which create pollution impact on the environment.

Romania provides:

Between 2001-2004, on short-term basis, Romania will introduce capacity building programs in order to increase training of experts and technical staff about the Romanian Strategy on Atmosphere and the  Environment.

Information   

http://www . mappm.ro

Research and Technologies   

For the time being, industrial sector does not in use any technology to observe and record atmospheric changes.  A detection system concerning changes and fluctuations in the atmosphere are located outside of industrial facilities and are operated by local Environmental Protection Agencies and regional of Ministry of Health.

Environmental pollution control technologies both for pre-combustion / combustion and also post-combustion:

1. Pre-combustion techniques for NOx:

2. Coal pretreatment and beneficiation;

3. Post-combustion technology for removal of sulfur dioxide-flue gas desulfurization (FGD);

4. Post-combustion technologies for NOX control:

Utilizing clean coal technology:

Control techniques for the reduction of POP’s emissions resulting from: thermal process in metallurgical industry, coke production, anode production, aluminum industry.

Control techniques for the control of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions resulting from the storage of petrol and distribution from terminals to service stations, and from the use of organic solvents in certain activities and installations.

Financing   

Public sources - 30% State budget.

Private sources + Sources from outside the country - 35%.

The Government has set up a National Environment Fund.

Cooperation  

 

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This information is based on Romania's submission to the 5th and 9th Sessions of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development.  Last update:  April 2001.

Click here for national information from the Web site of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.
For the access to the Web Site of the Ozone Secretariat, click here:

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BIODIVERSITY

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

The National Strategy for Biodiversity Conservation and the National Plan for Biological Diversity Conservation have been established. A draft project for the conservation of natural monuments and protected areas has also been elaborated. The strategy is one of the principal elements of the Environmental Strategy for Romania.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement

No information is available

Programmes and Projects   

With the "Biotope" programme, Romania takes part in the CORIN Programme, including plants and birds. Among protected plants:

Protected birds include the


Of the 3,800 species of plants existing in Romania several decades ago, 23 have been declared "Natural Monument", 290 are vulnerable, 185 are threatened with extinction and 17 have already disappeared. The decrease of biological diversity could contribute to the decreasing productivity and resistance of the biological community.

Status   

In 1994, the National Network of Protected Areas included 586 sites, which represents about 48% of Romania's surface. This network is administered in conformity with sustainable development principles by the Ministry of Waters, Forests and Environmental Protection.

Challenges  

No information is available

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

No information is available

Information   

No information is available

Research and Technologies

No information is available 

Financing   

No information is available

Cooperation

The Convention on Biological Diversity was signed in 1992 and ratified in 1994. The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora was signed in 1994.

According to the norms established by the IUCN, the protected areas in Romania were classified in 5 distinct categories:

  1. Scientific reservations
  2. National parks
  3. Natural monuments
  4. Natural reservations
  5. Landscape reservations.

The following categories of "Protected Areas" have also been adopted:

The Danube Delta has been declared a "Biosphere Reservation' and is part of a strictly protected area. It is self-administered and headed by a governor.

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This information is based on Romania's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update:  April 1997

For access to the Web Site of the Convention on Biological Diversity, click here:
For access to the Web Site of the CITES Convention, click here:
For the Web Site of the CMS Convention, click here:
For the Web Site of the Convention on the Protection of the World's Cultural and Natural Heritage, click here:
For the country-by-country, Man in the Biosphere On-Line Query System, click here:
Click here to link to the Biosafety Information Network and Advisory Service (BINAS), a service of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), which monitors global developments in regulatory issues in biotechnology.
Click here to go to the Web Site of UNEP's International Register on Biosafety.
Click here for the International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Biosafety WebPages

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DESERTIFICATION AND DROUGHT

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

A National Program Against Desertification has been promoted by the Ministry of Agriculture. In the south of Romania desertification appears as a result of the climate change phenomena. To combat these trends sustainable administration of these areas is being undertaken. These areas are given special emphasis in the National Forestry Development Strategy.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

No information is available. 

Status 

About 7 million ha of agricultural land are subject to land sliding and erosion; on 3.5 million ha erosion is very strong and has resulted in the loss of 20-25 tons of soil/ha per year as compared to the rehabilitation capacity which is 2-3 tons/ha year.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

The International Convention to Combat Desertification in Countries Experiencing Drought and/or Desertification, Particularly in Africa has not been signed

 

 

* * * 
 

This information is based on Romania's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997
For access to the Web Site of the Convention to Combat Desertification and Drought, click here:

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ENERGY

 

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies       

Coordinating responsibility for the energy issues in Romania is done by the Ministries of:

There are several technical organizations who support these ministries, i.e. Ministry of Industry and Trade is supported by:

Because of the many organizations involved in the decision-making process a good communication is essential for effective implementation. Inter-ministerial working groups were established for different issues and sectors, and brings together representatives from all of the main players.  The local bodies of public authorities and the local governments participate in the decision-making process for the development and implementation of specific measures and projects regarding energy-related issued.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

The Environmental Protection Law 1995 (EPL 137/1995), chapter III, section 2, deals with “Atmospheric Protection” and establishes the MWFEP as the competent authority for promoting regional and global policies in the sector. It also establishes the main duties of the MWFEP including a duty to make and enforce regulations. The law places general obligations on natural and legal persons towards air protection and establishes penalties for non-compliance.

There are a number of laws related with energy sub-sectors, including provisions for environmental protection.  Also, there are a number of related Governmental Decisions establishing the constitution and responsibilities of several organizations and for a strategy to reduce the lead content of petrol. There are Ministerial Orders which approve permitting procedures, technical norms, thresholds, type approval etc., and also a wide range of standards including standards for fuel, processes, monitoring methodologies, air quality standards and emission standards. It is important to note that standards in Romania are not statutory unless they are approved by a Ministerial Order or another legislative act.

Existing acts on these aspects:

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

Considering the importance of the energy sector in the frame of the national economy, the "Romanian Energy Strategy" was elaborated under the co-ordination of the Ministry of Industry and Trade, with targets until 2020, document adopted by the Prime Minister in June 1998. This document analyzed the current status of the energy system and established its objectives on long term.  Examining the possible basic scenarios regarding the evolution of the national economy, the strategy is outlining the energy demand and the possibilities of supply, in accordance with the needs of rehabilitation and restructuring of the whole national economy, and with the integration into the European structures.           

"National Strategy for Sustainable Development of Romania", drawn by the Government in September 1999 and improved in April this year, it was adopted an Action Plan for implementing the Strategy, as Govern-mental Decision no. 456/June,02,2000. In this framework, it was included a part dedicated to the field of energy. Supporting mentioned Romania's Medium Term Economic Strategy it was elaborated, also, a Medium Term Energy Strategy. 

The general objective of the energy strategy of Romania is to satisfy the energy demand-corresponding to a modern economy and a civilized living standard -at the lowest price, observing the quality and supply safety standards and diminishing the environmental impact up to levels admitted in the European Union.  Taking into account these prerequisites, the following objectives can be derived:

Short and medium term goals concerning energy production and consumption in relation to  environmental protection could be summarized in this way:  Promoting competition in the energy sector by founding internal electricity and gas markets in compliance with EU Directives. Restructuring and privatization ,unbundling of energy sector, setting up independent

pendent authorities and founding market operators.  Decreasing of air pollution level and compliance with the emissions norms values established for SO2 , NOx, dust and CO by:

Regarding the petrochemical products:

We have to mention the goal concerning the carrying out of Action Plan for reduction of polluting emissions from motor vehicles and phasing out of lead in gasoline.  The compliance of technological process and products from motor vehicles building process with the requirements of European environmental regulation regarding black smoke and other different pollutants (CO, hydrocarbons, NOx ), noise level, traffic safety.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement

Major groups that participate in decision making process concerning energy are mainly NGOs, local authorities, business and industry workers and trade-unions.

The private sector is involved yet only in oil and petroleum products sector, but Romania has programmes to privatize electricity, heat and gas sectors.  The new legislation take into account the role of the private sector.

Like other industrialized countries, Romania has a developed civil society.

Programmes and Projects   

In compliance with the study "Strategy for Renewable Energy Sources in Romania", realized

with EU consultants in1996, it was considered that the most promised is biomass.              Accordingly, Romanian Agency for Energy Conservation in the framework of Phare Programme developed a demonstrative project in this field. The project was realized in the town Campeni, and it was shifted oil products use with bio-mass. A similar project was developed in Neamt county (village Tasca), with Danish financing support. Consequently, it was launched this year Romanian-Danish Co-operation Programme Sawdust 2000,for 5 projects in the first step.

In 1998 a cooperation between MoIT and ZECASIN Research Institute from Romanian part and British company Ashwell/CRE, for manufacturing in Romania under license special boilers up to 300 kW burning clean coal for heating was established.  Due to the good results of experiments in Jiu Valley during 1999, a full support was obtained to produce such boilers from the British part.    

In Romania, energy installations are old and this creates increased cost and losses hence, the government subsidizes heat and electricity for customers.

The energy policies consider the energy efficiency and the energy recovery as short term options for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. In this regard, documents prepared by the OECD for the Initiative of Energy Conservation are very useful for the holistic approach of the energy and environment. The Romanian Government supports the integration of the environmental policies in the energy policies and the implementation of the short term measures based on the cost benefit criteria for the mitigation of the greenhouse gas emissions.

Governmental Decision 489/1998, has approved the Action Plan for Reduction of Gasoline Lead Content.  This Action Plan includes specific objectives and measures with timetable, involved organizations and estimated costs in order to:

Status   

Coal

On medium term (2005) it is intended to maintain the production of lignite, hard coal for electricity and heat production at present levels: 22-25 Mt/year lignite and 2.5-3 Mt/year for hard coal.

Oil

Domestic oil production provide about 6 Mt/year. The electricity sector, including co-generation burns about 2 Mt/year heavy fuel oil, out of which 1.2 Mt is imported.

Gas

Internal gas production is presently of about 14 billion cm/year and declining.  The electricity sector needs about 4 billions cm/year , of which 1.5 billion is imported.

Hydro

The present electricity production on hydro is on average of 17 TWh/year.  Construction was started before 1990 for a large number of plants with a total 800 MW. Available investments allow on medium term completion of about 150 MW.

Nuclear

Unit 1 of 700 MW at Cernavoda plant (Candu type) produces about 5 TW/year. There  are reserves of fuel and heavy water for unit 2 of 700 MW, which is under construction.  Romania is importing more than 50% of the oil and gas used in the economy.

In 1999, the electricity generated by types of fuel was:

The trend for the future is to use more gas in energy generation , following the EU trend.  

For covering domestic needs, the import of resources will grow during the next 10 years. Maximum efficiency and minimal costs can be obtained by importing gas.  Major decisions on long-term development will be taken by following the national and international evolution on fuel market, technology improvements and the power of our national economy. Romania will get involved in the European energy market (interconnection with UCTE, international gas and oil pipelines), but also on regional energy markets (Balkan market, Black Sea ring, etc.).     

Challenges  

Regarding air emissions, there has been a dramatic drop in emissions of polluting substances since 1989. This is largely due to the contraction of the economy during last period but also to some protection measures.   The major sources of pollutants are:

CO2 (greenhouse gas) the major sources are thermo-electric and industrial combustion (75-80%).

Other negative impact on the environment are the result of:

The areas which require the most immediate attention in improving environmental impact include :

Romania is a country in transition with a low PNB/ inhabitant, comparing the  EU countries and other more developed transition countries.  In some instances, our country rating is not so good to assure normal foreign investments.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available

Information   

Regarding emissions self-monitoring, this is not a generalized system, but the energy-related industrial companies are undertaking actions to assure this requirement of Environmental Protection Law. For instance in the energy sector, air pollutants monitoring is carried out by the existing devices: fixed devices, portable devices and mobile labs. These companies have also implemented the calculation model EMPOL (emission inventory) and DISPOL (for calculation and graphical presentation of pollutants dispersion in the neighborhood of thermal power plants area).

This information is reported to environmental protection authorities and to the National Commission for Statistics and is made available to the public as:

Key companies in Romania have publicly presented each year environmental reports, which generally describe the environmental impact and management systems of these companies, different measures taken for impact mitigation, including international co-operation. For instance "Environmental Report 1999" of National Electricity Company (CONEL) from Romania. CONEL realized, in 1999, more than 86% from national electricity output, and about 40 % from heat output. 

Research and Technologies   

Financing   

Energy investments are mainly financed by public domestic sources (energy companies' funds, the national energy development fund, budgetary resources ).   A small part of investments is coming from foreign sources (BIRD, BERD, EU,BEI, etc.).  

Cooperation  

Based on a Romania-Japan Agreement, an integrated project is foreseen to be applied  in Jiu Valley for modernizing of two coal mines and a processing plant, and also the thermal  power plant Paroseni, which is supplied with hard coal from those mining units. The project will be financed by Japanese and Polish banks, with Romanian state guarantee. Depending on the success of this project, other similar projects will be taken into consideration , especially in Oltenia lignite basin.

The development and the rehabilitation of energy sector need the support of international co-operation. At institutional level, fundamental is the technical assistance and know-how transfer. At companies level, the accent is put on commercial and financial issues.   Regarding the electricity, priority is given to UCTE inter-connection and Romania is strongly supported by EU, through the PHARE programme.  Another priority is the reduction of cross-border pollution and promotion of the concept of joint-implementation. Romania has a joint- implementation Memorandum of Understanding with Netherlands to facilitate the development and implementation of emission reduction projects in our country.

The main international co-operation directions are linked to the integration process to EU. Relationship with neighbors countries must be enhanced, mainly with Hungary and Bulgaria, who have also interested in EU. A special interest must be offered to Republic of Moldova, due to the special historical links that exist between the two countries.

For lignite field in coal basin Oltenia, some co-operations were established many years ago for modernizing of the bucket wheel excavators, between National Company for Lignite Oltenia  and German companies KRUPP and MAN-TAKRAFF.  These companies deliver to Romania technical documentation for modernizing of certain sub ensembles  and also will deliver some spare parts for the specific equipment. 

The Romanias' commitment at the Kyoto Conference have been to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions with 8% as compared to 1989.  Until now we have developed Joint Implementation Activities under the framework of Memorandum of Understanding – Programme for economic cooperation between Romanian and Dutch Governments. The achievement of these activities will enhance the cooperation in this field, started in 1996 with the projects in power generation sector.   A Romanian-Dutch Joint Implementation Program including several projects is being prepared.

To implement the provision of Montreal Protocol, several projects of industry sector were included in Country Program for phasing out of ozone depleting substances, program which is implemented by co-financing – industrial companies – Multilateral Fund of Montreal Protocol.

-         Active participation in the task force “environmental management and related economic aspects’” UNIPEDE/EURELECTRIC;

-         Conclusion of the PHARE project on the environmental management in thermal power plants (conducted by GOPA/DECON-Germany consultants);

-         Conclusions of the project on environmental management system in petroleum sector and first part of the project on environmental management system in hydro power plants, both developed with Canadian financial support;

-         Development of pilot projects on joint implementation activities with The Netherlands.

Present legislation in mining and energy fields allows the access of foreign capital for energy resources exploitation by concessions of the coal deposits to private local or foreign investors. According to Mining Law  there are certain facilities in mining sector for private investors, and in the unfavorable affected mining areas, there are offered others facilitates for stimulating the creation of new jobs.

 

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This information is based on Romania's submission to the 9th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last update:  April 2001.

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FORESTS  

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

Under the Framework Convention on Climate Change, jointly implemented activities under the pilot phase are being developed by Romania. Under the same Convention, the terms of reference for the afforestation programs will be finalized for the GEF mechanism. In the framework of the National Program Against Desertification and according to the Environmental Protection Strategy, afforestation should increase from 27% to 30% by the year 2000. Since 1989, the afforested surface has increased by 107,395 ha.

The strategy for the sustainable management of forests takes into account the following:

Special programs for reconstruction have been developed in polluted areas, simultaneously or as a consequence of certain pollution control measures in Baia-Mare, Alba-Iulia, and Copsa Mica.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

No information is available. 

Status 

No information is available.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.



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This information is based on Romania's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update:  April 1997


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FRESHWATER

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

The Ministry of Waters, Forestry and Environment Protection (MWFEP) is the coordinator of water resource management and development in Romania. The administrator within the Ministry is the Water State Authority--"Apele Romane". This Authority has 13 regional/local offices organized according to Romania's hydrographic basins.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

The general legislation and regulatory framework for water management is the Environmental Law no. 137 of 1995 and the Water Law no 107 of 1996. The latter covers water for use by agriculture, industry and households.    

There are regulations which establish a unified system of payments for products and services regarding water management with the specific purpose of making water management self-financing. In fact, existing pricing covers 100% of water costs. Water Law no 107 of 1996 and Gov. Regulation no.1001 of 1990 deal with pricing policy for all sectors. These policies are however under review and new formulae are being elaborated for the more efficient allocation of water. In order to take into account the special needs of the poor the taxes and prices for household and agricultural use of water is one third less than those for use by industry.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

In order to conserve freshwater it is stipulated that any new facility planning on using water must first obtain environmental and water management permits. These permits stipulate that water consumption should be kept to the minimum possible and that water should be returned in the best condition possible. Law no 137/1995 provides for public consultations before such permits are issued. The local subsidiaries of the Water Authority as well as the local agencies for environmental protection are involved in the resolution of conflicts with regard to water resource management and development.

With regard to a policy for disaster preparedness there are commissions that operate at the national and local level as specified in the Law for Natural Disaster Preparedness no 124 of 1995.

Until 1989, the water demand in the industrial and agricultural sectors increased continuously. Beginning in 1989, the water demand for both these sectors decreased in parallel with the increase in the quantity of water used by households. The water quality improved slightly owing both to the diminution of agricultural and industrial pollution and to the measures imposed on economic agents by the local EPA. The length of first quality water courses grew from 35% in 1985 to approximately 54% in 1994. Nevertheless, there still remained some 12-13% of the rivers' reference length where the degradation was such that it rendered them almost lifeless.

National Standards are used to measure water quality and are in the process of being harmonized with EU directives.

There are 2,770 installations for water treatment in Romania of which only 40% operate. On average these plants treat 40 cubic meters/second. 50% of the urban sewerage is treated. Approximately 50% of water is treated for drinking purposes but it is intended to increase this percentage. Recycling of waste water is undertaken in only a few local industrial installations. It is expected that the following targets will be reached by the year 2003-5:

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement

No information is available

Programmes and Projects   

No information is available

Status   

The estimated cost for achieving universal coverage of water and sanitation in Romania is about 500 million US dollars in the short term (3-5 years) and about 700 million US dollars in the medium term (5-10 years).

Challenges  

The lack of effective management tools for natural resources use specially for freshwater supplies is the major constraint faced by the Government in this sector.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available

Information   

Information on water management and development is collected by the State Water Authority (through its local subsidiaries) and transmitted to the MWFEP. It is distributed in real time by a regular system of data transmission and is presented in aggregate form to the decision-makers in the government and upon request, or in case of disasters, to the private sector and the public at large. This information is available in a partially coded form for use in the system of water management. It is not yet available on the Internet.

Research and Technologies

The technological needs for waste water treatment include friability and micro filtering technologies; for water purification they include ionization friability and reverse osmotic processes. 

Financing   

No information is available

Cooperation

With regard to regional and international cooperation in the field of water, the Environmental Program for the hydrographic basin of the Danube Delta (within the Strategic Action Plan) creates a favorable general framework for taking rehabilitation measures regarding the water quality of this river which is important for Romania. Romania also participates in the Black Sea Programme and has bilateral agreements with Hungary, Moldova and the Ukraine.

 

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This information is based on Romania's submission to the 5th and 6th Sessions of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997 and 1998. Last update:  February 1998

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LAND MANAGEMENT

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

In 1995, the Environmental Protection Law was promulgated. Among the relevant provisions contained in this law is the need to elaborate environmental impact assessment studies and to set up regulation specific to assessing the damage produced by anthropogenic activities. In the Environmental Strategy of Romania there is a special chapter dealing with the areas affected by pollution due to both the over utilization of chemicals (especially before 1990) and the development of the extractive and processing industries.

The issue of mineral resources management is the responsibility of the Ministry of Water, Forest and Environmental Protection and of the National Agency of Mineral Resources. All the activities that are carried out must have an environmental permit and must comply with the principles of sustainable development.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

No information is available. 

Status 

No information is available.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

* * * 

This information is based on Romania's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update:   April 1997



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MOUNTAINS

There is no information on this topic for Romania.

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OCEANS AND COASTAL AREAS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies    

Responsibility for managing integrated coastal zone management and sustainable development is the Ministries of:  Waters, Forests and Environmental Protection; Public Works and Territorial Planning; Agriculture and Food; Transports; and  Tourism and Local authorities.

Marine environmental protection is managed by the Ministry of Waters, Forests and Environmental Protection in collaboration with the Ministries of: Industries and Trade; Agriculture and Food; and  Transport and Local authorities.

Responsibility for the sustainable use and conservation of marine living resources lies with the Ministry of Waters, Forests and Environmental Protection, the Ministry of Agriculture and Food and Local authorities.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

Legislation has been passed covering all of the issues related to oceans and seas. These are consistent with international agreements and standards and include:

Decision-making is undertaken by the Government in consultation with organizations, the scientific community, local authorities, and professional NGOs. Consultation with the public in environmental impact assessments is required by law.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

There is a National Strategic Plan of Action for Protection and Rehabilitation of the Black Sea - NSPAPRB - as part of the Black Sea Environment Programme, developed in 1993 under the auspices of GEF with EU PHARE and the TACIS programs as major partners. This Strategy covers integrated coastal management and sustainable development, marine environmental protection and sustainable use and conservation of marine living resources.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement

No information is available

Programmes and Projects   

Major programmes at the national level include:

  1. The National C-D Programme (The Programme "Environment and Climate") which is to be approved by Governmental Decision;
  2. The National Actions Programme for Environmental Protection finalized and approved and the National Plan of Intervention in case of accidental pollution with hydrocarbons;
  3. The National Action Plans for Biodiversity Conservation and Sustainable Use of its Components.

At the regional level, the major programme is the the Black Sea Environment Programme / GEF.

The primary sources of land-based pollution of the marine environment are coastal urban and industrial activities, mainly through Danube. The primary sources of sea-based pollution of the marine environment are off-shore oil exploitation and shipping and harbor activities. Other problems arise from beach erosion and over-fishing by some Black Sea riparian countries.

Major projects and activities underway or planned to address the issues cited above are the following:

Status   

The most important coastal areas are Constanta, Mangalia, Sulina, and St. Gheorghe with over 1.000.000 inhabitants, in total. The major economic activities in this areas include tourism (over 1 million / year), fishing (about 3.000 tones / years), off-shore petrol exploitation, transport and petrol processing, industry (chemical and food), and naval shipyards.

The percentage of the economy contributed by fishing is cca. 0.007% of GDP (cca. 2 million USD / year). Methods in place to encourage sustainable use and conservation of marine living resources include:

The impact of shipping on the sustainable management of coastal zones include:

The impact of other coastal- and marine-based industries (including tourism) on sustainable development of coastal areas includes:

Challenges  

Implementation of programmes concerning oceans and seas is constrained by a number of factors, including:

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

Programs to educate policy makers in the concept and policy design of sustainable coastal management include the Black Sea University's Training Programs (yearly Summer Courses), and the Public Awareness Programme founded by EC / PHARE for E.I.A., E.A. & I.C.Z.M. (1995). Other training is also available through the Training Center for Intervention in case of Accidental Pollution (in the framework of EC / QUALIPOL / ECOS OUVERTURE Program); and training courses organized by UNESCO / Intergovernmental Committee for Oceans (IOC), the International Committee for Scientific Exploitation of the Mediterranean See (CIESM), and the International Institute of Oceans (IOI).

In addition, Romania carries out several activities to promote awareness of issues related to sustainable development and the oceans and seas. Included among these are the National Symposium AQUADEPOL (VI edition) , which operates on a permanent basis; the 1998 Scientific Essay of the Romanian Institute for Marine Researches (IRCM) dedicated to the International Year of The Ocean and International Day of The Black Sea; and a yearly Symposium organized by the Romanian Institute for Marine Researches, local authorities and local non-governmental organization, dedicated to the International Day of The Black Sea.

Information   

Information on sustainable management of fishery resources is available through National Reports regarding the state of the marine living resources. In addition, annual Reports on the sea environment form an integral part of yearly National Report of the Environmental State in Romania. Mineral resources are covered in annual Reports on oil production achieved by marine drilling platforms. Information is also available on the increase of the sea level in relation to coastal erosion and on trends in evolution relating to state of marine environment quality and marine living resources. Geographic Information Systems are available at an incipient level.

The following World Wide Web Sites are available for issues related to oceans and seas:

Indicators are being developed through scientific research in oceanography, fishing, pollution control, marine technology and engineering, ecological reconstruction in marine zones and coastal (lakes and lagoon).

Research and Technologies   

Issues related to the development, transfer and use of environmentally-sound technologies in this programme area include:

In the choice of technologies, the determining factors for decision-making are performance. reliability, and acquisition price.

Financing   

Financing for oceans and seas programmes is provided by the national budget, external assistance, and, to a small extent, private sector partnership.

Cooperation  

The UN Convention on the Law of the Sea has not been signed.

Romania is Party to the following international agreements:

Other related agreements, particularly regional and sea-specific agreements, to which Romania is a Party include:

Additional bilateral , multilateral and international cooperation in which Romania participates in order to further activities related to sustainable development and use of oceans and coastal areas include:


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This information is based on Romania's submission to the 5th and 7th Sessions of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last update:  November 1998.

For information on the status of ratification of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, click here:

For the Romanian Marine Research Institute, click here.

For the Black Sea Environment Internode, click here.

For the Black Sea Red Data Book, click here.

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TOXIC CHEMICALS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

A national regulatory framework for the management of hazardous wastes and toxic chemicals is being formulated in Romania. In this connection and within the environmental legislation, the following EU norms will be adopted:

A specific law was promulgated concerning the use of chemicals in the agricultural sector. Special provisions are contained the Environmental Law as in Governmental Decision no. 437/1992.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

No information is available. 

Status 

No information is available.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

 

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This information is based on Romania's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update:  April 1997

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WASTE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS

Solid Waste and Sanitation

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

The legislative framework for the sound environmental management of hazardous and non-hazardous wastes is being established, improved and developed.

In 1996, standards were established for town waste products, specifically for the terminology of wastes and general information on the design of waste storage places. A system exists to collect information on the types and quantities of wastes produced on a yearly bases. The system was recently connected to the European Wastes Catalogue.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

No information is available. 

Status 

No information is available.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.



* * *

Hazardous Wastes

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available.

Status 

For Romania's Environmental Strategy the problem of hazardous wastes is one of the most important due to both the total amount of existing hazardous wastes and to the weakness of the regulatory system. A draft programme outlining the objectives for the sustainable management of hazardous wastes is being formulated presently. This regulatory framework will be based on EU directives and will deal with all stages of hazardous waste management. According to domestic environmental legislation, it is strictly prohibited to introduce hazardous wastes into Romania.

An information system on hazardous and non-hazardous wastes has been established as was a national system for waste inventories.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal was ratified in 1991. The latest information was provided to the Basel Convention Secretariat in 1996.

 

* * *

Radioactive Wastes

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

No information is available. 

Status 

Operational legislation and rigorous procedures exist in this area.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies 

No information is available. 

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.


* * *

 

This information is based on Romania's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997


For direct link to the Web Site of the Basel Convention, click here:


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